Leeds University Library

PHIL2221
PHIL2221 Ancient Philosophy Reading List

Ancient Philosophy, 2017/18, Semester 1
Dr Jamie Dow
j.dow@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Primary texts  

There are several primary texts for this course, and passages from one or more of these will constitute part of the reading for each seminar. Thus these texts constitute the basic reading for the course, and copies of each will be available on short loan in the Edward Boyle. However you should try to possess your own copies of these works.

Plato: Meno

Plato: Protagoras

Plato: Gorgias

Plato: Republic

 

Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics

Aristotle Politics

 

Recommended Translations:

The recommended translations below are the ones we’ll use in seminars.

They have been selected for (i) their accuracy, and (ii) price – they are cheap to buy new, even cheaper second-hand, and are very widely used, so could be easily sold on after the module.

 

You must use translations that are in modern English, and that have the text marked with the standard referencing systems (Stephanus pages for Plato (e.g. “Meno 70a”, “Republic 327aand Bekker pages for Aristotle (e.g. “Nic. Eth. 1074a5”), as these are the references you must use in presentations, seminar discussions and written work.

 

For Plato:

 

RECOMMENDED (good translations, quite cheap to buy):

Meno – in “Five Dialogues” (Hackett: tr. Grube / Cooper)

Protagoras (Hackett: tr. Lombardo / Bell)

Gorgias (Hackett: tr. Zeyl)

Republic (Hackett: tr. Grube / Reeve)

 

ALSO GOOD (good translations, more expensive):

Protagoras and Meno (Penguin: tr. Beresford)

Protagoras (Oxford: tr. Taylor)

Gorgias and Protagoras (Cambridge: tr. Griffith – “Gorgias, Menexenus, Protagoras”)

Meno (Cambridge: tr. Sedley / Long)

Republic (Cambridge: tr. Griffith)

Republic (Penguin: tr. Lee)

 

 

For Aristotle:

 

RECOMMENDED:

Nicomachean Ethics: Oxford translation (tr. Brown/Ross)

Politics: Hackett translation (tr. Reeve)

 

ALSO GOOD:

Nicomachean Ethics:

Oxford edition (tr. C. Rowe, with excellent essays and notes by S. Broadie)

Hackett translation (tr. and notes by Irwin)

Cambridge translation (tr. Crisp)

Penguin translation (tr. Barnes/Thomson)

Politics:

Oxford translation (tr. Stalley / Barker)

Penguin translation (tr. Sinclair / Saunders)

 

 

Translations to AVOID!

Oxford translations by Waterfield – esp. of Plato’s Republic.

Kindle versions and other cheap electronic versions where what you actually get is a cheap, very old translation that doesn’t use the proper referencing system within the text.

 

 

Beware of cheaper / free translations (esp. online) that are in misleading antiquated English, and that lack the proper referencing system for the text!

 

Resources & Reading List:

 

Primary texts

 

Plato: Meno

Plato: Protagoras

Plato: Gorgias

Plato: Republic

Aristotle Nichomachean Ethics

Aristotle Politics

 

Recommended Translations:

See above.

 

 

Commentaries on Plato’s works

R. Sharples: Plato's Meno

D. Scott Plato’s Meno

C.C.W. Taylor: Protagoras

T. Irwin: Gorgias

E.R. Dodds: Plato's Gorgias

J. Annas: An Introduction to Plato's Republic

J.M. Day: Plato's Meno in Focus

 

Secondary texts on Plato’s works

T. Irwin: Plato’s Ethics (hereafter PE): This is the main secondary text.

T. Irwin: Classical Thought

T. Irwin: Plato's Moral Theory (hereafter PMT)

W.K.C. Guthrie: A History of Greek Philosophy, Vols. 3 & 4

R. Kraut: The Cambridge Companion to Plato

G. Santas: Socrates: Philosophy in Plato's Early Dialogues

G. Fine: Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul (An excellent new collection with a number of relevant articles.)

