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Module Reading List

Virgil's Aeneid, 2013/14, Semester 1, 2
Dr. Regine May
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Set Text 

You may use either:

(i) tr. D. West, The Aeneid , Penguin 2003, or:

(ii) tr. C. Day Lewis, Aeneid , Oxford World’s Classics 1998.

(i) is a prose translation, (ii) is a verse translation. If you can get hold of both copies, that would be even better – you would be able to assess different translation styles. Any passages for comment in the exam will be given from both translations. However, the text we will be referring to throughout the lecture series is the Penguin Classics translation by David West .


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Set Latin Texts (for CLAS2601 Students)

 (i) for the first semester: Virgil, Aeneid 3.294-512; 588-718 (= 350 lines)

 edition: C.G. Perkell (2010), Vergil: Aeneid. Book 3 . (Newburyport, MA)

 (ii) for the second semester: Virgil, Aeneid 9. 314-502, 590-755 (= 355 lines)

edition: P.R. Hardie (1994), Aeneid, book 9 (Cambridge)


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Module Bibliography

The bibliography on Virgil is vast, and this list does not attempt to be complete; part of your learning will be in discovering new items for yourself. Similarly, you are not expected to read this bibliography in its entirety; however, credit will be given for a thoughtful and discriminating use of a good range of bibliography. Remember – particularly where books are concerned – to read selectively . Rather than reading a book from cover to cover, use chapter titles, sub-section titles and the index to locate what you want. A very diverse range of critical viewpoints is represented in the following bibliography; try to think how and why the views taken are so different. What kind of subjects do they tackle? What is their preferred unit of focus? What is their critical ideology?

More specific guidance on individual episodes discussed in class will be offered on lecture handouts.

It should be noted in general that there are good collections of important articles on Virgil’s epic in Commager (1966); Harrison (1990); Stahl (1998); Hardie (1999) vol. 3-4. All of these books are reference only in the Edward Boyle Library. There is also a journal devoted entirely to Virgil, aptly named Vergilius : you might find it useful to flick through some of the issues of this journal to see if there are any interesting articles on the Aeneid

I recommend that everybody begins by reading the chapter on the Aeneid in Philip Hardie’s Greece and Rome New Survey on Virgil (see ** below); it provides an excellent introduction to the poem, which offers more each time it is re-read.

A majority of the articles/ sections of books referred to at the top of the handouts (given in each lecture) for Dr May’s lectures can also be found in the Module Box in the Departmental Library (Room 116).

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1. Library Resources

An interactive version of this list can be found on the VLE module

page under ‘Module Information’

The list provides full details of the whereabouts of the books, plus access to on-line journals. High demand books will be placed in the Edward Boyle Library, which will reduce the amount of time you can borrow them; all other books can be found in the Brotherton Library. Most of the journals listed below are available ON-LINE, where articles may be DOWNLOADED.

Remember that certain items may also be found in the Aeneid Module Box (designated below as MB) in the Classics Department School library. Items may not be borrowed, but may be read in situ. Be aware that the material available there will only be a small selection and is not an alternative to seeking out and reading entire books. Note that the content of the box may be added to during the semester.

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2 Political and cultural context

Fantham, E.  Roman literary culture : from Cicero to Apuleius (Baltimore 1996)

Feeney, D. Literature and religion at Rome : cultures, contexts, and beliefs (Cambridge 1998)

Galinsky, K. Augustan culture : an interpretive introduction (Princeton 1996)

Gold, B.  Literary and artistic patronage in ancient Rome (Austin 1982)

Green, S.J. "Malevolent Gods and Promethean Birds: Contesting Augury in Augustus' Rome",  Transactions of the American Philological Association. 139, 147-67.

