Module Reading List
Professor GA Loud
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue
- A. General Reading on the Crusades
- Reference works
- B. Introductory works on the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
- C. Primary Sources (in translation)
- (a) Western
- (b) Byzantine
- (c) Muslim
- (d) Collections of Sources
- (e) Module Website – VLE Blackboard
- D. Topic by Topic Bibliography
- I The Fourth Crusade
- II The Latin Empire of Constantinople
- III The Military Monastic Orders
- IV The Islamic World in the Thirteenth Century
- (b) Western Attitudes to Islam
- V The Mongols
- VI The Crusader States in the Thirteenth Century
- (a) The Politics of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
- (b) The Society of the Crusader States
- (c) The Other Crusader States in the Levant
- (d) The Noble Families of Jerusalem
- VII The Crusades to Egypt and Palestine in the Thirteenth Century
- VIII England and the Crusades in the Thirteenth Century
- IX Crusades Against Christians
- X The Crusade in the Baltic
- XI The Crusades in Spain
- XII Warfare and Fortifications
- (a) Warfare
- (b) Fortifications
- XIII Crusader Art
- XIV The Trade of the Holy Land
- XV The Crusade after 1291
This bibliography for the module The Crusades and Medieval Christendom has been deliberately drawn up on an extended scale, both for classes and essay writing. Do not be put off by its length. This is intended to provide both a wide range of subjects, and a generous choice of reading within individual topics, so that no student is ever at a loss for something relevant to read. Remember that each group will only undertake six topics. You do however need to study this bibliography carefully, because there is inevitably some overlap between topics, and thus some items may be useful for more than one subject. If in doubt, please ask me for further guidance.
A. General Reading on the Crusades
H.E. Mayer, The Crusades (1988, 2nd. ed.)
Jean Richard, The Crusades, c. 1071-c. 1291 (1999)
Andrew Jotischky, Crusading and the Crusader states (2004)
Christopher Tyerman, God's War : a new history of the Crusades (2006)
Steven Runciman, A history of the Crusades (3 vols. 1951-5), vol. i The First Crusade, ii The Kingdom of Jerusalem, iii The Kingdom of Acre [the classic narrative history, now showing its age, but immensely readable]
K.M. Setton et al. A history of the Crusades (5 vols. 1958-1985)
Jonathan Riley-Smith The Crusades : a short history (1987)
Jonathan Phillips, The Crusades, 1095-1197 (2002)
Nikolaus Jaspert, The Crusades (2006)
Joshua Prawer The world of the Crusaders (1972)
Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Oxford illustrated history of the Crusades (1994)
Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Atlas of the Crusades (1991)
Two collections of essays will be widely used.P.W. Edbury (ed.), Crusade and settlement : Papers Presented to R.C. Smail (1985)
Thomas Maddern (ed.), The Crusades : the essential readings (2002)
Peter Lock, The Routledge companion to the Crusades (2006)
Alan V. Murray (ed.), The Crusades : an encyclopedia (4 vols., 2006)
In addition, copies of articles denoted with an asterisk * and [HDC] are also available in the High Demand Collection in the Edward Boyle Library. Articles followed by [E] are also available electronically through the library website, while those followed by [OLR] are available on the module website on the VLE. Articles marked [DReM] are available on the 'De Re Militari' website. the website of the Society for Medieval Military History [http://www.deremilitari.org].
B. Introductory works on the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
J. Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1972) - outstanding.
J. Prawer, Histoire du Royaume latin de Jrusalem (2 vols. 1969-70)
T.S.R. Boase, Kingdoms and strongholds of the Crusaders (1971)
R.C. Smail, The Crusaders in Syria and the Holy Land (1973)
R.C. Smail, Crusading warfare, 1097-1193 (1956)
C. Primary Sources (in translation)
Geoffrey de Villehardouin, 'The Capture of Constantinople', in Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. M.R.B. Shaw (Penguin Classics, 1963)
Robert of Clari, Conquest of Constantinople, trans. E.H. McNeal (1936)
A.J. Andrea (ed.), The capture of Constantinople : the Hystoria Constantinopolitana of Gunther of Pairis (1995)
A.J. Andrea (ed.), Contemporary sources for the Fourth Crusade (2000)
[The Crusade and the Crusader States in the Thirteenth Century]
Philip of Novara, The wars of Frederick II against the Ibelins in Syria and Cyprus, trans. J.L. La Monte and M.J. Hubert (1936) (C-1.3)
Joinville, 'Life of St. Louis', in Shaw (ed.), Chronicles of the Crusades [as above], also available in trans. by R. Hague (1953)
Jacques de Vitry The History of Jerusalem, (in Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, vol. XI, 1896)
Niketas Choniates, O city of Byzantium : Annals of Niketas Choniates, trans. H.P. Magoulias (1984) [M-6NIC] [useful for the Fourth Crusade]
George Akropolites, The History, ed. & trans. Ruth Macrides (2007)
F. Gabrieli, Arab historians of the crusades (1969) [an excellent collection]
Ayyubids, Mamluks and Crusaders. Ibn al-Furat, trans. U. & M.C. Lyons & J. Riley Smith(1971) [Semitic V-2]
(d) Collections of Sources
J. A. Brundage, The Crusades : a documentary survey (1962) [Poor]
L. & J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades : Idea and Reality, 1095-1274 (1981) [excellent,especially on ideas]
E Peters (ed.), Christian society and the Crusades, 1198-1229 : sources in translation, including The capture of Damietta by Oliver of Paderborn (1971) [contains complete translation of the very valuable chronicle of Oliver of Paderborn on the Fifth Crusade].
