Leeds University Library

HIST3240
Module Reading List

The Harlem Renaissance: Black Culture and Politics 1919-1940, 2017/18, Semester 1, 2
Dr Kate Dossett
k.dossett@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Abbreviations:

NA: Norton Anthology of African American Literature, 2nd edn. (2004), ed. by Henry Louis Gates Jr. & Nellie McKay

* indicates item in the course pack.

Reading: You should ensure you have read primary sources, secondary literature (journals and books) and consulted Seminar Rooms in Blackboard for further reading guidance.

Week 1: Introduction to the Harlem Renaissance

Q: Is All Art Propaganda?

Documents:

W.E.B Du Bois ‘The Criteria of Negro Art’ in Norton Anthology of African American Literature

Alain Locke, ‘The New Negro’ in Alain Locke (ed.) Harlem : Mecca of the new Negro. (Survey Graphic) : http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/contents.html

W.E.B Du Bois, Review of The New Negro in Patricia Liggins Hill Call and Response (New York, 1998) p 789

Carl Van Vechten, ‘The Negro in Art: How Shall He Be Portrayed? ’ in Bruce Kellner (ed.) "Keep a-inchin' along" : selected writings of Carl Van Vechten about black art and letters (Westport, CT, 1979) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva *

James Weldon Johnson, ‘Negro Authors and White Publishers’ in The Crisis Reader ed. Sondra Wilson. *

James Weldon Johnson ‘Preface’ from The Book of American Negro Poetry ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Langston Hughes ‘The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain’ ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Langston Hughes The Big Sea Part 3: Black Renaissance, pp 223-334 ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Countee Cullen ‘Yet Do I Marvel, For A Poet’ ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Walter Thurman Ch 21, Infants of the Spring, ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

‘On Batoula’ in ‘Negro World Reviews on the book Batoula-Art as Propaganda’ in Tony Martin ed., African Fundamentalism *

Alain Locke, ‘Art or Propaganda’ in Nathan Huggins, Voices from the Harlem Renaissance (New York, 1995) p 312 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva *

Secondary Reading:

Harlem Renaissance 1919-1940: A Cultural Flowering Introduction in the Norton Anthology of African American Literature (New York & London, 1997) Henry Louis Gates Jr and Nellie McKay eds., pp 929-936

Hazel Arnett Ervin ed., African American literary criticism, 1773 to 2000 (New York: Twayne, 1999)

Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham eds. . Harlem Renaissance lives from the African American national biography

Alessandra Lorini, ‘The Spell of Africa is Upon Me’: W.E.B Du Bois’ Notion of Art as Propaganda’ in Genevieve Fabre and Michel Feith eds., Temples for tomorrow : looking back at the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington, 2001)

Ralph L. Pearson, ‘Combating Racism With Art: Charles S. Johnson and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1940-1979 (1996)

Abraham Chapman, ‘The Harlem Renaissance in literary history’ in Cary D.Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996) also in Comparative literature. Journal 11 (1967)

Harold Cruse, The crisis of the Negro intellectual., (1967. New York Review Books edition with introduction by Stanley Crouch, 2005) espc Part 1: ‘Harlem Background-The Rise of Economic Nationalism and Origins of Cultural Revolution’pp 11-64.

Chidi Ikonne, From Du Bois to Van Vechten : the early new Negro literature, 1903-1926 (Westport, CT, London, 1981) esp pp 99-106. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

John C. Charles, “What was Africa to him? : Alain Locke, cultural nationalism, and the rhetoric of empire during the new Negro Renaissance” in New voices on the Harlem Renaissance : essays on race, gender, and literary discourse, edited by Australia Tarver and Paula C. Barnes (Madison, N.J, 2006). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Maureen Honey, ‘Introduction’ in Shadowed dreams : women's poetry of the Harlem Renaissance (New Brunswick & London, 1989) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Johnson, B. (2006). Globalizing the Harlem Renaissance, Irish, Mexican and "Negro" renaissances in 'The Survey,' 1919-1929. Journal of Global History, 1(2), 155-175. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Nathan Huggins, Harlem Renaissance (New York, 1971)

George Hutchinson, The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White (Cambridge, MA 1996)

David Levering Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York, 1981)

James Weldon Johnson, Black Manhattan ( 1933. reprint New York: Da Capo Press,1991.)

Tony Martin Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts, and the Harlem Renaissance. (Dover, MA,1983)

Tyrone Tillery Claude McKay: a black poet's struggle for identity (Amherst, 1992)

Ted Vincent Keep Cool: The Black Activists Who Built the Jazz Age. (London, 1995)

Gloria T Hull, ‘Introduction’ in Color, Sex and Poetry (Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987)

Tyrone Tillery, ‘Introduction’ in Claude McKay: a black poet's struggle for identity (Amherst, 1992)

F. Griffin, ‘On Time, In Time, Through Time: Aaron Douglas, Fire!! and the Writers of the Harlem Renaissance’, American studies., 49 (1/2) (2008), 45-53 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Literary Theory General

Pierre Bourdieu, The Field of Cultural Production (Oxford, 1993)

Frederic Jameson, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a socially Symbolic Act (London, 1981)

Literary Theory and Black Studies

Donald Gibson, The Politics of Literary Expression (Westport, Conn, London 1981)

Winston Napier, African American literary theory : a reader, New York : New York University Press, c2000.

Fabio Rojas, From Black Power to Black studies : how a radical social movement became an academic discipline , (Baltimore, John Hopkins University P ress, 2007)

Layli Phillips ed., The Womanist reader, (Routledge, 2006) especially articles by Alice Walker, Shirley Anne Williams, Patricia Hill Collins,

Henry Louis Gates Jr., Figures in Black: Words, Signs and the “Racial” Self (New York, 1987) Black literature and literary theory (New York, 1990)

Michael Awkward, “Negotiations of power: White Critics, Black Texts, and the Self-Referential Impulse,” American literary history. 2.4 (Winter, 1990)

Cornel West, “The New Cultural Politics of Difference,” in Russell Fergueson, Martha Giver, Trinh T. Minh-ha, Cornel West eds., Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures (New York, 1990) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Houston A. Baker, Jr., ‘Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance ‘ in Cary D Wintz (ed.) Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996) or in American Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, Special Issue: Modernist Culture in America. (Spring, 1987): 84-97.

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Week 2: African American Literature & History Prior to the Harlem Renaissance

Topics: The Vernacular Tradition; Slave Narratives; Accommodationism; the Talented Tenth; Legacy of Black Political and Cultural Debates in the 19thC

Documents:

All can be found in Henry Louis Gates Jr & Nellie McKay eds., the Norton Anthology of African American Literature (London, 1997) or OR online at the following link- with useful introduction by William T. Andrews:
http://www.docsouth.unc.edu/neh/neh.html

Slave Narratives and Pre-Civil War

Phillis Wheatley ‘On Being Brought from Africa to America’; - http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/174733

‘To the University of Cambridge, in New-England; - http://www.bartleby.com/150/3.html

'To His Excellency General Washington’ - http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/his-excellency-general-washington

Sojourner Truth ‘ Narrative of Sojourner Truth : a bondswoman of olden time...with a history of her labors and correspondence drawn from her "Book of life" ’; ‘ Ar'n't I a woman? : female slaves in the plantation South

Harriet Jacobs ‘ Incidents in the life of a slave girl ’, esp. Ch.s X and XIV

Frederick Douglass ‘ Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written By Himself’ Preface, Letter from Wendell Phillips, Ch.s I, II, X,XI and Appendix.

Post-Civil War to the New Negro Renaissance

Booker T Washington, Up From Slavery in Norton Anthology of African American Literature Available online at: http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/washington/menu.html. Also see the introduction by William T. Andrews for background on the slave narrative.

For more on Washington see the Booker T. Washington papers available online at http://www.historycooperative.org/btw/

W.E.B Du Bois The Souls of Black Folk Ch.s I, II, III, V, VIII, IX, X, XIV in Norton Anthology of African American Literature. Also available online at http://www.bartleby.com/114/index.html

For Du Bois’ correspondence see Herbert Apthecker ed., The correspondence of W. E. B. Du Bois (1997 Vols I-III)

Paul Laurence Dunbar ‘Ode to Ethiopia’; ‘A Negro Love Song’; ‘The Colored Soldiers’; ‘An Ante-Bellum Sermon’; ‘We Wear the Mask’; ‘Sympathy’; ‘Douglass’ in The complete poems of Paul Laurence Dunbar

Secondary Reading:

Introductions in Norton Anthology of African American Literature: ‘The Vernacular Tradition’ pp 1-7; ‘The Literature of Slavery & Freedom 1746-1865’ pp 127-136; ‘Literature of the Reconstruction to the New Negro Renaissance: 1865-1919’ pp 461-472

Books

Hazel Carby, Ch.1 in Race Men (Cambridge, MA, 1998)

Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the Afro-American Woman novelist (1987)

David Levering Lewis, W.E.B. W.E.B. Du Bois : biography of a race 1868-1919 (1993)

W.E.B. Du Bois : a reader (1995)

W.E.B. DuBois : the fight for equality and the American century, 1919-1963. (2000)

Jeffrey C. Stewart, The new Negro : the life of Alain Locke ISBN: 9780195089578 (hardcover : acid-free paper) (Oxford University Press, 2018)

William L. Andrews & Henry Louis Gates Jr. eds., The Civitas anthology of African American slave narratives (Washington, 1999)

William L Andrews ed., A Norton Critical Edition of Up From Slavery (1996)

Lawrence Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness (1977)

Sterling Stuckey, Slave Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America (1987)

Houston A Baker, Blues, ideology, and Afro-American literature : a vernacular theory (1984)

Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (1987)

Claudia Tate, ‘Pauline Hopkins: Our Literary Foremother’ in Conjuring : black women, fiction, and literary tradition (1985) eds., Marjorie Pryse & Hortense J. Spillers

Cary D.Wintz ed., African American political thought, 1890-1930 : Washington, Du Bois, Garvey, and Randolph (1996)

Kevern Verney, The art of the possible : Booker T. Washington and black leadership in the United States, 1881-1925 (2001)

Hugh Hawkins ed., Booker T Washington and his critics: Black leadership in crisis, edited and with an introd. by Hugh Hawkins. (Lexington, Mass.1974 edition 2d)

Charles T David & Daniel Walden eds., On Being Black: Writings By Afro-Americans from Frederick Douglass to the Present (New York, 1970)

Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: the wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915 (New York, 1983)

August Meier, Negro thought in America, 1880-1915 : racial ideologies in the age of Booker T Washington: with a new introduction / by August Meier. (University of Michigan Press, 1988)

Internet Resources:

William L Andrews, Frances Smith Foster, Trudier Harris eds., The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature (OUP, 2001)-see below link-searchable biographies and book summaries

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/BOOK_SEARCH.html? book=t52&subject=s13

Articles

Houston A Baker Jr. ‘Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance’ American Quarterly., Vol. 39, No. 1, Special Issue: Modernist Culture in America. (Spring, 1987): 84-97.

For a recent online article see Stuart Hall in the Guardian

http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/classics/story/0,6000,900405,00.html

Dickson D. Bruce Jr., ‘W. E. B. Du Bois and the Idea of Double Consciousness’ American Literature., Vol. 64, No. 2. (Jun., 1992): 299-309.

Raymond Hedin, ‘Paternal at Last: Booker T. Washington and the Slave Narrative Tradition,’ Callaloo.., No. 7. (Oct., 1979): 95-102.

Dan S. Green, ‘W. E. B. Du Bois' Talented Tenth: A Strategy for Racial Advancement’ Journal of Negro education., Vol. 46, No. 3. (Summer, 1977): 358-366.

Donald B. Gibson, ‘Strategies and Revisions of Self-Representation in Booker T. Washington's Autobiographies’ American Quarterly., Vol. 45, No. 3. (Sep., 1993): 370-393.

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Week 3 The Emergence of the New Negro

Topics: African American Migration to the North; Experiences in WWI; the old Negro and the New Negro

Documents:

W.E.B.Du Bois, ‘Returning Soldiers’ in David Levering Lewis ed., The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader (New York, 1994) *

Carter G. Woodson, ‘The Migration of the Talented Tenth’ in Lewis ed., The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader *

Philip Randolph, ‘A New Crowd- A New Negro’ in Huggins, Voices from the Harlem Renaissance: 18-20 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva *

W. A Domingo, ‘If We Must Die’ Huggins Voices from the Harlem Renaissance: 21-22 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva *

‘The New Negro-What Is He? ’ Editorial in the Messenger 23-27 * reprinted in Sondra Kathryn Wilson (ed.) The Messenger reader : stories, poetry, and essays from The Messenger magazine (New York, 2000) pp 201-204

James Weldon Johnson, Black Manhattan, Ch.s 7, 8, 12, 13-16, 18-20

James Weldon Johnson, ‘Harlem: The Culture Capital’ in Alain Locke, The New Negro (New York, 1925) also available in Survey Graphic at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/contents.html

Alain Locke, ‘The New Negro’ in The New Negro (1925) also available in Survey Graphic at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/contents.html

Addie Waites & Kathryn Johnson, Two Colored Women with the American Expeditionary Forces (New York, Brooklyn Eagle Press. n.d. )

Rudolph Fisher, City of Refuge in Locke, The New Negro (New York, 1925) also available in Survey Graphic at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/contents.html

Charles S. Johnson, ‘The New Frontage on American Life’ in Alain Locke The New Negro (New York, 1925)

J A Rogers, ‘Who is the New Negro and Why? ’ In The Messenger Reader ed Sondra Kathryn Wilson: 308-312 *

Poems

Claude McKay Norton Anthology of African American Literature pp 984-987

Langston Hughes Norton Anthology of African American Literature pp 1251 –1261

Secondary Reading:

Books

Mark Whalan, The Great War and the culture of the new negro (University Press of Florida, 2008).

