Leeds University Library

Module Reading List

The Making of Modern Southeast Asia, 2015/16, Semester 2
Dr Ian Caldwell
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Sources used on this module

You will need to read a wide variety of books on this module, ranging from formal histories through biographies and correspondence to literature. If the books that you need are not in Leeds University Library, please inform me so that I can arrange for their purchase.

On-line sources on the history of Southeast Asia are few in number, and raise questions of accuracy, namely the difficulty of knowing what information is reliable, what is missing, and what is poorly interpreted. Little of the information available on the Web has undergone peer-evaluation of its accuracy and much is written from a particular angle. As a starting point, the Library of Congress histories are recommended, and basic facts about each country can be found at the CIA World Fact Book. The URLs are http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ and www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html . Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/ is another place to look, cautiously and carefully.

General histories of Southeast Asia

The best general history of Southeast Asia is N.G. Owen (ed.), 2005, The emergence of modern Southeast Asia : a new history, Honolulu: Hawai’i University Press. Ricklefs et al. (2010) A new history of Southeast Asia, London: Palgrave Macmillan, runs a close second.

Other histories (listed in reverse order of publication) are Tarling, N., 1992, The Cambridge history of Southeast Asia. Vol.3, From c.1800 to the 1930s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; SarDesai, D.R., 1994, Southeast Asia past and present, Boulder: Westview; Tate, D., 1977, 1983, The making of modern South-East Asia, Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press; Steinberg, D. et al., 1971, In search of Southeast Asia : a modern history. London: Pall Mall Press; Hall, D.G.E., 1981, A history of South-East Asia. London: Macmillan. Tarling is a modern, up-to-date account in the best Cambridge history tradition. SarDesai is a readable history focussing on the processes of colonization and independence. Steinberg et al. is an important American history and has an excellent annotated bibliography. Tate is the most readable and comprehensive for the period but hard to obtain (the planned third volume was never completed). Originally published in 1955, Hall is the most dated of the four and covers the whole of Southeast Asia’s past.

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Introductory lecture:

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The pre-modern world of Southeast Asia circa 1800

Geertz, C. 1963. Agricultural involution : the process of ecological change in Indonesia. Berkeley: University of California Press. Chapter Two.

Pioneering study of the relationship between ecology and history in Southeast Asia.

See however: Henley, D. 2011. Swidden farming as an agent of ecological change: ecological myth and historical reality. Environment and History 17: 525-54.

Excellent revisionist study of swidden agriculture

Steinberg, D. (ed.) 1971. In search of Southeast Asia : a modern history. London: Pall Mall Press. Chapter One.

A little dated but generally good.

Leur, J.C. van 1955. Indonesian trade and society; Essays in Asian social and economic history. The Hague: Van Hoeve.

Argues that ‘there is unbroken unity in the state of Asian civilization from the seventeenth through the eighteenth and into the nineteenth’.

Kumar, A. 2006. ‘A world of difference: the case of Java.’ Review of Indonesian and Malaysian affairs. 40(2): 3-24.

Argues that the Javanese felt ‘neither separate from nor equal to Western civilization’ from at least the early nineteenth century.

Reid, A. 1988. Southeast Asia in the age of commerce, 1450-1680, Vol. 1: The lands below the winds and Vol. 2: Expansion and crisis. New Haven and London.

Annales School tour de force by the leading historian of Southeast Asia. Covers the period 1450-1800.

Taylor, J. G. 1983. The social world of Batavia : European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia. Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Blussé, L., (ed.) 1986. Strange company: Chinese settlers, mestizo women and the Dutch in VOC Batavia. Dordrecht: Foris.

Studies of the mestizo world of Batavia and other European settlements. Compels you rethink the relationships of race, culture and nationality.

Owen, N. G., (ed.) 1987. Death and disease in Southeast Asia : explorations in social, medical, and demographic history. Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Grim reading!

Geertz, C. 1980. Negara; The theatre state in nineteenth-century Bali. Princeton: New Princeton University Press.

A controversial book which stands political theory on its head.

Film:Max Havelaar [videorecording] (1976)

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The Dutch and the British in Java, 1800-30

Raffles, T. S. 1817. History of Java. 2 vols. London.

