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SLSP3981
Module Reading List 2012

Globalisation and the Sex Trade, 2012/13, Semester 1
Susanne Hofmann
S.Hofmann@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Week One: Introduction

(NOTE THERE WILL BE NO TUTORIAL THIS WEEK)

Lecture Topic: The Culture of Commercial Sex

This lecture will look at the structure of the sex industry and the different types of sex markets that exist at a global level. You will be asked to look beyond the traditional notions of street prostitution to consider the wider aspects of the sex industry, including the adult entertainment industry. This week we will look at the structure of the global sex industry and popular representation of prostitution to examine how gendered ideas shape the industry. The sex industry is a diverse and complex global business, however stereotypes tend to concentrates on popular misconceptions based on gendered stereotypes. This session looks economic, political and social factors intersect to create the reality and stereotypes of the global sex trade.

The seminar will focus on looking at the representation of sex workers and the stigma attached to women and men who work in the sex industry.

Seminar Question: Why are there so many different sex markets? How do women who work in street prostitution experience the markets differently from those who work as escorts or lap dancers for instance? How are the male sex work markets different?

Core Textbook Reading (Compulsory) : Chapter 2

Key Reading:

Agustin, L. M. 2005 'New Research Directions: The Cultural Studies of Commercial Sex', Sexualities 8(5): 618-631.

Further Reading:

O'Connell Davidson, J. (1996) 'Prostitution and the contours of Control' in Holland, J. and Weeks, J. (eds) Sexual cultures : communities, values and intimacy , Macmillan: London

Smith, C. (1997) Bodies and Minds for Sale: Prostitution in Pretty Woman and Indecent Proposal in Studies in Popular Culture, 19.3.pp1-5 http://pcasacas.org/SPC/spcissues/19.3/smith.htm

Phonenix, J. (1999) Making Sense of Prostitution , MacMillan Press, London.

Scambler, G. and Scambler, A. (1997) (eds) Rethinking prostitution : purchasing sex in the 1990s . London: Routledge

Harcourt, C. and Donovan, B. 2005 'The Many Faces of Sex Work', Sexually transmitted infections 81(3): 201-206.

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Week Two: Theoretical Debates on Prostitution

Lecture Topic: Feminists have been polarised on the issue of prostitution and their debates have been broadly placed into two main camps that of abolitionists and pro sex workers rights feminists. Both sides of the debates struggle to inform policy and shape popular discourses towards sex workers. This seminar will examine the pros and cons of the two main camps of feminists. All students should prepare by looking at the CATW website and the NSWP website and read at least one article posted for and against sex as a form of work.

Seminar Question: Can prostitution be defined as work like any other form of work? Or is selling sex always violence against women?

Core Textbook Reading (Compulsory) : Chapter 1

Key Readings:

Scoular, J. 2004 'The 'Subject' of Prostitution: Interpreting the Discursive, Symbolic and Material Position of Sex/Work in Feminist Theory', Feminist theory 5(3): 343-355.

Kesler, K. 2002 'Is a Feminist Stance in Support of Prostitution Possible? An exploration of Current Trends', Sexualities 5(2): 219-235.

Weitzer (2010) The Mythology of Prostitution: Advocacy Research and Public Policy, Sexuality Research and Social Policy Volume 7, Number 1, 15-29

Further Reading:

Shrage, L 2007 Feminist Perspectives on Sex Markets, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminist-sex-markets/

Outshoorn, J 2005 The Political Debates on Prostitution and Trafficking of Women, Social Politics: international studies in gender, state & society 2005 12(1):141-155

O'Connell Davidson, J 2003 Sleeping with the enemy'? Some Problems with Feminist Abolitionist Calls to Penalise those who Buy Commercial Sex,Social policy and society. (2003), 2:1:55-63

Suggested reading arguing against prostitution as a form of work:

Jeffreys, S. 2009 The industrial vagina : the political economy of the global sex trade , London: Routledge, Chapter One: 'Feminists and the global sex industry: cheerleaders or critics?
Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

*Reports: Raymond, J. 'Legitimating Prostitution as Sex Work: UN International Labour Organization Calls for Recognition of the Sex Industry (PART TWO) *CATW WEBSITE http://action.web.ca/home/catw/readingroom (Coalition Against Trafficking in Women)

*Articles: Sex: From intimacy to "sexual labor" or Is it a human right to prostitute? *CATW WEBSITE http://action.web.ca/home/catw/readingroom (Coalition Against Trafficking in Women)

Barry, K. 1995: The prostitution of sexuality . NY: New York University Press.

Hoigard, C. and Finstad, L., 1992: Backstreets : prostitution, money and love . Cambridge: Polity (Chapter 7).

Jeffreys, S. 1997: The Idea of Prostitution. Melbourne: Spinifex. (especially Chapter 10) Standing Against Global Exploitation, at http://www.sageinc.org

Suggested reading for those arguing that prostitution is a form of work:
* http://www.nswp.org/mobility/analysis.html (Network of Sex Workers Projects).

Redefining prostitution as sex work on the international agenda — By Jo Bindman, Anti-Slavery International. With participation of Jo Doezma, Network of Sex Work Projects.

Alexander, P. 1997: 'Feminism, sex workers and human rights', in J. Nagel (ed) Whores and other feminists . London: Routledge.

Chapkis, W., 1997: Live sex acts : women performing erotic labor . London: Cassell.

O'Connell Davidson, J., 1998: Prostitution, power and freedom . Cambridge: Polity (Chapters 1 and 5).

Prostitutes Education Network, at: http://www.bayswan.org/Austraf.html

The Network of Sex Work Projects, at http://www.walnet.org/NSWP

Overall, C, 1992 'What's wrong with Prostitution? Evaluating Sex Work' in Signs No 17, pp705-24

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Week Three: UK Policy, Policing and Practice

Lecture Topic: This lecture concentrates on the UK policy to manage prostitution. We examine the legacies of the sex industry in the UK before examining the recent government review of the laws on prostitution. Using the Paying the Price and the Coordinated Prostitution Strategy, we look at how sex work has been criminalised.

Seminar Question: What does the criminalisation of sex work mean? What are the implications of eradication policies? What mechanisms do the police use to manage prostitution?

Core Textbook Reading (Compulsory) : Chapter 7

Key Reading:

Sagar, T. 2007 'Tackling on-street sex work: Anti Social Behaviour Orders, sex workers and inclusive inter-agency initiatives', Criminology & criminal justice 7(2): 153-168.

Scoular, J. and O'Neill, M. 2007 'Regulating Prostitution. Social Inclusion, Responsibilization and the Politics of Prostitution Reform', British journal of criminology 47(3): 764-778.

Whowell, M (2010) Male Sex Work: Exploring Regulation in England and Wales, Journal of law and society , 37,1, March, 125-44

Further Reading:

UK and Legalisation Debates

Kantola, J & Squires, J 2004 Discourses Surrounding Prostitution Policies in the UK, The European journal of women's studies , Vol. 11, No. 1, 77-101

Soothill, K. and Sanders, T. 2004 'Calling the Tune? Some Observations on Paying the Price: A Consultation Paper on Prostitution', Journal of forensic psychiatry and psychology 15(4): 642-59.

Matthews, R. 2005 'Policing Prostitution. Ten Years On' British journal of criminology . 45(6): 877-895

Cusick, L. and Berney, L. 2005 'Prioritizing punitive responses over public health: commentary on the Home Office consultation document Paying the Price',Critical social policy 25(4): 596-606.

Morton, A. (2002). "Will the legalisation of street sex work improve health? " Sexually transmitted infections : 309.

Hubbard, P. (2002a). "Maintaining Family Values? Cleansing the Streets of Sex Advertising." Area 34(4): 353-360.

Pitcher, J., R. Campbell, et al. (2006). Living and working in areas of street sex work : from conflict to coexistence . Abingdon.

Bellis, M. A., F. L. D. Watson, et al. (2007). "Comparative views of the public, sex workers, businesses and residents on establishing managed zones for prostitution: Analysis of a consultation in Liverpool." Health & place 13(3): 603-616.

Brewis, J., Linstead_S (2000) 'The worst thing is the screwing' (1): consumption and the management of identity in sex work, Gender, work and organization , Apr 2000, Vol.7, No.2, pp.84-97

Brewis, J., Linstead_S (2000) 'The worst thing is the screwing' (2): context and career in sex work, Gender, work and organization , Apr 2000, Vol.7, No.2, pp.84-97

Kilvington_J, Day_S, Ward_H, Prostitution policy in Europe: a time of change? Feminist review , Spring 2001, No.67, pp.78-93

May, T., Edmunds, M. and Hough, . (2004)Street Business: The links between sex and drug markets. Home office report. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/fprs118.pdf

Moser, S.L. (2001) Anti-prostitution zones: justifications for abolition, Journal of criminal law and criminology , Summer 2001, Vol.91, No.4, pp.1101-1126

Outshoorn, Joyce [Authorship]. Debating prostitution in parliament: a feminist analysis. [Article] The European journal of women's studies . 8(4) 2001 November, 472-490.

Outshoorn, Joyce [Authorship]. The political debates on prostitution and trafficking of women. [Article] Social politics . 12(1) 2005 Spring, 141-155.

Paying the Price, Home Office Consultation Paper on Prostitution in the UK, 2004. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/paying_the_price.html

Paying the Price of criminalisation: A response to the UK government Paper on prostitution by the English Collective of Prostitutes. http://www.allwomencount.net/EWC%20Sex%20Workers/PAYINGTHEPRICEFINAL.pdf

Sanders, T. (2004) Sex work : a risky business , Cullompton: Willan.

West_J (2000) Prostitution: collectives and the politics of regulation, Gender, work and organization , Apr 2000, Vol.7, No.2, pp.106-118

Paying the Price, Home Office Consultation Paper on Prostitution in the UK, 2004. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/paying_the_price.html

Paying the Price of criminalisation: A response to the UK government Paper on prostitution by the English Collective of Prostitutes. http://www.allwomencount.net/EWC%20Sex%20Workers/PAYINGTHEPRICEFINAL.pdf

Response to Paying the Price: Violence against sex workers, UKNSWP

Hubbard, P., Matthews, R. and Scoular, J. 2008a 'Regulating Sex Work in the EU: Prostitute Women and the New Spaces of Exclusion', Gender, place and culture : a journal of feminist geography. 15(2): 137-152.