G. Santas (ed.) The Blackwell Guide to Plato’s Republic

G.R.F. Ferrari The Cambridge Companion to Plato’s Republic

H.H. Benson A Companion to Plato

 

Companions to Aristotle’s Ethical and Political works:

A.O. Rorty (ed.), Essays on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, (Hereafter EAE)

W.D. Hardie, Aristotle's Ethical Theory (Hereafter AET)

D. Bostock, Aristotle’s Ethics

D. Keyt and A Companion to Aristotle's Politics (Hereafter CAP)

F. Miller (eds.)

R. Kraut (ed.) The Blackwell Guide to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics

R. Polansky (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics

 

Introductory books or articles, and books of general relevance

J. Ackrill Aristotle the Philosopher

J. Annas The Morality of Happiness (Hereafter MOH)

J. Barnes Aristotle (O.U.P. Past Masters / Aristotle: A very short introduction.)

J. Barnes (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle

J. Barnes, Articles on Aristotle, Volume 2 (Ethics and Politics)

M. Schofield, and R. Sorabji (eds.)

R. Hursthouse On Virtue Ethics

T. Irwin Classical Thought

T. Irwin Aristotle’s First Principles

J. Lear Aristotle: The Desire to Understand (Hereafter Lear)

C.B. Megone “Aristotelian Ethics”, in The Encyclopaedia of Applied Ethics

J.O. Urmson Aristotle's Ethics

 

 

In recent years there have been a number of good books wholly or partly devoted to Aristotle's ethics and political philosophy. . In the list that follows the relevant chapters are not always cited (Broadie, for example, discusses every topic; and Irwin (above), Kraut and Reeve discuss many), so it is worth consulting these on most of the Aristotle essay topics below. See the course tutor if you need further advice. These books include:

 

J.M. Cooper Reason and the Human Good in Aristotle

A. Kenny Aristotle on the Perfect Life

R. Kraut Aristotle on the Human Good

M. Nussbaum The Fragility of Goodness

C.D.C. Reeve The Practices of Reason

N. Sherman The Fabric of Character

J. Anton and Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy Volume 4 (Hereafter

A. Preuss EAGC)

S. Broadie Ethics with Aristotle

R. Heinaman (ed.) Aristotle and Moral Realism

J. Moss Aristotle on the Apparent Good

 

A journal with several relevant articles is: Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy (Hereafter O.S.A.P.).

 

 

The topics below cover Plato first then Aristotle (we will cover 10 out of 11 of these set topics in the course)

 

1a The definition issue: What is virtue?

General Q. What sort of definition of virtue is Socrates seeking, and is he right about the importance of determining its definition? What connections are there, for Socrates, between knowing a definition, moral understanding, and moral theory?

In answering this Q., you might think about the following issues: What definitions of virtue does Meno offer and why does Socrates reject them? What kinds of definition are there? What would S. count as a satisfactory definition of a moral concept? Is S. right to stress the priority of the issue of definition? Of what practical use would a definition be? Is it possible to define virtue? How plausible is the suggestion that virtue is knowledge?

 

Plato: Meno 70a-80d, 87c-89e, and 98b-100c with Sharples' notes

Protagoras 318-320, and 357e to end with Taylor's notes

R.E. Allen: The Dialogues of Plato Vol. I, Introduction to the Meno

H.H. Benson: "The Priority of Definition and the Socratic Elenchus", in Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 8

H.H. Benson Clitophon’s Challenge (OUP, 2015) chapter 2.

Doyle, J. (2012) ‘Socratic Methods’, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, vol. 42, 39–75.

Doyle, J. (2010) ‘The Socratic Elenchus: No Problem’, in Smiley, T. J., Lear, J., and Oliver, A. (eds), The Force of Argument: Essays in Honor of Timothy Smiley, London, Routledge, pp. 68–81.

T. Brickhouse: "Socrates on Goods, Virtue and Happiness", in Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 5

I.M. Crombie: "Socratic Definition", in J.M. Day (ed.), Plato's Meno in Focus (and Paideia, Vol.5, Special Plato Issue)

M.T. Fere-John: "The Unity of Virtue and the Objects of Socratic Inquiry", in The Journal of the History of Philosophy 20

Lloyd Gerson: "Plato on Virtue, Knowledge and the Unity of Goodness", in J. Anton & R. Preus (eds.), Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy 3: Plato

T. Irwin: Plato's Moral Theory (PMT), Chs. 1-3

T. Irwin: PE, Chs. 2, 3, and 9

C.C.W. Taylor: "Socratic Ethics", in Barry Gower and Michael Stokes (eds.), Socratic Questions

G. Vlastos: Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher, Ch. 8

G. Vlastos: "The Socratic Elenchus", in Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 1 1983

D. Zeyl: “Socratic Virtue and Happiness", in Archiv fur Gesichte der Philosophie 64, 1982

 

1b. How is virtue acquired? Is it teachable?