Griffin, J.  Latin Poets and Roman Life (London 1985)

Powell, A. Roman poetry and propaganda in the age of Augustus (Bristol 1992)

Quint, D. Epic and empire : politics and generic form from Virgil to Milton (Princeton 1993)

Rauflaub, K.A. and Toher, M. (eds.) Between republic and empire : interpretations of Augustus and his principate (Berkeley 1990)

Stahl, H.P. Vergil's Aeneid. Augustan Epic and Political Context (London 1998)

Syme, R. The Roman Revolution (Oxford 1939)

White, P. Promised verse : poets in the society of Augustan Rome (Cambridge, MA 1993)

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3 General bibliography on the Aeneid

Anderson, W.S. The Art of the Aeneid (Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1969)

Boyle, A.J. (ed.) Roman epic (London 1996)

Briggs, W.W. ‘Virgil and the Hellenistic Epic’, Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt 2.31.2 (1981), 948-84

Cairns, F. Virgil's Augustan epic (Cambridge 1989)

Clausen, W. Virgil's Aeneid and the tradition of Hellenistic poetry  (Berkeley 1987)

Commager, S. (ed.) Virgil : a collection of critical essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1966)

Conte, G.B. The rhetoric of imitation : genre and poetic memory in Virgil and other Latin poets (Ithaca, N.Y. 1986)

Farron, S. Vergil's Aeneid : a poem of grief and love (Leiden 1993)

Feeney, D. The gods in epic : poets and critics of the classical tradition (Oxford 1991)

Gillis, D. Eros and death in the Aeneid (Rome 1983)

Gransden, K.W. Virgil's Iliad : an essay on epic narrative (Cambridge 1984)

Griffin, J. Virgil (Oxford, Past Masters Series 1986)

**Hardie, P.R. Virgil . (Greece and Rome New Surveys in the Classics No. 28) (Oxford 1998)

Hardie, P.R. Virgil's Aeneid : cosmos and imperium (Oxford 1986)

Hardie, P.R. (ed.) Virgil : critical assessments of classical authors , Vols. 3 and 4  (London 1999)

Harrison, S.J. Oxford readings in Vergil's Aeneid (Oxford 1990)

Heinze, R. Virgil's epic technique , trans. H.& D. Harvey, F. Robertson (London 1993)

Henry, E. The vigour of prophecy : a study of Virgil's Aeneid (Bristol 1989)

Hinds, S. Allusion and intertext : dynamics of appropriation in Roman poetry (Cambridge 1998)

Horsfall, N. (ed.) A Companion to the Study of Virgil (Leiden 1995)

Hornsby, R.A. Patterns of action in the Aeneid : an interpretation of Vergil's epic similes (Iowa 1970)

Johnson, W.R. Darkness visible : a study of Vergil's 'Aeneid' (Berkeley 1976)

Keith, A. Engendering Rome : women in Latin epic (Cambridge 2000)

Knauer, G.N. ‘Vergil’s Aeneid and Homer”, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine studies. 5 (1964) 61-84 = Harrison (1990), 390-412

Owen Lee, M. Fathers and sons in Virgil's Aeneid : tum genitor natum (Albany  1979)

Lyne, R.O.A.M. Further voices in Vergil's Aeneid (Oxford 1987)

Lyne, R.O.A.M. Words and the poet : characteristic techniques of style in Vergil's Aeneid (Oxford 1989)

Martindale, C. (ed.) Virgil and his influence : bimillennial studies (Bristol 1994)

Nelis, D.P. Vergil's Aeneid and the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius (Leeds 2001)

O’Hara, J.J. Death and the optimistic prophecy in Vergil's Aeneid (Princeton 1990)

O’Hara, J.J. Inconsistency in Roman epic : studies in Catullus, Lucretius, Vergil, Ovid and Lucan (Cambridge 2007), 77-103

Otis, B. Virgil, A Study in Civilized Poetry (New York 1964)

Perkell, C. Reading Vergil's Aeneid : an interpretive guide (Oklahoma 1999)

Pöschl, V. The art of Vergil : image and symbol in the Aeneid (Ann Arbor 1962)

Putnam, M.C.J. The poetry of the 'Aeneid' : four studies in imaginative unity and design (Cambridge 1965)

Putnam, M.C.J. Virgil's Aeneid : interpretation and influence (Chapel Hill 1995)

Putnam, M.C.J. Virgil's epic designs : ekphrasis in the Aeneid (New Haven 1998)

Quinn, K. Virgil's "Aeneid" : a critical description (Ann Arbor 1968)

Stahl, H.P. Vergil's Aeneid. Augustan Epic and Political Context (London 1998)

Syed, Y. Vergil's Aeneid and the Roman self : subject and nation in literary discourse (Ann Arbor, 2004)

Thomas, R.F. Reading Virgil and his texts : studies in intertextuality (Ann Arbor, 1999)

