Leeds University Library

SLSP2060 - Module Reading List

Sociology of Health and Illness, 2014/15, Semester 1
Dr Ana Manzano
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

- Acheson, D. 1998. Independent inquiry into inequalities in health : report. . London: The Stationery Office.

Ahmad, W. 1993. Making black people sick: ‘race’ and health in health research. In W. Ahmad (ed.), "Race" and health in contemporary Britain , Buckingham: Open University Press, 11-33. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Aphramor, L. 2005. Is a weight -centred health framework salutogenic? Some thoughts on unhinging certain dietary ideologies. Social Theory and Health, 3, pp. 315-340. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Annandale, E. 1998. The sociology of health and medicine : a critical introduction . Cambridge: Polity.

Annandale, E. and Hunt, K. 1990. Masculinity, femininity and sex: an exploration of their relative contribution to explaining gender differences in health. Sociology of health and illness. 12, pp. 24-46

 Annandale, E and Clark, J. 1996. What is gender? Feminist theory and the sociology of human reproduction. Sociology of health and illness 18, pp. 17-44.

Armstrong, D. 1980.Madness and coping. Sociology of health and illness, 3(2), pp. 293-316.

 Armstrong, D. 1995. The rise of surveillance medicine. Sociology of health and illness 17(3) 393-404

Barr, H.L. et al. 2011. Association between socioeconomic status, sex, and age at death from cystic fibrosis in England and Wales (1959 to 2008): cross sectional study. British medical journal. , 343

Bauman, Z. 1992. Mortality, Immortality and Other Life Strategies. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bauman, Z. 1998. Postmodern adventures of life and death’ in Scambler, G. and Higgs, P. (eds.) Modernity, medicine, and health : medical sociology towards 2000. London: Routledge. Available online

Bell, S. E. 2009. DES daughters : embodied knowledge and the transformation of women's health politics Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Bellaby, P. 1990. What is genuine sickness? The relation between work discipline and the sick role in a pottery factory', Sociology of health and illness, 12 (1), pp. 47-68.

Berger, P. 1970. A rumour of angels : modern society and the rediscovery of the supernatural. London: Allen Lane.

Berger, P. 1990. The Sacred Canopy, Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion. New York: Anchor Books.

Bollini, P., and Siem, H. 1995. No real progress towards equity: health of migrants and ethnic minorities on the eve of the year 2000. Social science & medicine. , 41(6), pp. 819-828.

Bradby, H. 2012. Medicine, health and society : a critical sociology . London: Sage.

Braun, B. 2007. Biopolitics and the molecularization of life. Cultural geographies. , 14(1), pp. 6-28.

British Psychological Association ‘Response to the American Psychiatric Association: DSM-5 Development’ http://apps.bps.org.uk/_publicationfiles/consultation-responses/DSM-5%202011%20-%20BPS%20response.pdf

Bury, M. 1982. Chronic illness as biographical disruption.Sociology of health and illness, 4(2), pp.167-182.

Bury, M. 1997. Health and illness in a changing society, London: Routledge

Bury, M. and Gabe, J. 2004. The sociology of health and illness : a reader. London: Routledge.

Busfield, J. 1988. Mental illness as social product or social construct: a contradiction in feminists' arguments? Sociology of health and illness, 10(4), pp.521-542.

Cameron, E. and Bernardes, J. 1998. Gender and Disadvantage in Health: Men’s Health for a Change. Sociology of health and illness. 20, pp. 673-693.

Campbell, D. 2012. Class divide in health widens, says thinktank. The Guardian accessed 14/09/12: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/aug/23/class-divide-health-widens-thinktank.

Campos, P., A. Saguy, et al. 2006. The epidemiology of overweight and obesity: public health crisis or moral panic. International Journal of Epidemiology. 35, pp. 55-60.

Berger, P. 1970. A rumour of angels : modern society and the rediscovery of the supernatural. London: Allen Lane.

Ciambrone, D. E. 2001. Illness and other assaults on self: the relative impact of HIV/AIDS on women’s lives. Sociology of health and illness, 23, pp. 517-540.