E.M. Hallam (ed.) Chronicles of the crusades, (1989)
S.J. Allen & E. Amt The Crusades : a reader (2003) [a useful collection].
(e) Module Website – VLE Blackboard
This contains translations of the following texts for HIST 2031:
(1) ‘The Fourth Crusade, Selected Texts’(2) ‘Papal Letters and Other Documents concerning the Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire’(3) ‘The Tract about the Places and Conditions of the Holy Land’(4) ‘Documents relating to the Crisis in the Holy Land, 1198’(5) ‘A letter of Jacques de Vitry, 1216’(6) '‘Letters relating to the Crusader States during the pontificate of Gregory IX’(7) ‘The Crusade against Frederick II: selected texts’.(8) 'The Crusade in Spain'
(a) ‘The Capture of Almeria and Tortosa by Caffaro’(b) 'The Campaign of Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212'.
D. Topic by Topic Bibliography
I The Fourth Crusade
Sources: Villehardouin, Robert of Clari, Gunther of Pairis, Niketas Choniates, and Andrea, Contemporary Sources; + ‘The Fourth Crusade, selected sources’ and ‘Letters concerning the Fourth Crusade’ (available online via the VLE)
Michael Angold, The Fourth Crusade : event and context (2003)
Charles M. Brand, Byzantium confronts the West, 1180-1204 (1968) [still probably the best book on the subject]
D.E. Queller, The Fourth Crusade. The Conquest of Constantinople (1978: 2nd ed. with T.F. Madden, 1997) [useful on the Venetians]
John Godfrey, 1204, the unholy Crusade (1980)
* Colin Morris, 'Geoffrey de Villehardouin and the Conquest of Constantinople', History 43 (1968), 24-34 (HDC)
Michael Angold, The Byzantine Empire 1025-1204 : a political history (1984), especiallychaps 11 & 14.
D.E. Queller & S.J Stratton, 'A century of controversy on the Fourth Crusade', Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 6 (1969) 235-277
D.E. Queller & G.W.Day, ‘Some arguments in defense of the Venetians on the Fourth Crusade’, American Historical Review 81 (1976), 717-37 [E]
D.E. Queller & T.F. Madden, 'Some further arguments in defense of the Venetians on the Fourth Crusade', Byzantion 62 (1993, for 1992), 433-73
Alfred Andrea, ‘Cistercian accounts of the Fourth Crusade. Were they anti-Venetian’, Analecta Cisterciensia 41 (1985), 3-41.
John H. Pryor, ‘The Venetian fleet for the Fourth Crusade and the diversion of the crusade to Constantinople’, in The Experience of Crusading i Western Approaches, ed. M. Bull & N. Housley (2003), 103-23 [HDC].
Thomas F. Madden, Enrico Dandolo & the rise of Venice (2003)
Judith Herrin, 'The Collapse of the Byzantine Empire in the Twelfth Century', Birmingham Historical Journal 12 (1970), 188-203. Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
R.L. Wolff, 'The Second Bulgarian Empire. Its Origin and History to 1204', Speculum 24 (1949), 167-206 [E].
Anthony Bryer, 'Cultural relations between East and West in the Middle Ages', in Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages, ed. Derek Baker (1973), pp. 77-94.
II The Latin Empire of Constantinople
Sources: Villehardouin, George Acropolites,
‘Papal Letters and Other Documents concerning the Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire' (available online via the VLE)
A History of the Crusades, ed. K. Setton, vol. ii, chaps. 6-7
Peter Lock, The Franks in the Aegean, 1204-1500 (1995) [excellent]
Michael Angold, The Fourth Crusade : event and context (2003), chapters 6-9.