Davarian L. Baldwin and Minkah Makalani eds., Escape from New York : the New Negro Renaissance beyond Harlem, (University of Minnesota Press, 2013)

Nicki Brown, Private politics and public voices : black women's activism from World War I to the New Deal ( Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c2006) **

Claudrena N. Harold, New Negro politics in the Jim Crow South ISBN: 9780820335124 (hardcover ; alk. paper); 0820335126 (hardcover ; alk. paper) (University of Georgia Press, 2016)

Martha Nadell: Enter the new Negroes : images of race in American culture (Cambridge, 2004).

Farah Jasmine Griffin, "Who set you flowin'? " : the African-American migration narrative, (New York, 1995).

Theodore Kornweibel, "Investigate everything" : federal efforts to compel black loyalty during World War I, (Bloomington, 2002).

Bill Harris, The Hellfighters of Harlem: African-American soldiers who fought for the right to fight for their country (2002)

Michael Henry Adams, Harlem lost and found: an architectural and social history, 1765-1915 (2002)

Gilbert Osofsky, Harlem on my mind: cultural capital of Black America, 1900-1968 (New York, 1996)

Carole Marks, Farewell : we're good and gone : the great black migration (Bloomington, Indiana, 1989)

Arthur E. Barneau & Florette Henri, The unknown soldiers : African-American troops in World War I (Philadelphia, 1974)

Deborah Gray White, Ch 4 ‘A New Era’ in Too heavy a load : black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994 (New York, 1999) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Jervis Andersen, This Was Harlem: A Cultural Portrait 1900-1950 ((New York, 1981)

David Levering Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York, 1986)

Nathan Huggins, Harlem Renaissance Introd., Ch.s 1 & 2

Articles

Chad Williams, "A Mobilized Diaspora: The First World War and Black Soldiers as New Negroes," in Davarian L. Baldwin and Minkah Makalani eds., Escape from New York : the New Negro Renaissance beyond Harlem, (2013)

Taylor, D. (2011). The New Negro and New York Politics, 1898-1933. Afro-Americans in New York Life & History, 35(1), 33-7 3

Mark Ellis, ‘W.E.B Du Bois and the Formation of Black Opinion in World War 1: A Commentary on “The Damnable Dilemma’ The Journal of American history., Vol. 81, No. 4. (Mar., 1995), pp. 1584-1590.

Mark Ellis, “Closing Ranks” and “Seeking Honors”: W.E.B. Du Bois in World War 1’ The Journal of American History, Vol 79, No. 1. (Jun., 1992): 96-124

William Jordan, “The Damnable Dilemma”: African-American Accommodation and Protest during World War 1 The Journal of American History, Vol. 81, No. 4. (Mar., 1995): 1562-1583

Mark Whalan, “The Only Real White Democracy” and the Language of Liberation: The Great War, France, and African American Culture in the 1920s.” Modern fiction studies. 51 (Winter 2005): 775-800

Carol J Batker, Ch 2 ‘Jessie Fauset and World War 1 Controversies in the African American Press’ in Reforming fictions : Native, African, and Jewish American women's literature and journalism in the Progressive Era (New York, 2000)

Trott, Sarah. "A 'Lost Crowd': Reconfiguring The Harlem Renaissance As A Post-War 'Lost Generation'." Comparative American studies : an international journal.. 11.4 (2013): 434-447 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Steve Reich, ‘Soldiers of Democracy: Black Texans and the Fight for Citizenship, 1917-1921, The Journal of American history., Vol. 82, No. 4 (Mar., 1996), pp. 1478-1504.

Jeanette Keith, ‘The Politics of Southern Draft Resistance, 1917–1918: Class, Race, and Conscription in the Rural South’ The Journal of American history., March 2001, Vol. 87, No. 4.

Jeffrey B. Perry, "An Introduction to Hubert Harrison: 'The Father of Harlem Radicalism," in Souls ISSN: 1099-9949, Vol 2. No. 1

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Week 4: Interracial Organisations and their Publications:

Q: What role did interracial organisations and their publications play in promoting the production of African American literature in the Harlem Renaissance?

Documents:

Below I have highlighted documents from Crisis and Opportunity but you should refer to a wider selection of documents included in both collections. i) Four articles below all from Sondra Kathryn Wilson (ed.) The Crisis reader : stories, poetry, and essays from the N.A.A.C.P.'s Crisis magazine

  • Gwendolyn Bennett, To Usward p 3 *
  • W.E.B. Du Bois, ‘Editing the Crisis’ xxvii-xxxii *
  • Allison Davis, ‘Our Negro Intellectuals’ 326-333 *
  • Marita O Bonner, ‘On Being Young, A Woman-and Colored’ (also in Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

ii) 7 articles from Sondra Kathryn Wilson (ed.) The Opportunity Reader

  • Charles S Johnson, ‘Public Opinion and the Negro’ *
  • Charles S Johnson ‘The Social Philosophy of Booker T Washington’ *
  • E Franklin Frazier, ‘The Garvey Movement’ *
  • A Philip Randolph, ‘The Negro and Economic Radicalism’ *
  • Langston Hughes, ‘Our Wonderful Society, Washington’ *
  • Brenda Ray Moryck,‘I Too, Have Lived in Washington’ *
  • Brenda Ray Moryck ‘A Point of View (An Opportunity Dinner Reaction) *

iii) 4 articles from Theodore G Vincent Voices of a Black Nation (New Jersey, 1973)

  • W.E.B Du Bois, ‘The NAACP and the Class Struggle’ Crisis August 1921 pp 86-88 *
  • Chandler Owen, ‘Du Bois on Revolution’ in the Messenger Sept 1921 pp 88-92
  • Ch 4: ‘Du Bois & Garvey’-series of editorial exchange between Du Bois and Garvey and James Weldon Johnson and Garvey. pp 93-112 *
  • Ch. 10 ‘A Columnist is Caught Between the NAACP and the UNIA’ pp 163-168*

iv) From Lewis ‘ Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader

v) From Mary White Ovington ‘ Black and white sat down together : the reminiscences of an NAACP founder

  • Mary White Ovington, ‘The NAACP Begins’ pp 56-60; ‘Early Years of the NAACP and the Urban League’ pp 66-71 Afterword 147-161. *

vi) 3 articles from Norton Anthology of African American Literature

  • W.E.B Du Bois, Criteria of Negro Art pp752-759
  • Langston Hughes, ‘The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain’ The Nation (1926) pp 1267-1271.
  • Langston Hughes The Big Sea Part 3 :Black Renaissance, pp 223-334.

Secondary Reading:

Books

Anne Elizabeth Carroll, Word, image, and the New Negro : representation and identity in the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington, 2005).

Sondra Kathryn Wilson’s Introduction in The Crisis Reader , Opportunity Reader, Messenger Reader.

Gilbert Jonas, Freedom's sword : the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969 (2004) espc. Chs.1-4.

Carol J Batker, Reforming fictions : Native, African, and Jewish American women's literature and journalism in the Progressive Era. (New York, 2000)

Manfred Berg, The ticket to freedom : the NAACP and the struggle for Black political integration, (Gainesville, 2005).

B.Joyce Ross, J. E. Spingarn and the rise of the NAACP, 1911-1939, (New York, 1972).

Lee Sartain, Invisible activists : women of the Louisiana NAACP and the struggle for civil rights, 1915-1945 (2007).

Christopher Robert, The Chicago NAACP and the rise of Black professional leadership, 1910-1966 (Indiana University, Press, 1997)

Chidi Ikonne, From Du Bois to Van Vechten (Westport, Conn, 1981)

Charles Flint Kellogg, NAACP: A history of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (Baltimore, 1967)

David Levering Lewis, W.E.B Du Bois: Biography of A Race: 1868-1919 (New York, 1993)

W.E.B. DuBois : the fight for equality and the American century, 1919-1963 (New York, 2000)

W.E.B Du Bois: A Reader

When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York, 1989)

Kenneth M. Price & J. Lawrence Oliver eds., Critical Essays on James Weldon Johnson (New York, 1997)

Carolyn Sylvander, Jessie Redmon Fauset (espc Ch 4) (New York, 1981)

Ted Vincent, Keep Cool: The Black Activists Who Built the Jazz Age

Articles

Charles F. Cooney, ‘Walter White and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996).

Abby Arthur Johnson ‘Literary Midwife: Jessie Redmon Fauset and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Phylon 21 (June, 1978) : pp 143-153 also in Cary D. Wintz ed. Analysis and Assessment 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

Mason Stokes, "There Is Heterosexuality: Jessie Fauset, W. E. B. Du Bois, And The Problem Of Desire." African American review. 44.1/2 (2011): 67-83

Chidi Ikonné, ‘Opportunity and Black literature, 1923-1933’ in Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996)

Ralph L. Pearson, ‘Combating Racism With Art: Charles S. Johnson and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994

Charles W Scruggs, ‘Alain Locke and Walter White: Their Struggle for Control of the Harlem Renaissance’ in Black American literature forum., Vol 14 No. 3: p 91

Ralph L. Pearson, ‘Combatting Racism With Art: Charles S. Johnson and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1940-1979 (1996)

Alessandra Lorini, ‘The Spell of Africa is Upon Me’: W.E.B Du Bois’ Notion of Art as Propaganda’ in Genevieve Fabre and Michel Feith eds., Temples for Tomorrow: Looking Back at the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington, 2001)

Nunez, V. (2009). Remembering Pura Belpres early career at the 135th Street New York Public Library: interracial cooperation and Puerto Rican settlement during the Harlem renaissance. Centro Journal, 21(1), 52-77.

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Week 5: Black Organisations and Black Publications

Q: In what ways did black political periodicals and newspapers promote black culture in the Harlem Renaissance?

Documents:

i) Theodore G. Vincent Voices of a black nation : political journalism in the Harlem Renaissance (San Francisco, 1973)

Ch 4: Du Bois & Garvey *

Ch 5: Socialist Opposition to Black Nationalism *

Ch 6: The African Blood Brotherhood *

Ch 8: Opinions on White Helpers *

Ch 9: Garveyism and the question of National Loyalty *

Ch 10: A Columnist Is Caught Between the NAACP and the UNIA*

Ch 12: Communists and Garveyites *

Ch 22: Black Nationalist Intellectuals*

ii) Sondra Kathryn Wilson (ed.) The Messenger Reader

I have picked a selection but browse the whole collection

Chandler Owen, ‘The Failure of Negro Leadership’ *

Chandler Owen ‘Du Bois on Revolution’ *

W.A Domingo, ‘Socialism the Negroes’ Hope’ *

W.A Domingo, “If We Must Die’*

A. Philip Randolph, ‘The Negro in Politics’ *

A. Philip Randolph, ‘Reply to Marcus Garvey’ *

George Schuyler, ‘Economics and Politics’ *

Alice Dunbar –Nelson, ‘Woman’s Most Serious Problem’ *

William Pickens ‘Art and Propaganda’*

iii) Norton Anthology of African American Literature Langston Hughes ‘Grant Park’; ‘Gods’; ‘Prayer for a Winger Night’; Claude McKay ‘If We Must Die’; George Schuyler ‘The Negro-Art Hokum’ pp 1170-1171

iv) Tony Martin African Fundamentalism

Hubert H Harrison, ‘On a Certain Condescension in White Publishers’ *

‘Those Who Write Prose and Verse for the Negro World’ *

Eric Walrond, ‘Batoula, Art and Propaganda’ *

T. Thomas Fortune, ‘Mr Garvey as a Poet’ *

William H Ferris, ‘Dr Du Bois’ Ten Mistakes’ *

Amy Jacques Garvey, ‘On Langston Hughes: I Am A Negro –and Beautiful’*

Marcus Garvey, “Home to Harlem, “ Claude McKay’s Damaging Book, Should Earn Wholesale Condemnation of Negroes’ *

Unsigned Editorial ‘A Suggestion to the Messenger’ *

Hodge Kirnon, ‘Some Impressions of the Messenger Magazine’ *

Arthur A Schomburg, ‘The Negro in Our History’ *

Ethel Trew Dunlap, ‘To the Sons an Daughters of Chicago’ *

Zora Neale Hurston, ‘Home’*

Estella Matthews ‘The New Negro Woman’s Attitude Toward the White Man’*

v) The Crusader: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Sept. 1918)-v. 6, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1922) -no. 42. (New York ; London Garland Publishing, 1987).

vi) The passion of Claude McKay : selected poetry and prose, 1912-1948, ed. Wayne F. Cooper Claude McKay, "Garvey as a Negro Moses."

Secondary Reading
Books

Sondra Wilson, ‘Introduction’ in The Messenger Reader

Theodore G. Vincent, Keep cool : the black activists who built the jazz age (London, 1995)

Tony Martin, Literary Garveyism: Garvey Black Arts and the Harlem Renaissance (Dover, MA, 1983)

Race First (Dover, MA)

Theodore Kornweibel, Jr, No crystal stair : black life and the Messenger, 1917-1928 (1975)

Ula Y Taylor, The Veiled Garvey: The Life & Times of Amy Jacques Garvey (Berkeley, 2002)

Winston James, Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth Century America (London, 1998)

Joyce Moore Turner, Caribbean crusaders and the Harlem Renaissance, (Urbana, Illinois, 2005).

Mark Naison, Communists in Harlem during the depression epsc Ch. 1 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

William J. Maxwell, New Negro, old Left : African-American writing and Communism between the wars, (New York, 1999). espc. Ch.1. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Cedric J. Robinson, Black Marxism : the making of the black radical tradition (London, 1983). espc. Ch. 9. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Jeffrey Ferguson The sage of Sugar Hill : George S. Schuyler and the Harlem Renaissance

Articles

Ronald A. Kuykendall, “The African Blood Brotherhood, independent Marxist during the Harlem Renaissance,” Western Journal of Black Studies, 2000. Vol 26, No.1.

Ted Vincent, ‘The Crusader monthly's Black nationalist support for the Jazz Age’ in Cary D Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996)

George B Hutchinson, ‘Mediating “Race” and “Nation”: The Cultural Politics of the Messenger’ in African American Review Vol 28 Issue 4: 531-548 Jamaica Journal 20 (August-Oct 1987) (Special Issue on Garveyism:) (handout)

Robert Hill, "Racial and Radical: Cyril V. Briggs, The Crusader Magazine and the African Blood Brotherhood, 1918-1922," intro. to Volume 1: The Crusader: September 1918-August 1919, (New York, 1987), xiii.