Q. What arguments do Socrates and Protagoras provide in the Meno and the Protagoras concerning the acquisition of virtue and what does their discussion suggest about the way in which virtue is in fact acquired? Why are they so concerned as to whether virtue is teachable or not?

 

Plato: Protagoras 316-328, and 357e to end, with Taylor's notes

Meno 87c-100c with Sharples' notes cf. Republic, books III-VII

M. Nill: Morality and Self-Interest in Antiphon, Democritus and Protagoras

M. Nussbaum: The Fragility of Goodness, Ch. 4

G. Kerferd: “Protagoras' doctrine of justice and virtue in the Protagoras of Plato”, in Journal of Hellenic Studies, 73

O. Bataban: "The Myths of Protagoras and Plato's Theory of Measurement", in History of Philosophy Quarterly 4

A. Nehamas: "Meno's Paradox and Socrates as Teacher" esp. section 1, in J.M. Day (ed.), Plato's Meno in Focus (also in Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 1985)

A. Nehamas: "Socratic Intellectualism", in Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy 2, 1986

A. Rorty: "Commentary on A. Nehamas....Did Socrates teach Arete?", in Procs. of Boston Area Colloq. in Ancient Philosophy 2, 1986

M. Nussbaum: "Aristophanes and Socrates on Learning Practical Wisdom", in Yale Classical Studies 26, 1980

R. Kraut Socrates and the State, pp 279 ff.

T. Irwin: Plato's Moral Theory, Ch. 4

 

2. Practical Knowledge: Socrates’ claim that virtue is knowledge and apparent denial of the possibility of weakness of will ("Noone knowingly does wrong").

General Question: How plausible is Socrates’ denial that weakness of will is possible?

In answering this question think about the following issues: What are the fundamental principles of Socrates' account of practical reason? What does S. mean by the claim that virtue is knowledge? Why does S. deny the possibility of weakness of will?

 

Plato: Meno, 77b-78c, with Sharples' notes, Protagoras 348-360 with Taylor's notes, Gorgias 466a-468e with Irwin's notes

G. Nakhnikian: "The First Socratic Paradox", in J.M. Day (Ed.), Plato's Meno in Focus (and Journal of the History of Philosophy, 11, 1973)

M. Nussbaum: The Fragility of Goodness, Ch. 4

G. Santas: "Plato's Protagoras and Explanation of Weakness" in Philosophical Review, 75, 1966

T. Irwin: Plato's Moral Theory, Ch.4

T. Irwin: PE, Ch. 6

Moss, J. (2014) ‘Hedonism and the Divided Soul in Plato’s Protagoras’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 96, no. 3.

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and Reason in Plato and Aristotle, OUP, ch. D1.

G. Vlastos: “Socrates on Acrasia", in Phoenix 23, 1969

K. McTighe: "Socrates on Desire for the Good and the Involuntariness of Wrongdoing", in Phronesis 29, 1984

T. Penner: "Socrates on Virtue and Motivation", in Lee, Mourelatos, and Rorty (eds.), Exegesis and Argument

T. Penner “Socrates on the strength of knowledge: Protagoras 351B-357E”, in Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 79, 2 (1997) pp. 117-149..

H.S.Richardson: "Measurement, Pleasure and Practical Science in Plato's Protagoras", in The Journal of History of Philosophy, 28, 1990

R. Weiss: "Ignorance, Involuntariness and Innocence; a reply to McTighe", in Phronesis, 30, 1985

D.J. Zeyl: "Socrates and Hedonism: Protagoras 351b-358d", in Phronesis, 25, 1980

 

3. Plato's conception of human nature -- the theory of mind

Q. How plausible are the arguments Plato gives to defend his conception of the soul (mind)? How does his conception of the mind differ from that of Socrates? Did Plato have good reasons for developing a different conception?