Cochrane, R. 1983. The social creation of mental illness. London: Longman.

Conrad, P. 1980. Deviance and medicalization, from badness to sickness. St. Louis: Mosby.

Conrad, P. 1999. A mirage of genes, Sociology of health and illness., 21(2), pp. 228-39.

Conrad, P. 2007. The medicalization of society : on the transformation of human conditions into treatable disorders Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press .

Conrad, P. and Potter, D. 2000. From hyperactive children to ADHD adults: Observations on the expansion of medical categories. Social problems. , 47(4) pp.559-582.

Courtenay, W. H. 2000. Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health. Social science & medicine. , 50, pp. 1385-1401.

Cundiff, D.K. 2006. BMI: a poor surrogate for diet and exercise in assessing risk of death. International journal of obesity. , 30, pp. 1173-1175.

Danziger, K. 1990. Constructing the subject : historical origins of psychological research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

De Swaan, A. 1990. The management of normality : critical essays in health and welfare. London: Routledge.

Dolan, A. 2011. 'You can’t ask for a Dubonnet and lemonade!’: working class masculinity and men’s health practices. Sociology of health and illness,33, pp. 586-601.

Dorling, D. 2010. Injustice : why social inequality persists . Bristol: Policy Press.

Dorling, D. et al. 2000. The ghost of Christmas past: health effects of poverty in 1896 and 1991. British medical journal.. 32, pp.1547-1551.

Doyal, L. 1990. Hazards of hearth and home. Women's studies international forum., 13, pp. 501-517.

Doyal, L. 1990. Waged work and women's well being. Women's studies international forum., 13, pp. 587-604.

Doyal, L. 1995. What makes women sick : gender and the political economy of health. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Durkheim, E. 2001. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Editorial. 2004. Examining sites of interface between CAM and conventional health care: extending the sociological gaze, Complementary therapies in medicine. . 12, pp. 69—70

Edwards, J., Franklin, s., Hirsh, E., Price, F. and Strathearn, M. (eds) 1999 Technologies of Procreation: Kinship in the Age of Assisted Conception (2nd ed ) . London: Routledge.

Elias, N. 1985. The Loneliness of the Dying. Oxford: Blackwell.

Elias, N. 2000. The Civilizing Process: Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations . Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers.

Evans, B. 2006. "Gluttony or sloth": critical geographies of bodies and morality in (anti)obesity policy. Area., 38(3), pp. 259-267.

Fadlon, J. 2004. Meridians, Chakras and Psycho-Neuro-Immunology: The Dematerializing Body and the Domestication of Alternative Medicine. Body & society., 10 (4), pp. 69–86.

Flegal, KM, Graubard, BI, Williamson, DF and Gail, MH .2005. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association. , 291, pp. 1238-1245.

Foucault, M. 2003. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception . London: Routledge.

Foucault, M. 2006. History of Madness. London: Routledge.

Frank, R. 2002. Integrating homeopathy and biomedicine: medical practice and knowledge production among German homeopathic physicians, Sociology of health and illness 24 (6), pp. 796–819.

Franklin, S. 1997. Embodied progress : a cultural account of assisted conception. London: Routledge

- Franklin, S. 1995. Postmodern procreation: A cultural account of assisted reproduction. pp. 323-345 in Faye D. Ginsberg and Rayna Rapp (Eds.) Conceiving the new world order : the global politics of reproduction n. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Freund, P .E.S. and McGuire, M.B. 2002. Health, Illness and the Social Body. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Gard, M. and Wright, J Eds. The obesity epidemic : science, morality and ideology. London, Rouletge

Gerhardt, U. 1989. Ideas about illness : an intellectual and political history of medical sociology. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Giddens, A. 1991. Modernity and Self-Identity: self and society in the late modern age Cambridge: Polity Press.

Goffman, E.1990. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled identity . Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Goffman, E. 1990. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. London: Penguin.