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Week 6: Black Culture and the International Left

Documents:

Negro Worker *

Philip S. Foner and James S. Allen eds., American communism and Black Americans : a documentary history, 1919-1929 (1987)

Philip S. Foner and Herbert Shapiro eds., American communism and Black Americans : a documentary history, 1930-1934 (1991)

Ch.11 ‘Communists in the 1930s’; Ch. 13 ‘Black American Looks at Communism’; Ch 15 ‘Blacks and the Trade Union Movement’ in Theodore G. Vincent ed. Voices of a black nation : political journalism in the Harlem Renaissance

Evelyn Crawford and Mary Louise Patterson eds., Letters From Langston : From the Harlem Renaissance To the Red Scare and Beyond (California University Press, 2015).

Claude McKay Amiable with big teeth : a novel of the love affair between the communists and the poor black sheep of Harlem ISBN: 9780143107316 (hardcover); 0143107313 (hardcover) edited with an introduction by Jean-Christophe Cloutier and Brent Hayes Edwards. (New York, New York : Penguin Books, 2017)

F.B.I files on radical Harlem artists "F.B Eyes" Available at http://omeka.wustl.edu/omeka/exhibits/show/fbeyes

Harry Haywood , Black Bolshevik : autobiography of an Afro-American Communist (Chicago: Liberator Press, c1978).

James Ford, Negro's Struggle Against Imperialism - http://www.unz.org/Pub/Communist-1930jan-00022

Jeffrey B. Perry, A Hubert Harrison reader ISBN: 0819564702; 0819564699 (Weslyan University Press, 2001)

Secondary Reading:

For background on the Negro Worker and a full index of articles see http://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/negro-worker/

Cedric J. Robinson, Black Marxism: the making of the Black Radical Tradition , (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2000)

Minkah Makalani,  In the cause of freedom : radical Black internationalism from Harlem to London, 1917-1939 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011).

Harold Cruse, The crisis of the Negro intellectual, (1967; New York: New York Review Books, 2005)

Eric S. McDuffie, Sojourning for freedom : black women, American communism, and the making of black left feminism (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011)

Jeffrey B. Perry, Hubert Harrison : the voice of Harlem radicalism, 1883-1918 ISBN: 9780231139106 (cloth : alk. paper); 9780231511223 (e-book)  (New York, 2009).

Glenda Gilmore, Defying Dixie : the radical roots of civil rights, 1919-1950, (New York, W.W.Norton, 2008)

Mark I Solomon, The cry was unity : communists and African Americans, 1917-36 , (University Press of Mississippi 1998)

Mark Naison, Communists in Harlem during the depression, (1983)

Earl Ofari Hutchinson Blacks and reds : race and class in conflict, 1919-1990

Robin D.G. Kelley, Race rebels : culture, politics, and the black working class ( 1994) esp. Chs. 5 and 6.

Barbara Foley, Spectres of 1919 : class and nation in the making of the new Negro (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003).

Anthony Dawahare, Nationalism, Marxism, and African American literature between the wars : a new Pandora's box (University of Mississippi Press, 2003).

William J. Maxwell, New Negro, old Left : African-American writing and Communism between the wars .

Kate A. Baldwin, Beyond the color line and the Iron Curtain : reading encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963.

Gary Edward Holcomb, Claude McKay, code name Sasha : queer black Marxism and the Harlem Renaissance .

James Edward Smethurst, The new red Negro : the literary left and African American poetry, 1930-1946, (New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).

Bill V. Mullen and James Smethurst eds., Left of the color line : race, radicalism, and twentieth-century literature of the United States (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, c2003).

Glenda Gilmore, Defying Dixie : the radical roots of civil rights, 1919-1950 (2008).

Michael Denning, The cultural front: the laboring of American culture in the Twentieth Century, (London: New York: Verso, 1998).

William J. Maxwell, "F.B. Eyes: The Bureau Reads Claude McKay," in Mullen and Smethurst eds, Left of the color line : race, radicalism, and twentieth-century literature of the United States. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

William J. Maxwell, F.B. eyes : how J. Edgar Hoover's ghostreaders framed African American literature ISBN: 9780691130200 (hbk.) : £19.95 (Princeton University Press, 2015)

Winston James, ‘Being Red and Black in Jim Crow America: On the Ideology and Travails of Afro-America’s Socialist Pioneers, 1877-1930’, in Charles Payne & Adam Green, eds., Time longer than rope : a century of African American activism, 1850-1950 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Maxim Matusevich, "Harlem Globe-Trotters: Black Sojourners in Stalin’s Soveit Union," in In Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar ed., The Harlem Renaissance revisited : politics, arts, and letters (2010).

Manning Marable, "Marxism, Memory, and the Black Radical Tradition: Introduction to Volume 13," Souls , 13:1, Jan-Mar2011, pp 1-16 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Nikhil Pal Singh, ‘Retracing the Black-Red Thread,’ American literary history. . 2003 15(4): 830-840

Oliver Ayers, "Black Nationalism and Opposition to Organized Labour in 1930s New York City," European journal of American culture. ISSN: 1466-0407; 1758-9118. Mar 2015, Vol. 34 Issue 1, p5-24.

Robin D.G. Kelley, Ch. 5 Afric’s Sons With Banner Red: African American Communists and the Politics of Culture, 1919-1934 in Race rebels : culture, politics, and the black working class pp.103-121.

Lashawn Harris, "Running with the Reds: African American women and the Communist Party during the Great depression," Journal of African American History 94.1 (Winter 2009).

Angela Davis, Ch. 10 ‘Communist Women,’ in Women, race & class (1983) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

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Week 7: Constructing ‘Authentic’ Black Art I: Folk vs. Urban

Q: Was the folk or urban experience the more ‘authentic’ expression of blackness during the Harlem Renaissance?

Documents:

Novels

Each student must read at least ONE novel by Fauset OR Larsen AND one novel by Hurston OR McKay. Many of these also have chapters/extracts reprinted in the NA. Make sure you read the whole text as well.

Jessie Fauset, There is Confusion

Nella Larsen, Passing

Nella Larsen, Quicksand

Zora Neale Hurston, Their eyes were watching God : a novel.

Zora Neale Hurston, Dust tracks on a road

Claude McKay Home to Harlem


Other Relevant Texts

Wallace Thurman, Infants of the spring (London, 1998)

Jean Toomer, Cane (also reprinted in The Norton anthology of African American literature )

Rudolph Fisher, City of Refuge in Locke, The New Negro (New York, 1925)

Langston Hughes, The big sea : an autobiography (also see extracts in ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Essays

Zora Neal Hurston, "How it Feels To Be Colored Me" ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

George Schyuler, ‘The Negro Art Hokum’ ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Langston Hughes, ‘The Racial Mountain’ ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Arthur Huff Fauset, ‘American Negro Folk Literature’; Alain Locke ‘The Legacy of the Ancestral Arts’, Arthur Schomburg ‘The Negro Digs Up his Past’ in Alain Locke Harlem : Mecca of the new Negro. (Survey Graphic): http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/contents.html

Journals

FIRE!*

Poetry

Countee Cullen: "Heritage" ( Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Langston Hughes: choose poems from Norton Anthology of African American Literature

Secondary Reading:

See Matthew Claire’s recent Guardian article ‘Black Intellectuals, White Audiences: Searching for Tales of Authentic Blackness’, The Guardian, 20 July 2016 https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jul/20/black-intellectuals-white-audiences-searching-for-tales-of-authentic-blackness See a longer version of this piece here: http://www.publicbooks.org/nonfiction/black-intellectuals-and-white-audiences

J Martin Favor, Authentic Blackness: The Folk in the New Negro Renaissance (Duke, N.C, 1999)

Ann Du Cille, 'Blues Notes on Black Sexuality: Sex and the Texts of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen.' in J.C. Faut and Maura Shaw Tantillo eds., American sexual politics : sex, gender, and race since the Civil War. (Chicago, 1993) and in the Journal of the history of sexuality. 1993 Vol 3 no.3.

Ann Du Cille, espc Ch 5: ‘The Bourgeois, Wedding Bell Blues of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen’ in The coupling convention : sex, text, and tradition in black women's fiction (Yale, 1995): 86-109

Staple, J. (2006). Zora Neale Hurston's Construction of Authenticity Through Ethnographic Innovation. Western journal of black studies., 30(1), 62-68.

Rena Fraden, ‘Introduction’ in Blueprints for a Black Federal Theatre, 1935-1939 (Cambridge, 1994): 1-20. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Lena Ahlin, The "new negro" in the Old World : culture and performance in James Weldon Johnson, Jessie Fauset, and Nella Larsen (Lund, 2006).

Daphne Lamothe, Inventing the new Negro : narrative, culture, and ethnography , (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008)

Claudrena N. Harold, New Negro politics in the Jim Crow South ISBN: 9780820335124 (hardcover ; alk. paper); 0820335126 (hardcover ; alk. paper) (University of Georgia Press, 2016)

Michael Soto, Measuring the Harlem Renaissance : the U.S. Census, African American identity, and literary form ISBN: 9781625342508 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9781625342492 (hardcover : alk. paper), (University of Massachusetts Press, 2016)

Lawrence W. Levine, “The Folklore of Industrial Society: Popular Culture and its Audiences,” The American historical review., 97 (Dec, 1991): 1369-99.

Robin D.G. Kelley, “Notes on Deconstructing the Folk,” The American historical review. 97 (Dec, 1991): 1400-08.

Carol Batker “Love Me Like I Like to Be”: The Sexual Politics of Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God, the Classic Blues, and the Black Women’s Club Movement’ African American review. Vol 32, Issue 2 (Summer, 1998): 199-213

Candice M Jenkins, “Decoding essentialism: cultural authenticity and the Black bourgeoisie in Nella Larsen's Passing,” MELUS., (Fall, 2005): p 129-154.

Hazel Carby, “The Politics of Fiction, Anthropology, and the Folk: Zora Neale Hurston.” New essays on Their eyes were watching God, edited by Michael Awkward, (New York, 1990), 71-93.

Hazel Carby, “Ideologies of Black Folk: The Historical Novel of Slavery.” In Slavery and the literary imagination, ed Deborah E. McDowell and Arnold Rampersad. (Baltimore, 1989): 125-43. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

William J. Maxwell, “Is it true What They Say About Dixie? : Richard Wright, Zora Neal Hurston, and Rural/Urban Exchange in Modern African-American Literature,” in Barbara Ching and Gerald W. Creed eds., Knowing your place : rural identity and cultural hierarchy (New York, 1996): 71-104.

Aija Poikane Daumke, "The meaning and significance of Southern tradition in Rudolph Fisher's short story The South lingers on," in Jeffrey Ogbar ed., The Harlem Renaissance revisited : politics, arts, and letters,

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Week 8: Constructing Authentic Black Art II: What is Africa to Me?

Q: How ‘African’ was African American culture during the Harlem Renaissance?

Documents and Poems:

Countee Cullen, ‘Heritage’ in Norton anthology of African American literature (for a recording of Cullen reading Heritage see seminar room 8).

Langston Hughes, ‘The Negro Speaks of Rivers’ in Norton anthology of African American literature. (see seminar room 8 for recording of Hughes reading his poem).

Claude McKay, ‘Outcast’; ‘The Tropics of New York’; ‘Flame-Heart’; “In Bondage”; “Enslaved” “Adolescences” Norton Anthology of African American Literature

Alain Locke, ‘The Legacy of the Ancestral Arts’ in Alain Locke ed. The New negro (1925) also available in Survey Graphic at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/contents.html

Romare Bearden, ‘The Negro Artist and Modern Art’ in Lewis The portable Harlem Renaissance reader: 128-141 *

Aaron Douglas, ‘Aaron Douglas Chats About the Harlem Renaissance’ in Lewis ed., The portable Harlem Renaissance reader: 118-127 *

Secondary Reading:

Michael Feith, ‘The Syncopated African: Constructions of Origins in the Harlem Renaissance (Literature, Music, Visual Arts), in Fabre and FEith eds., Temples for tomorrow : looking back at the Harlem Renaissance

Amy H. Kirschke, “Oh Africa! The Influence of African Art During the Harlem Renaissance, in Fabre and Feith eds., Temples for tomorrow : looking back at the Harlem Renaissance

Lloyd W. Brown, ‘The African heritage and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996).

Joseph E. Holloway ed., Africanisms in American culture, (Bloomington,1999 and 2005).

Jutta Lorensen, “Between Image and Word, Color and Time: Jacob Lawrence's The Migration Series,” African American review., Volume 40, Number 3 (Fall 2006)

Goeser, C. (2005). The case of ebony and topaz: racial and sexual hybridity in Harlem renaissance illustrations. American Periodicals: A Journal of History, Criticism, and Bibliography., 15(1), 86-111.

Caroline Goeser, Picturing the new negro : Harlem Renaissance print culture and modern black identity, (Kansas University Press, 2006).

Calo, M. (2002). "Seeing" the Harlem Renaissance: Observations on the Position of Visual Art in Harlem Renaissance Studies. Prospects., 27427-445

Cherene Sherrard-Johnson, Portraits of the new Negro woman : visual and literary culture in the Harlem Renaissance. (New Brunswick, N.J, 2007).

Anne Elizabeth Carroll, Word, image, and the New Negro : representation and identity in the Harlem Renaissance.

Jeffrey C Stewart, To color America, portraits by Winold Reiss, (Washington D.C, 1989)

Gary A. Reynolds & Beryl Wrights eds., Against the odds : African-American artists and the Harmon Foundation (Newark, New Jersey, 1989)

Free within ourselves : African-American artists in the collection of the National Museum of American Art (San Francisco, 1992)

Mary Schmidt Campbell, Harlem Renaissance : art of Black America, (The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1987)

David Driskell, Hidden heritage : Afro-American art, 1800-1950 (Bellevue Art Museum Press, Washington 1985)

Elsa Honig Fine, The Afro-American artist : a search for identity (New York, 1973)

Documentary:

Against the odds [videorecording] : the artists of the Harlem renaissance. (Arlington, Va.,: PBS, 2006)

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Week 9. Caribbean Influences

Q1: How have historians understood Caribbean-African American interactions during the Harlem Renaissance?