Greatest work on Indonesia published in the nineteenth century. Available from Google Books

Rickleffs, M, 2001, A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200 London: Macmillan. Third edition.

The author is an authority on Java.

Furnival, J.S. 1967. Netherlands India; A study of plural economy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

With Schrieke (below), one of the few English language sources on Daendels.

Schrieke, B. 1966. Indonesian sociological studies. Part one. ‘The native rulers’. The Hague: W. van Hoeve.

Wurtzburg, C.E. 1954. Raffles of the Eastern Isles. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

The standard and best biography of Raffles, the life-long work of its author and published after his death.

Collis, M. 1966. Raffles . London: Century.

Lightweight, readable account by a popular author.

Barley, Nigel 1991,The Duke of Puddle Dock : travels in the footsteps of Stamford Raffles. Harmandsworth: Penguin.

Modern, affirmative portrayal in a readable style.

Carey, P. 2007. The power of prophecy : Prince Dipanagara and the end of an old order in Java, 1785-1855 . Leiden: KITLV Press.

Masterful account of the period to 1830.

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The Cultivation System, 1830-70 and the Liberal Policy, 1870-1901

Owen, Chapter 9

Fernando, R. 2005. The Malthusian narrative of Java's demographic paradigm revised. Review of Indonesian and Malaysian affairs. 40(1): 85-112.

Must-read revision of the Geertzian paradigm of agricultural ‘involution’.

Geertz, C. (1963). Agricultural involution : the process of ecological change in Indonesia . Berkeley, University of California Press.

The ‘standard model’ of Malthusian crisis.

Douwes Dekker, Eduard. 1860. Max Havelaar, or, The coffee auctions of the Dutch Trading Company. Amsterdam.

The book that changed public opinion in the Netherlands and led to the demise of the Cultivation System and the opening of Dutch areas of Indonesia to private capital.

Neil, R. van. 1992. Java under the cultivation system : collected writings. Leiden.

Scholarly introduction to the Dutch system of forced deliveries 1830-c.1870.

Elson, R.E. 1994. Village Java under the cultivation system, 1830-1870. Sydney.

Collection of papers by leading scholars of Indonesia providing a balanced view.

White, B. 1973. Demand for labour and population growth in colonial Java. Human ecology. 1(3):217-36.

Argues that Java’s increase in population was a demographic response to the production of export crops.

Fasseur, C. 1992. The politics of colonial exploitation : Java, the Dutch, and the Cultivation System Ithaca, N.Y.: Southeast Asia Program Publications, Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University.

Unseen: by a leading Dutch scholar

Money, J.W.B., 1861. Java : or, How to manage a colony : showing a practical solution of the questions now affecting British India. London.

A positive eye-witness account of the Cultivation System.

Wallace, Alfred Russel. 1869. The Malay archipelago. . . . London.

A positive view of the Netherlands Indies

Scidmore, E.R., 1899, Java, the garden of the East : travel and adventures of an American woman in Java in 1912. New York.

Has a useful chapter on the Cultivation System

Day, C. 1904. The Policy and Administration of the Dutch In Java. New York.

The most detailed and in some respects the most satisfactory account of the system.

Furnival, J.S. 1967. Netherlands India; A study of plural economy. Cambridge.

Occasionally confused account of the system, with a strong sense of balance.

Hall, D.G.E. 1981. A history of South-East Asia. London.

Brief, nine-point account of the system: see Furnival, above.

Onghokham 2003.The thugs, the curtain thief, and the sugar lord : power, politics, and culture in colonial Java. Jakarta.

An alternative view based on primary data.

Fasseur, C. 1992. The politics of colonial exploitation : Java, the Dutch, and the Cultivation System . Edited by R. Elson. Translated by R. Elson and A. Kraal. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program.

Less than positive account by a leading Dutch historian.

Reid, A. 1969. The contest for North Sumatra : Atjeh, the Netherlands, and Britain, 1858-1898 . Kuala Lumpur.

Standard work on its subject; one of Reid’s best books.

Hurgronje, C. S. 1906. The Achehnese. Leiden.