Hubbard, P., Matthews, R., Scoular, J. and Agustin, L. M. 2008b 'Away from prying eyes? The urban geographies of `adult entertainment'', Progress in human geography 32(3): 363-381.

O'Neill, M., Campbell, R., Hubbard, P., Pitcher, J. and Scoular, J. 2008 'Living with the Other: Street sex work, contingent communities and degrees of tolerance', Crime media culture : an international journal 4(1): 73-93.

Sanders, T (2005) 'Blinded by Morality? Prostitution Policy in the UK' Capital & class 86 (Summer) 9-15

Sanders, T & Campbell, R 2007 Designing out vulnerability, building in respect: violence, safety and sex work policy, The British journal of sociology Volume 58 Issue 1, P.P 1 – 19

Kilvington_J, Day_S, Ward_H, Prostitution policy in Europe: a time of change? Feminist review , Spring 2001, No.67, pp.78-93

Moser, S.L. (2001) Anti-prostitution zones: justifications for abolition, Journal of criminal law and criminology , Summer 2001, Vol.91, No.4, pp.1101-1126

Brewis, J., Linstead_S (2000) 'The worst thing is the screwing' (1): consumption and the management of identity in sex work, Gender, work and organization , Apr 2000, Vol.7, No.2, pp.84-97

Brewis, J., Linstead_S (2000) 'The worst thing is the screwing' (2): context and career in sex work, Gender, work and organization , Apr 2000, Vol.7, No.2, pp.84-97

Farley, M. 2004 ' "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized', Violence against women 10(10): 1087-125.

Ekberg, G. 2004 'The Swedish Law That Prohibits The Purchase of Sexual Services', Violence against women 10(10): 1187-1218.

Ditmore, M . 2001 Report From the USA: Do Prohibitory Laws Promote Risk? Research for Sex Work No 4 http://www.med.vu.nl

Sullivan, M and Jeffreys, S. 2002 'Legalization. The Australian Experience' Violence against women 8(9):1140-48.

Weitzer, R. 2005 'Flawed Theory and Method in Studies of Prostitution', Violence against women 11(7): 934-49

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Week Four: International Regulatory Models

Week Four: International Regulatory Models

Lecture Topic: This lecture will be presented by a civil servant researcher working for the Ministry of Justice, who has researched and collated information on the different regulatory models that organise and govern prostitution across the world. This snapshot of core models will enable students to consider the principles behind different models and their advantages and disadvantages for sex workers.

Seminar Question: Debate the pros and cons of different regulatory models

Core reading (compulsory)

Laurie, A (2010) Chapter 6. FROM: Abel, Gillian, Taking the crime out of sex work : New Zealand sex workers' fight for decriminalisation. pp.85-101. Bristol: Policy Press. [17]

Key Readings

Brents, B. and Hausbeck, K. 2005 'Violence and Legalized Brothel Prostitution in Nevada: Examining Safety, Risk and Prostitution Policy', Journal of interpersonal violence. 20(3): 270-295

Scoular, J (2004) 'Criminalising 'Punters': evaluating the Swedish position on prostitution' 2004 Journal of social welfare and family law. 26:195-210

Further Reading

Research for Sex Work 8: Global Law, Policy and Human Rights. http://www.nswp.org/resource/research-sex-work-8

New Zealand / decrim

Abel, Gillian, Taking the crime out of sex work : New Zealand sex workers' fight for decriminalisation Routledge

Sweden / Criminalised

Melissa Farley, "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1087-1125.

Esohe Aghatise, Trafficking for Prostitution in Italy: Possible Effects of Government Proposals for Legalization of Brothels, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1126-1155.

Janice G. Raymond, Prostitution on Demand: Legalizing the Buyers as Sexual Consumers, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1156-1186.

Gunilla Ekberg, The Swedish Law that Prohibits the Purchase of Sexual Services: Best Practices for Prevention of Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1187-1218.

Other commentaries / research on international models

Morton, A. (2002). "Will the legalisation of street sex work improve health?" Sexually transmitted infections.: 309.

Bellis, M. A., F. L. D. Watson, et al. (2007). "Comparative views of the public, sex workers, businesses and residents on establishing managed zones for prostitution: Analysis of a consultation in Liverpool." Health & place.13(3): 603-616.

Moser, S.L. (2001) Anti-prostitution zones: justifications for abolition, Journal of criminal law and criminology., Summer 2001, Vol.91, No.4, pp.1101-1126

Hubbard, P., Matthews, R. and Scoular, J. 2008a 'Regulating Sex Work in the EU: Prostitute Women and the New Spaces of Exclusion', Gender, place and culture : a journal of feminist geography.15(2): 137-152.

Kilvington J, Day S, Ward H, Prostitution policy in Europe: a time of change? Feminist review., Spring 2001, No.67, pp.78-93

Ditmore, M . 2001 Report From the USA: Do Prohibitory Laws Promote Risk? Research for Sex Work No 4 http://www.med.vu.nl

Sullivan, M and Jeffreys, S. 2002 'Legalization. The Australian Experience' Violence against women. 8(9):1140-48.

Sulllivan, B (2010) When (Some)Prostitution is Legal: The Impact of Law Reform in Australia Journal of law and society., 37 (1)85-104

Weitzer, R (2010) The Movement to Crimininalize Sex Work in the United States, Journal of law and society., 37 (1) 61-84

For a broader flavour of sex work in an international context, browse this special issue 'Demystifying sex work and sex workers.' With articles from activist scholars the special issue, focuses on the everyday lives of sex workers http://appweb.cortland.edu/ojs/index.php/wagadu/

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Week Five: Sex Markets: Street, Indoor, Male

Lecture Topic: This lecture will present a broad over view of a range of different markets to demonstrate the diversity of both sex workers, and sex work environments. Ranging from the typical street (the smallest market in the UK), to the variety of indoor markets, this lecture will touch on different characteristics of each: it will include drug use, violence, safety, characteristics and types of sex work.

Seminar Question: What are the differences between street and indoor sex markets? Why does street prostitution exist? Why is male sex work ignored in policy?

Core Textbook Reading (Compulsory) : Chapter 3 & 8

Key Reading:

Bernstein, E. (2007). Sex work for the Middle Classes. Sexualities., 10(4), 473-488

Whowell, M (2010) Male Sex Work: Exploring Regulation in England and Wales, Journal of law and society., 37,1, March, 125-44

Sanders, T. 2004 'The Risks of Street Prostitution: Punters, Police and Protesters', Urban studies.41(8): 1703-1717.

Further Reading:

Williamson, C & Folaron, G 2003 Understanding the experiences of street level prostitutes Qualitative Social Work , Vol. 2, No. 3, 271-287

Cusick, L. (2006). "Widening the harm reduction agenda: From drug use to sex work." International journal of drug policy 7(1): 3-11.

Rhodes, T., Simic, M., Baros, S., Platt, L. and Zikic, B. 2008 'Police Violence and sexual Risk among Female and Transvestite Sex workers in Serbia: Qualitative Study', British medical journal 337: 1-6.

Rosen, E. and Venkatesh, S. 2008 'A "Perversion" of Choice: Sex Work Offers Just Enough in Chicago's Urban Ghetto', Journal of contemporary ethnography 37(4): 417-441.

Dalla, R. (2002). "Night Moves: A Qualitative Investigation of Street-level Sex Work." Psychology of women quarterly 26: 63-73.

Pauw, I. and L. Brener (2003). "'You are just whores- you can't be raped': Barriers to safer sex practices among women street sex workers in Cape Town." Culture, Health & Sexuality 5(6): 465-481.

Penfold, C., G. Hunter, et al. (2004). "Tackling Client Violence in Female Street Prostitution: Inter-Agency Working Between Outreach Agencies and the Police." Policing & society 14(4): 365-379.

Pitcher, J., R. Campbell, et al. (2006) Living and working in areas of street sex work : from conflict to coexistence . Abingdon.

Sanders, T. (2004). "The Risks of Street Prostitution: Punters, Police and Protesters." Urban Studies 41(8): 1703-1717.

Williamson, C. and T. Cluse-Tolar (2002). "Pimp-Controlled Prostitution: Still an Integral Part of Street Life." Violence against women 8(9): 1074-1092.

Barnard, M. 1993 'Violence and Vulnerability: Conditions of Work for Street Working Prostitutes', Sociology of health and illness 15 (1): 5-14.

Boynton, P & Cusick, L 2006 Sex workers to pay the price, British medical journal , 332:190-191

Brents, B. and Hausbeck, K. 2005 'Violence and Legalized Brothel Prostitution in Nevada: Examining Safety, Risk and Prostitution Policy', Journal of interpersonal violence 203(2): 270-295.

Brewis, J. and Linstead, S. 2000 Sex, work and sex work : eroticizing organization , London: Routledge.

Chapkis, W. 1997 Live sex acts : women performing erotic labor . New York: Routledge.

Church, S., Henderson, M., Barnard, M. and Hart, G. 2001 'Violence By Clients Towards Female Prostitutes in Different Work Settings: Questionnaire Survey', British medical journal 322:524-25.

Day, S. 1994 'What Counts as Rape? Physical Assault and Broken Contracts: Contrasting Views of Rape Amongst London Sex Workers', in P. Harvey and P. Gow (eds) Sex and violence : issues in representation and experience , London: Routledge.

Day, S. and Ward, H. 2001 'Violence Towards Female Prostitutes', British medical journal 323: 230.

Farley, M. 2004 ' "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized', Violence against women 10(10): 1087-125.

Hart, G., and Barnard, M 2003 ' "Jump on Top, Get the Job Done": Strategies Employed by Female Prostitutes to Reduce the Risk of Client Violence' in E. A. Stanko (ed.), The meanings of violence , London: Routledge.

Home Office 2004 Paying the price : a consultation paper on prostitution, July 2004 , London: HMSO.