Q2: Discuss the representation of intra-race racism in Harlem Renaissance writing

Novels:

Wallace Thurman, The blacker the berry (New York, 1972)

George Schuyler, Black no more : a novel (London, 1998)

Carl Van Vechten, Nigger heaven (New York, 1926)

Jessie Fauset, Plum bun : a novel without a moral

Comedy, American style

Claude McKay, Home to Harlem (Boston, 1987)

Banjo (New York, 1929)

Documents:

J A Rogers, ‘The West Indies: Their Political, Social, and Economic Condition’ in Sondra Wilson ed. The Messenger reader : stories, poetry, and essays from The Messenger magazine *

Walter White, ‘The Paradox of Color’ in Alain Locke ed. Harlem: Mecca of the New Negro (Survey Graphic): http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/contents.html *

‘How to Unite the West Indian and American Negroes’ in Tony Martin ed., African fundamentalism : a literary and cultural anthology of Garvey's Harlem Renaissance: 334-341

Theodore Vincent, Voices of a black nation : political journalism in the Harlem Renaissance: (San Francisco, 1973) *

Richard B. Moore, Caribbean militant in Harlem : collected writings 1920-1972 / edited by W. Burghardt Turner and Joyce Moore Turner

Secondary Reading:

Michelle Ann Stephen, Black empire : the masculine global imaginary of Caribbean intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962. (Duke, 2005).

Michelle A. Stephens, “Black Transnationalism and the Politics of National Identity: West Indian Intellectuals in Harlem in the Age of War and Revolution,” In American Quarterly 1998 50(3): 592-608.

Michelle Stephens, “Re-imagining the Shape and Borders of Black Political Space,” Radical History Review, 2003 (87): 169-182.

Brent Hayes Edwards, The practice of diaspora : literature, translation, and the rise of Black internationalism, (Harvard University Press, 2003).

Also see the following useful articles: published under “Book Discussion: Brent Hayes Edwards's The Practice of Diaspora: Literature, Translation, and the Rise of Black Internationalism,” in Small axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism, No. 17, March 2005.

Michelle Stephens, “Disarticulating Black Internationalisms: West Indian Radicals and The Practice of Diaspora,”

Michael Hanchard, “Translation, Political Community, and Black Internationalism: Some Comments on Brent Hayes Edwards's The Practice of Diaspora.”

Nadi Edwards, “Diaspora, Difference, and Black Internationalisms,”

T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting, “Erasures and the Practice of Diaspora Feminism,”

Brent Hayes Edwards, “Pebbles of Consonance: A Reply to Critics,”

Bone, R. A., & Parascandola, L. J. (2010). An Ellis Island of the Soul: Eric Walrond and the Turbulent Passage from Garveyite to New Negro. Afro-Americans in New York Life & History, 34(2), 34-53

Tiffany Ruby Patterson; Robin D. G. Kelley, “Unfinished Migrations: Reflections on the African Diaspora and the Making of the Modern World,” African Studies Review, Vol. 43, No. 1, Special Issue on the Diaspora. (Apr., 2000), pp. 11-45. Also see other articles in this special Diaspora issue of African Studies Review.

Minkah Makalani, In the cause of freedom : radical Black internationalism from Harlem to London, 1917-1939 (Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 2011)

Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic.

Martin Summers, Chapter 2: ‘A Spirit of Manliness’ in Manliness and its discontents : the Black middle class and the transformation of masculinity, 1900-1930. (Chapel Hill, 2004): 66-110. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Kotti Sree Ramesh and Kandula Nirupa Rani, Claude McKay : the literary identity from Jamaica to Harlem and beyond, (Jefferson, NC, 2006)

Philip Kasinitz, Caribbean New York : Black immigrants and the politics of race (Ithaca, N.Y., 1992).

Tyrone Tillery, Claude McKay: a black poet's struggle for identity (Amherst, MA, 1994)

Robert Hill, “Racial and Radical: Cyril V. Briggs, THE CRUSADER Magazine, and the African Blood Brotherhood, 1918-1922," intro. to Volume 1: The Crusader: September 1918-August 1919, (New York, 1987), xiii.

Winston James, Holding aloft the banner of Ethiopia : Caribbean radicalism in early twentieth-century America (London, 1998)

Joyce Moore Turner (with the assistance of W. Burghardt Turner), Caribbean crusaders and the Harlem Renaissance, (Urbana, Illinois, 2005).

Louis J. Parascandola, "Look for me all around you" : anglophone Caribbean immigrants in the Harlem Renaissance.

John C. Walter and Jill Louise Ansheles, ‘The role of the Caribbean immigrant in the Harlem Renaissance in Cary D Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

Iram Owens-Watkins, "Early Twentieth-Century Caribbean Women: Migration and Social Networks in New York City," Islands in the city : West Indian migration to New York edited by Nancy Foner (Berkeley, 2001), pp 25-51 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva .

Elsa M. Chaney, "The Context of Caribbean Migration." in Caribbean life in New York City : sociocultural dimensions, edited by Constance R. Sutton and Elsa M. Chaney, (New YOrk: Center for Migratino Studies of New York, 1994), pp 3-14.

R. A. Bone & L.J. Parascandola, L. J. An Ellis Island of the Soul: Eric Walrond and the Turbulent Passage from Garveyite to New Negro. Afro-Americans in New York Life & History, 34(2), (2010): 34-53 .

Frances Charras, ‘The West-Indian Presence in Alain Locke’s The New Negro(1925)’ in Genevieve Fabre and Michael Feith eds., Temples for tomorrow : looking back at the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington, 2001)

Carl Pedersen, ‘The Tropics in New York’ : Claude McKay and the new Negro Movement’ in Temples for tomorrow : looking back at the Harlem Renaissance

Daniel M. Scott III, “Harlem Shadows: Re-Evaluating Wallace Thurman's "The Blacker the Berry," MELUS., Vol. 29, No. 3/4, Special Issue: Pedagody, Canon, Context: Toward a Redefinition of Ethnic American Literary Studies (Autumn - Winter, 2004), pp. 323-339

David Hellwig, Black meets black : Afro-American reactions to West Indian immigrants in the 1920's 77 (1978): 206-224

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Week 10: Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association

Q: How and why have historical assessments of the Garvey Movement changed through the course of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries?

Document Collections:

i) Amy Jacques Garvey ed. The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey; Or, Africa for the Africans. 1923, 1925. Reprint, Dover, Mass: 1986 Vol I, II & III

Vol 1:

‘Propaganda’ p 15; ‘Slavery’ p 15; ‘Force’ p 16; ‘Education’ p 17; ‘Miscegenation’ p 17; ‘Prejudice’ p 18; ‘Power’ p 21 ; ‘Race Assimilation’ p 26; ‘The Function of Man’ p 28; ‘World Readjustment’ p 34; ‘Purity of Race’ p 37; ‘Man Know Thyself’ p 38-39; ‘A Solution For World Race’ p 40; ‘The True Solution of the Negro Problem’ p 52; ‘Booker T Washington’s Program’ p 56; ‘Belief that Race Problem Will Adjust Itself a Fallacy’ p 57-58; ‘An Appeal to the Intelligentsia’ p 66-67; ‘Africa for the Africans’ p 68-72; ‘The Future As I See It’ p 73; ‘Statement of Arrest’ p 78-100

‘Speech Delivered at Liberty Hall’ p 93-97;

Vol 2:

‘Who & What is the Negro’ p 18; ‘The Negro, Communism, Trade Unionism, and His (? ) Friend: ‘Beware of Greeks Bearing Gifts’ p 69-73; ‘The Colored or Negro Press’ p 77-80; ‘The Principles of the UNIA’ p 93-99; ‘Declaration of Rights of the Negro People of the World’ p 135-143; ‘First Speech After Release From Tombs Prison Delivered at Liberty Hall, NYC Sept 12 1923’ p 231-235; ‘Reprint from the Negro World: ‘Eight Negroes Writer Letter to Attorney General and White Press Misrepresent Garvey and Movement’ p293-309

ii) Tony Martin African Fundamentalism

Marcus Garvey ‘African Fundamentalism’ p 4 *

Eric Walrond ‘Marcus Garvey, A Defense’ p 17 *

Ethel Trew Dunlap In Respect to Marcus Garvey’ p 179 *

John E Bruce ‘Africa’ (1921)p 200 *

Ethel Trew Dunlap ‘Good Bye America!’ p 204 *

Music and Art pp 291-302 *

‘Aims and Objects of the UNIA’ pp 343-344 *

iii) Amy Jacques Garvey, Garvey and Garveyism (London, MacMillan Ltd, 1963, 1970)

Ch.s 1, 2,4,5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 21, 25, 30, 38, 43, 44, 45, 49, Epilogue

iv) Robert Hill ed., The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association papers. Vol.s 1-9 (Los Angeles: 1987)

v) Federal surveillance of Afro-Americans, 1917-1925 [microform] : the First World War, the Red Scare, and the Garvey Movement (Frederick, Maryland: UPA, 1986)

vi) Jeanette Irvin-Smith, Footsoldiers of the Universal Negro Improvement Association : their own words (Trenton, N.J, 1989)

vii) Claude McKay, "Garvey as a Negro Moses," in The passion of Claude McKay : selected poetry and prose, 1912-1948, ed. Wayne F. Cooper (New York, 1973).

viii) Black brotherhood; Afro-Americans and Africa edited and with an introd. by Okon Edet Uya (Lexington, MA, 1971). Good collection of documents tracing African American leaders and their relationship with Africa.

Secondary Reading:
Books

David Cronon, Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Madison, Wisconsin, 1969)

John Henrik Clarke, Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa (New York, 1974)

Wilson Jeremiah Moses, The golden age of black nationalism, 1820-1925. (Oxford, 1978).

Harold Cruse, The crisis of the Negro intellectual., (1967. New York Review Books edition with introduction by Stanley Crouch, 2005) espc. Part 11: ‘1920’s-1930’s-West Indian Influence,’ pp: 115-146.

K Randall Burkett, Garveyism as a Religious Movement : The Institutionalization of a Black Civil Religion (Metuchen, N.J, 1978)

Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, 1993)

Adam Ewing, The age of Garvey : how a Jamaican activist created a mass movement and changed global Black politics ISBN: 9780691157795 (hardback); 0691157790 (hardback) (Princeton, 2014).

Robert Hill & Barbara Bair, eds., Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons: A Centennial Companion to the Marcus Garvey and UNIA Papers. (Los Angeles 1987)

Winston James, Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth Century America (London, 1998)

Keisha N. Blain, Set the world on fire : black nationalist women and the global struggle for freedom ISBN: 9780812249880 (hardcover : alk. paper) (Philadelphia, 2018)

Theodore Kornweibel ed., Federal Surveillance of Afro Americans, 1917-1925: The First World War, the Red Scare, the Garvey Movement (Frederick, Maryland: UPA, 1986)

Rupert Lewis, Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion (Trenton, N.J, 1988)

Rupert Lewis & Patrick Bryan eds., Garvey: His Work and Impact (Mona, Jamaica, 1988)

Tony Martin, Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement association (Westport, Conn: 1976)

Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts and the Harlem Renaissance (Dover, Mass,)

Judith Stein, The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society (Baton Rouge, 1986)

Theodore G. Vincent, Black Power and the Garvey Movement (San Francisco, 1971)

Keep cool : the black activists who built the jazz age

Mary G. Rolinson, Grassroots Garveyism : the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the rural South, 1920-1927 (Chapel Hill, 2007).

Claudrena N. Harold, The rise and fall of the Garvey movement in the urban South, 1918-1942, (New York, 2007).

Michelle Ann Stephen, Black empire : the masculine global imaginary of Caribbean intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962 (Duke, 2005). Especially chapters 3 and 4.

James Davis, Eric Walrond : a life in the Harlem Renaissance and the transatlantic Caribbean (Columbia University Press, 2015).

Kenneth S. Jolly, By our own strength : William Sherrill, the UNIA, and the fight for African American self-determination in Detroit (2013)

Emory J. Tolbert, The UNIA and black Los Angeles : ideology and community in the American Garvey movement, (Los Angeles, 1980).

Articles

Claudrena Harold, "Reconfiguring the Roots and Routes of New Negro Activism: The Garvey Movement in New Orleans," in Baldwin and Makalani eds., Escape from New York : the New Negro Renaissance beyond Harlem.

Jonathan P. Eburne, . "Garveyism And Its Involutions." African American review. 47.1 (2014): 1-19.

Ronald J. Stephens, “Garveyism in Idlewild, 1927 to 1936,” Journal of black studies., Vol. 34, No. 4, 462-488 (2004)

Eric S. McDuffie, "Garveyism in Cleveland, Ohio and the History of the Diasporic Mid-West," African identities, 9:2: 163-182.

Emory Tolbert, “Outpost Garveyism and the UNIA Rank and File,” Journal of black studies., Vol. 5, No. 3, Working Papers in the Study of Race Consciousness, Part 1 (Mar., 1975), pp. 233-253

Michelle Stephens, “Re-imagining the Shape and Borders of Black Political Space,” Radical History Review, 2003 (87): 169-182.

Paul Carter Harrison, “The Black Star Line: The De-Mystification of Marcus Garvey,” African American review., Vol. 31, No. 4, Contemporary Theatre Issue (Winter, 1997), pp. 713-716.

Carla Marano, "‘Rising Strongly and Rapidly’: The Universal Negro Improvement Association in Canada, 1919–1940." The Canadian historical review. 91, no. 2: (2010), 233-259.

Ramla Bandele, "Understanding African Diaspora Political Activism: The Rise and Fall of the Black Star Line." Journal of black studies. 40, no. 4 (March 2010): 745-761.