 

Plato: Republic, 435-445

T. Irwin: PE, Ch. 13

J.M. Cooper: "Plato's theory of human motivation", in History of Philosophy Quarterly 1, 1985 (and in Fine, Plato 2)

T. Penner: "Thought and Desire in Plato", in G. Vlastos (ed.), Plato, A Collection of Critical Essays, Vol. 2

C. Kahn: "Plato's Theory of Desire", in Review of Metaphysics, 44, 1987

H. Lorenz The Brute Within, OUP, 2006. Ch. 2  

C. Shields “Plato’s Divided Soul” in M. McPherran (ed.) Plato’s ‘Republic: A Critical Guide,

J. Moss “Appearances and Calculations: Plato’s Division of the Soul,” Oxford Studies in

Ancient Philosophy 34, 2008

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and Reason in Plato and Aristotle, OUP, ch. B1.

 

 

4. Thrasymachus and Callicles: Attacks on the relation between virtue and happiness.

Q. What is the basis of the arguments put forward by Thrasymachus and Callicles? How do the arguments differ? How difficult is the challenge they pose to Plato?

 

Plato: Republic, 333-354

Gorgias, 481-527, with Irwin's notes and Dodds' notes

J. Annas: An Introduction to Plato's Republic, Ch. 2

T. Irwin: Plato's Moral Theory, Chs. 5,3; and 7,2

T. Irwin: PE, Chs. 7-8, and 11

G. Santas: Socrates Ch. 8

S. Everson “The Incoherence of Thrasymachus” in OSAP 16 (1998)

T.D. Chappell “The Virtues of Thrasymachus” in Phronesis Vol 38, No 1, pp. 1-17 (1993)  

T.D. Chappell “Thrasymachus and Definition” in OSAP 18 (2000), pp. 101-107

R. Barney “Socrates’ Refutation of Thrasymachus” in Santas (ed.) The Blackwell Guide to

Plato’s Republic.

R. Woolf “Callicles and Socrates: psychic (dis)harmony in the Gorgias”, OSAP 18 (2000).

J. Doyle “The fundamental conflict in Plato’s Gorgias” OSAP 30 (2006).

J. Doyle “Socrates and Gorgias” Phronesis 55 (1), 1-25 (2010)

R. Barney “Gorgias’ Defense” Southern Journal of Philosophy 48 (1), 95-121 (2010)

R. Barney “Callicles and Thrasymachus” http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/callicles-thrasymachus/

 

 

 

 

5. Justice

Q. What is Plato's conception of justice? Does his view constitute a reply to the objections raised by Callicles, Thrasymachus, Glaucon and Adeimantus? Does he show there is a connection between justice (or, in general, virtue) and happiness?

 

Plato: Republic, 338-378, 412-445

*J. Annas: An Introduction to Plato's Republic, Chs.3,5,6,12

*T. Irwin: PE, Chs. 14-15

R. Kraut: "Reason and Justice in Plato's Republic”, in Lee, Mourelatos, and Rorty (eds.), Exegesis and Argument

B. Williams: "The analogy of the city and the soul in Plato's Republic, also in Exegesis and Argument

N.H. Dent: "Common, Civil and Platonic Justice in the Republic", in Polis, 6

*G. Vlastos: "Justice and Happiness in the Republic", in his Platonic Studies

*G. Vlastos: Plato, A Collection of Critical Essays, Vol. 2, Essays by Demos, Sachs, Shorey, and Vlastos

J. Cooper: "The Psychology of Justice in Plato", in American Philosophical Quarterly,14, 1977

*M. Nussbaum: The Fragility of Goodness, Ch.5

F.C. White: "Justice and the Good of Others in Plato's Republic", in History of Philosophy Quarterly, 5, 1988

G. Santas: "Two Theories of Good in Plato's Republic", in Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophie, 67, 1985

RGK. Singpurwalla “Plato's Defense of Justice in the Republic”, in G.X. Santas (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Plato's Republic, Oxford: Blackwell, ch. 13, 2006   

R. Kamtekar “Ethics and Politics in Socrates’ defense of justice” in McPherran (ed.) Plato’s

‘Republic: A Critical Guide, (2010).