Toohey, P. Reading epic : an introduction to the ancient narratives (London 1992)

Von Albrecht, M. Roman epic : an interpretative introduction (Boston, 1998)

Williams, G. Tradition and originality in Roman poetry  (Oxford 1968)

Williams, G. Technique and ideas in the Aeneid (New Haven and London 1983)

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4 Bibliography on specific books of the poem

Book 1:

Putnam, M.C.J. Virgil's epic designs : ekphrasis in the Aeneid (New Haven 1998). Chapter 1 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Segal, C.P. ‘Art and the Hero: Participation, Detachment and Narrative Point of View in the Aeneid ’, Arethusa. 14 (1981) 67-83. Reprinted in Hardie (1999) Vol. 3, 42-58

Stahl, H.-P. ‘Aeneas - an ‘unheroic’ hero? ’, Arethusa. 14 (1981) 157-77

Williams, R.D. ‘The Pictures in Dido’s Temple ( Aeneid 1.450-93)’, The Classical quarterly. 10 (1960) 145-5. Reprinted in Harrison (1990) 37-45

Book 2:

Bowie, A.M. ‘The Death of Priam. Allegory and History in the Aeneid ’, The Classical quarterly. 40 (1990) 470-81

Fulkerson, L. ‘Patterns of Death in the Aeneid’ , Scripta classica Israelica. 27 (2008), 17-33.

Harrison, E.L. ‘Divine Action in Aeneid Book 2’. In Harrison (1990) 46-59

Knox, B.M.W. ‘The Serpent and the Flame. The Images of the Second Book of the Aeneid ’, The American Journal of Philology. 71 (1950) 379-400. Reprinted in Harrison (1990) 46-59

Lynch, J.P. ‘Laocoon and Sinon: Virgil, Aeneid 2.40-198’, Greece and Rome. (1980) = Hardie (1999), vol. 3, 76-84

Reinhold, M. ‘The Unhero Aeneas’, Classica et mediaevalia. 27 (1966) 195-207

Book 3:

Grimm, R. E. ‘Aeneas and Andromache in Aeneid III’, The American Journal of Philology. 88 (1967)


Hershkowitz, D. ‘The Aeneid in Aeneid 3’, Vergilius. 37 (1991) 69-76

Hexter, R. ‘Imitating Troy: a reading of Aeneid 3’, in Perkell (1999) 64-79

Kinsey, T.E. ‘The Achaemenides Episode in Virgil’s Aeneid III,’ Latomus. 38 (1979) 110-24

Lloyd, R.B. ‘ Aeneid III. A New Approach’, The American Journal of Philology. 78 (1957) 133-51.Reprinted in Hardie Vol. 4 (1999) 101-16

McKay, A.G. ‘The Achaemenides Episode; Virgil Aeneid III 588-691', Vergilius. 12 (1966) 31-8

Putnam, M.C.J. ‘The Third Book of the Aeneid : From Homer to Rome’, Ramus. 9 (1980) 1-21

Quint, D. ‘Painful memories: Aeneid 3 and the problem of the past’, Classical Journal 78 (1982-3) 30-8

Ramminger, J. ‘Imitation and Allusion in the Achaemenides Scene (Virgil Aeneid 3.588-691), The American Journal of Philology. 112 (1991) 53-72

Book 4:

Collard, C. ‘Medea and Dido’, Prometheus. 1 (1975) 151-51

Commager, S. ‘Fateful Words. Some Conversations in Aeneid 4’, Arethusa. 14 (1981) 101-14

Eidinow, J.S.C. ‘Dido, Aeneas, and Iulus: Heirship and Obligation in Aeneid 4’, The Classical quarterly. 53 (2003) 260-267

Gibson, R.K. ‘Aeneas as hospes in Vergil, Aeneid 1 and 4’, The Classical quarterly. 49 (1999) 184-202

Moles, J.L. ‘The Tragedy and Guilt of Dido’, in M. Whitby, P. Hardie and M. Whitby (edd.), Homo viator : classical essays for John Bramble (Bristol 1987)153-161

Muecke, F. ‘Foreshadowing and Dramatic Irony in the Story in the Story of Dido’, The American Journal of Philology. 104 (1983) 134-55

Quinn, K. ‘Virgil’s Tragic Queen’, in Latin explorations : critical studies in Roman literature (New York 1963)