R.L. Wolff, 'The Organization of the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople 1204-1261: Social and Administrative Consequences of the Latin Conquest', Traditio 6 (1948), 33-60Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
R.L. Wolff, 'Politics in the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople', Dumbarton Oaks papers 8 (1954), 225-303
R.L. Wolff, 'Mortgage and Redemption of an Emperor's Son: Castile and the Latin Empire of Constantinople', Speculum 29 (1954), 45-84 [E]
D.J. Geanakoplos, 'Greco-Latin relations on the eve of the Byzantine restoration; the Battle of Pelagonia - 1259', Dumbarton Oaks papers 7 (1953) 99-135
B.M. Bolton, 'A Mission to the Orthodox? The Cistercians in Romania', Studies in church history 13 (1976), 169-181Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
John Doran, ‘Rites and wrongs: the Latin mission to Nicea, 1234’, Studies in church history. 32 (1996), 131-144.Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
Christopher Schabel, 'Antelm the nasty, first Latin Archbishop of Patras', in Diplomatics in the Eastern Mediterranean 1000-1500. Aspects of Cross-Cultural Communication , ed. A.D. Beihammer, M.G. Parani and C.D. Schabel (2008), pp. 93-137.
David Jacoby, 'The encounter of two societies: western conquerors and Byzantines in the Peleponnesus after the Fourth Crusade', The American historical review 78 (1973), 873-906 [E]
B. Arbel, B. Hamilton & D. Jacoby, (eds.), Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204 (1989)
Peter Lock, 'The Latin secular church in Crusader Greece', Medieval history 1 (1991) pp 93-107
Kenneth Setton, The Papacy and the Levant 1204-1571 (1976), volume i.
III The Military Monastic OrdersSources
M. Barber & K. Bate, The Templars : selected sources (2002)
J. Upton-Ward (trans.), The rule of the Templars : the French text of the rule of the order of the Knights Templar (1992)
The Rule of the Teutonic Knights, ‘Medieval Sourcebook’Available online at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1k.html
Joshua Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, chapter 14, pp. 252-79.
A.J. Forey, The military orders, from the twelfth to the early fourteenth centuries (1991)
A.J. Forey, Military orders and crusades (1994) [an excellent collection of essays].
* A.J. Forey, 'The Emergence of the Military Order in the Twelfth Century', Journal of ecclesiastical history 36 (1985) 175-195 [HDC]
Helen Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights : images of the military orders, 1128-1291 (1993)
Helen Nicholson, The Military Orders (2001)
Jonathan Riley-Smith, Templars and Hospitallers as professed religious in the Holy Land (2009)
Tom License,'The Templars and Hospitallers, Christ and the Saints', Crusades 4 (2005), 39-57.
Malcolm Barber (ed.), The military orders (1994) [a miscellaneous collection; there are useful essays on the Templars by Phillips and Pringle, on the Teutonic Knights, and on the suppression of the Templars].
* Joshua Prawer 'Military Orders and Crusader Politics in the Second Half of the Thirteenth Century', Die Geistlichen Ritterorden Europas, ed. J. Fleckenstein und M. Hellmann (Vorträge und Forschungen 26, 1980), pp 217-229 [HDC]
A.J. Forey, 'The Military Orders and holy war against Christians in the thirteenth century', English Historical Review 104 (1989), 1-24 [E] [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)].The Templars
Malcom Barber, The new knighthood : a history of the Order of the Temple (1994)
Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights of St. John in Jerusalem and Cyprus, c.1050-1310 (1967)
Helen Nicholson, The Knights Templar : a new history (2001)
Malcolm Barber, 'The Origins of the Order of the Temple', Studia monastica 12 (1970) [reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics, Twelfth-Fourteenth Centuries (1994)].
Jonathan Riley-Smith, 'The Templars and the Castle of Tortosa in Syria', English Historical Review 84 (1969) 278-288 [E]
Joachim Schenk, 'Forms of lay association with the Order of the Temple', Journal of Medieval History 34 (2008), 79-103 [E]The Knights Hospitallers
Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights of St. John in Jerusalem and Cyprus, c.1050-1310 (1967)
Helen Nicholson, The Knights Hospitaller (2001)
Judith Bronstein, The Hospitallers and the Holy Land : financing the Latin East, 1187-1274 (2005)
Anthony Luttrell, ‘The earliest Hospitallers’, in Montjoie : studies in Crusade history in honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer, ed. B.Z. Kedar, J. Riley-Smith & R. Hiestand (1997), 37-54.
A.J. Forey, 'The Militarisation of the Hospital of St. John', Studia monastica 26 (1984), 75-89 [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)
Karl Borchardt et al. The Hospitallers, the Mediterranean, and Europe : Festschrift for Anthony Luttrell. (2007)
The Teutonic Knights
Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades (1980), chapter 3
Nicholas Morton, The Teutonic Knights in the Holy Land (2009)
I. Sterns, 'The Teutonic Knights in the Crusader States', in A history of the Crusades. Vol.5, The impact of the Crusades on the Near East, ed. N.P. Zacour & H.W. Hazard (1985), pp. 315-378
Hubert Houben, 'Intercultural communications: the Teutonic Knights in Palestine, Armenia and Cyprus', in Diplomatics in the Eastern Mediterranean 1000-1500. Aspects of Cross-Cultural Communication, ed. A.D. Beihammer, M.G. Parani and C.D. Schabel (2008), pp. 139-157.Other Military Monastic Orders
A.J. Forey, 'The Military Order of St. Thomas of Acre', English historical review 92 (1977), 481-503 [E].