Home Office. 2006. A coordinated prostitution strategy and a summary of responses to 'Paying the price'. London. HMSO.
Available from http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/sccwebsite/sccwspublications.nsf/f2d920e015d1183d80256c670041a50b/ae416f8239f800bc802572f3005561c5/$FILE/SSCB%20Prostitution%20Strategy.pdf

Kinnell, H. 2006 'Demonizing Clients: How Not to Promote Sex Workers' Safety', in M. O'Neill and R. Campbell (eds) Sex work now , Cullumpton: Willan.

Kinnell, H. 2001 'Murderous Clients and Indifferent Justice. Violence Against Sex Workers in the UK', Research for Sex Work 4 http://www.med.vu.nl

Kurtz, S., Surratt, H., Inciardi, J. and Kiley, M. 2004 'Sex Work and "Date" Violence', Violence against women 10(4): 357-385.

Lowman, J. 2000 'Violence and the Outlaw Status of Street Prostitution in Canada', Violence against women 6(9): 987-1011.

May, T., Edmunds, M. and Hough, M 1999 ' Street business : the links between sex and drug markets ', Police Research Series Paper 118, London: Home Office Policing and Reducing Crime Unit.

McKeganey, N. and Barnard, M. 1996 Sex work on the streets : prostitutes and their clients , Buckingham: Open University Press.

Miller, J. and Schwartz, M. 1995 'Rape Myths and Violence towards Street Prostitutes', Deviant behavior 16(1): 1-23.

Monto, M. 2004 'Female Prostitution, Customers and Violence', Violence against women 10(2): 160-188.

Nixon, K., Tutty, L., Downe, P., Gorkoff, K. and Ursel, J. 2002 'The Everyday Occurence: Violence in the Lives of Girls Exploited Through Prostitution', Violence against women 8 (9): 1016-1043.

O'Neill, M. and Barbaret, R. 2000. 'Victimisation and the Social Organization of Prostitution in England and Spain', in R. Weitzer (ed.) Sex for sale : prostitution, pornography, and the sex industry , London: Routledge.

Outshoorn, J. 2004 The politics of prostitution : women's movements, democratic states, and the globalisation of sex commerce , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pateman, C. 1988 The sexual contract , Oxford: Blackwells.

Pauw, I. and Brener, L. 2003 'You Are Just Whores - You Can't be Raped: Barriers to Safer Sex Practices Among Women Street Sex Workers in Cape Town', Culture, Health & Sexuality 5(6): 465-81.

Penfold, C., Hunter, G., Campbell, R. and Barham, L. 2004 'Tackling Client Violence in Female Street Prostitution: Inter-Agency Working Between Outreach Agencies and the Police', Policing & society 14(4): 365-79.

Pyett, P. and Warr, D. 1997 'Vulnerability on the Streets: Female Sex Workers and HIV Risk', AIDS care 9(5): 539-47.

Raymond, J. G. 1999 'Prostitution as Violence Against Women', Women's International Forum 21(1): 1-9. Available online

Riberio, M. and Sacramento, O. 2005 'Violence Against Prostitutes. Findings of Research in the Spanish-Portuguese Frontier Region', The European journal of women's studies 12(1): 61-81.

Sanchez, L 2004. The Global E-rotic, Subject, the Ban, and the Prostitute-free Zone: Sex Work and the Theory of Differential Exclusion. Environment and planning. D : society and space . 22(6):861-883

Sanders, T. 2004. 'Controllable Laughter: Managing Sex Work Through Humour', Sociology 38(2): 273-91.

Sanders, T. 2005 Sex work : a risky business , Cullompton: Willan.

Surrat, H., Inciardi, J., Kurtz, S. and Kiley, M. 2004 'Sex Work and Drug Use in a Subculture of Violence' Crime & delinquency 50(1) 43-59.

Ward, H., Day, S. and Weber, J. 1999 'Risky Business: Health and Safety in the Sex Industry Over a 9 Year Period', Sexually transmitted infections 75(5): 340-43.

Phoenix, J. (2000), 'Prostitute Identities: Men, Money and Violence', British journal of criminology , 40, 37-55.

Listen to: BBC Radio 4 'Thinking Allowed 'Becoming an Ex-Sex Worker' August 2nd 2006 http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/thinkingallowed/thinkingallowed_20060802.shtml

Radio 4 'Thinking Allowed' interview with Laurie Taylor on Managing Risk in the Femal Sex Industry June 2004 http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/thinkingallowed_20040630.shtml

Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema (eds.) Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition

West, J. (2000), 'Prostitution, Collectives and the Politics of Deregulation' in Gender, work and organization , Vol. 7, No. 2.

Sanders (2005). Sex work : a risky business . Cullompton: Willan.

Sanders, T and Campbell, R (2006) Designing Out Violence, Building in Respect: Violence, Safety and Sex Work Policy. The British journal of sociology 58,3

Kontula, A. 2008 'The Sex Worker and Her Pleasure',Current sociology = La sociologie contemporaine 56(4): 605-620.

Brewis, J. and Linstead, S. (2000a), ''The Worst Thing is the Screwing' (1): Consumption and the Management of Identity in Sex Work', Gender, work and organization , 7, 2, 84-97.

Brewis, J. and Linstead, S. (2000b), ''The Worst Thing is the Screwing' (2): Context and Career in Sex Work', Gender, work and organization , 7, 3, 168-180.

Mathieu, L. (2003), 'The Emergence and Uncertain Outcomes of Prostitutes' Social Movements', The European journal of women's studies , 10, 1, 29-50.

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Week Six: Trafficking: The Business of Seduction, Slavery and Sex

Trafficking is a regarded as modern day slavery and treated by policy makers and some feminists as the worst form of human labour. However, these argument often underplay the role of women's agency and the desire to migrate to improve on life chances, as such gendered global inequalities often shape women's opportunities to travel and migrate. This lecture will explore some of these complex questions.

Seminar Question: Are migrant sex workers always 'victims'? How have trafficking and migrancy been conflated and to what consequence?

Core Textbook Reading (Compulsory) : Chapter 9

Key Reading:

Weizter, R. 2007 'The Social Construction of Sex Trafficking: Ideology and Institutionalization of a Moral Crusade', Politics and society 35(3): 447-475.

Mai, N (2009)Migrant Workers in the UK Sex Industry, ESRC, Final Policy-Relevant Report. Available at: http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/fms/MRSite/Research/iset/Nick%20Mai/Migrant%20Workers%20in%20the%20UK%20Sex%20Industry%20Project%20Final%20Policy%20Relevant%20Report.pdf

Schaeffer-Grabiel, F (2010) Sex Trafficking as the New Slave Trade, Sexualities , 13:153-160

Further Readings:

Laura María Agustín (2005) 'Helping Women Who Sell Sex: The Construction of Benevolent Identities' Issue 10, Spring 2005: Neo-Liberal Governmentality: Technologies of the Self & Governmental Conduct
Available from: http://www.rhizomes.net/issue10/issue10.htm

Adams, N. (2003) Anti-trafficking legislation: protection or deportation? Feminist review , 2003, No.73, pp.135-139

Doezema, J., 2000: 'Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of "white slavery" in contemporary discourses of "trafficking in women"', Gender Issues, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp23 - 30.
[Also available on-line: http://www.nswp.org/mobility/analysis.html (Network of Sex Workers Projects).]

Anderson, B 2000 Doing the dirty work? : the global politics of domestic labour , London: Zed

Andrijasevic, R. 2003. 'The Difference Borders make: (Il)legality, Migration and Trafficking in Italy among Eastern European Women in Prostitution,' In S. Ahmed, C. Castaneda, A. Furtier and M. Sheller (eds), Uprootings/regroundings : questions of home and migration , Oxford : Berg, pp. 251-271.

Andrijasevic, R. 2007. Beautiful Dead Bodies: Gender, Migration and Representation in Anti-trafficking Campaigns, Feminist review., 86: 24-44.

Aradau, C. 2008a. Rethinking trafficking in women : politics out of security , Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chaikin, R. 2006. 'Fighting Against Trafficking in Women in the North of Israel ,' In K. Beeks and D. Amib (eds.), Trafficking and the global sex industry , Lanham: Oxford : Lexington Books, pp. 201-216.

Dickson, S. 2004a. When Women are Trafficked: Quantifying the Gendered Experience of Trafficking in the UK. London: POPPY Project. Available from: http://www.eaves4women.co.uk/Resources/Reports_And_Consultations.php

Suggested reading who argue against the idea that trafficked women are not all victims:

Irwin, M., 1996: '"White Slavery" as metaphor: Anatomy of a moral panic', The History Journal, Vol V.
[Also available on-line: http://www.nswp.org/mobility/analysis.html (Network of Sex Workers Projects).]

Doezema, J., 1998: 'Forced to choose: Beyond the voluntary v. forced prostitution dichotomy'. In Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema (eds.) Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition . New York: Routledge. pp34-50.

Agustin, Laura (2003) 'A migrant world of service' in Social Politics , Vol 10,3. BIDS

Kelly, L and Regan, L (2002) Report on Trafficking in the UK The Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW), http://www.gaatw.org/

Suggested reading that argue that all trafficked women are victims.

Jeffreys, S. 1997: The idea of prostitution . Melbourne: Spinifex. (especially Chapter 1 and 11)

Kelly, L. and Regan, L., 2000: 'Stopping Traffic: An exploratory study of trafficking in women for sexual exploitation in the UK'. Home Office Report. London: HMSO. Available from: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/brf125.pdf

Sharma, R. (2007) Travel Agency: a Critique of Anti-Trafficking Campaigns, Refuge, 12: 53-63. Available from: https://pi.library.yorku.ca/ojs/index.php/refuge/article/view/21302

Somerset, C (2001), 'What professionals Know: The trafficking of children into, and through, the UK for sexual purposes', ECPAT UK, Nov 2001. ECPAT WEBSITE http://www.ecpat.org.uk/

Info for both sides will find useful material on the websites of International Organisation of Migration (IOM), Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women, and Global Survival Network.