Major study by a towering figure of late nineteenth-century Dutch scholarship.

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The French occupation of Vietnam, 1848-83

Owen, Chapter 7

Karnow, S. 1994. Vietnam; A history. London: Century.

Standard history of Vietnam.

Jamieson, N.L., 1993. Understanding Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Excellent study of Vietnam., strong on interpretation if a little light on details.

Buttingerer, J. 1958. The smaller dragon : a political history of Vietnam.. New York: Atlantic.

Excellent history with a detailed account of the French takeover.

Buttinger, J. 1972. A dragon defiant : a short history of Vietnam. New York: Preager.

Good, short one-volume history.

Woodside, A. 1971. Vietnam and the Chinese model : a comparative study of Nguyẽ̂n and Chʼing civil government in the first half of the nineteenth century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Ground breaking study: draws extensively on Vietnamese sources.

Robequain, Charles. 1944. The economic development of French Indo-China. London: Oxford University Press.

Standard work.

Cooke, N. 1995. The composition of the nineteenth-century political elite of pre-colonial Vietnam (1802-1883). Modern Asian studies. 29(4):741-64.

A constructive critique of the above

Woods, S. 2002. Vietnam, an illustrated history. New York: Hippocrene Books.

Interesting and useful.

Nguyen Khack Vien (1987). Vîẹt Nam, a long history. Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers.

Vietnam’s history from a Vietnamese perspective.

SarDesai, D.R. 2005. Vietnam; Past and present. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Straightforward account of events with little attempt at interpretation.

Tucker, S. 1999. Vietnam. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Contains a short summary of the nineteenth century

Choi Byung Wook 2004. Southern Vietnam under the reign of Minh Mạng (1820-1841) : central policies and local response. Ithaca: Cornell University.

Detailed and scholarly.

Nguyen Du (1756-1820) 1994. Kìêu . Hanoi: The Gioi.

Vietnam’s national poem about a beautiful, melancholy heroine who is forced to turn to prostitution to ransom her father from officials.

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The fall of Burma, 1826-85

Thant Mynt-U. 2002. The making of modern Burma. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Excellent modern history

Maung Htin Aung. 1967. A history of Burma. New York, Columbia University Press.

Readable and straightforward

Brandon, P. 2007. The decline and fall of the British Empire 1781-1997. London: Jonathan Cape.

Excellent short account of British in Burma, pp. 424-37

Hall, D.G.E. 1981. A history of South-East Asia. London: Macmillan.

Hall taught for many years at Rangoon University: old-fashioned but useful

Harvey, G.E. 1925. History of Burma : from the earliest times to 10 March, 1824, the beginning of the English conquest. London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Good narrative account but dated

Phayre, A.P. 1883. History of Burma : including Burma proper, Pegu, Taungu, Tennasserim, and Arakan : from the earliest times to the end of the first war with British India. London:  Trubner & Co.

Detailed and useful

Webster, A. 2000. Business and empire: a reassessment of the British conquest of Burma in 1885. The historical journal. 43(4): 1003-25.

Unseen: looks interesting

Baker, C. and P. Phongpaichit 2005. A history of Thailand. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Standard reference

Wyatt, D.K. 1982. Thailand; A short history. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Standard history prior to Baker and Phongpachit 2005

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José Rizal and the birth of the Philippine nation, 1861-1901

Owen, Chapter 11.

Coates, A. 1968. Rizal : Philippine nationalist and martyr. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Sympathetic study by a popular writer.

Rizal, J. 1997. Noli me tangere. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

Steinberg, J. 1994. The Philippines : a singular and a plural place. Boulder, California, Westview.

Lightfoot, K. 1973. The Philippines. London: Ernest Benn.

Both good introductions with substantial historical sections.

Agoncillo, T. A. and M. C. Guerro 1960. History of the Filipino people. Quezon City: R.P Garcia.

Philippino history from an indigenous perspective.

Constantino, R. 1975. A history of the Philippines : from the Spanish colonization to the Second World War. New York and London: Monthly Review Press.

Encyclopaedic alternative to Agoncillo and Guerro.

Aguinaldo, Emilio, 1967. My memoirs. Manila: privately published.