Daniel A. Dalrymple, ""Reclaiming the Fallen": The Universal Negro Improvement Association Central Division, New York 1935-1942." Journal of black studies. 45, no. 1 (2014), 19-36

Tamba E. M'Bayo, "W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey and Pan-Africanism in Liberia, 1919-1924," The historian. , Volume 66, Issue 1, pp 19-44 - Available online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0018-2370.2004.00062.x/abstract

Robin Dearmon Jenkins, "Linking Up the Golden Gate: Garveyism in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1919-1925." Journal Of Black Studies 39, no. 2 (November 2008): 266-280.

Ronald J. Stephens, "Methodological Considerations For Micro Studies Of UNIA Divisions: Some Notes Calling On An Ethno-Historical Analysis." Journal Of Black Studies 39.2 (2008): 281-315

Mark Christian, "Marcus Garvey And The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA): With Special Reference To The "Lost" Parade In Columbus, Ohio, September 25,1923." Western journal of black studies. 28.3 (2004): 424-434

Philip McCormick, "Healing Colonial Trauma: Marcus Garvey, Cargo Movements, And Symbolic Empowerment." Journal Of Black Studies 39.2 (2008): 252-280.

John Runcie, "Black Music And The Garvey Movement." Afro-Americans In New York Life & History 11.2 (1987): 7-23 .

Emory J.Tolbert, "Federal Surveillance Of Marcus Garvey And The U.N.I.A."Journal Of Ethnic Studies (00913219) 14.4 (1987): 25-46

Clare Corbould, “Streets, Sounds and Identity in Interwar Harlem,” Journal of Social History , Volume 40, Number 4, Summer 2007

R.A. Bone, & L.J. Parascandola, L. J. "An Ellis Island of the Soul: Eric Walrond and the Turbulent Passage from Garveyite to New Negro," Afro-Americans in New York Life & History, (2010). 34(2), 34-53

J. Roll. Garveyism and the Eschatology of African Redemption in the Rural South, 1920-1936. Religion and American Culture, (2010): 20(1), 27-56

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Week 11: Gendering Black Nationalism: Pan-Africanist Feminist Reactions to the New Negro Male

Q: How far were women able to shape gender roles within the Garvey movement?

Documents:

Amy Jacques Garvey, Garvey and Garveyism (London, 1963) (Selections as Wk 10)

Amy Jacques Garvey ed., The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey; Or, Africa for the Africans. 1923, 1925. Reprint, Dover, Mass: 1986 Vol I, II & III (Selections as Wk 9)

Amy Jacques Garvey, ‘Whither goest thou? ; On a trip from coast to coast; The hand that rocks the cradle Our women getting into the larger life’ Women and world peace; The tidal wave of oppressed peoples beats against the color line; Imprison a leader and you boost his cause; Women as leaders nationally and racially; I am a Negro - and beautiful. Reprinted in "Look for me all around you" : anglophone Caribbean immigrants in the Harlem Renaissance edited by Louis J. Parascandola

Document Project: "How Did Rank and File Women Construct the "New Negro Woman" within the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the 1920s? " by Keisha Benjamin in Women & social movements in the United States 1600-2000 [electronic resource]. e-resource.

Gerda Lerner ed., Black women in white America : a documentary history

Amy Jacques Garvey, ‘Women As Leaders’ pp 576-578 - Available online: http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/garveywomenasleaders.html

‘The Black Woman’ in Tony Martin ed., African fundamentalism : a literary and cultural anthology of Garvey's Harlem Renaissance pp 216-221

Secondary Reading:
Books
Judith Butler, “Melancholy Gender/Refused Identification,” in Maurice Berger, Brian Wallis, Simon Watson eds., Constructing masculinity, (New York, 1995).

Keisha N. Blain, Set the world on fire : black nationalist women and the global struggle for freedom ISBN: 9780812249880 (hardcover : alk. paper) (Philadelphia, 2018)

Michele Mitchell, Righteous propagation : African Americans and the politics of racial destiny after Reconstruction (Chapel Hill, 2004) especially Ch. 8 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Michelle Ann Stephens Black empire : the masculine global imaginary of Caribbean intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962, (Durham, , 2005.)

Martin Summers, Manliness and its discontents : the Black middle class and the transformation of masculinity, 1900-1930, espc. Chapter 2.

Kate Dossett, Bridging race divides : black nationalism, feminism and integration, (Gainesville, Jan 2008). esp Ch.4. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ula Y. Taylor, The veiled Garvey : the life & times of Amy Jacques Garvey (Chapel Hill, 2002)

Mary G. Rolinson, Grassroots Garveyism : the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the rural South, 1920-1927 (Chapel Hill, 2007).

Claudrena N. Harold, The rise and fall of the Garvey movement in the urban South, 1918-1942, (New York, 2007).

Marlon B. Ross. Manning the race : reforming black men in the Jim Crow era. (2004).

Winston James, Holding aloft the banner of Ethiopia : Caribbean radicalism in early twentieth-century America (London, 1998)

Hazel Carby, Race men (Cambridge, 1998)

Deborah Gray White, Too heavy a load : black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994 (New York, 1999)

Lois A West ed. ‘Introduction: Feminism Constructs Nationalism’ in Feminist nationalism (New York, 1997)

Paul Gilroy, The black Atlantic : modernity and double consciousness (Cambridge, 1993)

Cynthia Enloe, Bananas, beaches & bases : making feminist sense of international politics (Los Angeles, 1989)

Articles

Barbara Bair, ‘Renegotiating Liberty: Garveyism, Women, and Grassroots Organizing in Virginia’ in Women of the American south: a multicultural reader / edited by Christie Anne Farnham. (New York, 1997). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Barbara Bair “Ethiopia Shall Stretch Forth her hands unto God”: Laura Kofey and the gendered vision of redemption in the Garvey Movement” in A mighty baptism : race, gender, and the creation of American Protestantism (1996). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Barbara Bair, ‘True Women, Real Men: Gender, Ideology and Social Roles in the Garvey Movement’ in Dorothy O Helly and Susan M Reverby eds., Gendered domains : rethinking public and private in women's history ; essays from the seventh Berkshire Conference on the History of Women (Ithaca, New York, 1992)

Hakim Adi, "Amy Ashwood Garvey and the Nigerian Progress Union, " in Gendering the African diaspora : women, culture, and historical change in the Caribbean and Nigerian hinterland ISBN: 9780253221537 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780253354167 (cloth : alk. paper); 0253354161 (cloth : alk. paper); 0253221536 (pbk. : alk. paper), eds. Judith Byfield, LaRay Denzer, and Anthea Morrison (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010).

Keisha N Blain, "Confraternity Among All Dark Races": Mittie Maude Lena Gordon and the Practice of Black (Inter)nationalism in Chicago, 1932-1942," Palimpsest : a journal on women, gender and the black international. ISSN: 2165-1604; 2165-1612 (Spring 2016) Vol 5, No. 2: 151-181.

Keisha N. Blain,"We Want to Set the World on Fire,": Black Nationalist Women and Diasporic Politics in the New Negro World, 1940-1944," Journal of Social History. ISSN: 0022-4529, Vol. 49, No. 1 (Fall 2015): 194-212.

Melissa. Castillo-Garsow, "Afro-Latin@ Nueva York: Maymie de Mena and the Unsung Afro-Latina Leadership of the UNIA, in Afro-Latinos in Movement: Critical Approaches to Blackness and Transnationalism in the Americas, eds. Petra R. Rivera-Rideau, Jennifer A. Jones, and Tianna S. Paschel (2016).

Natanya Duncan, "Our Men Hesitate Then the Women of the Race Must Come Forward: Henrietta Vinton Davis and the UNIA in New York," New York History, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Fall 2015): 558-583. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (hew 02/08/2017) 

Natanya Duncan, "Princess Laura Kofey and the Reverse Atlantic Experience," in The American south and the Atlantic world ISBN: 9780813048338 (e-book), eds. Brian Ward, Martyn Bone, and William A. Link (2013).

Reena Goldthree, "Amy Jacques Garvey, Theodore Bilbo, and the Paradoxes of Black Nationalism," in Global circuits of blackness : interrogating the African diaspora ISBN: 9780252077531 (pbk.) : £20.99; 9780252035623 (hbk.) : £64.00; 0252035623 (hbk.) : £64.00; 0252077539 (pbk.) : £20.99, eds. Jean Muteba Rahier, Percy C. Hintzen and Felipe Smith ( 2010).

Asia Leeds, "Toward the "Higher Type of Womanhood,": The Gendered Contours of Garveyism and the Making of Redemptive Geographies in Costa Rica, 1922 -1941," Palimpsest : a journal on women, gender and the black international. ISSN: 2165-1604; 2165-1612, Volume 2, No. 1 (November 2013): 1-27.

Rhoda Reddock, "The First Mrs. Garvey: Pan-Africanism and Feminism in the Early Twentieth Century British Colonial Caribbean," Feminist Africa, Issue 19 (2014): 58-77.

Nydia A. Swaby, "Amy Ashwood Garvey and the Political Aesthetics of Diasporic Social Spaces in London,"Symbolism: An International Annual of Critical Aesthetics, Volume 14 (2014): 59-73.

Minkah Makalani, "An International African Opinion: Amy Ashwood Garvey and C.L.R. James in Black Radical London, " in Escape From New York: The New Negro Renaissance Beyond Harlem, eds. Davarian L. Baldwin and Minkah Makalani (2013).

Erik S. McDuffie, "The Diasporic Journeys of Louise Little: Grassroots Garveyism, the Midwest, and Community Feminism," Special Issue: Women, Gender Politics, and Pan-Africanism (eds. Keisha N. Blain, Asia Leeds and Ula Taylor), Women, Gender and Families of Color (Fall 2016).

Courtney Morris, "Becoming Creole, Becoming Black: Migration, Diasporic Self-Making, and the Many Lives of Madame Maymie Leona Turpeau de Mena,"Special Issue: Women, Gender Politics, and Pan Africanism (eds. Keisha N. Blain, Asia Leeds and Ula Taylor), Women, Gender and Families of Color (Fall 2016).

Special Issue: Women, Gender Politics, and Pan Africanism edited by Keisha N. Blain, Asia Leeds and Ula Taylor, in Women, Gender and Families of Color Vol 4, Issue 2, October 2016.

Tamba E. M'Bayo, “W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey and Pan-Africanism in Liberia, 1919-1924,” The Historian, Volume 66, Issue 1, pp 19-44

Beryl Satter, “Marcus Garvey, Father Divine and the Gender Politics of Race Difference and Race Neutrality,” American Quarterly., 1996, 48(1): 43-76.

Anne S. Macpherson, “Colonial Matriarchs, Garveyism, Maternalism, and Belize’s Black Cross Nurses, 1920-1952,” Gender & history., 2003 (15) : 507-527.

Anne S. Macpherson, ‘A fragile peace: colonial reform, Garveyism, and the Black Cross nurses, 1920-1930’ in From colony to nation : women activists and the gendering of politics in Belize, 1912-1982. (Lincoln, Nebraska, 2007). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Karen Adler, ‘Always Leading Our Men in Service and Sacrifice’: Amy Jacques Garvey, Feminist Black Nationalist’ , Gender & society., Vol. 6, No. 3, (Sept, 1992)

Mark D. Matthews, “Our Women and What They Think”: Amy Jacques Garvey and the Negro World in Black Women in United States History ~Vol 3 no 48 1979 pp 866-878

William Seraille, "Our Women and What They Think”: Amy Jacques Garvey and the Negro World in Black Women. Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 7 (July 1983): 7-24

Tony Martin, ‘Women in the Garvey Movement ‘ in Rupert Lewis & Patrick Bryan eds., Garvey : his work and impact pp 67-72

Honor Ford Smith, ‘Women in the Garvey Movement in Jamaica’ in Garvey : his work and impact pp 73-86 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ula Y. Taylor, ‘Negro Women Are Great Thinkers as well as doers’: Amy Jacques Garvey and Community Feminism in the United States, 1924-1927’ in Journal of women's history. Vol 12. No. 2 (Summer)

Teresa Zackodnik "Recirculation and Feminist Black Internationalism in Jessie Fauset's "The Looking Glass" and Amy Jacques Garvey's "Our Women and What They Think.". Modernism/modernity. September 2012;19(3):437-459.

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Semester 2

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Week 12: Women’s Poetry and Fiction in the Harlem Renaissance

Q: How does the author discuss the relationship between race and gender?

Main texts for discussion:

Jessie Fauset, Plum Bun: A Novel without a moral (New York, 1929)

Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes were Watching God (1 st published in Philadelphia, 1937. This edition 1994)

Alice Walker ed, I Love Myself When I am Laughing and then again when I am Looking Mean (New York, 1979)

Choose a short story or poem from one of the following:

Maureen Honey ed., Shadowed Dreams: women's poetry of the Harlem Renaissance (New Brunswick, 1989) a small selection of poems

Mary Knopf ed., The Sleeper Wakes: Harlem Renaissance Stories by Women (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1993) choose two short stories particularly

Lorraine Elena Roses & Ruth Elizabeth Randolph eds., Harlem's Glory: Black women writing 1900-1950 (Cambridge, Mass. & London 1996)

Venetria K. Patton and Maureen Honey, Double-take : a revisionist Harlem Renaissance anthology, (New Brunswick, N.J, 2001).

Secondary Reading:
Books

Maureen Honey, Aphrodite's daughters : three modernist poets of the Harlem Renaissance ISBN: 9780813570785 (pbk.); 9780813570792 (hardback); 9780813570808 (e-book (web pdf)) (Rutgers University Press, 2016)

 Layli Phillips ed., The Womanist reader, (Routledge, 2006) especially articles by Alice Walker, Shirley Anne Williams, Patricia Hill Collins,

Lorraine Elena Roses & Ruth Elizabeth Randolph eds., Harlem Renaissance and Beyond: Literary Biographies of 100 Black Women Writers 1900-1945 (Cambridge, Mass & London, 1990)

Ethelene Whitmire, Regina Anderson Andrews : Harlem Renaissance Librarian (University of Illinois Press).

Licia Morrow Calloway, Black family (dys)function in novels by Jessie Fauset, Nella Larsen, & Fannie Hurst (New York, 2003).