Malcolm Barber, ‘The Order of St. Lazarus and the Crusades’, The Catholic historical review 80 (1994), 439-56 [reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics].
J.F. O'Callaghan, The Spanish military order of Calatrava and its affiliates (1975)The Fall of the Templars
Malcolm Barber, The trial of the Templars (1978)
Peter Partner, The murdered magicians : the Templars and their myth (1982)
A.J. Forey, 'The Military Orders in the Crusading Proposals of the late-thirteenth century', Traditio 36 (1980) 317-345 [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)]Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
A.J. Forey, The fall of the Templars in the Crown of Aragon (2001)
Sophia Menache, ‘The Templar Order: a failed ideal? ’, in The Catholic Historical Review 79 (1993), 1-21 [E].
Malcolm Barber, 'The Social context of the Templars, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society Ser. IV.34 (1984), 27-46 [E][reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics].
M-L. Favreau-Lilie, ‘The Military orders and the escape of the Christian population of the Holy Land in 1291’, Journal of Medieval History 19 (1993), 201-27 [E].
Malcolm Barber, ‘Lepers, Jews and Moslems. The plot to overthrow Christendom in 1321’, History 66 (1981), 1-17 [E] [reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics].
Malcolm Barber, ‘The World Picture of Philip the Fair’, Journal of Medieval History 8 (1982), 13-27 [E] [reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics (1994)].
Joseph R. Strayer, The reign of Philip the Fair (1980), chapter 4, ‘The king and the church’.
IV The Islamic World in the Thirteenth CenturyPrimary Sources
The chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the crusading period, trans. D.S. Richards, iii 1193-1231: The Ayyubids after Saladin and the Mongol Menace (2009)
Ayyubids, Mamluks and Crusaders. Ibn al-Furat, trans. U. & M.C. Lyons & J. Riley Smith (1971)
A History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, vol. ii The Later Crusades 1189-1311, ed. R.L. Wolff & H.W. Hazard, chaps. 19-22, pp. 661-758
R.S. Humphreys From Saladin to the Mongols : the Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260 (1977)
R.S. Humphreys, 'Ayyubids, Mamluks and the Latin East in the thirteenth century', Mamluk studies review 2 (1998), 1-17 [DReM]
Robert Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages : the early Mamluk sultanate, 1250-1382 (1986)
Peter Thorau, The Lion of Egypt : Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the thirteenth century (1992)
Bernard Lewis, The Assassins : a radical sect in Islam (1967)
(b) Western Attitudes to Islam
R.W. Southern, Western views of Islam in the Middle Ages (1965)
D.C. Munro, 'Western Attitudes to Islam during the Crusades', Speculum 6 (1931), 329-343 [E]
N. Daniel, Islam and the West : the making of an image (1960)
C.H. Haskins, Studies in Medieval Science (1927)
B.Z. Kedar, Crusade and mission : European approaches toward the Muslims (1984)
Jean Richard, La papauté et les missions d'Orient au Moyen Age (XIIIe-XVe siècles) (1977)
V The Mongols
VI The Crusader States in the Thirteenth Century
(a) The Politics of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Sources : Philip of Novara, Rothelin Continuation, ‘Letters relating to the Crusader states during the pontificate of Gregory IX’ [website]
Jean Richard, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (2 vols. 1979), especially vol. II.
Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions (1980), especially chap. 3
C Marshall, Warfare in the Latin east, 1192-1291 (1992)
Jonathan Riley-Smith, The feudal nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277 (1973)
Jonathan Riley-Smith, 'A Note on Confraternities in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 44 (1971), 301-8.