First-hand account of the Philippine revolution.

Sturtevant, D. 1976. Popular uprisings in the Philippines, 1840-1940. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Solid study of this Philippine tradition.

Simbulan, D. C. 2005. The modern principalia : the historical evolution of the Philippine ruling oligarchy . Quezon City, The University of Philippine Press.

Authoratitive account of the Japanese occupation.

Holt, E.M. 2002. Colonizing Filipinas : nineteenth-century representations of the Philippines in western historiography. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

Feminist critique with interesting photographs.

Scott, W. H. 1985. Cracks in the parchment curtain and other essays in Philippine history. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.

Scintillating collection of essays by a remarkable historian

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The British in Malaya and Singapore, 1786-1957

Andaya, B.W. and L.Y. (1982). A history of Malaysia. London: Macmillan.

Provides a decent opening into the topic

Bonney, R. 1974. Kedah, 1771-1821 : the search for security and independence. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Detalied account of Anglo-Kedah relations

Hill, A.H. (ed) 1955. The Hikayat Abdullah : the autobiography of Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, 1797-1854. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society XXVIII Part 3.

First-hand account of the growth of the Straits Settlements by a native observer

Kennedy, J. 1962. A history of Malaya A.D. 1400-1959. London: Macmillan.

Light, readable introduction

Mills, L.A. 1960. British Malaya 1824-67. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Read alongside Turnbull, below

Turnbull, C.M. 1972. The Straits settlements, 1826-67 : Indian presidency to crown colony. London: University of London, The Athelone Press.

Excellent account of the Straits Settlements during Indian rule.

Cowan, C.D. 1961. Nineteenth-century Malaya : the origins of British political control. London: Oxford University Press

Slightly dated but useful

Gullick, J. 1958. Indigenous political systems of western Malaya. London: University of London, Athlone Press.

Influential account of the Malay world in the late nineteenth century

Allen, G.C. and A.G. Donnithorne 1957. Western enterprise in Indonesia and Malaya; A study in economic development. London; Allen & Unwin.

Detailed economic history

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The Ethical Policy and its consequences, 1901-42

Owen, Chapters 9 & 20.

Van Neil, R. 1960. The emergence of the modern Indonesian elite . The Hague.

Standard reference on its subject.

Cribb, R. 1994. The late colonial state in Indonesia : political and economic foundations of the Netherlands Indies, 1880-1942 . Leiden.

Cribb, R. 2009. Development policy in the early 20th century Indonesia. In: Jan-Paul Dirkse, Frans Hüsken and Mario Rutten (eds) Development and social welfare : Indonesia's experiences under the new order. Leiden: KITLV Press, pp 225-245.

Cribb is the modern authority on this topic.

Sutherland, H., 1979. The making of a bureaucratic elite : the colonial transformation of the Javanese priyayi. Singapore.

Standard reference on its subject.

Benda, H. 1958. Snouk Hurgronje and the foundations of Dutch Islamic policy in Indonesia. The journal of modern history. 30(4): 338-47.

Excellent account by a major historian.

Lindblad, J.T. 1989. Economic aspects of the Dutch expansion in Indonesia 1870-1914. Modern Asian studies. 23(1): 1-24.


Schmutzer, E.J.M. 1977. Dutch colonial policy and the search for identity in Indonesia 1920-1931. Leiden: E.J. Brill.


Embree, E. et al. 1934. Island India goes to school . Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Detailed account of the Netherlands Indies education system

Schouten, M. 1998. Leadership and social mobility in a Southeast Asian society : Minahasa, 1677-1983. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Chapter IX: economic mobility resulting from agriculture and trade 1890-1942; Chapter X: education and emancipation 1900-1942.

Furnival, J. S. 1967. Netherlands India; A study of plural economy. Cambridge.

Classic study of Dutch management of Indonesia.

Vlekke, B.H.M. 1959. Nusantara : a history of Indonesia. The Hague.

Written in English in America, the first Dutch history to distance itself from the colonial enterprise. The later Dutch edition was watered down.

Wertheim, W.F. 1959. Indonesian society in transition : a study of social change. The Hague: Van Hoeve.