Cherene Sherrard-Johnson, Portraits of the new Negro woman : visual and literary culture in the Harlem Renaissance, (New Brunswick, N.J, 2007).

Portia Boulware Ransom, Black love and the Harlem Renaissance : (the novels of Nella Larsen, Jessie Redmon Fauset, and Zora Neale Hurston) : an essay in African American literary criticism (Lewiston, N.Y., 2005).

Lena Ahlin, The "new negro" in the Old World : culture and performance in James Weldon Johnson, Jessie Fauset, and Nella Larsen (Lund : Lund University, 2006).

Emmanuel E. Egar, Black women poets of Harlem Renaissance (Lanham, Maryland, 2003).

Gloria L. Cronin ed., Critical essays on Zora Neale Hurston (New York, 1998).

Hazel V. Carby, Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the Afro-American Woman novelist (Oxford, New York, 1987)

'Introduction: Regulating Midwives' in Jessie Fauset Plum Bun, A Novel Without A Moral (Boston, 1990)

Barbara Christian, Black women novelists : the development of a tradition, 1892-1976 (Connecticut, Greenwood, 1980)

Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment (Boston, 1990)

Angela Y Davis, Women, Race and Class, (New York, 1983)

Nancy Schrom Dye and Novalee Frankel eds., Gender, Class, Race and Reform in the Progressive Era - Conference on Women (Lexington, Kentucky, 1991)

Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on race and sex in America (New York, 1984)

Robert Hemenway, Zora Neale Hurston : a literary biography (Urbana, London, 1977).

Gloria T Hull, Color, Sex and Poetry (Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987).

Jacquelyn Y McLendon, The Politics of Color in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen (Charlottesville and London, 1995)

Barbara Smith, ‘Towards A Black Feminist Criticism’ in Elaine Showalter ed., The New Feminist Criticism (1986) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Carolyn Sylvander, Jessie Redmon Fauset: Black American Writers (Troy, New York, 1981)

Claudia Tate, Domestic allegories of political desire : the black heroine's text at the turn of the century (New York, 1992)

Cheryl A Wall, Women of the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1995)

Ann Du Cille, 'Blues Notes on Black Sexuality: Sex and the Texts of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen.' in J.C. Faut and Maura Shaw Tantillo eds., American Sexual Politics: Sex, Gender and Race since the Civil War (Chicago, 1993).

Alice Walker, In search of our mothers' gardens : womanist prose (New York, 1983)

Beverly Guy Sheftall & Johnetta Cole, Gender talk : the struggle for women's equality in African American communities, (Ballantine, 2003)

Articles

KaaVonia Hinton, '"Sturdy Black Bridges": Discussing Race, Class and Gender,' English journal., Vol 94, No.2 Subversive English (Nov 2004), pp60-64.(good intro to black feminist theory)

Farah Jasmine Griffin,. “That the Mothers May Soar and the Daughters May Know Their Names: A Retrospective of Black Feminist Literary Criticism,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 2007 32(2): 483-507

Sharon P. Holland, ‘The Revolution, “In Theory,”’ American literary history. 2000 12(1-2): 327-336.

Anne Stavney, ‘Mothers of Tomorrow’: the New Negro Renaissance and the Politics of Maternal Representation African American review. Vol 32 Issue 4: (Winter, 1998) : 533-561.

Australia Tarver, "My house and a glimpse of my life therein" : migrating lives in the short fiction of Jessie Fauset,” in New voices on the Harlem Renaissance : essays on race, gender, and literary discourse edited by Australia Tarver and Paula C. Barnes (Madison, N.J, 2006).

Imani B Fryar, ‘Literary Aesthetics and the Black Woman Writer’ Vol 20, Issue 4, The African Literary Imagination (Jun, 1990) : 443-466 Journal of black studies.

Louise L. Stevenson, "The New Woman, Social Science, And The Harlem Renaissance: Ophelia Settle Egypt As Black Professional." The journal of southern history. 77.3 (2011): 555-594 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva .

E. R. Rutter, '"Belch the pity! / Straddle the city!": Helene Johnson's Late Poetry and the Rhetoric of Empowerment', African American review., vol. 47, no. 4, (2014) pp. 495-509.

Treva Lindsey, "Climbing the Hilltop: In Search of a New Negro Womanhood at Howard University," in Baldwin and Makalani eds., Escape from New York : the New Negro Renaissance beyond Harlem.

Abbey Arthur Johnson, 'Literary Midwife: Jessie Redmon Fauset and the Harlem Renaissance' in Phylon (1960-) 21, (June 1978), 143-153. also in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis & Assessment

Teresa Zackodnik "Recirculation and Feminist Black Internationalism in Jessie Fauset's "The Looking Glass" and Amy Jacques Garvey's "Our Women and What They Think.". Modernism/modernity. September 2012;19(3):437-459.

V. Popp, Where Confusion Is: Transnationalism in the Fiction of Jessie Redmon Fauset. African American review., 4(2009). 3(1), 131-144

M. Stokes "There is Heterosexuality: Jessie Fauset, W. E. B. Du Bois, and the Problem of Desire. African American review., Summer2010 2010;44(1/2):67-83

Deborah King, ‘Multiple Jeopardy, Multiple Consciousness: The Context of a Black feminist Ideology’ Signs 14 (1988):

Hirako Sato, 'Under the Harlem Shadow: A Study of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen' in Arna Bontemps ed., The Harlem Renaissance Remembered.

Deborah McDowell, ‘New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism’ Black American Literature Forum 14 (1980)

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Week 13: Passing and the Tragic Mulatto in Harlem Renaissance Fiction

Q: Compare the representation of the mulatto in the fiction of Fauset and Larsen.

Documents:

You must have read ONE novel by Larsen and ONE by Fauset

Nella Larsen, Quicksand & Passing ed. Deborah McDowell, (New Brunswick, 1986)**

The complete fiction of Nella Larsen / edited and with an introduction by Charles R. Larson ; with a foreword by Marita Golden. (New York, 2001).

Regina Andrews, ‘The Man Who Passed: A Play in One-Act’ in Roses & Randolph eds., Harlem's glory : Black women writing, 1900-1950: 45 -56 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Jessie Fauset, Plum Bun **

Jessie Fauset, Comedy: American Style **

Jessie Fauset, The Chinaberry Tree **

James Weldon Johnson, The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man

Secondary Reading:
Books

M. Giulia, Passing and the rise of the African American novel, (Urbana, Ill., 2004)

Deborah McDowell’s Introduction in Larsen, Quicksand & Passing (New Brunswick, 1986)

Charles Larsen, Invisible Darkness: Jean Toomer and Nella Larsen (Iowa City 1993)

 J. Martin Favor ‘Introduction’ in Authentic blackness : the folk in the new negro renaissance ISBN: 0822323451 (pbk. : acid-free paper); 0822323117 (1999)
 

Teresa C. Zackodnik, . The mulatta and the politics of race (Jackson, Mississippi, 2004).

Judith R Berzon Neither White Nor Black: The Mulatto Character in American Fiction (New York, 1978)

Cheryl A. Wall, Women of the Harlem Renaissance Ch. 3 ‘Nella Larsen: Passing for What? (Bloomington, 1995)

Joel Williamson, New People (New York, 1980)

Jacquelyn Y. McLendon, The Politics of Color in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen (Charlottesville, Va and London, 1995)

Ann Douglas, Terrible Honesty (New York, 1995)

Thadious M. Davis, Nella Larsen, Novelist of the Harlem Renaissance, A Woman's Life Unveiled (Baton Rouge, 1994)

Michelle Elam, The souls of mixed folk : race, politics, and aesthetics in the new millennium ISBN: 9780804756303 (pbk.); 9780804756297 (hbk.); 0804756295 (hbk.); 0804756309 (pbk.) (Stanford University Press, 2011)

Articles

Maria Balshaw, “Black Was White”: Urbanity, Passing and the Spectacle of Harlem, Journal of American studies., 1999 33(2): 307-322

Cheryl A. Wall, ‘Passing for what? : aspects of identity in Nella Larsen's novels in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1940-1979 (New York, 1996) also in Black American Literature Forum 20 (1986) : 97-111

Jennifer DeVere Brody, ‘Clare Kendry’s “True” Colors: Race and Class Conflict in Nella Larsen’s Passing Callaloo., Volume 15 Issue 4 (Autumn, 1992) : 1053-1065

Sinéad Moynihan, “Beautiful White Girlhood?: Daisy Buchanon in Nella Larsen’s Passing,” African American review. ISSN: 1062-4783, Spring2014, Vol. 47 Issue 1, p37-49.

George B. Hutchinson, ‘Subject to Disappearance: interracial identity in Nella Larsen’s Quicksand,’ in Geneviève Fabre and Michel Feith ed., Temples for Tomorrow: looking back at the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington, 2001) **

Charles-Yves Grandjeat, ‘The poetics of passing in Jean Toomer's Cane’ in Geneviève Fabre and Michel Feith ed., Jean Toomer and the Harlem Renaissance (New Brunswick, N.J. 2001). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Bryant Keith Alexander, “Passing, Cultural Performance and Individual Agency: Performative Reflections on Black masculine identity,” in Stephen M. Whitehead ed., Men and masculinities : critical concepts in sociology, Vol. IV, Black, Latino and White Masculinities. (2006). Also printed in Cultural Studies <=> Critical Methodologies 4 (3) (2004): 377-404

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Week 14: Queer Studies and the Harlem Renaissance

Q: How has queer studies challenged the history of the Harlem Renaissance? Primary Sources, Short Stories and Novels.

Primary Sources, Short Stories and Novels:

Wallace Thurman, Infants of the spring

Alice Dunbar-Nelson, Give us each day : the diary of Alice Dunbar-Nelson.

Nella Larsen, Quicksand ; and, Passing

Thomas H. Wirth ed., Gay rebel of the Harlem Renaissance : selections from the work of Richard Bruce Nugent (2000)

Devon W. Carbado, Dwight A. McBride, and Donald Weise eds., Black like us : a century of lesbian, gay, and bisexual African American fiction (2002)

Shawn Stewart Ruff, ed., Go the way your blood beats : an anthology of lesbian and gay fiction by African-American writers (1996)

Amritjit Singh and Daniel M. Scott III, The collected writings of Wallace Thurman : a Harlem Renaissance reader (New Brunswick, N.J, 2003)

Secondary Reading:

Books

Judith Butler, Gender trouble : feminism and the subversion of identity (Routledge, 1990).

Riki Wilchinsm, Queer theory, gender theory : an instant primer, (Los Angeles, 2004).

Annamarie Jagose, Queer theory : an introduction, (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Christa Schwarz., Gay voices of the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington, 2003).

Devon Carbado, Black men on race, gender, and sexuality : a critical reader

Gloria T. Hull, “Lines She Did Not Dare”: Angelina Weld Grimke, Harlem Renaissance Poet,” in Henry Abelove, Michèle Aina Barale, David M. Halperin eds., The lesbian and gay studies reader, (New York, 1993).

Deborah McDowell, "It’s Not Safe. Not Safe at All": Sexuality in Nella Larsen’s Passing,” in Henry Abelove, Miche`le Aina Barale, David M. Halperin eds., The lesbian and gay studies reader, (New York, 1993).

Gregory Woods, A history of gay literature : the male tradition espc. Ch. 17. (New Haven : Yale University Press, c1998). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

James Smalls, The homoerotic photography of Carl Van Vechten : public face, private thoughts (Philadelphia, Pa. : Temple University Press, 2006).

Marlon B. Ross, Manning the race : reforming black men in the Jim Crow era

Neil Miller, Out of the past : gay & lesbian history from 1869 to the present, espc. Ch. 10. (New York, 2005).

George Chauncey, Gay New York : the making of the gay male world, 1890-1940 (New York, 1994).

Shane Vogel, The scene of Harlem cabaret : race, sexuality, performance (University of Chicago Press, 2009)

Articles

Michael L. Cobb, “ Insolent Racing, Rough Narrative: The Harlem Renaissance's Impolite Queers,” Callaloo.., Vol. 23, No. 1, Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender: Literature and Culture. (Winter, 2000), pp. 328-351

 Jacqueline C. Jones, "The Greatest Joy in Life: Geraldyn Dismond's Transformative Coverage of the Hamilton Lodge Ball," in Writing the Harlem Renaissance : revisiting the vision ISBN: 9780739196816 (e-book), edited by Emily Allen Williams, (Lexington Books, 2017)
 

Eric Garber, “A Spectacle in Color: The Lesbian and Gay Subculture of Jazz Age Harlem,” in Hidden from history : reclaiming the gay and lesbian past eds. Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey (New York, 1989); 318-31 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Shawn Anthony Christian "Between Black gay men : artistic collaboration and the Harlem Renaissance in Brother to brother" in Jeffrey Ogbar ed, The Harlem Renaissance revisited : politics, arts, and letters

Deborah McDowell, "It’s Not Safe. Not Safe at All": Sexuality in Nella Larsen’s Passing,” in Henry Abelove, Michèle Aina Barale, David M. Halperin eds., The lesbian and gay studies reader, (New York, 1993)

Gregory Woods, ‘Gay Re-Readings of the Harlem Renaissance Poets’ in Emmanuel S. Nelson ed., Critical essays : gay and lesbian writers of color, (New York, 1993). Also published as Journal of homosexuality., volume 26, Numbers 2/3 1993 in Brotherton hard copy

Alden Reimonenq, Countee Cullen’s Uranian "Soul Windows" in Emmanuel S. Nelson ed., Critical essays : gay and lesbian writers of color, (New York, 1993). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Granville Ganter, ‘Decadence, sexuality and the bohemian vision of Wallace Thurman,’ in New voices on the Harlem Renaissance : essays on race, gender, and literary discourse edited by Australia Tarver and Paula C. Barnes (Madison, N.J, 2006).

Mason Stokes, ‘Say My Name,’ in American literary history. 2005 17 (1): 171-182.

Peter Power, “The Singing Man Who Must Be Reckoned With,”: Private Desire and Public Responsibility in the Poetry of Countee Cullen. African American review. 2000 34(4): 661-678

Audio-visual:

Looking for Langston [videorecording] / [directed by] Isaac Julien.