Gordon, D. et al. 2000. Poverty and social exclusion in Britain . York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Graham, H and Oakley, A. 1981. Competing ideologies of reproduction: medical and maternal perspectives on pregnancy. In Roberts, H.(ed.) Women, health and reproduction. London: Routledge & Kegan, Paul. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Gremillion, H. 1992. Psychiatry as social ordering: Anorexia nervosa, a paradigm. Social science & medicine. , 35(1), pp.57-71.

Haimes, E. 2004. Expectations in reproduction: Society and the family. Human fertility. , June 2005; 8(2), pp. 81 – 82.

Handwerker, L. 2002. The Politics of Making Modern Babies in China: Reproductive Technologies and the "New" Eugenics. In: Inhorn, M. & van Balen, F. (eds.) Infertility around the globe : new thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies. London: University of California Press, Ch.16, pp. 298-314.

Healy, K. 2006. Last best gifts : altruism and the market for human blood and organs Chicago: University Chicago Press.

Horwitz, A. V. 2002. Creating mental illness. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.

House of Commons Health Committee. 2004. Obesity . London, House of Commons.

Hughes, K.A. 2007. CAM and the meaning of nursing care. In: Adams, J. and Tovey, P. eds. Complementary and alternative medicine in nursing and midwifery : towards a critical social science . London: Routledge. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Hughes, K.A. 2004. 'Health as individual responsibility: possibilities and personal struggle'. In: Tovey, P. et al. eds. The Mainstreaming of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Studies in Social Context, London: Routledge EBook available.

Huber, M. 2011.How should we define health. British medical journal.;343:d4163 Accessed on: 3rd September 2013. Available online at: http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d4163.full#ref-9

Hynes, H. P. 2004. On the battlefield of women's bodies: An overview of the harm of war to women. Women's studies international forum. , 27, pp. 431-445.

Ingleby, D. 2012. Ethnicity, migration and the ‘social determinants of health’ agenda Psychosocial Intervention. 21(3), pp. 331-341. Available online

Inhorn, M. 2003 Local babies, global science : gender, religion, and in vitro fertilization in Egypt New York: Routledge.

Karlsen, S., and Nazroo, J. Y. 2002. Agency and structure: the impact of ethnic identity and racism on the health of ethnic minority people. Sociology of health and illness, 24(1), pp.1-20.

Kassenbaum, G. and Baumann, B. 1965. Dimensions of the sick role in chronic illness, Journal of health and social behavior. , 6, pp. 16-27.

Kelly, MP, Field, M. 2004. Medical sociology, chronic illness and the body. In Bury, M. and Gabe, J. 2004. The sociology of health and illness : a reader. London: Routledge, pp. 256-265.

Kerr, A. 2004. Genetics and society : a sociology of disease. London: Routledge. [Chapter 2 'Past', Chapter 4, 'Reproduction', Chapter 5, 'Patients'].

Kerr, A. and Shakespeare, T. 2002. Genetic politics : from eugenics to genome. New Clarion Press: Cheltenham.

Kubler-Ross E. 1989. On Death and Dying. London: Routledge.

Jackson, S., and Scambler, G. 2007. Perceptions of evidence-based medicine: traditional acupuncturists in the UK and resistance to biomedical modes of evaluation Sociology of health and illness, 29 (3), pp. 412–429.

Jutel, A. 2006. The emergence of overweight as a disease entity: measuring up normality. Social science & medicine. , 63, pp. 2268-2276.

Leahey, T. H. 1991. A history of modern psychology. London: Prentice Hall.

Levine, S., and Kozloff, M. A. 1978. The sick role: assessment and overview. Annual review of sociology., 4, pp. 317-343.

Lohan, M. 2007. How might we understand men's health better? Integrating explanations from critical studies on men and inequalities in health. Social science & medicine. , 65, pp. 493-504.

Luff, D. and Thomas, K. J. 2000. Getting somewhere’, feeling cared for: patients’ perspectives on complementary therapies in the NHS, Complementary therapies in medicine., 8, pp. 253–259.