Williams, P. (ed), 1999: Illegal immigration and commercial sex : the new slave trade . London: Frank Cass.

The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW), http://www.catwinternational.org/

Sex Work, Migration and Trafficking

Agustin, L. (2003) Forget Victimisation: Granting Agency to Migrants, Development, 46: 30-36.

Agustin, L. (2005) 'The disappearing of a Migration Category: Migrants who sell sex' in Journal of ethnic and migration studies , Vol. pp

Agustin, L (2005) Migrants in the mistress's house: other voices in the 'trafficking' debate. In Social politics . 12(1) Spring, 96-117.

Benmholdt-Thomsen, V. and Mies, M., 2000: The subsistence perspective : beyond the globalized economy . Australia: Spinifex Press.

Brown, L., 2000: Sex slaves : the trafficking of women in Asia . London: Virgo.

Chapkis, W., 1997: Live sex acts : women performing erotic labor . London: Cassell. *

Doezema, J., 1998: 'Forced to choose: Beyond the voluntary v. forced prostitution dichotomy'. In Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema (eds.) Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition . New York: Routledge. pp34-50.

Doezema, J., 2000: 'Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of "white slavery" in contemporary discourses of "trafficking in women"', Gender Issues, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp23 - 30.
[Also available on-line: http://www.walnet.org/nswp ]

Doezema, J. (2001) 'Ouch! Western feminists' 'wounded attachment' to the 'third world prostitute', Feminist review , No. 67, Spring 2001 pp.16-38.

Doezema, J., (1998) 'Forced to choose: Beyond the voluntary v. forced prostitution dichotomy'. In Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema (eds.) Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition . New York: Routledge. pp34-50.

Doezema, J (2005). Now you see her, now you don't: sex workers at the UN trafficking protocol negotiations. [Article] Social & legal studies . 14(1) March, 61-89.

Doezema, J. (2010) Sex slaves and discourse masters : the construction of trafficking. London: Zed Books.

Lim, L., 1998: The sex sector : the economic and social bases of prostitution in Southeast Asia . Geneva: ILO.

Malarek, V (2004) The Natashas : the new global sex trade .

Masika, R (ed). (2002), Gender, trafficking, and slavery , Oxfam, Oxford.

*O'Connell Davidson, J., 1998: Prostitution, power and freedom . Cambridge: Polity.

O'Neill, M, 1996, Prostitution, Feminism and Critical Praxis: profession prostitute? in The Austrian Journal of Sociology, special edition on Work and Society, edited by Johanna Hofbauer and Jorg Flecker.

Simmons, M., 1999: 'Theorizing prostitution: The question of agency'. Sexuality & Culture . Vol. 2, pp 125-148.
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Sullivan, B. (2003) 'Traffic in Women', in International feminist journal of politics , Vol. 5.

Weitzer, R. (ed), 2000: Sex for sale : prostitution, pornography, and the sex industry . London: Routledge.

Williams, P. (ed), 1999: Illegal immigration and commercial sex : the new slave trade . London: Frank Cass.

Zalduondo, B. de and Bernard, J., 1995: 'Meaning and consequences of sexual economic exchange: Gender, poverty and sexual risk behaviour in urban Haiti' in R. Parker and J. Gagnon (eds) Conceiving sexuality : approaches to sex research in a postmodern world . London: Routledge.


Globalisation, Migration and 'Trafficking' in Women

Agustín, L. (2002) Challenging 'place': leaving home for sex, In Development, 45.1, Spring 2002, 110-117.
See http://www.nswp.org/ keyword search Laura Agustin

Benmholdt-Thomsen, V. and Mies, M., 2000: The subsistence perspective : beyond the globalized economy . Australia: Spinifex Press.

Brown, L., 2000: Sex slaves : the trafficking of women in Asia . London: Virgo.

Chapkis, W., 1997: Live sex acts : women performing erotic labor . London: Cassell. *

Doezema, J., 1998: 'Forced to choose: Beyond the voluntary v. forced prostitution dichotomy'. In Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema (eds.) Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition . New York: Routledge. pp34-50.

Doezema, J., 2000: 'Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of "white slavery" in contemporary discourses of "trafficking in women"', Gender Issues, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp23 - 30.
[Also available on-line: http://www.walnet.org/nswp ]

Dutton, M. 1998: Streetlife China . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grittner, F. 1990: White slavery : myth, ideology, and American law . London: Garland.

IOM, 1999: Paths of exploitation : studies on the trafficking of women and children between Cambodia, Thailand and Viet Nam . Geneva: IOM

Irwin, M., 1996: '"White Slavery" as metaphor: Anatomy of a moral panic', The History Journal, Vol V.
[Available on-line: http://www.walnet.org/nswp ]

Kelly, L. and Regan, L., 2000: ' Stopping traffic : exploring the extent of, and responses to, trafficking in women for sexual exploitation in the UK '. Home Office Report. London: HMSO Electronically available in the Library

Masika, R. (ed) (2002) Gender, trafficking, and slavery , Oxford: Oxford Academic

Midgely, C., 1998: 'Anti-slavery and the roots of 'imperial feminism'', in C. Midgely (ed) Gender and imperialism . Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Phongpaichit, P., 1999: 'Trafficking in people in Thailand', in P. Williams (ed), Illegal immigration and commercial sex : the new slave trade . London: Frank Cass.

Pyne, H., 1995: 'AIDS and gender violence: the enslavement of Burmese women in the Thai sex industry', in J. Peters and A. Wolper (eds) Women's rights, human rights : international feminist perspectives . New York: Routledge.

Rijken, C. (2003) Trafficking in persons : prosecution from a European perspective :Asser Press

Thomas, D. and Jones, S. (eds) (1994) A Modern form of slavery : trafficking of Burmese women and girls into brothels in Thailand , London: Human Rights Watch

Tong, B., 1994: Unsubmissive women : Chinese prostitutes in nineteenth-century San Francisco . University of Oklahoma Press.

Skrobanek, S. 1997: The traffic in women : human realities of the international sex trade . London: Zed.

Wichterich, C., 2000: The globalized woman : reports from a future of inequality . Australia: Spinifex Press.

Williams, P. (ed), 1999: Illegal immigration and commercial sex : the new slave trade . London: Frank Cass.

Globalisation and the Sex Trade in Developing Countries

Brah, A., 2002: 'Global mobilities, local predicaments: globalization and the critical imagination', Feminist Review , Vol. 70.

Castells, M., 1998: End of Millennium Oxford: Blackwell.

Chant, S. and McIlwaine, C., 1995: Women of a lesser cost : female labour, foreign exchange, and Philippine development . London: Pluto.

Giddens, A., 1990: The consequences of modernity . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Hall, S., 1997: 'The local and the global: globalization and ethnicity', in A. King (ed) Culture, Globalization and the World System . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Lee, W (1991), 'Prostitution and Tourism in South East Asia' in Redcliff, M and Sinclair, M. T.(Eds.) Working Women: International Perspectives on Labour and Gender Ideology , Routledge: London.

Lim, L., 1998: The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia . Geneva: ILO.

Madely, J., 2000: Hungry for trade : how the poor pay for free trade . London: Zed.

Moon, K, H, S, (1997), Sex among allies : military prostitution in U.S.-Korea relations , New York: Columbia University Press

Mullings, B (1999), 'Globalisation, Tourism and the International Sex Trade', in Kempadoo, K. (ed) Sun, sex, and gold : tourism and sex work in the Caribbean , Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.

Mitter, Swasti, (1994), 'On Organising Women in Casualised Work: A Global View', in Dignity and daily bread : new forms of economic organising among poor women in the Third World and the First , Rowbothan, Sheila and Mitter, Swasti Mitter, London: Routledge.

Truong, T.D. (1990), Sex, money and morality : prostitution and tourism in South-east Asia , London: Zed Books Ltd.

Seabroke, J. (2001) Travels in the Skin Trade: Tourism and the Sex Industry , London: Pluto Press Ltd HIGH DEMAND

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Week Seven: Lap dancing: Stigma and Stripping

Lecture Topic: Despite erotic dancing being partially mainstreamed into adult entertainment and the night time economy, this lecture demonstrates that those (mainly women) who work as strippers or lap dancers are still affected by the stigma associated with using their body and sexualised labour to make money. This lecture goes through the legal status of lap dancing in the UK; research on the customers; and the stigma experiences by those who work in the industry.

Seminar question: To what extent has stripping become part of mainstream adult entertainment culture, and has this had any impact on the extent to which the activity (as leisure or work) is stigmatised or accepted?

No reading from the core textbook this week

Key Reading:

Hubbard, P ( 2009) Opposing Striptopia: The Embattled Spaces of Adult Entertainment, Sexualities. , 12 no. 6 721-745

Frank, K (2005) Exploring the Motivations and Fantasies of Strip Club Customers in Relation to Legal regulation, Archives of sexual behavior. , 34, 5, pp 487-504

Bradley, M, 2007, Girlfriends, Wives, and Strippers: Managing Stigma in Exotic Dancer Romantic Relationships, Deviant behavior , Vol. 28(4), 379-406.

Further Reading:

Colosi, R (2010) Dirty dancing : an ethnography of lap dancing , Willan, Cullompton Devon.

Barton, B, 2002, Dancing on the Mobius Strip; Challenging the Sex War Paradigm, Gender & society. , Vol. 16, No. 5, 585-602.

Barton, B, 2007, Managing the Toll of Stripping: Boundary Setting among Exotic Dancers, Journal of contemporary ethnography. , 36; 571.

Boles, J. and A. P. Garbin. 1974. "The Strip Club and the Customer-Stripper Patterns of Interaction." Sociology and social research. 58: 136-144.

Bott, E, 2006, Pole Position: Migrant British Women Producing 'Selves" Through Lap Dance Work, Feminist review. , Vol. 83, pp. 23-41.

Boys, J, 1999, Positions In The Landscape? : Gender, Space And The 'Nature' Of Virtual Reality, Desire by design : body, territories and new technologies , Cutting Edge, The Women's Research Group, Ed. London: I.B. Tauris.

Chapkis, W, 1997, Live sex acts : women performing erotic labor , New York: Routledge.