Wlosok, A. ‘The Dido Tragedy in Virgil: A Contribution to the Question of the Tragic in the Aeneid ’, in Hardie Vol. 4 (1999) 158-181

Book 5:

Babcock, C. “ Sola … multis e matribus : A Comment on Vergil’s Trojan Women”, in R.M. Wilhelm and H. Jones (eds), The two worlds of the poet : new perspectives on Vergil (Detroit 1992), 39-50

Galinsky, G.K. ‘ Aeneid 5 and the Aeneid ’, The American Journal of Philology. 89 (1968) 157-85. Reprinted in Hardie Vol. 4 (1999) 158-81

Nugent, S. ‘ Aeneid V and Virgil’s Voice of the Women’, Arethusa. 25 (1992) 255-92

Book 6:

Bleisch, P. “The Empty Tomb at Rhoeteum: Deiphobus and the Problem of the Past in Aeneid 6.494-547” Classical Antiquity. 18 (1999) 187-226

Brooks, R.A. ‘ Discolor aura. Reflections on the Golden Bough’, The American Journal of Philology. 74 (1953) 260-80. Reprinted in Commager (1966) 142-63

Burke, P.F. ‘Roman rites for the dead and Aeneid 6’, The Classical Journal. 74 (1979) 220-8

Dominik, W.J. “Reading Vergil’s Aeneid : the Gates of Sleep (VI 893-898)”, Maia. 48 (1996) 129-138

Feeney, D.C. ‘History and Revelation in Virgil’s Underworld’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society. 32 (1986) 1-24

Fuqua, C. “Hector, Sychaeus and Deiphobus: Three Mutilated Figures in Aeneid 1-6”, Classical Philology. 77 (1982) 235-40

Reed. N. “The Gates of Sleep in Aeneid 6”, The Classical quarterly. 23 (1973) 311-15 

Segal, C. P. ‘ Aeternum per saecula nomen . The Golden Gough and the Tragedy of History’, Part 1 in Arion. 4 (1965) 617-57, Part 2 in Arion. 5 (1966) 34-72

Solmsen, F. ‘The World of the Dead in Book 6 of the Aeneid ’, Classical Philology. 67 (1972) 31-41.Reprinted in Harrison (1990) 208-223

Tarrant, R.J. “Aeneas and the Gates of Sleep”, Classical Philology. 77 (1982) 51-5

Williams, R.D. ‘The Sixth Book of the Aeneid ’, Greece and Rome. 11 (1964) 48-63. Reprinted in Harrison (1990) 191-207

Zetzel, J.E.G. ‘ Romane Memento: Justice and Judgement in Aeneid 6', Transactions of the American Philological Association. 119 (1989) 263-84

Book 7:

Anderson, W.S. ‘Virgil’s Second Iliad ', Transactions of the American Philological Association. 88 (1957) 17-30. Reprinted in Harrison (1990) 239-52

Fantham, E. ‘Allecto’s First Victim: a Study of Virgil’s Amata’, in Stahl (1998) 135-53

Fowler, D. ‘Opening the Gates of War: Aeneid 7.601-40’, in Stahl (1998) 155-74

Fraenkel, E. ‘Some Aspects of the Structure of Aeneid 7’, The journal of Roman studies. 35 (1945) 1-14. Reprinted in Harrison (1990) 253-76

Putnam, M.C.J. ‘ Aeneid 7 and the Aeneid ’, The American Journal of Philology. 91 (1970) 408-30. Reprinted in Hardie Vol. 4 (1999) 244-62

Reckford, K. J. ‘Latent Tragedy in Aeneid 7.1-285’, The American Journal of Philology. 82 (1961) 252-69

Vance, E. ‘Sylvia’s Pet Stag: Wildness and Domesticity’, Arethusa. 14 (1981) 127-38. Reprinted in Hardie (1999) Vol. 4

Williams, R.D. ‘The Function and Structure of Virgil’s Catalogue in Aeneid 7’, The Classical quarterly. 11 (1961) 146-153

Book 8:

Feeney, D.C. ‘Following after Hercules, in Virgil and Apollonius’, Proceedings of the Virgil Society. (1986) 47-85

Galinsky, G.K. The Herakles Theme (Oxford 1972) 131-49. Reprinted in Harrison (1990) 277-94