Jonathan Riley-Smith 'The Assise sur la Ligèce and the Commune of Acre', Traditio 27 (1971), 179-204Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
G.A. Loud, 'The Assise sur La Ligèce and Ralph of Tiberias', Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail, ed. P.W. Edbury (1985), pp. 204-212
H.E. Mayer, 'On the beginning of the Communal Movement in the Holy Land, the Commune of Tyre', Traditio 24 (1968), 443-457
H.E. Mayer 'Ibelin versus Ibelin: the struggle for the regency of Jerusalem 1253-1258', in his Probleme des lateinischen Königreichs Jerusalem (1983)
David Jacoby 'The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the collapse of Hohenstaufen power in the Levant', Dumbarton Oaks papers xl (1986) 83-101 [reprinted in D. Jacoby, Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian expansion (1989)]
P. Jackson, 'The End of Hohenstaufen rule in Syria, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 59 (1986), 20-36
P. Jackson, 'The Crisis in the Holy Land 1260', English historical review 95 (1980) 480-513 [E]
(b) The Society of the Crusader States
Joshua Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem : European colonialism in the Middle Ages (1972)
J. Prawer, Palestinian Agriculture and the Crusader Rural System', in his Crusader institutions, chap. 6; a revised version of the essay first published (in French) in Byzantion 22 (1952) and 23 (1953)
J. Riley-Smith, 'Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants', Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages, ed. D. Baker (Edinburgh 1973)
David Jacoby, 'Crusader Acre in the thirteenth century: urban layout and topography', Studi Medievali, Ser. III.20 (1979), 1-45 [reprinted in D. Jacoby, Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian Expansion (1989)]
M. Mack, 'The Italian quarters of Frankish Tyre. Mapping a medieval city', Journal of Medieval History 33 (2007), 147-165.
H.E. Mayer, 'Latins, Muslims and Greeks in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem', History 63 (1978), 175-192 [reprinted in his Probleme des lateinischen Königreichs Jerusalem (1983)] [HDC]
Michael Gervers & Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi, Conversion and continuity : indigenous Christian communities in Islamic lands, eighth to eighteenth centuries (Toronto, 1990), especially Hadia Dajani-Shakeel, 'Natives and Franks in Palestine: Perceptions and Interactions', pp 161-84; Elias El-Hayek, 'Struggle for Survival: The Maronites of the Middle Ages', pp 407-21.
Alan V. Murray, 'Ethnic Identity in the Crusader States: The Frankish Race and the Settlement of Outremer', in Concepts of national identity in the Middle Ages, ed. S. Forde, L. Johnson and A.V. Murray (1995), 59-73
P.W. Edbury, ‘Fiefs and vassals in twelfth and thirteenth century Jerusalem’, Crusades 1 (2002), 49-62.
B. Hamilton, The Latin Church in the Crusader states : the secular church (1980), especially chapters 9-14.
Sylvia Schein, 'The Patriarchs of Jerusalem in the late Thirteenth Century', Outremer : studies in the history of the crusading kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer, ed. B.Z. Kedar, H.E. Mayer & R.C. Smail (1992), pp. 297-305
Andrew Jotischky, The Perfection of Solitude : Hermits and Monks in the Crusader States (1995)
H.E. Mayer, Bistümer, Klöster und Stifte im Königreich Jerusalem (1977) [an important study for anyone who can read German]
(c) The Other Crusader States in the Levant
P.W. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374 (1991)
Nicholas Coureas, The Latin Church in Cyprus, 1195-1312 (1997)
T.S.R. Boase (ed.), The Cilician kingdom of Armenia (1978)
Kristian Molin, Unknown crusader castles (2001)
(d) The Noble Families of Jerusalem
Steven Tibble, Monarchy and lordships in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291 (1989)
J.L. La Monte, 'John d'Ibelin. The Old Lord of Beirut 1177-1236', Byzantion 12 (1937), 417-58.
J.L. La Monte, 'The Lords of Sidon in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries', Byzantion 17 (1944/5), 183-211.
J.L. La Monte, The Lords of Caesarea in the period of the Crusades', Speculum 22 (1947), 145-61 [E].
M. E. Nickerson, 'The Seigneurie of Beirut in the twelfth century and the Brisebarre family of Beirut-Blanchegarde', Byzantion 19 (1949), 141-85.
J.M. Buckley, 'The Probable Octogenarianism of John of Brienne', Speculum 32 (1957), 315-22 [E].
P.W. Edbury, 'John of Jaffa's Title to the county of Jaffa and Ascalon', English Historical Review 98 (1983), 115-133 [E]
H.E. Mayer, 'The Double County of Jaffa and Ascalon. One Fief or Two? ' Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail (1985), pp. 181-7
H.E. Mayer, Kings and Lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)
VII The Crusades to Egypt and Palestine in the Thirteenth Century
Sources : Oliver of Paderborn, Joinville
Peter Jackson, The Seventh Crusade, 1244-1254 : sources and documents (2007)
A History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, vol. ii (1962), chapters 11-14
H. Tillmann, Pope Innocent III (Eng. trans. 1980)
James M. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade 1213-1221 (1986)
Thomas C. Van Cleve, The Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, immutator mundi (1972), pp. 128-38, 159-75.
Louise B. Robbert, 'Venetian participation in the Crusade of Damietta', Studi Veneziani 30 (1995), 15-33 [DReM]
William C. Jordan, Louis IX and the challenge of the crusade : a study in rulership (1979)
Caroline Smith, Crusading in the age of Joinville (2006)
Jean Richard, Saint Louis : Crusader King of France (1992), especially chapters 5-8, pp. 85-152, and chapters 15-16, pp. 293-329.