Egan, D, 2006, Dancing for dollars and paying for love : the relationships between exotic dancers and their regulars , St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York, US.

Forsyth, C, 2006, Strategic Flirting and the Emotional Tab of Exotic Dancing, Deviant behavior , Vol. 27(2), 223-241.

Frank, K, 1998, The Production of Identity and The Negotiation of Intimacy in a Gentleman's Club, Sexualities , Vol. 1, No. 2, 175-201.

Lewis, J, 1998, Learning to Strip: The Socialization Experiences of Exotic Dancers, The Canadian journal of human sexuality , Vol. 7: 51-66.

Pasko, L, 2002, Naked Power: The Practice of Stripping as a Confidence Game, Sexualities. 5 (1): 49-66.

Perrucci, A, 2000, The Relationship Between Persona and Self in Exotic Dancers' Experience of Privacy, Unusual Occupations, 11: 35-53.
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Philaretou, A, Female Exotic Dancers: Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Perspectives, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: the Journal of Treatment and Prevention , Vol. 13(1), 41-52.

Ronai, C, R, Ellis, C, 1989, Turns-On's for Money; Interactional Strategies of The Table Dancer, Journal of contemporary ethnography. , Vol. 18, No. 3, 271-298.

Ronai, C, R, 1994, Narrative Resistance to Deviance; Identity Management Among Striptease Dancers, Perspectives On Social Problems (6).

Ronai, C, R, 1995, Deviance and Resistance in the Biographical Work of Exotic Dancers, Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 55 (10-A), pp. 3317.
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Ronai, C, R, Cross, R, 1998, Dancing With Identity: Narrative Resistance Strategies Of Male And Female Stripteases, Deviant behavior , Vol. 19(2), Apr-Jun, 99-119.

Ross, B, L, 2007, Entertaining Femininities: The Embodied Exhibitions Of Striptease And Sport, In Hargreaves, J, Vertinsky, P, Physical culture, power and the body , New York, NY, US: Routledge / Taylor & Francis Group.

Trautner, M, N, 2005, Doing Gender, Doing Class: The Performance of Sexuality in Exotic Dance Clubs, Gender & society. , Vol. 19(6), 771-778.

Wesely, J, 2003, Exotic Dancing and the Negotiation of Identity: The Multiple Uses of Body Technologies, Journal of contemporary ethnography. , Vol. 32(6), 643-669.

Wesely, J, 2003, "Where am I Going to Stop? ": Exotic Dancing, Fluid Body Boundaries, and Effects on Identity, Deviant behavior , Vol. 24(5), 483-503.

Wood, E, 1999, Working in The Fantasy Factory: Interaction, Intimacy and The Construction of Power In Strip Clubs. (Sex Work), Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 60 (4-A), pp. 1336.

Wood, E, 2000, Working In The Fantasy Factory: The Attention Hypothesis and Enacting of Masculine Power In Strip Clubs, Journal of contemporary ethnography. , Vol. 29, No. 1, 5-31.

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Week Eight: Unionisation and Sex Worker Rights

This lecture will consider the claims made by sex workers' organisations and look at a short history of the movement for sex workers' rights. Drawing on examples from around the world it will discuss the different strategies, tactics, challenges and successes that sex workers have made in demanding better rights for people in the sex industry. It will look at the wide variety of organisations organising around sex workers' rights and look specifically at the arguments made for and against the unionisation of sex industry workers.

Seminar question: What have been sex worker organisations' main arguments and approaches? How have their strategies differed?

Core Textbook Reading (Compulsory) : Chapter 6

Key Reading:

West, J. (2000) Prostitution: collectives and the politics of regulation, Gender, work and organization , Apr 2000, Vol.7, No.2, pp.106-118

Gall, G. 2007. Sex Worker Unionisation: an exploratory study of emerging collective organisation. Industrial relations journal 38 (1): 70-88.

Further Reading:

Calimoro, C. 1998. Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition , eds. J. Doezema and K. Kempadoo. New York and London: Routledge: 197-199.

Dale, G. and Whittaker, X. A response to the sex work debate. International Socialism Journal.
Available from: http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4? id=664&issue=127

Ditmore, M. 2007. In Calcutta, Sex Workers Organize. In The affective turn : theorizing the social , eds. P. Ticineto Clough and J. O'Malley Halley: Duke.

ECP. 1999. Some mother's daughter : the hidden movement of prostitute women against violence . London: Crossroads Books.

Gall, G. 2006. Sex worker union organising : an international study . Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Gall, G. 2010. Sex worker collective Organization: Between advocacy group and labour union? Equality, diversity and inclusion : an international journal. . 29 (3) 2010: 289-304.

Gallin, D. 2003. Note on the International Sex Workers' Movement: Global Labour Institute.
Available from: http://www.globallabour.info/en/2007/09/note_on_the_international_sex.html

Hardy, K. 2010. Incorporating Sex Workers into the Argentine Labor Movement. International Labor and Working-Class History 77 (1): 89-108.

Hubbard, P. 1999b. Sex and the city : geographies of prostitution in the urban West . Aldershot: Ashgate.

ICTUR, International Union Rights: Sex Workers' Organising.
Available from: http://www.ictur.org/IUR124.pdf

Jeffreys, S. The idea of prostitution . Spinifex Press, London.

Jenness, V. 1998. Making it work : the Prostitute's Rights Movement in perspective . New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Kempadoo, K. and J. Doezema eds. 1998. Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition . London and New York: Routledge.

Mathieu, L. 2003. The Emergence and Uncertain Outcomes of Prostitutes' Social Movements. The European journal of women's studies . 10 (1): 29-50.

Pritchard, J. 2010. The Sex Work Debate. International Socialism Journal.
Available from: http://www.isj.org.uk/? id=618

Nagle, J. ed. 1997. Whores and other feminists . New York: Routledge.

Sanderrs, T. et al. 2009. Prostitution : sex work, policy and politics . Sage, Basingstoke.

Weitzer, R. 1991. Prostitutes' Rights in the United States: The Failure of a Movement. The sociological quarterly 32 (1): 23-41.

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Week Nine: Young People and Sexual Exploitation

Lecture Topic: This lecture will explore how children are integrated into the sex industry and how global economic structures underpin this phenomenon. In the seminar we consider constructions of childhood, child sex exploiters and sex work.

Seminar Question: Why do children enter the sex industry? What have the moves been to make 'child prostitution' positioned as 'sexual exploitation'?

Core Textbook Reading (Compulsory) : Chapter 4

Key Reading:

Melrose, M (2010) 'What's love got to do with it? Theorising young people's involvement in prostitution' Youth and Policy No 104 Special Issue.
Available online at: http://youthandpolicy.org/images/stories/journal104/104_melrose.pdf

Chase, E and Statham, J (2005) Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Young People in the UK – A Review. Child abuse review. , 14, pp 4-25

Further Reading:

Phoenix, J (2002) 'In the Name of Protection: Youth Prostitution Policy Reforms', Critical social policy. , 22(2), pp. 353-375

'Living and Working on the Cusp of Contradictions' (2010), Youth & Policy, no 104, pp32-47.
Available online at: http://youthandpolicy.org/images/stories/journal104/104_phoenix.pdf

'Governing Prostitution: New Formations, Old Agendas' (2007) Canadian Journal of Law and Society , vol. 22, no. 2, pp73-94.

Melrose, M., D. Barrett, et al. (1999). One way street? : retrospectives on childhood prostitution . London, The Children's Society.

Phoenix, J (2006) Risk, Children and Prostitution: Old Explanations Respun for Modern Times', Child abuse review. , Special Edition on Children and Sexual Exploitation

Phoenix, J (2004)'Rethinking Youth Prostitution: National Provision at the Margins of Child Protection and Youth Justice', Youth justice. , Vol. 3, no. 1, O'Connell Davidson, J., 2005 Child the Global Sex Trade. Cambridge: Polity.

Kincaid, J, (2002) Erotic innocence : the culture of child molesting , Chapter 1 Introduction

O'Connell Davidson, J (2005) Children in the global sex trade , Chapter 2

Kelly, L., Wingfield, R., Burton, S., and Regan, L., 1995: Splintered lives : sexual exploitation of children in the context of children's rights and child protection . Ilford: Barnardo's.

O'Grady, R. 1992: The rape of the innocent , Bangkok: ECPAT

Jefferys, S. (2000) 'Challenging the child/adult distinction in theory and practice on prostitution', International feminist journal of politics. . 2:3, pp. 359-379.

Black, M. 1995: In the twilight zone : child workers in the hotel, tourism, and catering industry , ILO Child Labour Collection.

Ennew, J. 1986:The sexual exploitation of children , Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kempadoo, K., 1999: 'For the children: trends in international policies and law on sex tourism', in K. Kempadoo (Ed.) Sun, sex, and gold : tourism and sex work in the Caribbean . Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. HIGH DEMAND

Montgomery, H., 1998: 'Children, prostitution and identity: A case study from a tourist resort in Thailand', in K. Kempadoo and J. Doezema (Eds), Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition . London: Routledge.

O'Connell Davidson, J. (2000) Sex tourism and child prostitution ' in Clift and Carter (eds) Tourism and Sex: Culture, Commerce and Coercion, London: Pinter Press

Check debates around the Second World Congress Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children's website: http://www.focalpointngo.org/yokahama/ and ECPAT International's website: * http://www.ecpat.net/eng/

Archard, D. (1993) Children, Rights and Childhood (Ideas S.) Routledge, London

Archard, D. and MacLeod, C. (eds) (2002) The Moral and Political Status of Children , Oxford University Press: Oxford

Black, M., 1995: In the twilight zone : child workers in the hotel, tourism, and catering industry . Geneva: ILO.

Beddoe, C., 1998: 'Beachboys and tourists: Links in the chain of child prostitution in Sri Lanka', in M. Oppermann (ed) Sex tourism and prostitution : aspects of leisure, recreation, and work . New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation.