Galinsky, G.K. ‘The Hercules-Cacus Episode in Aeneid 8’, The American Journal of Philology. 87 (1966) 18-51. Reprinted in Hardie (1999) 274-303

Gransden, K.W. Aeneid, Book VIII (Cambridge 1976)

Harrison, E.L. ‘The Survival and Supremacy of Rome: the Unity of the Shield of Aeneas’, The journal of Roman studies. 87 (1997) 70-6

Morgan, L. ‘Assimilation and Civil War: Hercules and Cacus’, in Stahl (1998) 175-97

West, D.A. ‘ Cernere erat: the Shield of Aeneas’, Proceedings of the Virgil Society. 15 (1975-6) 1-7. Reprinted in Harrison (1990) 295-304

Book 9:

Dickie, M. ‘The Speech of Numanus Remulus ( Aeneid 9.598-620), Proceedings of the Liverpool Latin Seminar 5 (1985) 165-221 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Duckworth, G.E. ‘The Significance of Nisus and Euryalus for Aeneid 9 to 12’, The American Journal of Philology. 88 (1967) 129-50. Reprinted in Hardie Vol. 4 (1999) 304-21

Fitzgerald, G.J. ‘Nisus and Euryalus: a paradigm of futile behaviour and the tragedy of youth’, in Martyn J.R.C. (ed.) Cicero and Virgil : Studies in honour of Harold Hunt (Amsterdam 1972) 114-37

Hardie, P.R. Aeneid, book 9 (Cambridge 1994)

Lennox, P. ‘Virgil’s Night-Episode Re-examined (Aeneid 9.176-449), Hermes. 105 (1977) 331-42

Makowski, J. ‘Nisus and Euryalus: A Platonic Relationship’, The Classical Journal. 85 (1989) 1-15

Meban, D. ‘The Nisus and Euryalus episode and Roman friendship’, Phoenix. 63 (2009), 239-259

Pavlock, B. ‘Epic and Tragedy in Virgil’s Nisus and Euryalus Episode’, Transactions of the American Philological Association. 115 (1985) 207-24

Saylor, C. ‘Group vs. individual in Virgil Aeneid IX’, Latomus. 49 (1990) 88-94

Book 10:

Benario, H. ‘The Tenth Book of the Aeneid ’, Transactions of the American Philological Association. 98 (1967) 23-36

Harrison, S. ‘The Sword-belt of Pallas: Moral Symbolism and Political Ideology: Aeneid 10.495-505’, in Stahl (1998) 223-42

La Penna, A. ‘Mezentius: A Tragedy of Tyranny and Ancient Titanism’, in Hardie (1999) 345-75

Book 11:

Basson, W. P. ‘Virgil’s Camilla: A Paradoxical Character’, Acta classica. 29 (1986) 57-68

Fowler, D. ‘Virgil on killing virgins’ in M. Whitby, P. Hardie and M. Whitby (edd.), Homo viator : classical essays for John Bramble (Bristol 1987) 185-98

Gransden, K.W. Aeneid, book 11 (Cambridge 1991)

Hardie, P.R. ‘Fame and Defamation in the Aeneid: the Council of the Latins ’, in Stahl (1998) 243-70

Book 12:

Feeney, D.C. ‘The Reconciliations of Juno’, The Classical quarterly. 34 (1984) 179-94. Reprinted in Hardie (1999) 392-413  and in Harrison (1990) 339-62

Galinsky, K. ‘How to be Philosophical about the End of the Aeneid ’, Illinois classical studies. 19 (1994) 191-201

Perkell, C. ‘The Lament of Juturna. Pathos and Interpretation in the Aeneid’ , Transactions of the American Philological Association. 127 (1997) 257-86

Putnam, M.C.J. ‘The Hesitation of Aeneas’, in Hardie (1999) 414-33

Stahl, H. P. ‘The Death of Turnus. Augustan Virgil and the Political Rival’, in Rauflaub and Toher (1990) 174-211

West, D. ‘The End and the Meaning: Vergil Aeneid 12.791-842’, in Stahl, ed. (1998), 303-18

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5 Web resources

1. Vergil’s Home Page ( )

2. The homepage of the Vergilian Society ( )


This list was last updated on 18/07/2013