 

6. Individual and State

Q. How much control over individuals does the State have in Plato's just society? Why does Plato think this desirable? To what extent is he right?

 

Plato: Republic, 368-471, 543-580

P.L. Versenyi: "Plato and his Liberal Opponents", in Philosophy, 46, 1971

K. Popper: The Open Society and its Enemies, Vol 1

J. Annas: An Introduction to Plato's Republic, Ch. 7

R. Bambrough (ed.) Plato, Popper, and Politics, Essays by Plamenatz, Russell, Ryle, and Unger,

G. Vlastos: "The Theory of Social Justice", in H. North (ed.), Interpretations of Plato

J. Annas: “Plato’s Republic and Feminism”, in Philosophy, 51, 1976

S. Okin: "Philosopher Queens and Private Wives", in Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1977

G. Vlastos: “Was Plato a Feminist?”, in Times Literary Supplement, March 17-23, 1989

G. Klosko: The Development of Plato's Political Theory, London: Methuen. Chapter 9  

G. Fine: Plato 2, Essays by Annas, Taylor, and Burnyeat.

E. Brown "Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2011/entries/plato-ethics-politics/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Topics on Aristotle

 

6. Eudaimonia, Human Flourishing

Q. Does Aristotle provide a defensible account of the nature of eudaimonia? What does Aristotle mean by 'eudaimonia'? What does he take to constitute eudaimonia? Does his account of eudaimonia meet the conditions he lays down for an adequate account?

 

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle N.E. book I and book X, ch. 5 ff, with commentary in AET ch.2 Essays by T. Nagel and J. Ackrill in EAE

J. Annas MOH, Ch.1

A. Kenny “Happiness” in J. Feinberg (ed.) Moral Concepts

R. Kraut “Two Conceptions of Happiness", in The Philosophical Review, 1979

S. White "Is Aristotelian Happiness a Good Life or the Best Life", in O.S.A.P., (8), 1990; and reply by Crisp, in O.S.A.P., (10), 1992

 

More difficult:

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and Reason in Plato and Aristotle, Oxford, OUP. Ch. A2..

J.M. Cooper “Contemplation and Happiness: A Reconsideration", in Synthese, 1987

R. Heinaman "Eudaimonia and Self-sufficiency in the N.E.", in Phronesis, (33), 1988

A. Kenny "The Nichomachean Conception of Happiness", O.S.A.P. Supplementary Volume, 1991

A. Kenny Aristotle on the Perfect Life, esp. Chs. 1-3 and 8

G. Lawrence “Aristotle's Conception of Eudaimonia", in The Philosophical Review, 1992

T.D. Roche "Ergon and Eudaimonia in N.E. I: Reconsidering the Intellectualist Interpretation", in Journal of The History of Philosophy, (26), 1988

S. Broadie Ethics with Aristotle ch. 1.

 

7. Human nature -- a) The Function Argument

Q. a) Does mankind have an ergon or function? What role does the investigation of the man's function play in Aristotle's ethical theory?

b) What does Aristotle mean by the claim that man is a political animal? What does he mean by the claim that the state is natural? Are either of these claims defensible?

 

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle N.E. book I, ch.7 with AET, Ch.5

T. Irwin Essay in EAE

J. Annas MOH Chs. 3 and 4

J. Lear Aristotle, Desire to Understand, Ch.5.2

R. Kraut "The Peculiar Function of Human Beings", in Canadian Journal of Philosophy, (9), 1979

J. Whiting “Aristotle’s Function Argument: A Defense”, in Ancient Philosophy, Vol. (8).1, pp. 33-48.  

 

 

 

 

More difficult:

Baker, S. H. (2015) ‘The Concept of Ergon: Towards An Achievement Interpretation of Aristotle’s “Function Argument”’, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, vol. 48, pp. 227–266.