Ennew, J., 1986: The sexual exploitation of children . Cambridge: Polity

Goddard,J, McNamee, S. and James, A. (eds) (2004) The politics of childhood : international perspectives, contemporary developments Palgrave Macmillan, London

Higonnet, A. (1998) Pictures of innocence : the history and crisis of ideal childhood , Thames and Hudson Ltd

Jackson, S. and Scott, S., 2000: 'Childhood', in G. Payne (ed)Social Divisions . Houndmills: Macmillan.

James, A, Jenks, C., and Prout, A. (1998) Theorizing childhood , Polity: Cambridge

James, A and Prout, A (eds) (1997) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood Routledge: London

Kane, J. (2000) Sold for sex , London: Arena.

Kelly, L., Wingfield, R., Burton, S., and Regan, L., 1995: Splintered lives : sexual exploitation of children in the context of children's rights and child protection . Ilford: Barnardo's.

Kempadoo, K., 1999: 'For the children: trends in international policies and law on sex tourism', in K. Kempadoo (Ed.) Sun, sex, and gold : tourism and sex work in the Caribbean . Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kincaid, J, (2002) Erotic innocence : the culture of child molesting , Chapter 1 Introduction HIGH DEMAND

Montgomery, H., 1998: 'Children, prostitution and identity: A case study from a tourist resort in Thailand', in K. Kempadoo and J. Doezema (Eds), Global sex workers : rights, resistance, and redefinition . London: Routledge.

Montgomery, H. (2001) Modern Babylon? : prostituting children in Thailand , Berg, Oxford.

O'Connell Davidson, J. (2001) The Sex Exploiter at http://www.csecworldcongress.org/PDF/en/Yokohama/Background_reading/Theme_papers/Theme%20paper%20The%20Sex%20Exploiter.pdf

O'Connell Davidson, J. and Sanchez Taylor, J., 1996: 'Child prostitution and tourism: Beyond the stereotypes', in J. Pilcher and S. Wagg (eds) Thatcher's Children? Politics, Childhood and Society in the 1980s and 1990s . London: Falmer.

*O'Connell Davidson, J. (2005)Children in the global sex trade , Cambridge: Polity

O'Grady, R. 1992: The rape of the innocent , Bangkok: ECPAT

Seabrook, J. (1996) 'Male Visitors to Bangkok' in Travels in the Skin Trade , Pluto Press, London

Seabrook, J. (1996) Travels in the Skin Trade , Pluto Press, London

Trafficking in Children (2002) Themed paper for the 2nd World Congress against the Sexual Exploitation of children.
Available from: http://www.csecworldcongress.org/PDF/en/Yokohama/Background_reading/Theme_papers/Theme%20paper%20The%20Sex%20Exploiter.pdf

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Week Ten: Men and Women who Buy Sex

Lecture Topic: The demand for prostitution is often forgotten in analysis of globalisation. This session will look closely at some of the debates around whether demand is socially constructed and how more recent debates are also looking at punters as consumers.

Seminar Question: Should we worry about men who buy sex? Has there been a moral panic about men who buy sex? Debate whether the criminalisation of men who buy sex is justifiable given that the selling and buying of sex is still legal?

Core Textbook Reading (Compulsory) : Chapter 5

Key Reading:

Sanders, T. 2008 'Male Sexual Scripts: Intimacy, Sexuality and Pleasure in the Purchase of Commercial Sex', Sociology 42(1): 400-417.

Sanchez Taylor, J. 2001 'Dollars Are a Girl's Best Friend? Female Tourists' Sexual Behaviour in the Caribbean', Sociology 35(3): 749-764.

Further Reading:

Radio 4 website: Hear Dr Sanders discuss the findings reported in the book Paying for Pleasure http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/thinkingallowed/thinkingallowed_20080730.shtml

Sanders, T. 2008 Paying for pleasure : men who buy sex , Cullompton, Devon: Willan.

*Wellings et al. (2005) Who pays for Sex? An analysis of the increasing prevalence of female commercial sex contracts in Britain, Sexually transmitted infections , Vol 81, p 467-471.

Bernstein, Elizabeth (2004) 'Desire Demand and the Commerce of Sex' in Bernstein, E and Schaffner, L, Regulating sex : the politics of intimacy and identity , Routledge, London.

Chapkis, W., 1997: Live Sex Acts. London: Cassell. Chapter in O'Connell Davidson, J. (1995) 'British Sex Tourists in Thailand' in M. Maynard and J. Purvis (eds) (Hetero)sexual politics , London: Taylor and Francis.

Mansson, S. A. 2006 'Men's demand for prostitutes', Sexologies = Revue Europeene de Sexologie 15(2): 87-92.

— 2008c 'Selling Sex in the Shadow Economy', International Journal of Social Economics .

Sanders , T. and Campbell, R. 2008a 'What's criminal About Indoor Sex Work? ' in K. Williams, P. Birch, G. Letherby and M. Cain (eds) Sex as crime , Cullompton: Willan.

— 2008b 'Why hate men who pay for sex? Investigating the Shift to Tackling Demand and the Calls to Criminalise Paying for Sex. ' in V. Munro (ed) Demanding sex [electronic resource] : critical reflections on the regulation of prostitution, London: Ashgate.

Simmons, C., Lehmann, P. and Collier-Tenison, S. 2008 'Linking Male Use of the Sex Industry to Controlling Behaviours in Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis', Violence against women 14(4): 206.

McIntosh, M., 1978: 'Who needs prostitutes? The ideology of male sexual needs', in C. Smart and B. Smart (eds) Women, sexuality and social control . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Monto, M., 2000: 'Why men seek out prostitutes', in R. Weitzer (ed) Sex for sale : prostitution, pornography, and the sex industry . London: Routledge. HIGH DEMAND

Kullick, D. (2003) Sex in the new Europe: the criminalization of clients and Swedish fear of penetration in Anthropological Theory . 2003; 3: 199-218.

Plumridge, E., Chetwynd, J, Reed, A., and Gifford, S., 1997: 'Discourses and emotionality in commercial sex: The missing client voice'. Feminism & psychology , Vol 7, No. 2. pp 165-81. Electronically available in the Library

Ritzer, G., 2001: Explorations in the sociology of consumption : fast food, credit cards and casinos . London: Sage.

O'Connell Davidson, J. (1995) British sex tourists in Thailand ' in Maynard, M and Purvis, J. (eds) (Hetero)sexual politics , London: Taylor and Francis.

O'Connell Davidson, J. (2001) The Sex Exploiter at http://www.csecworldcongress.org/PDF/en/Yokohama/Background_reading/Theme_papers/Theme%20paper%20The%20Sex%20Exploiter.pdf

Scambler, G. and Scambler, A. (1997) (eds) Rethinking prostitution : purchasing sex in the 1990s . London: Routledge

Wellings et al. (2005) Who pays for Sex? An analysis of the increasing prevalence of female commercial sex contracts in Britain, Sexually transmitted infections , Vol 81, p 467-471.

Brooks-Gordon, B. (2005). "Clients and Commercial Sex: Reflections on Paying the Price: A Consultation Paper on Prostitution." Criminal law review : 425-443.

Brooks-Gordon, B. (2006).The price of sex : prostitution, policy and society , Willan Publishing.

Brooks-Gordon, B. and L. Gelsthorpe (2003). "Prostitutes' Clients, Ken Livingstone and a New Trojan Horse." Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 42(5): 437-451.

Brooks-Gordon, B. and L. Gelsthorpe (2003). "What men say when apprehended for kerb crawling: a model of prostitutes clients' talk." Psychology, Crime and Law 9(2): 145-171.

Monto, M. (1999). Clients of Street Prostitutes in Portland, Oregon, San Francisco and Santa Clara California, and Las Vegas, Nevada 1996-1999. Yale University.
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02859

Monto, M. (2000).Why men seek out prostitutes . R. Weitzer. Routledge, London: 67-83.

Monto, M. (2004). "Female Prostitution, Customers and Violence." Violence against women. 10(2): 160-188.

Monto, M. and N. Hotaling (2001). "Predictors of Rape Myth Acceptance Among Male Clients of Female Street Prostitutes." Violence against women 7(3): 275-293.

Monto, M. A. (2001). "Prostitution and Fellatio." The Journal of sex research 38: 140-145.

Monto, M. A. and S. Garcia (2001). "Recidivism Among the Customers of Female Street Prostitutes: Do Intervention Programs Help? " The western criminology review 3(2).

Monto, M. A. and N. McRee (2005). "A Comparison of the Male Customers of Female Street Prostitutes With National Samples of Men." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 49(5): 505-529.

Campbell, R. and Storr, M. 2001 'Challenging the Kerb Crawler Rehabilitation Programme', Feminist review 67 (Spring): 94-108.

Svanstrom, Y. 2004 'Criminalising the John - A Swedish Gender Model? ' in J Outshoorn (ed.) The politics of prostitution: women's movements, democratic states, and the globalisation of sex commerce , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Soothill, K. and Sanders, T. 2005 'The Geographical Mobility, Preferences and Pleasures of Prolific Punters: A Demonstration Study of the Activities of Prostitutes' clients', Sociological research online 10(1).

SEX TOURISM FURTHER READING

How do these accounts reaffirm their racialised and gendered identities?

Suggested Reading:

Bishop, R. and Robinson, L., 1998: Night market : sexual cultures and the Thai economic miracle . London: Routledge. HIGH DEMAND

Enloe, C. (1989) Bananas, beaches & bases : making feminist sense of international politics

Kruhse-Mount Burton, S. (1996) Sex Tourism and Traditional Austrialian Male Identity' in M. Lanfont, J.B. Allcock and E.M. Bruner (eds) International tourism : identity and change , London: Sage.

O'Connell Davidson, J. (1996) Sex Tourism in Cuba, Race and class , Vol. 37. no 3. pp 39-48

O'Connell Davidson, J. (1995) 'British Sex Tourists in Thailand' in M. Maynard and J. Purvis (eds) (Hetero)sexual politics , London: Taylor and Francis.