Lupton, D. 1995. The imperative of health : public health and the regulated body. London: SAGE.

Lupton, D. 2003. Medicine as Culture. London: SAGE.

Manzano, A., and Pawson, R. 2014. Evaluating deceased organ donation: A programme theory approach. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 28(3), pp 366-385.

Marmot, M. et al. 2008. Commission on Social Determinants of Health - final report. Geneva: World Health Organisation at http://www.who.int/social_determinants/thecommission/finalreport/en/index.html.

Mellor, P.A. and Shilling, C. 1993. Modernity, Self-Identity and the Sequestration of Death. Sociology. , 27(3), pp. 411-431.

Monaghan, L. F. 2007. Body Mass Index, masculinities and moral worth: men's critical understandings of "appropriate" weight-for-height. Sociology of health and illness, 29(4), pp. 584-609.

Monaghan, L. F. 2008. Men and the war on obesity : a sociological study. London: Routledge.

Murray, S. 2008. The 'fat' female body, Houndmills: Palgrave.

NAO. 2001. Tackling obesity in England . London, National Audit Office: 66.

Nazroo, J. Y. 1998. Genetic, cultural or socio‐economic vulnerability? Explaining ethnic inequalities in health. Sociology of health and illness20 (5), pp. 710-730.

Nelkin, D. and Lindee, S. 1995. The DNA mystique : The Gene as Cultural Icon. New York: W H Freeman Press.

Novas, C. 2006. The political economy of hope: patients' organizations, science and biovalue. BioSocieties, 1(3),p. 289. http://www.palgrave-journals.com/biosoc/journal/v1/n3/abs/biosoc200627a.html

Novas C. and Rose, N.2000. Genetic risk and the birth of the somatic individual Economy and society., 29 (4), pp. 485-513.

Nettleton, S. 2013. The Sociology of Health and Illness . Cambridge: Polity.

- Norman, P., Boyle, P., and Rees, P. 2005. Selective migration, health and deprivation: a longitudinal analysis. Social science & medicine. , 60(12), pp. 2755-2771.

Nygren-Krug, H. 2004. International Migration, Health and Human Rights. World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42793/1/9241562536.pdf

Oliver, J.E. 2006. Fat politics : the real story behind America's obesity epidemic. New York: Oxford University Press

Oudshoorn, N. 2004. ‘Astronauts in the sperm wars’: the renegotiation of masculine identities in discourses on male contraceptives. Men and masculinities. , 6 (4), pp. 349-367.

Pantii, M. and Sumiala, J. 2009. 'Till death do us join: media, mourning rituals and the sacred centre of the society’ Media, culture & society. , 31(1), pp. 119-135.

Parsons, T. 1975. The sick role and the role of the physician reconsidered, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 53, pp. 257-78.

Paterson, C. and Britten, N. 1999. ‘Doctors can’t help much’: the search for an alternative. The British journal of general practice. e; 49, pp. 626–629.

Paul, D. 1998. Controlling human heredity : 1865 to the present t. New York: Humanity Books.

Payne, S. 2006. The health of men and women . Cambridge: Polity.

Perz, H. and Ussher, J. M. 2008. ‘The horror of this living decay’: Women's negotiation and resistance of medical discourses around menopause and midlife. Women's studies international forum., 31, pp. 293-299

Petersen, A. 2001. Biofantasies: genetic medicine in the print news media. Social science & medicine., 52 (8), pp. 1255-68.

Petersen A. 2007. Is the new genetics eugenic? Interpreting the past, envisioning the future, New formations. , 60, pp79-88.

Petersen, A. and Bunton, R. 1997. Foucault, health and medicine e. London: Routledge.

Petersen, A. and Bunton, R. 2001. The new genetics and the public's health . London: Routledge

Petersen, A. and D. Lupton. 2000. The new public health : health and self in the age of risk. London: SAGE.

Pilnick, A. 2002. Genetics and society : an introduction . Buckingham: Open University Press.