Jean Richard, 'La politique orientale de Saint Louis. La Croisade de 1248', in his Les relations entre l'Orient et l'Occident au Moyen Age : études et documents (1977), chapter 10
S.D. Lloyd, 'The Lord Edward's Crusade, 1270-2: its setting and significance'; War and government in the Middle Ages : essays in honour of J.O. Prestwich (1984) 120-133
A.J. Forey, 'The Military Orders in the Crusading Proposals of the late-thirteenth century', Traditio 36 (1980), 317-345 [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)]Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
Bjorn Weiler, ‘The Negotium Terrae Sanctae in the Political Discourse of Latin Christendom, 1215-1311’, International history review 25 (2003), 1-36.
VIII England and the Crusades in the Thirteenth Century
C.J. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095-1588 (1988)
S.D. Lloyd, English society and the crusade, 1216-1307 (1988)
S.D. Lloyd, 'The Lord Edward's Crusade, 1270-2’ [as in previous section]
Penny J. Cole, 'Purgatory and Crusade in St Gregory's Trental', International history review 17 (1995), 713-725
Gerald of Wales, The journey through Wales ; and The description of Wales, trans. L. Thorpe (Penguin Classics 1978)
IX Crusades Against ChristiansPrimary Sources
J. Shirley (trans.), The song of the Cathar wars : a history of the Albigensian Crusade (1996)
W.A. & M.D. Sibley (trans.), The history of the Albigensian Crusade : Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay's Historia Albigensis (1998)
W.A. & M.D. Sibley (trans.), The chronicle of William of Puylaurens : the Albigensian crusade and its aftermath (2003)
The Crusade against Frederick II: texts [website]
Norman Housley, 'Crusades against Christians. Their Origins and Early Development, c.1000-1216', Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail, ed. P.W. Edbury (1985), pp. 17-36 [reprinted in The Crusades. The Essential Readings]
E. Kennan, 'Innocent III and the First Political Crusade', Traditio 27 (1971), 231-249.
William L. Wakefield. Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in southern France, 1100-1250 (1974)
J.R. Strayer, The Albigensian Crusade (1971)
Jonathan Sumption, The Albigensian Crusade (1978; 2nd. ed. 1999)
Mark R. Pegg, A most holy war : the Albigensian Crusade and the battle for Christendom (2008)
J.R. Strayer, 'The Political Crusades of the Thirteenth Century', A history of the Crusades, ed. Kenneth Setton, vol. ii (1962), pp. 343-378.
R. Rist, ‘Papal policy and the Albigensian Crusades: continuity or change? ’, Crusades 2 (2003), 99-108.
Jessalynn Bird, 'Paris masters and the justification of the Albigensian crusade', Crusades 6 (2007), 117-155.
G.A. Loud, ‘The case of the missing martyrs: Frederick II’s war with the Church 1239-50’, Studies in church history 30 (1993), 141-52 [reprinted in G.A. Loud, Montecassino and Benevento in the Middle Ages (2000)].
P.A. Throop, Criticism of the crusade : a study of public opinion and crusade propaganda (1940)
Elizabeth Siberry, Criticism of crusading 1095-1274 (1985)
X The Crusade in the Baltic
The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, trans. J.A. Brundage (1961: 2nd ed. 2003)
The Livonian Rhymed chronicle, trans. W. Urban & J.C. Smith (2nd. ed. 2001)The chronicle of Prussia : a history of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, 1190-1331 by Nicolaus von Jeroschin, A History of the Teutonic Knights in
Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades : the Baltic and the Catholic frontier, 1100-1525 (London 1980) [excellent].
A.V. Murray (ed.), Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 (2001), [especially the essays by Ellers, Urban, Jensen, Nielsen & Mazeika].
F. Lotter 'The Crusading Idea and the Conquest of the Region East of the Elbe', in Medieval frontier societies ed. Robert Bartlett and Angus MacKay (Oxford, 1989), pp 267-306
Karl Jordan, Henry the Lion : a Biography (1986), chapter 4, pp. 66-88.