Wertheim was the Netherland’s leading sociologist of Indonesia.

Coté, J., (ed.) 1992. Letters from Kartini : an Indonesian feminist, 1900-1904. Clayton, Victoria.

A first-hand view of the Ethical Policy and its impact.

Coté, J., (ed.) 2008. Realizing the dream of R.A. Kartini : her sisters' letters from colonial Java. Athens, Ohio / Leiden: Ohio University Press / KITLV.

 Excellent introduction to the lives of the three sisters.

McGlyn, J. et al. 2005. Indonesia in the Soeharto years : issues, incidents and images. Singapore & Leiden: Lontar.

Excellent account of the period 1965-204: full illustrated.

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The rise of Indonesian nationalism, 1908-65

Reading: Owen, Chapter 20.

Dahm, B. 1971. History of Indonesia in the twentieth century. London: Pall Mall Press.

Readable and succinct.

Van Neil, R. 1960. The emergence of the modern Indonesian elite. The Hague: Nijhof.

Standard reference on its subject.

Caldwell, M. and E. Utrecht, 1979. Indonesia : an alternative history. Sydney.

Marxist history, loose on facts.

Vickers, A. 2005. A history of modern Indonesia. Cambridge.

Entertaining account of the twentieth century seen through the work of Indonesia’s leading prose writer.

Taylor, Jean Gelman, 2003. Indonesia : peoples and histories. New Haven.

Interesting and thoughtful; asks questions and posits alternative views.

Sutherland, H. 1968. ‘Pudjangga Baru; Aspects of Indonesian intellectual life in the 1930s’. Indonesia. 6: 106-127. (Cornell University)

Condensation of the author’s PhD on the literary-political movement of the 1930s.

Arjmin Pane, 1939, Shackles : a novel (Belenggu). Jakarta: Lontar.

The process viewed from the inside. Good translation of an important novel.

Nagazumi, A. 1972. The dawn of Indonesian nationalism : the early years of the Budi Utomo, 1908-1918. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies.

Detailed look at the first modern organization, usually identified with the beginning of Indonesian nationalism.

Cribb, R. (ed.), 1994. The late colonial state in Indonesia : political and economic foundations of the Netherlands Indies, 1880-1942. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Fine collection of papers on this period.

Dahm, B. 1971. History of Indonesia in the twentieth century. London: Pall Mall Press.

Excellent account; readable.

Ricklefs, M.C. 2001. A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Bathingstoke: Palgrave.

Even-handed; surprisingly good on the modern period.

Elson, R.E. 2001. Suharto : a political biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A superb study of this complex man

Roeder, O.G. 1969. The smiling general, President Soeharto of Indonesia. Jakarta: Gunung Agung.

Hagiographic account by a right-wing author

Loveard, K. 1999. Suharto : Indonesia's last sultan. Singapore, Horizon.

A more critical approach.

Vatikiotis, M. 1998. Indonesian politics under Suharto : the rise and fall of the new order. London:Routledge.

A standard reference on the subject.

McGlyn, J. et al. 2005. Indonesia in the Soeharto years : issues, incidents and images. Singapore and Leiden: Lontar

Excellent account of the period 1965-2004: illustrated.

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The Second Indochina War, 1955-73

Owen, Chapter 12

Karnow, S. 1994. Vietnam; A history. London: Century.

Standard history of Vietnam.

Halberstam, D. 1971. Ho. New York: Random House.

Short, sympathetic, readable.

Sheehan, N. 1998. No longer a dove, but no longer a hawk. In: Anonymous (eds) Reporting Vietnam. Part one: American journalism 1959-1969. New York: The Library of America.

Simply the best short account ever written of the shifting American position on the war.

Griffiths, P. 1971. Vietnam Inc. . London: Collier books.

Outstanding photographic witness of the horror and resilience.

Sheehan, N. 1988. A bright shining lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam. New York: Random House.

On the loss of illusion and its replacement by uglier realities.

Duiker, W. J. 1981. The communist road to power in Vietnam. Boulder, Colorado: Westview

Explains how the north won, rather than how France and America lost.