Wonders, Nancy A; Michalowski, Raymond (2001) Bodies, Borders, and Sex Tourism in a Globalized World: A Tale of Two Cities-Amsterdam and Havana, in Social problems , Vol. 48, 4, Nov, 545-571 Electronically available in the Library

Nagel, J. (2003) Race, Ethnicity and Sexuality: Intimate Intersections, Forbidden Frontiers , Oxford University Press: oxford. Chapter 2 HIGH DEMAND

hooks, b. (1992) 'Selling Hot Pussy' in Black Looks: Race and Representation , Turnaround: London.

Paul Lyngbye ApS (2002), Prostitute-client interaction in Denmark: The significance of skin colour, language and culture, http://www.lyngbye.net/uk-paper.html

Bhattacharyya, G. 2002, Sexuality and society : an introduction , London: Routledge

Bishop, R. and Robinson, L., 1998: Night market : sexual cultures and the Thai economic miracle . London: Routledge.

Young, L. (1995) Fear of the dark : 'race', gender, and sexuality in the cinema , London: Routledge

Gilman, S.L. (1985) 'Black Bodies, White Bodies: Towards an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth Century Art. Medicine and Literature' Critical inquiry , Vol. 12, No.1, p 205-243

Somerville, S., 1997: 'Scientific racism and the invention of the homosexual body', in R. Lancaster and M. di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender/Sexuality Reader . London: Routledge.

Prostitution: Where Racism and Sexism Intersect* by Vednita Nelson, Michigan Journal of Gender & Law, 1993, Volume 1: 81-89. in VLE http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/nelson.html

Female sex tourism Further Reading:

Sanchez Taylor, J. (2005) Female Sex Tourism: A contradiction on Terms? , in Feminist review . Vol. 83, p 42-59

Jefferys, S. (2004) Sex Tourism: Do Women Do it Too? ', Leisure Studies 22 (July), 223-238.

Aggleton, P. (1999) Men who sell Sex , UPL Press, London. Various articles on men in sex work.

Christof' (2002) The male prostitute, in The Observer. Sunday October 27, 2002, in VLE

Albuquerque, K., (1999). 'Sex, Beach Boys and Female Tourists in the Caribbean' in Dank, B.M. and Refinetti, R, Sex work & sex workers: sexuality and culture , Vol 2, New Jersey: New Brunswick. CC

de Albuquerque, Klaus (1999) In Search of the Big Bamboo: Among the Sex Tourists of the Caribbean in Transition , 8, 1(77), 48-57 Electronically available via the Library

Dahles, H and Bras, B., 1999 'Entrepreneurs in Romance: Tourism in Indonesia'. Annals of tourism research , Vol 26:2: 267-293.

De Moya, A and Garcia, R (1999) 'Three Decades of Male Sex Wrok in Santo Domingo' in P. Aggelton (ed.) Men Who Sell Sex: International Perspectives on Male Prostitution and AIDS , London: UCL Press.

Gunther, A., (1998), 'Sex Tourism Without Sex Tourists', in M. Oppermann, (Ed) Sex tourism and prostitution : aspects of leisure, recreation, and work , Sydney: Cognizant Communication Corporation.

Jefferys, S. (2004) Sex Tourism: Do Women Do it Too? ', Leisure Studies 22 (July), 223-238.

Karch and Dann, (1981), 'Close Encounters of the Third World' in Human Relations , 34: 249-268.

Marlowe. J. (1997) 'It's different for boys' in J. Nagel (ed) Whores and other feminists , Routledge: London.

Oppermann, M. (Ed) Sex tourism and prostitution : aspects of leisure, recreation, and work , Sydney: Cognizant Communication Corporation.

Sanchez Taylor, J. (2001) 'Dollars are a girls best friend' in Sociology , Vol. 34.

Sanchez Taylor, J. (2006) Female Sex Tourism: A Contradiction in Terms, in Feminist review , Vol 83, p 42-59

Sanchez Taylor, J. (2000) 'Tourism and Embodied Commodities: Sex Tourismn in the Caribbean, in S. Clift and S. Carter (eds) Tourism and sex : culture, commerce and coercion , London: Pinter

Attwood, F. (2005) Fashion and Passion: Marketing Sex to Women, Sexualities , Vol. 8, p.392 – 406

The Globalization of Sexual Exploitation: Sex Tourism

Alexander, M. J., (1997), 'Erotic Autonomy as Politics of Decolonization: An Anatomy of the Feminist and State Practice in the Bahamas Tourist Economy', in M. J. Alexander and C.T. Mohanty, (eds.), Feminist genealogies, colonial legacies, democratic futures , Democratic Futures, London: Routledge.

Biemann, U. (2002) Remotely: Topography of the Global sex trade, Feminist review (online)

Cabezas, A. (2004) 'Between Love and Money: Sex, Tourism and Citizenship in Cuba and the Dominican Republic in Signs . Vol 29. No. 4. pp 987-1015.

Clift, S. and Carter, S. (Eds.) (2000) Tourism and sex : culture, commerce and coercion . London: Pinter.

*Enloe, C., 1989: Bananas, beaches & bases : making feminist sense of international politics . London: Pandora.

Kempadoo, K. (Ed) 1999: Sun, sex, and gold : tourism and sex work in the Caribbean . Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.

MacCannell, D. (1976) The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class , New York: Schocken.

Marshment, M. (1997) 'Gender takes a Holiday: Representations in Holiday Brochures' in Sinclair, M.T. (Ed), Gender, work, and tourism , London: Routledge.

Momsen, J. (1994) 'Tourism, Gender and Development in the Caribbean' in Tourism : a gender analysis , V. Kinnaird and D. Hall. (eds.), Chichester: Wiley.
Extract available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

O'Connell Davidson, Julia (2001)The Sex Tourist, the Expatriate, His Ex-Wife and Her 'Other': The Politics of Loss, Difference and Desire, in Sexualities , Vol. 4, 1, Feb, 5-24 Electronically available in the Library

O'Connell Davidson, J. (1996) Sex Tourism in Cuba, Race and class , Vol. 37. no 3. pp 39-48

Wonders, Nancy A; Michalowski, Raymond (2001) Bodies, Borders, and Sex Tourism in a Globalized World: A Tale of Two Cities-Amsterdam and Havana, in Social problems , Vol. 48, 4, Nov, 545-571 Electronically available in the Library

Kempadoo, Kamala, (2001), Women of Color and the Global Sex Trade: Transnational Feminist Perspectives, in Meridians: feminism, race, transnationalism , Vol. 1, 2, spring, 28-51 Electronically available in the Library

Jeffreys, Sheila (1999), Globalizing Sexual Exploitation: Sex Tourism and the Traffic in Women', in Leisure Studies , Vol. 18, 3, July, 179-196 Electronically available in the Library

Williams, M. (2002) 'Tourism globalisation, Gender and the General Agreement on Trade in Service - in online International Gender and Trade Network.

Sex Tourism, Race and Consuming Otherness

*Bishop, R. and Robinson, L., 1998: Night market : sexual cultures and the Thai economic miracle . London: Routledge.

Brennan, D. (2004) What's love got to do with it? : transnational desires and sex tourism in the Dominican Republic . Durham: Duke University Press.

hooks, b. (1992) 'Selling Hot Pussy' in Black Looks: Race and Representation , Turnaround: London.

Kempadoo, K. (2004) Sexing the Caribbean : gender, race, and sexual labor . New York: Routledge.

Kempadoo, K. (2004) 'Theorising Sexual Relations in the Caribbean: Prostitution and the Problem of the "Exotic"' in Barriteau, E. (Ed) Confronting power, theorizing gender : interdisciplinary perspectives in the Caribbean , Kingston: UWI Press

Lewis, L. (2003) (ed.) The culture of gender and sexuality in the Caribbean . Florida: University Press of Florida.

Lewis, L. (2004) 'Masculinity, the Political Economy of the Body, and Patriarchal Power in the Caribbean, in B. Bailey and E. Leo-Rhynie (eds) Gender in the 21st century Caribbean : perspectives, visions and possibilities , Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers.

Mohanty, C. (1988) 'Under Western Eyes: Feminist scholarship and Colonial discources' Feminist review , Vol 30. p 61-88

O'Connell Davidson, J., 2001: 'The sex tourist, the expatriate, his ex-wife and her 'other': The politics of loss, difference and desire', Sexualities , Vol 4 (1), pp 5-24. Electronically available in the Library

O'Connell Davidson, J., and Sanchez Taylor,J (2005) 'Travel and Taboo: Heterosexual Sex Tourism to the Caribbean' in Regulating sex : the politics of intimacy and identity , Routledge, London.

Sanchez Taylor, J. (2000) 'Tourism and 'Embodied Commodities: Sex Tourism in the Caribbean', in S. Clift and S. Carter, (eds.)Tourism and sex : culture, commerce and coercion , London: Pinter.

Stratton, (1996) The desirable body : cultural fetishism and the erotics of consumption .

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WEB SITES

(note these may not all be up to date)

Research for sex work http://www.researchforsexwork.org/
go to 'past editions' : good issues to download are:
Violence
Migration
Human rights
Law enforcement

http://www.catwinternational.org/ (Coalition Against Trafficking in Women) for general overview of site. This website bring together prostitution abolitionists.

Articles in section: http://action.web.ca/home/catw/readingroom.shtml? cat_name=Articles

The Case Against the Legalization of Prostitution Publication date: 1 Oct 04 Author(s): Various, A special issue of Violence Against Women addressing the case against the legalization of prostitution with focus on the demand for prostitution is available online at Sage Publications.

The issue contains the following articles: Janice G. Raymond, Guest Editor's Introduction, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1083-1086.

Melissa Farley, "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1087-1125.

Esohe Aghatise, Trafficking for Prostitution in Italy: Possible Effects of Government Proposals for Legalization of Brothels, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1126-1155.

Janice G. Raymond, Prostitution on Demand: Legalizing the Buyers as Sexual Consumers, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1156-1186.

Gunilla Ekberg, The Swedish Law that Prohibits the Purchase of Sexual Services: Best Practices for Prevention of Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings, Violence against women. 2004 10: 1187-1218.