Brother to brother [videorecording] / produced by Rodney Evans, Jim McKay, Isen Robbins, Aimee Schoof ; written and directed by Rodney Evans. Wolfe Video LLC : Ventura Distribution, [2005].

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Week 15: Performing Blackness I: Black Theatre ‘By, Of and For the People’ and the Roots of Black Performance

Q: What did African Americans mean by ‘real Negro theatre’ in the 1920s and 1930s?

Documents and Collections of Plays

Eugene O’Neill, Extract from Emperor Jones in David Levering Lewis ed., The portable Harlem Renaissance reader, (Penguin, 1995), pp311-317 . *

Raymond O’Neill, ‘The Negro in Dramatic Art’; Jules Bledsoe, ‘Has the Negro a Place in the Theatre? ’; Eulalie Spence ‘A Criticism of the Negro Drama: As It Relates to the Negro Dramatist and Artist’; Harry S. Keelan, ‘The Theatre: A Review of Porgy’ in Cary D.Wintz ed. The politics and aesthetics of "New Negro" literature (1996): pp 211-218 * Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

W.E.B. Du Bois’ “Krigwa Players Little Negro Theatre: The Story of a Little Theatre Movement” and “Paying for Plays.” in James V. Hatch and Leo Hamalian eds. Lost plays of the Harlem Renaissance, 1920-1940 (1996) : pp 446, 453. *

Theophilus Lewis, ‘Theatre Review’ in Sondra Wilson ed., The Messenger Reader pp 238-256 *

Paul Robeson, ‘Reflections on O’Neill’s Plays’ in Lewis, The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader: 58- 60 *

Alain Locke, “The Negro and the American Stage,” 1927 in Lindsay Patterson ed., Anthology of the American Negro in the theatre : a critical approach, (1967).

James V. Hatch and Leo Hamalian eds., Lost Plays of the Harlem Renaissance 1920-1940 (Detroit, 1996) **

Leo Hamalian and James V Hatch, eds., The Roots of African American Drama: an anthology of Early Plays, 1858-1938 (Detroit, 1991)

James Weldon Johnson, Black Manhattan (New York, 1930) Ch.s XV- XV11 pp 170-230

Alain Locke, 'Steps Towards the Negro Theatre’ The Crisis 25.(1922). Reprinted in Wilson, Sondra Kathryn (ed) The Crisis Reader, 1999. pp.267-272 . *

Tony Martin ed., African Fundamentalism Part V: Drama, Theatre, Film pp 247-266 **

Jennifer Burton ed., Zora Neale Hurston, Eulalie Spence, Marita Bonner, and Others: The Prize Plays and Other One Acts published in periodicals (New York, 1996)

Elizabeth Brown-Guillory ed., Wines in the Wilderness: Plays by African American Women from the Harlem Renaissance to the present (New York, 1990)

Kathy Perkins, Black Female Playwrights: an anthology of plays before 1950 (Indianapolis, 1989)

Kathy Perkins and Judith Stephens eds., Strange Fruit: Plays on Lynching by American Women (Bloomington, 1997)

Secondary Reading:
Books

James V. Hatch A history of African American theatre.

Eric Lott, Love and theft : blackface minstrelsy and the American working class, (New York, 1993)

Eric Lott, “Blackface and Blackness: The minstrel show in American Culture,” in A. Bean, J.V. Hatch, and B. McNamara eds., Inside the minstrel mask : readings in nineteenth-century blackface minstrelsy: 1-32 (1996) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Rena Fraden, Blueprints for a Black Federal Theatre 1935-1939 (Cambridge, 1994)

Karen Sotiropoulos, Staging race : black performers in turn of the century America

Harold Bloom, Black American poets and dramatists of the Harlem Renaissance (New York, 1995)

David Krasner, A beautiful pageant : African American theatre, drama, and performance in the Harlem Renaissance, 1910-1927 (New York, 2002) **

Samuel A. Hay, African American Theatre-a Historical and Critical Analysis (CUP, 1994)

Elizabeth Brown-Guillory, Their place on the stage :Black women playwrights in America (1990)

Koritha Mitchell, Living with lynching : African American lynching plays, performance, and citizenship, 1890-1930 (2012).

Carol P. Marsh-Lockett, ed., Black women playwrights: visions on the American stage (New York, 1999)

Harry J Elam & David Krasner eds., African American performance and theatre history: A critical reader (2001)

Articles

Krasner, David, “Whose Role is It Anyway? Charles Gilpin and the Harlem Renaissance, African American review., 1995 29 (3) 483-496 ****

Nellie McKay, ‘Black theater and drama in the 1920s’ in Cary D Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996) ***

Patti Capel Swartz, Masks and Masquerade: The Iconography of the Harlem Renaissance in Cary D. Wintz ed. Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994: 375-388 ***

Koritha Mitchell, . "No More Shame! Defeating the New Jim Crow with Antilynching Activism's Best Tools." American Quarterly. ISSN: 0003-0678, vol. 66, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 143-152.

Will Harris, ‘Early Black Women Playwrights and the Dual Liberation Motif’ African American Review, Vol. 28, Number 2, 1994

Michelle Hester, ‘An examination of the Relationship between Race and Gender in an Early Twentieth Century Drama: A Study of Angelina Weld Grimke's Play Rachel’ Journal of Negro History, Vol 79, Issue 2, 9 Spring, 1994), 248-256

Barbara Speisman, "From "Spears" To The Great Day: Zora Neale Hurston's Vision Of A Real Negro Theater." Southern Quarterly 36.3 (1998): 34. America : history and life [electronic resource].

Koritha Mitchell, Living with lynching : African American lynching plays, performance, and citizenship, 1890-1930 (2012).

Paul Carter Harrison, “The Black Star Line: The De-Mystification of Marcus Garvey,” African American review., Vol. 31, No. 4, Contemporary Theatre Issue. (Winter, 1997), pp. 713-716.

Frieda Scott, ‘Black Drama and the Harlem Renaissance’ Theatre-Journal,Baltimore, Maryland, 1985, December

Judith L. Stephens, 'The Harlem Renaissance and the New Negro movement' The Cambridge companion to American women playwrights: ed., Brenda Murphy (CUP Press, 1999)

‘Anti-Lynch Plays by African American Women: Race, Gender, and Social Protest in American Drama’ African American review., Vol 26, Number 2

Sullivan, Megan. "Folk Plays, Home Girls, and Back Talk: Georgia Douglas Johnson and Women of the Harlem Renaissance." CLA Journal 38.4 (1995): 404-19

Barbara Speisman, ‘From “Spears” to The Great Day: Zora Neale Hurstons’ Vision of a Real Negro theater,” Southern Quarterly 1998 36(3): 34-46

Kate Dossett, "Commemorating Haiti on the Harlem Stage," Journal of American Drama and Theatre, Winter 2010, (Vol: 22: 1): 83-119

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Week 16: Performing Blackness II: Stereotypes on Screen

Q: How were African Americans represented on the screen during the Harlem Renaissance?

Black Hollywood; stereotypes on screen

Documents:
Essay

Paul Robeson, ‘Reflections on O’Neill’s Plays’ in Lewis, The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader: 58- 60 *

Films

Emperor Jones ( Dir. Dudley Murphy 1933) United Artists Release Available on one videotape with "Tribute To An Artist" from: Syracuse Cultural Workers

The Homesteader (Dir. Oscar Micheaux, 1919) Unavailable

Within our gates [videorecording] (1920)

Body & Soul (1924) Dir. Oscar Micheuax

Lying Lips (Dir. Oscar Micheaux, 1939)

Girl From Chicago (Dir. Oscar Micheaux, 1932)

Siren of the Tropics (1928) (Starring Josephine Baker)

St Louis Blues (Bessie Smith)

The Black King (1932)

Documentary

Midnight ramble [videorecording] : the story of the black film industry (Alexandria, VA. : PBS Video, 1994).

Secondary Reading:
Books

Hazel Carby, Race men especially Chapter 2: ‘The Body and Soul of Modernism,’

Henry Sampson, Blacks in Black and White: A Source Book on Black Films (Metuchen, 1993, ) 2 nd edition

Donald Bogle, Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies & Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films, Continuum (New York, 1989)

Michelle Ann Stephens Black Empire: The Masculine Global Imaginary of Caribbean Intellectual in The United States, 1914-1962, (Durham, Duke University Press, 2005.)

Martin Bauml Duberman, Paul Robeson, (1989)

Mary A. Raden, Taking Haiti : military occupation and the culture of U.S. imperialism, 1915-1940, (Chapel Hill, 2001) especially pp 196-212 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Cedric J. Robinson, Forgeries of memory and meaning : Blacks and the regimes of race in American theater and film before World War II. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007)

Thomas Cripps, Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942 (New York, 1993)

Peter Kerry Powers, Goodbye Christ? : Christianity, masculinity, and the new Negro renaissance ISBN: 9781621903734 (printed case) (University of Tennessee Press, 2018)

Manthia Darwara, Black American Cinema (New York, 1993)

Ed Guerro, Framing Blackness: The African-American Image in Film (Philadelphia, 1993)

Daniel J. Leab, From Sambo to Superspade: The Black Experience in Motion Pictures (Boston, 1967)

Pearl Bowser, Oscar Micheaux and His Circle: African-American Filmmaking and Race Cinema of the Silent Era (2001)

Pearl Bowser, and, Louise Spence, Writing himself into history : Oscar Micheaux, his silent films, and his audiences New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers U. Pr., 2000

Beverly J., Dr. Robinson The Life and Work of Oscar Micheaux: Pioneer Black Author and Filmmaker (2001)

J. Ronald Green, Straight Lick: the Cinema of Oscar Micheaux (2002)

Jane M Gaines, Fire and Desire: Mixed Race Movies in the Silent Era (2001)

Joseph A Young, Black Novelist as White Racist (1989)

Articles

Jeffrey C. Stewart, “Introduction” and “The Black Body: Robeson as a Work of Art and Politics.” in Paul Robeson : artist and citizen. Ed. and intro. Jeffrey C. Stewart. (New Brunswick: 1998): 3-16, 134-163.

Charles Musser, "Troubled Relations: Paul Robeson, Eugene O'Neill, and Oscar Micheaux." In Stewart ed., Paul Robeson : artist and citizen: 80-103. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

A. Field, "John Henry Goes to Carnegie Hall: Motion Picture Production at Southern Black Agricultural and Industrial Institutes (1909–13)." Journal of popular film & television. [serial online]. Fall, 2009 2009;37(3):106-115

Johan Callens, “Black is white, I yells it out louder ’n deir loudest”: Unraveling The Wooster Group’s The Emperor Jones,’ in Eugene O’Neill Review, Volume 26, 2004.

Michael Johnson, "Try to Refrain from that Desire": Self-Control and Violent Passion in Oscar Micheaux's African American Western,” African American review. Volume 38, Number 3 (Fall 2004)

Gerald R. Butters, “From Homestead to Lynch Mob: Portrayals of Black Masculinity in Oscar Micheaux’s Within Our Gates, Journal for multimedia history 2000 3.

Charlene Regester, “The Misreading and Rereading of African American Filmaker Oscar Micheaux: A Critical Review of Micheaux Scholarship,” Film history. [Australia] 1995 7(4): 426-449

Clyde Taylor, “Oscar Micheaux and the Harlem Renaissance,” in Fabre and Feith eds., Temples for tomorrow : looking back at the Harlem Renaissance. **

Charles R Larson, "The Black King: Forgotten 'Black? ' Classic." Journal of Popular Film and Television, vol. 20 no. 2. 1992 Summer: 17-25.

Donald Bogle, ‘Black Beginnings: From Uncle Tom's Cabin to The Birth of a Nation’ in Valerie Smith, ed Representing blackness : issues in film and video (New Jersey 1997) : 13-24. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Ronald Green, ‘Twoness in the Style of Oscar Micheaux’ in Manthia Diawara, ed., Black American Cinema. (New York, 1993) : 26-48.

Internet Resources

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Week 17: Performing Blackness III: The Black Body, Masculinity and the Prize-fight

Q1: How do gender theories help us understand black masculinity in the Harlem Renaissance?

Q2: What can studies of prize-fight boxers tell us about how African American men performed black masculinity during the Harlem Renaissance?

Documents:

Jack Johnson - in the ring - and out, (1927; New York, Citadel, 1992) *

Jack Johnson My life and battles edited and translated by Christopher Rivers (Washington D.C. : Potomac ; Poole : Chris Lloyd [distributor], c2009).*
Film

The Great White Hope, Dir. Martin Ritt 1970

Unforgivable blackness : the rise and fall of Jack Johnson DVD. Dir. Ken Burns (PBS, 2005)

I am a man [videorecording] : Black masculinity in America, dir. Byron Hurt, 1999.

Secondary Reading:
Books

Gail Bederman, Manliness and Civilization- A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. (1995.)

Hazel Carby, Race men especially Chapter 2: ‘The Body and Soul of Modernism,’

M.O. Wallace, Constructing the black masculine : identity and ideality in African American men's literature and culture, 1775-1995. (Durham, 2002). espc. pp 1-52.

Theresa Runstedtler Jack Johnson, rebel sojourner : boxing in the shadow of the global color line ( University of California Press, 2012)

Judith Butler, Gender trouble : feminism and the subversion of identity

David Krasner, A Beautiful Pageant: African American Theatre, Drama and Performance in the Harlem Renaissance, (2002).

Michale Kimmel, Manhood in America: A Cultural History, 1996.

Devon Carbado, Black men on race, gender, and sexuality : a critical reader

Rudolph Byrd & Beverly Guy Sheftall, ed Traps : African American men on gender and sexuality Indiana University Press, 2001

Gerald Early, The Culture of Bruising- Essays on Prizefighting, Literature, and Modern American Culture (1994.)

Geoffrey C. Ward. Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004

Donald Spivey ed., Sport in America-New Historical Perspectives (1985)

Thomas R. Hietala. The Fight of the Century- Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, and the Struggle for Racial Equality. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2002.