Robbins, C. 1988. The Ravens : pilots of the secret war in Laos. London: Bantam.

Great read

Robbins, C. 1979. Air America : the true story of the CIA's mercenary fliers in covert operations from pre-war China to present day Nicaragua. New York: Putnam.

Less compelling than The Ravens, except for the chapter on Laos

Cawthorne, N. 2003. Vietnam : a war lost and won. London: Arcturus.

Decent, short account of the war

Baker, M. 1981. Nam : the Vietnam war in the words of the men and women who fought there. New York, Morrow.

The GIs’ experience: brutal and frank.

Lamb, D. 2002. Vietnam, now : a reporter returns. New York: Public Affairs.

Readable: covers the period 1975 - 2000. By a former war correspondent

The French War

Fall, B. 1966. Hell in a very small place : the siege of Dien Bien Phu. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Classic account of the defeat of the French in 1954.

— 1964. Street without joy. : the French debacle in Indochina. Harrisberg, Pa.: Stackpole.

Required reading for US generals, who went on to repeat the mistakes.

Marr, D. 1971. Vietnamese anticolonialism, 1885-1925. Berkeley, University of California.

Provides a historical context for the French and American wars

Literature and DVDs

Herr, M. 1968. Dispatches. New York: Avon Books.

Powerful, at times indulgent, evocation of the Vietnam war.

Mason, R. 1983. Chickenhawk . London: Corgi.

Author served as a Huey pilot: brilliant writing.

DVD The Vietnam War [videorecording]; 3DVD collector’s [sic.] edition

Long, detailed, authoritative

DVD (dir. Peter Davis) Hearts and minds [videorecording]

Builds slowly: deeply moving: the Vietnam War film

DVD The fog of war [videorecording] : eleven lessons from the life of Robert S. McNamara

Fascinating retrospective by the ‘architect’ of the Vietnam War: brilliant and cautionary.

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Norodom Sihanouk and the destruction of Cambodia, 1953-78

Owen, Chapter 25

Osbourne, M. 1994. Sihanouk : prince of light, prince of darkness. St Leonards, NSW.

Standard reference on its subject, the author’s main study.

Chandler, D. 2000. A history of Cambodia. Boulder, Colorado.

Standard reference.

Chandler, David. The tragedy of Cambodian history; Politics, war and revolution since 1945. New Haven: Yale University.

Outstanding account of the post-war years.

Martin, M. 1994. Cambodia, a shattered society. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Excellent account covering the period of the lecture.

Shawcross, W. 1991. Sideshow : Kissinger, Nixon and the destruction of Cambodia. London: Hogarth Press.

Devastating critique of America’s secret bombing of Cambodia.

Chandler, D. 1999. Brother number one : a political biography of Pol Pot. Boulder.

By the leading historian of modern Cambodia

Swain, J. 1996. River of time. London.

Evocative account of the years 1970-75

Ung, L. 2001. First they killed my father : a daughter of Cambodia remembers. Edinburgh.

Harrowing personal account

Ponchaud, F. 1978. Cambodia year zero. London.


Sihanouk, Norodom 1973. My war with the CIA. London.

Sihanouk's first memoir; essentially a propaganda tract

Sihanouk, Norodom 1979. War and hope : the case for Cambodia. London.

Somewhat more realistic than My war

Kiernan, B. 2004. How Pol Pot came to power : colonialism, nationalism, and communism in Cambodia, 1930-1975. New Haven.

By a leading scholar

Clymer, K.J. 2004. The United States and Cambodia, 1969-2000 : a troubled relationship. London.


Elliott, D. 2003. The Vietnamese war : revolution and social change in the Mekong Delta. Armonk, N.Y.


Vickery, M. 1999. Cambodia 1975-1982. Chiang Mai.

A leading scholar’s account.

Edwards, P. 2006. Cambodge : the cultivation of a nation, 1860-1945. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press.

Covers the period of colonization

Leifer, M. 1968. The failure of institutionalization in Cambodia. Modern Asian studies. 2(2): 187-202.


Smith, R.M. 1967. Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia. Asian survey. 7(6): 353-62.


This list was last updated on 18/07/2013