Porter, D. 1999. Health, civilization, and the state : a history of public health from ancient to modern times . London: Routledge.

Porter, R. 2001. Bodies politic : disease, death, and doctors in Britain, 1650-1900 . Itacha, NY: Cornell University Press.

Potrata, B., McKibbin, M., Lim, J. N., & Hewison, J. 2013. “To perpetuate blindness!”: Attitudes of UK patients with inherited retinal disease towards genetic testing. Journal of Community Genetics, 1-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4059844/

- Ram, K. 1998. Na shariram nadhi, My body is mine: The urban women’s health movement in India and its negotiation of modernity. Women's studies international forum. , 21, pp. 617-631.

Rapp, R. 1999. Testing women, testing the fetus : the social impact of amniocentesis in America . New York: Routledge.

Rich, E. and Evans, J. 2005. "Fat ethics" - the obesity discourse and body politics. Social Theory and Health, 3, pp. 341-358. http://0-www.palgrave-journals.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/sth/journal/v3/n4/pdf/8700057a.pdf

Rich, E, Monaghan, L and Aphramor, L (eds). 2010. Debating obesity : critical perspectives. London: Routledge.

Rose, N. 2001. The Politics of Life Itself. Theory, culture & society. 18 (6), pp. 1-30.

Rossner, S. 2002. Obesity: the disease of the twenty-first century. International journal of obesity. 26(Supplement 4), pp. S2-4.

Roberts, D. 1999. Killing the black body : race, reproduction, and the meaning of liberty .New York: Vintage.

Rogers, A., and Pilgrim, D. 2010. A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness . McGraw-Hill International.

Rose, N. 1999. Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self . London: Free Association Books.

Rose, N 2006. Politics of life itself : biomedicine, power and subjectivity in the twenty-first century , Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Rose, N. 2007. Politics of life itself : biomedicine, power and subjectivity in the twenty-first century . Princeton University Press.

Rose, N. 2013. Personalized Medicine: Promises, Problems and Perils of a New Paradigm for Healthcare. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 77, pp. 341-352

Ross, B. 2005. Fat or fiction: weighing the ‘obesity epidemic’. Ch. 5 in Gard, M. and J. Wright. 2005. The obesity epidemic : science, morality and ideology . London, Routledge.

Saks, M. 2003. Orthodox and alternative medicine : politics, professionalization and health care. London: Sage.

Scambler, G. (ed.) 2008. Sociology as Applied to Medicine. London: Saunders.

Scambler, G. and Higgs, P. 1998. Modernity, medicine, and health : medical sociology towards 2000 . London: Routledge.

Schaler, J.A. (ed.). 2004. Szasz under fire : the psychiatric abolitionist faces his critics. Chicago : Open Court.

Scheff, T. J. 1966. Being mentally ill : a sociological theory. London : Aldine Pub. Co.

Schwartz, H. 1986. Never satisfied : a cultural history of diets, fantasies, and fat . New York: The Free Press.

Seale, C. 1998. Constructing death : the sociology of dying and bereavement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Seale, C. 2000. Changing patterns of death and dying. Social science & medicine. 51(6), pp. 917-930.

Sharma, U. 1992. Complementary medicine today: practitioners and patients . London: Routledge.

Sharp, L. A. 2000. The commodification of the body and its parts. Annual review of anthropology., pp. 287-328.

Sharp, L. A. 2001. Commodified kin: Death, mourning, and competing claims on the bodies of organ donors in the United States. American anthropologist., 103, pp. 112–133.

Shaw, I., and Woodward, L. 2004. The medicalization of unhappiness? The management of mental distress in primary care. In: K. Kauppinen & I. Shaw, Constructions of health and illness: European perspectives (Ashgate, 2004) , pp. 116-18. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Shilling, C. 2002. Culture, the ‘sick role’ and the consumption of health. The British journal of sociology., 53(4), pp. 621-638.

Shorter, E. 1997. A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Smaje, C. 1996. The ethnic patterning of health: new directions for theory and research. Sociology of health and illness. 18(2), pp. 139-171.