Al Tony Gilmore, Bad Nigger! The National Impact of Jack Johnson (1975)

Randy Roberts, Papa Jack- Jack Johnson and the Era of White Hopes (1983)

Sal Fradella, Jack Johnson (1990)

Lawrence Levine, Black Culture & Black Consciousness (1977)

Jeffrey Wells, Boxing Day : the fight that changed the world (1998)

Kahan, B. (2009). The Other Harlem Renaissance: Father Divine, Celibate Economics, and the Making of Black Sexuality. Arizona Quarterly, 65(4), 37-61.

Articles

Runstedtler, T. (2009). "Visible Men: African American Boxers, the New Negro, and the Global Color Line, " Radical History Review (103), 59-81

Bryant Keith Alexander, “Passing, Cultural Performance and Individual Agency: Performative Reflections on Black masculine identity,” in Stephen M. Whitehead ed., Men and masculinities : critical concepts in sociology, Vol. IV, Black, Latino and White Masculinities. (2006). Also printed in Cultural Studies <=> Critical Methodologies 4 (3) (2004): 377-404.

Michele Mitchell, “The Black Man’s Burden”: African Americans, Imperialism and Notion of Racial Manhood 1890-1910. International review of social history. 1999 44(Supplement 7): 77-99.

Peter Power, “The Singing Man Who Must Be Reckoned With,”: Private Desire and Public Responsibility in the Poetry of Countee Cullen. African American review. 2000 34(4): 661-678

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Week 18: White Patronage and the Cult of Primitivism

Q: Did reliance on white patronage restrict the artwork produced in the Harlem Renaissance?

Documents:

Albert C Barnes, ‘Negro Art and America’ in Alain Locke ed. Harlem: Mecca of the New Negro (Survey Graphic):Available online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html

Claude McKay, Home to Harlem (also extracts in Norton Anthology of African American Literature )

Claude McKay, Banjo

Claude McKay, A Long Way From Home (‘The Harlem Intelligentsia’ also in David Levering Lewis The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader p 156-172 )

Walter Thurman, Infants of the Spring (also see extract in Norton Anthology of African American Literature and Lewis The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader )

Emily Bernard ed., Remember me to Harlem : the letters of Langston Hughes and Carl Van Vechten ( New York : Alfred A. Knopf : Distributed by Random House, 2001).

Bruce Kellner ed., Letters of Carl Van Vechten (Yale, 1987)

i) Carl Van Vechten (CVV) to Langston Hughes (LH) May 1925, p79*

ii) CVV to LH early Aug 1925 p 81-82*

iii) CVV to Gertrude Stein 30 June 1925 p 79-80*

iv) CVV to James Weldon Johnson Sept 7 1926 p 89-90*

‘The Politics of Publishing’ Letters between Alfred A. Knopf, Langston Hughes, Carl Van Vechten & Blanche Knopf in Cary D. Wintz ed The Politics and Aesthetics of New Negro Literature (1996): pp 335-348 *

Claude McKay letters to Nancy Cunard in The Politics and Aesthetics of New Negro Literature pp 317-320 *

James Weldon Johnson ‘Negro Authors and White Publishers’ in The Politics and Aesthetics of New Negro Literature. p 297 *

Theodore G Vincent Voices of a Black Nation Ch:8 Opinions on White Helpers (New Jersey, 1973)

Countee Cullen Poetry-in Norton Anthology of African American Literature pp 1303-1315

Langston Hughes, The Big Sea & Poetry in Norton Anthology of African American Literature

Gwendolyn Bennett, ‘Heritage’ poem in Norton Anthology of African American Literature

Alain Locke, ‘ A note on African art ’ Opportunity 2 (1924): p 138

George Schyuler, ‘At the Coffee House’ (June 1925) in The Messenger reprinted in Sondra Kathryn Wilson (ed.) The Messenger Reader (New York, 2000) pp 201-204*

Secondary Reading:
Books

George Hutchinson, The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White

Tracy McCabe, Resisting primitivism: race, gender, and power in modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (1994)

Arnold Rampersad, The Life of Langston Hughes vol 1

Robert Hemenway, Zora Neale Hurston

Valerie Boyd, Wrapped in rainbows : the life of Zora Neale Hurston

Tyrone Tillery, Claude McKay: a black poet's struggle for identity (Amherst, Ma., 1992)

Carla Kaplan, Miss Anne in Harlem : the white women of the black renaissance (Harper Collins, 2013).

Wayne Cooper, The Passion of Claude McKay (New York, 1973)

Leon Coleman, Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance

Chidi Ikonne, From Du Bois to Van Vechten

Ann Douglas, Terrible Honesty (1995)

Mary Campbell, Harlem Renaissance: Art of Black America (New York, 1994)

Nathan Huggins, Harlem Renaissance (New York, 1971)

Houston A. Baker, Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (Chicago, London, 1987) ALSO see shorter article

Articles

Houston A. Baker, Jr. ‘Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance ‘ in Cary D Wintz (ed.) Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996) or in American Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, Special Issue: Modernist Culture in America. (Spring, 1987), pp. 84-97.

George Hutchinson, ‘Mediating “Race” and “Nation”: The Cultural Politics of the Messenger African American Review Vol 28 Issue 4: (1998) p 531-548

Tracy McCabe, "The Multifaceted Politics Of Primitivism In Harlem Renaissance Writing." Soundings 80.4 (1997): 475-497 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Faith Berry, ‘Black poets, white patrons: the Harlem Renaissance years of Langston Hughes’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996)

Peter Flora, ‘Carl Van Vechten, Blanche Knopf, and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996)

Ralph D. Story, ‘Patronage and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D. Wintz ed. Analysis and assessment 1980-1994 (New York, 1996)

Edward Margolies, ‘The image of the primitive in Black letters’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

Robert C. Hart, ‘Black-white literary relations in the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

Hugh M. Gloster, ‘The Van Vechten Vogue’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

Mark Helbling, ‘Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

Lloyd W. Brown, ‘The African heritage and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

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Week 19: Nigger Heaven: White Writing, Photography and the Representation of Race

Q: Compare Carl Van Vechten’s representation of African Americans in his writings and photographs.

Documents:

Carl Van Vechten, Nigger Heaven (1926, rep, New York, 1971)

Nancy Kuhl, Extravagant crowd : Carl van Vechten's portraits of women, ( New Haven, Conn, 2003).

James Smalls, The homoerotic photography of Carl Van Vechten : public face, private thoughts ( Philadelphia, Pa., 2006).

Rudolph P. Byrd, Black and White: Photographs by Carl Van Vechten (Athens: GA, 1993)

Rudolph P. Byrd, Generations in black and white. (Athens, GA. 1993).

‘Du Bois and J.W. Johnson Critiques Carl Van Vechten’s Nigger Heaven’ in Lewis ed., The portable Harlem Renaissance reader pp 106-109 *

Carl Van Vechten, ‘The Negro in Art: How Shall He Be Portrayed? : A Questionnaire. Bruce Kellner ed., "Keep a-inchin' along" : selected writings of Carl Van Vechten about black art and letters (Westport, CT, 1979): pp 64-65 *

Bruce Kellner ed., Letters of Carl Van Vechten (Yale, 1987)

i) Carl Van Vechten (CVV) to Langston Hughes (LH) May 1925 p 79 *

ii) CVV to LH early Aug 1925 p 81-82 *

iii) CVV to Gertrude Stein 30 June 1925 p 79-80 *

iv) CVV to James Weldon Johnson Sept 7 1926 p 89-90 *

Secondary Reading:
Books

Leon Coleman, Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance: A Critical Assessment (New York, London, 1998)

Ann Douglas Terrible Honesty (New York, 1995)

Martin Duberman, Paul Robeson (London, 1989)

Michael North, The dialect of modernism : race, language, and twentieth-century literature (New York, 1994)

Priscilla Wald, Constituting Americans: Cultural Anxiety and Narrative Form (Duke, N.C, 1995)

Emily Bernard, Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance : a critical assessment (Yale University Press, 2012).

Articles

Emily Bernard, “Unlike Many Others: Exceptional White Characters in Harlem Renaissance Fiction,” Modernism/modernity.. 2005 12 (3): 407-423.

Robert C. Hart, ‘Black-White Relations in the Harlem Renaissance’ American Literature. Vol 44 No 4 (Jan, 1973, pp 612-628)

Hugh M. Gloster, ‘The Van Vechten Vogue’ in Cary D Wintz (ed.) Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

Mark Helbling, ‘Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)

Robert F. Worth, 'Nigger Heaven and the Harlem Renaissance' in African American Review, Vol 29, No 3, (1995)

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Week 20: ‘The Negro Contribution to American Culture’: Blues, Jazz and the Harlem Renaissance

Q: Why were some African American intellectuals so opposed to the blues?

Documents:

Bessie Smith in St.Louis Blues [videorecording]. (1929)

See the The Norton anthology of African American literature (London, 1997) for lyrics

Spirituals

No More Auction Block p 12
Go down, Moses, Moses p 14
Been in the Storm So Long p 14
Swing Low Sweet Chariot
Steal Away to Jesus
Oh Freedom p 15
Soon I will be Done p 11

Du Bois, Ch XIV: The Sorrow Songs The Souls of Black Folks:

James Weldon Johnson, ‘Book of American Negro Spirituals’

Blues Lyrics

W. C. Handy, ‘Yellow Dog Blues’ (p 23)
W. C. Handy, ‘St Louis Blues’ (p 24)
Albert Hunter & Louie Austin ‘Downhearted Blues’
Ma Rainey, ‘See See Rider’ (p 27)
Ma Rainey, ‘Prove it On Me Blues’ (p 27)
Billie Holiday, ‘Fine and Mellow’ (p 34)


Langston Hughes’ Blues Poetry

‘The Weary Blues’ (p 1257)
‘Homesick Blues’ (p1259)
‘Po’ Boy Blues’ (p 1260 )
‘Gypsy Man’
‘Lament Over Love’
‘Bad Man’
‘Gal’s Cry for a Dying Lover’
‘Hard Daddy’

Sterling Brown

‘Ma Rainey’ p 1220
‘Cabaret’
‘Tin Roof Blues’
‘Memphis Blues’
‘Odyssey of Big Boy’

Contemporary Writings on Blues:

Carl Van Vechten, ‘The Black Blues’ in Bruce Kellner ed., "Keep a-inchin' along" : selected writings of Carl Van Vechten about black art and letters (Westport, CT, 1979): 43-52

Secondary Reading:
Hazel Carby, “The Sexual Politics of Women’s Blues,” in Cultures in Babylon : black Britain and African America (1999). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Hazel Carby, "‘It Just Be’s Dat Way Sometime,’: The Sexual Politics of Women’s Blues," in Unequal sisters : a multicultural reader in U.S. women's history ed. Vicki Ruiz and Ellen Carol DuBois, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 1994), 330-341. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Angela Davis, Blues legacies and black feminism : Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday (New York, 1999)

Buzzy Jackson, A bad woman feeling good : blues and the women who sing them, (W.W.Norton, 2005).

Daphne Duval Harrison, ‘Black Women in the Blues Tradition’ in Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg –Penn eds., The Afro-American woman : struggles and images (1978)

Black pearls : blues queens of the 1920s (New Brunswick, N Jersey, 1988)

Carol Batker “Love Me Like I Like to Be”: The Sexual Politics of Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God, the Classic Blues, and the Black Women’s Club Movement’ African American review., Vol 32, Issue 2 (Summer, 1998): 199-213

Sandra Lieb, Mother of the blues : a study of Ma Rainey (Massachusetts, 1981)

Nghana tamu Lewis, “In a Different Chord: Interpreting the Relations Among Black Female Sexuality, Agency, and the Blues,” African American review.. Terre Haute: Winter 2003.Vol. 37, Iss. 4;

Eileen M. Hayes and Linda F. Williams eds., Black women and music : more than the blues University of Illinois Press, c2007.

W. C. Handy, Father of the blues : an autobiography. (1976)

Albert Murray, Stomping the blues (1976)

Amiri Baraka, Blues people : Negro music in white America (1963)

Robert Palmer, Deep blues (1981)

Chris Albertson, Bessie (1972)

Eileen Southern, The music of black Americans : a history (2nd ed. New York, 1983)

Paul Allen Anderson, Deep river : music and memory in Harlem Renaissance thought (Duke, N. Carolina: 2001)

Ralph Ellison, Shadow and act. (1964)

Martin Williams, The jazz tradition (1983)

Ole Brask & Dan Morgenstern, Jazz people (New York, 1993)

James Campbell, The Picador book of blues and jazz (London, 1995)

Max Paddison, Adorno's aesthetics of music (Cambridge, 1993)

Paul Oliver, Aspects of the blues tradition second ed (New York, 1970)

Frank Tirro, Jazz : a history (New York, 1993)

Music and Politics

Ted Vincent, Keep cool : the black activists who built the jazz age (London 1995)

Blues and Literature

Joanne V Gabbin, Sterling A. Brown : building the Black aesthetic tradition ’ (1985)

Henry Louis Gates Jr., and K A Appiah eds., Langston Hughes : critical perspectives past and present (New York, 1993)

Ann Ducille, ‘Blues Notes on Black Sexuality: Sex and the Texts of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen' in John C. Faut and Maura Shaw Tantillo eds.,, American sexual politics : sex, gender, and race since the Civil War (Chicago, 1993)

Ann Du Cille, espc Ch 5: ‘The Bourgeois, Wedding Bell Blues of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen’ in The coupling convention : sex, text, and tradition in black women's fiction ’ (Yale, 1995): 86-109

Houston A Baker Jr., Blues, ideology, and Afro-American literature : a vernacular theory (1980)

Long black song : essays in black American literature and culture (1972)

Paul Allen Anderson, Deep river : music and memory in Harlem Renaissance thought (Duke, N. Carolina: 2001)

Classical Music

Samuel Floyd, Black music in the Harlem Renaissance : a collection of essays (New York & London, 1990)

Jon Michael Spencer, The new Negroes and their music : the success of the Harlem Renaissance (Knoxville, 1997)

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Week 21: Revision: Historiography and Primary Sources

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Week 22: Revision: Exam Preparation

This list was last updated on 27/07/2017