Korea on Right Path to Fight Sex Trade Publication date: 26 Oct 04 Author(s): Dorchen Leidholdt and Hilary Sung-hee Seo

South Korea's new anti-prostitution law imposes tougher penalties on brothel owners and buyers, while protecting prostituted victims. Based on the experiences of other countries that have recently enacted new laws or policies concerning prostitution, it appears that Korea is on the right track and, in fact, those arguing for legalization or decriminalization are misguided. (Published in the Korea Times .)

10 Reasons for Not Legalizing Prostitution Publication date: 15 Sep 03 Author(s): Janice G. Raymond

The following arguments apply to all state-sponsored forms of prostitution, including but not limited to full-scale legalization of brothels and pimping, decriminalization of the sex industry, regulating prostitution by laws such as registering or mandating health checks for women in prostitution, or any system in which prostitution is recognized as sex work; or advocated as an employment choice.

A Comparative Study of Women Trafficked in the Migration Process –DO NOT PRINT IT IS OVER 200 PAGES LONG!!!!!

Publication date: 5 Mar 02 Author(s): Janice G. Raymond, Jean D'Cunha, Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin, H, Patrqcia Hynes, Zojyida Ramirez Rodriguez, Aida Santos

This study describes the patterns, profiles and health consequences of sexual exploitation in five countries: Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and the United States.

http://www.nswp.org/mobility/analysis.html (Network of Sex Workers Projects). This website bring together sex workers rights activists.

An excellent website with a good selection of articles by Laura Agustin, Jo Doezema, Jo Bindman, Shelia Jefferys plus information on news and prostitution policy around the world.

Articles by NSWP members

• Unholy Alliance: Some feminists are in bed with the Christian Right, helping secure foreign policy that works against women in the sex trade

http://Alternet.org , May 21, 2003

• Abuses against sex workers and erosions of HIV prevention efforts resulting from anti-trafficking initiatives — Shyamala Ashok, Pondicherry, India, November 2002.

The following is direct testimony from a Pondicherry-based NGO, SFDRT describing exactly how anti-trafficking programmes are rolling out IN PRACTICE. Whatever the theory of anti-trafficking, UNAIDS, ILO, UNDP, USAID and others must see that in practice anti-trafficking initiatives are a direct threat to sexual health programmes and to the human rights of sex workers and migrants.

• Redefining prostitution as sex work on the international agenda — By Jo Bindman, Anti-Slavery International. With participation of Jo Doezma, Network of Sex Work Projects.
Available online at: http://www.walnet.org/csis/papers/redefining.html

An extremely important document that demonstrates how United Nations and global labour legislation can protect the human rights of sex workers. This document is humongus! – 366K. 158 pages in print.

• Loose women or lost women? — The re-emergence of the myth of 'white slavery' in contemporary discourses of 'trafficking in women.' — By Jo Doezema. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK. Presented at the ISA Convention, Washington, DC, February 17-21, 1999.
Available online at: http://www.walnet.org/csis/papers/doezema-loose.html

" I examine how narratives of 'white slavery' and 'trafficking in women' function as cultural myths, constructing particular conceptions of the issue of migration for the sex industry. The myths around 'white slavery' were grounded in the perceived need to regulate female sexuality under the guise of protecting women…"

• Ouch! Western feminists' 'wounded attachment' to the 'third world prostitute' — By Jo Doezema, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. May 2000. (A later version of this paper appears in Feminist review. , No. 67, Spring 2001 pp. 16-38)
Available online at: http://www.walnet.org/csis/papers/doezema-ouch.html

• Who gets to choose? Coercion, consent and the UN Trafficking Protocol — By Jo Doezema, Institute of Development Studies, University of Brighton. (a later version of this paper published in Gender and development. , Volume 10 No. 1, March 2002)
Available online at: http://www.walnet.org/csis/papers/doezema-choose.html

• An interview with Jo Doezema, of the Network of Sex Work Projects: Does attention to trafficking adversely affect sex workers' rights? (RHR-DOEZEMA.PDF) — By Elaine Murphy and Karin Ringheim, Reproductive Health and Rights – Reaching the Hardly Reached. pp. 13-15.
Available online at: http://www.walnet.org/csis/papers/RHR-DOEZEMA.PDF

• Sex, Gender and Migrations: Facing Up to Ambiguous Realities — By Laura Ma Agustín. Soundings, Spring 2003, No 23, 84-98.
Available online at: http://www.childtrafficking.com/Docs/agustin_03_sex_mig_0808.pdf
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

• Challenging 'place': leaving home for sex — By Laura Ma Agustín. Development, 45.1, pp. 110-117, 2002.
Available online at: http://www.bayswan.org/placedev.html

Why 'leaving home' should not be seen as a tragedy: the power of the cosmopolitan.

• In the about NSWP section: Trafficking in Women versus Prostitution: A false distinction (PDF: JEFFREYS-WINTER.PDF) — By Sheila Jeffreys., Keynote Address, Townsville International Women's Conference,"Poverty, Violence and Women's Rights: Setting a Global Agenda," July 3-7, 2002, James Cook University, Australia.
Available online at: http://www.austdvclearinghouse.unsw.edu.au/Conference%20papers/TIWC/JefferiesSheila.pdf

Centre for Economic and Social Rights, http://cesr.org/work

Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org/

Prostitutes Education Network, at: http://www.bayswan.org/Austraf.html

Standing Against Global Exploitation, (SAGE) at http://www.sageprojectinc.org/ SAGE Online is the online center for The SAGE Project—Standing Against Global Exploitation. SAGE Online is the primary web resource for information about commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of both children and adults, and the efforts to end it.

Tourism Concern, at http://www.tourismconcern.org.uk

US Network for Global Economic Justice, at http://www.50years.org

Jubilee South (a coalition of Jubilee Debt Campaigns and social movements from Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean), at http://www.jubilee2000uk.org/

International Organisation of Migration (IOM) at, http://www.iom.int

Foundation for Women's Forum at, http://www.qweb.kvinnoforum.se/papers/traffickingreport.html Report on Trafficking in Women for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Mapping the Situation and Existing Organisations Working in Belarus, Russia, the Baltic and Nordic States By the Foundation of Women's Forum/Stiftelsen Kvinnoforum, Stockholm, August 1998

Global Survival Network at, http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol3/v3n30wom.html . article on Trafficking in women Trafficking in Women October 1998 by Jyothi Kanics, Global Survival Network US

UNIFEM – United Nations Development Fund for Women, at http://www.unifem.undp.org/index.htm

Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women, at http://www.gaatw.org/ . GAATW's mission is to ensure that the human rights of migrant women are respected and protected by authorities and agencies. The Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women is an alliance of non-governmental organisations and individuals worldwide. Not to be confused with CATW!

EU policy documents, at http://www.europa.eu.int/en/record/other/womtraf.htm

1st and 2nd World Congress Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children - at: http://www.csecworldcongress.org/en/ for general debates. Site also has a range of themed papers which can be down loaded at http://www.csecworldcongress.org/en/yokohama/Background/Theme_papers.htm

Age of consent, at http://www.ageofconsent.com/comments/sextourism.htm a paper on sex tourism in Cuba by Julia O'Connell Davidson

ECPAT INTERNATIONAL. End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking in Children for Purposes of Sexual Exploitation - at: http://www.ecpat.net/eng/index.asp - very good site with articles, reports, links to other sites and general info on CSEC. Also see ECPAT UK at http://www.ecpat.org.uk/

A web resource for combating human trafficking at http://www.humantrafficking.org/prevention/

Socialist Party has a page devoted to the debates on legalising prostitution in the UK at http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/2004/362/index.html? id=pp5.htm

This website focuses on children and addresses all forms of trafficking, including trafficking for labour purposes. The website, and includes the latest information on strategies for trafficking prevention, as well as the rehabilitation and reintegration of victims of trafficking http://www.childtrafficking.com/

Hilary Kinnell UK Network of Sex Work Projects 'WHY FEMINISTS SHOULD RETHINK ON SEX WORKERS' RIGHTS'

http://www.nswp.org/rights/KINNELL-FEMINISTS.DOC

International Union of Sex Workers Rights. A site with policy information as well as list of contact. http://www.iusw.org/start/index.html

Walnut. A site with list of world wide organisations that work with sex workers and promote their rights. http://www.walnet.org/csis/groups/

Paying the Price: UK Government Home Office consultation paper on Prostitution 2004. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/paying_the_price.pdf or http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/paying_the_price.html for overview.

Special journal: Feminist review. . Sex Work Reassessed, Volume 67, Issue 1, 1 March 200

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Online Course Readings

van Doorninck, M, (2006) 'Zoning' street sex work the way forward. FROM: Campbell, R and O'Neill, M, Sex work now . pp.62-91. Cullompton: Willan.
Extract available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Brooks-Gordon, B, (2006) Understanding sexual demand. FROM: Brooks-Gordon, B, The price of sex : prostitution, policy and society . Cullompton: Willan.
Extract available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Phoenix, J, (2005) Commercial sex: consent, coercion and exploitation. FROM: Phoenix, J, Illicit and illegal : sex, regulation and social control . Cullompton: Willan.
Extract available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Sanders, Teela, (2007) Criminalising the customer: moral messages. FROM: Sanders, Teela, Paying for pleasure : men who buy sex . pp.133-161. Cullompton: Willan.
Extract available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Melrose, M, (2009) Out on the streets and out of control . FROM: Phoenix, J, Regulating sex for sale : prostitution policy reform and the UK. pp.83-97. Bristol: Policy Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Colosi, Rachela, (2010) Chapter 2 . FROM: Colosi, Rachela, Dirty Dancing. pp.18-28. Willan: Cullompton Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Day, S, (2008) Chapter 3 . FROM: Munro, V, Demanding Sex: Critical Reflections on the Regulation of Prostitution. pp.51-66. Farnham: Ashgate Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Abel, Gillian, (2010) Chapter 6 . FROM: Abel, Gillian, Taking the crime out of sex work : New Zealand sex workers' fight for decriminalisation. pp.85-101. Bristol: Policy Press Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Brents, Barbara G., (2010) Chapter 2 . FROM: Brents, Barbara G., The State of Sex: Tourism, Sex and Sin in the New American Heartland. pp.20-41. New York: Routledge Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

 

This list was last updated on 27/09/2012