William L. Urban, The Baltic Crusade (2nd ed. 1994)
William L. Urban, The Prussian Crusade (1990)
William L. Urban, The Livonian Crusade (1981)
William L. Urban 'The Organization of the Defence of the Livonian Frontier in the Thirteenth Century', Speculum 58 (1973), 525-32 [E]
William L. Urban 'The Wendish Princes and the "Drang nach dem Osten"', Journal of Baltic Studies 9 (1978), 225-44 [E]
William L. Urban 'The Diplomacy of the Teutonic Knights at the Curia', Journal of Baltic Studies 9 (1978), 116-28 [E]
William L. Urban 'Roger Bacon and the Teutonic Knights', Journal of Baltic Studies 19 (1988), 363-70 [E]
William L. urban, 'Victims of the baltic crusade', Journal of Baltic Studies 29 (1998), [DReM ]
M. Giedroyc 'The Arrival of Christianity in Lithuania: Baptism and Survival (1341-1387)', Oxford Slavonic Papers xxii (1989), 34-57
XI The Crusades in Spain
‘The Capture of Almeria and Tortosa by Caffaro’ [Website]
'The Campaign of Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212' [Website]
S. Barton & R.A. Fletcher, The world of El Cid : chronicles of the Spanish reconquest (2000), especially the ‘Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris’ and the ‘Poem of Almeria’, pp. 148-249, 250-63 respectively.
R. Hamilton & J. Perry, The Poem of the Cid (Penguin Classics 1984)
Angus Mackay Spain in the Middle Ages : from frontier to empire, 1000-1500 (1977), chaps. 1-3.
Derek Lomax The Reconquest of Spain (1978)
Joseph O’Callaghan Reconquest and Crusade in medieval Spain (2002)
R.A. Fletcher, 'Reconquest and crusade in Spain c.1050-1150', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society Ser. V.37 (1987), 31-47 [E] [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ] [a very important essay]
F. Fernandez-Armesto, 'The survival of a notion of reconquista in late tenth and eleventh-century Leon', Warriors and churchmen in the high Middle Ages : essays presented to Karl Leyser, ed. T. Reuter (1992), pp.123-143.
Bernard Reilly, 'Santiago and St. Denis: the French presence in eleventh-century Spain', The Catholic historical review 54 (1968-9), 467-483.
Simon Barton, 'From tyrants to soldiers of Christ: the nobility of Leon-castile and the struggle against Islam', Nottingham medieval studies 44 (2000), 29-48.
Simon Barton, Traitors to the faith? : Christian mercenaries in al-Andalus and the Maghreb, c.1100-1300,, in Medieval Spain : culture, conflict, and coexistence ; studies in honour of Angus MacKay. ed. Roger Collins and Anthony Goodman (2002), pp. 23-45.
*Elena Lourie, 'A society organised for war: medieval Spain', Past & Present 35 (1966) 54-76 [HDC]
A.J. Forey, ‘The Military Orders and the Spanish Reconquest in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries’, Traditio 40 (1984), 197-234 [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)]Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
Robert I. Burns, 'Immigrants from Islam. The use of Muslims as settlers in thirteenth-century Aragon', The American historical review 80 (1975) [E]
Elena Lourie, ‘Free Muslims in the Balearics under Christian rule in the thirteenth century’, Speculum 45 (1970), 624-49 [E].
J.F. O'Callaghan, The Spanish military order of Calatrava and its affiliates (1975)
P. O'Banion, '"What has Iberia to do with jerusalem? " Crusade and the Spanish route to the Holy land in the twelfth century', Journal of Medieval History 34 (2008), 383-95 [E]
XII Warfare and Fortifications
R.C. Smail, Crusading warfare, 1097-1193 (1956) [still fundamental, though largely covering the period pre-1200]
C. Marshall, Warfare in the Latin east, 1192-1291 (1992)
Joshua Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, chapter 15
Joshua Prawer, 'The Battle of Hattin', Crusader institutions, chapter 19, pp. 484-500
D. Ayalon, 'Studies on the structure of the Mamluk army', Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 15 (1953) 203 ff., 448 ff.; 16 (1954) 133 ff.
Hugh Kennedy, Crusader castles (1994) [excellent, the best book on the subject]
P. Deschamps, Les Chateaux des Croisés en Terre Sainte i Le Crac des Chevaliers : étude historique et archéologique (1934), ii La defense du royaume de Jérusalem : étude historique, geographique et monumentale (1939), iii La défense du comté de Tripoli et de la principauté d'Antioche : étude historique, géographique, toponymique et monumentale (1973) (each volume has a vol. of plates attached - Architecture E DES)
T.E. Lawrence, Crusader Castles (2 vols., 1936) - (Special Collections, English P-40LAW). (2nd ed., ed by D. Pringle, 1988)
Kristian Molin, Unknown Crusader Castles (2001)
A history of the Crusades. Vol.4, The art and architecture of the Crusader states, ed. H.W. Hazard (1976), chapter 4.