Steiner, P. and Jacobs, A. 2008. Organ donation: An analytical typology, Revue française de sociologie. , 49, Supplement: An Annual English Selection. pp. 125-152.

Stewart, D. and Sullivan, T.1982. Illness behaviour and the sick ole in chronic illness -the case of multiple sclerosis, Social science & medicine. , 16(15), pp. 1397-1404.

Szasz, T. 1972. The Myth of Mental Illness: foundations of a theory of personal conduct. London: Paladin.

- Taylor-Robinson,D., and Schechter,M.S. .2011. Health inequalities and cystic fibrosis. British medical journal. , 343.

hrosby, K. 2007. "How could you let yourself get like that?": Stories of the origins of obesity in accounts of weight loss surgery. Social science & medicine. , 65, pp. 1561-1571.

Throsby, K. 2012. Obesity surgery and the managment of excess: exploring the body multiple. Sociology of health and illness 34(1), pp. 1-15.

Toews, J. E. 1991. Historicizing Psychoanalysis: Freud in His Time and for Our Time. The journal of modern history., 63(3), pp.504-545.

Tovey, P., and Adams, J. 2003. Nostalgic and nostophobic referencing and the authentication of nurses’ use of complementary therapies, Social science & medicine., 56, pp. 1469–1480.

Tovey, P. et al. 2003. The mainstreaming of complementary and alternative medicine : studies in social context . London: Routledge.

Turner, B.S. 1995. Medical Power and Social Knowledge , London: SAGE [Chapter.3] EBook available

Twaddle, A.C. 1969. Health decisions and sick role variations, Journal of health and social behavior. , 10, pp.105-115

Walter, T. 1991. Modern Death: Taboo or not Taboo? Sociology., 25(2)

Warfa, N., Bhui, K., Craig, T., Curtis, S., Mohamud, S., Stansfeld, S., ... and Thornicroft, G. 2006. Post-migration geographical mobility, mental health and health service utilisation among Somali refugees in the UK: a qualitative study. Health & place. , 12(4), pp. 503-515.

Van Dijck, J. 1998. Imagenation : popular images of genetics . London: Macmillan.

Waldby, C. 2002. Stem cells, tissue culture and the production of biovalue. Health., 6, pp. 301-23. Warin, M., K. Turner, et al. 2008. Bodies, mothers and identities: rethinking obesity and the BMI. Sociology of health and illness , 30(1), pp. 97-111.

Watson, J. 2000. Male bodies : health, culture, and identity . Buckingham: Open University Press.

White, K. 2009. An Introduction to the Sociology of Health and Illness . London: SAGE.

Whitehead, D. 2000. Naturalistic vs reductionistic approaches to health-related practice: opposing dichotomy or symbiotic partnership? Complementary therapies in nursing & midwifery. , 6, pp. 149-154.

Wiener, C. 1975. The burden of rheumatoid arthritis: tolerating the uncertainty, Social science & medicine. , 9(2), pp.97-104.

Wilkinson, R. And Pickett, K. 2009. The Spirit Level . London: Allen Lane

Williams, G. 1983. The Genesis of Chronic Illness: Narrative Reconstruction, Sociology of health and illness, 6(2), pp.175-200.

Williams, S. 1996. The vicissitudes of embodiment across the chronic illness trajectory, Body & society. , 2 (2), pp.23-47. WHO .1986. A discussion document on the concept and principles of health promotion Health Promotion 1(1) 73-76. Available online at: http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/content/1/1/73.full.pdf

WHO. 2000. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic: Report of a WHO Consultation . WHO Technical Report Series. Geneva, World Health Organisation.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION. 2005. The World Health Report 2005 - make every mother and child count. Geneva: World Health Organisation.  http://www.who.int/whr/2005/en/index.html

Zollman, C. And Vickers, A. 1999. Complementary medicine and the patient. ABC of complementary medicine. British medical journal. 319, pp. 1486–1489

This list was last updated on 29/09/2014