XIII Crusader Art
A history of the Crusades. Vol.4, The art and architecture of the Crusader states, ed. H.W. Hazard (1976)
Jaroslav Folda, Crusader art : the art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, 1099-1291 (2008)
Hugo Buchtal, Miniature painting in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1957)
Jaroslav Folda, Crusader manuscript illumination at Saint-Jean d'Acre, 1275-1291 (1976)
Kurt Weitzmann, 'Icon Painting in the Crusader Kingdom', Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20 (1966), 49-83
Lucy Ann Hunt, 'Art and colonialism: the mosaics of the church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (1169) and the problem of "Crusader" art', Dumbarton Oaks Papers 45 (1991)
XIV The Trade of the Holy Land
Joshua Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1972), chapter 16
Joshua Prawer, Crusader institutions (1980), chapter 8
Jonathan Riley-Smith, 'Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants', Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages, ed. D. Baker (Edinburgh 1973)
R.S. Lopez, 'The Trade of Medieval Europe: the South', Cambridge Economic History of Europe ii (2nd edn. 1987), pp.306-379
E.H. Byrne, 'Genoese Trade with Syria in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Century', The American Historical Review 25 (1919-20), 191-219 [E].
E.H. Byrne, Genoese shipping in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries (1930) - (Economics H-4)
L.B. Robbert, 'Venice and the Crusaders', in A history of the Crusades. Vol.5, The impact of the Crusades on the Near East, ed. N.P. Zacour & H.W. Hazard (1985), pp. 379-451.
F.C. Lane, Venice : a maritime republic (1973), chapters 4-5, and especially 7.
David Jacoby, Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian expansion (1989)
David Jacoby, ‘New Venetian evidence on Crusader Acre’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 2, Defining the crusader kingdom, ed. P.W. Edbury & J. Phillips (2003), 240-56.
David Jacoby, ‘Aspects of everyday life in Frankish Acre’, Crusades 4 (2005), 73-105.
Ruthy Gertwangen, ‘The Crusader port of Acre: Layout and Problems of Maintenance’, in Autour de la première croisade : actes du Colloque de la Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Clermont-Ferrand, 22-25 juin 1995, ed. M. Balard (1996), 553-81.
XV The Crusade after 1291
Norman Housley The Later Crusades, 1274-1580 : from Lyons to Alcazar (1992)
Kenneth Setton, A History of the Crusades. Vol.3, The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (1975); [but see also the review of this by P.W. Edbury, English Historical Review 91 (1976) 603-6].
A.S. Atiya, The Crusade in the later Middle Ages (1938) [to be used with care]
Sylvia Schein, Fideles crucis : the papacy, the West, and the recovery of the Holy Land, 1274-1314 (1991)
Sylvia Schein, ' Gesta Dei per Mongolos . The genesis of a non-event', English historical review 94 (1979), 805-819 [E].
J.F. Verbruggen, The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, from the Eighth century to 1340 (2nd ed. 1997), pp. 288-305 [discusses plans for a new Crusade after 1291].
Norman Housley, The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades, 1305-1378 (1986)
Norman Housley, ‘Costing the Crusade: budgeting for Crusader activity in the fourteenth century’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 1, Western approaches ed. M. Bull & N. Housley (2003), 45-59.
A.T. Luttrell, 'The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century', Europe in the late Middle Ages, ed. J. Hale, J.R.L. Highfield & B. Smalley (1965), pp. 122-154Extract available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.
A.T. Luttrell, 'Venice and the Knights Hospitallers of Rhodes in the Fourteenth Century', Papers of the British School at Rome 26 (1958)
Norman Housley 'The Franco-papal Crusade negotiations of 1322-3', Papers of the British School at Rome 48 (1980), 166-185
C.J. Tyerman, 'Marino Sanudo Torsello and the Lost Crusade: Lobbying in the Fourteenth Century'. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Ser. V.32 (1982), 57-74 [E].
C.J. Tyerman, Sed Nihil fecit? The last Capetians and the discovery of the Holy Land', War and government in the Middle Ages : essays in honour of J.O. Prestwich. Essays in Honour of J.O. Prestwich, ed. J. Gillingham and J.C. Holt (1984) pp. 170-181. (C-1.09 GIL)
C.J. Tyerman, 'Philip VI and the Recovery of the Holy Land', English historical review 100 (1985), 25-52 [E]
C. Dawson (ed.), Mission to Asia (1955)
Bernard Lewis, 'The Mongols, the Turks and the Muslim Polity', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society Ser.V 18 (1968), 49-68 [E].
*Peter Jackson, The Mongols and the West, 1221-1410 (2005)
Peter Jackson, ‘The Mongols and Europe’, in New Cambridge Medieval History v, ed. David Abulafia (1999), 703-19.
Peter Jackson, 'The Crusade against the Mongols (1241)', Journal of ecclesiastical history 42 (1991), 1-18.
Peter Jackson, 'The Crisis in the Holy Land 1260', English Historical Review 95 (1980) 480-513 [E].
Sylvia Schein, ‘Gesta Dei per Mongolos. The Genesis of a Non-event’, English Historical Review 94 (1979), 805-19 [E].
This list was last updated on 17/01/2011