Essays by Gomez-Lobo and Achtenberg in EAGC

T. Irwin Aristotle’s First Principles

J. McDowell Essay in EAE

M. Nussbaum “Aristotle on Human Nature and the Foundations of Ethics” in R. Harrison and J.E.J. Altham (Eds.) Festchrift to Bernard Williams

M. Nussbaum Essay in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds.) The Quality of Life

C. Reeve The Practices of Reason, section 22

S. Broadie Ethics with Aristotle pp. 34-50.

 

 

b) This theme is taken further in the Politics: "Man is by Nature a Political Animal"

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle N.E., as above, and P. book I

Readings on the Function argument as above. The essay by Bradley in CAP is more general but relevant.

S.Everson Introduction to his edition of the Politics

T. Saunders Aristotle’s Politics, Books I and II (Translated with Introduction and Commentary)

 

More difficult:

Essays by Adkins, Kullman, and Keyt (ch.5) (the best is Kullman's essay) in CAP.

F.D. Miller "Aristotle's Political Naturalism", in Apeiron, (22), 1989

J. Ferguson "Teleology in Aristotle's Politics", in A. Gotthelf, (ed.), Aristotle on Nature and Living Things

W. Ambler "Aristotle's Understanding of the Naturalness of the City", in Review of Politics, (47), 1985

R. Kraut “Nature in Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics”, Social Philosophy and Policy 2007.

 

 

8. Aristotle on the nature and acquisition of virtue

Q. What light does Aristotle’s account of the acquisition of virtue shed on the nature of virtue?

 

Aristotle N.E., books II, III, Chs1-5, and VI, with commentary in AET, Chs. 6, 8, 9, 11.

General

J.Annas MOH, Ch.2

J. Lear Aristotle: Desire to Understand, Ch.5

[D.S. Hutchinson Virtues of Aristotle]

 

On the acquisition of virtue

M. Burnyeat “Aristotle on learning to be good in EAE

R. Hursthouse “Moral habituation” in OSAP (6), 1988

I. Vasiliou “The role of good upbringing in Aristotle’s ethics” in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, (56), 1996

Eric M Cave "Habituation & Rational Preference Revision", Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review vol xxxvii (2), Spring 1998

J. Moss Aristotle on the Apparent Good ch. 8.

M. Jimenez “Aristotle on Becoming Virtuous by Doing Virtuous Actions”, Phronesis 61.1, 3-32 (2016).  

H. Curzer Aristotle and the Virtues (OUP: 2012) esp. chh 14-16.

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and Reason in Plato and Aristotle, OUP, ch. B2.

 

On motivation and the nature of virtue

Q. What does Aristotle’s analysis of intentional action and prohairesis reveal about the nature of virtue?

 

Essays by Ackrill, Irwin (ch.8), and Wiggins (ch.13) in EAE

[G. E.Anscombe "Thought and Action in Aristotle", in R. Bambrough (ed.), New Essays on Plato and Aristotle]

[D. Charles Aristotle's Philosophy of Action]

[A.R. Mele “Choice and Virtue in the Nichomachean Ethics", in The Journal of the History of

Philosophy, (19), 1981]

T. Irwin “Disunity in the Aristotelian virtues”, with discussion by Kraut, in OSAP supplementary volume 1989

J. McDowell "Virtue and Reason", Monist, (62), 1979

C. Reeve The Practices of Reason, Ch.2

B. Williams “Acting as the virtuous person acts” in R. Heinaman (ed.) Aristotle and Moral Realism

 

 

9. The definition of virtue: the golden mean and practical wisdom

Q. a) What is Aristotle's doctrine of the golden mean and what is its role in Aristotle’s definition of virtue?

or b) Does Aristotle’s definition provide a plausible account of virtue? Can it be applied to characteristics widely held to be virtues such as temperance, courage and (widely so held by the Greeks at least) justice?

or c) What light does Aristotelian virtue theory shed on what an agent should do in particular circumstances?

 

Aristotle N.E. Books II-IV, except III chs. 1-5, and VI with commentary in AET, Chs. 7, 11

Essays by Kosman, Urmson, Pears, and Sorabji in EAE

L. Brown “What is ‘the mean relative to us’ in Aristotle’s Ethics?”, in Phronesis,(62), 1997

C.M. Young "Aristotle on Temperance", in The Philosophical Review, (97), 1988

R. Hursthouse "A False Doctrine of the Mean", in Proceedings of AristotelianSociety, (81), 1980

L. Brown “Why is Aristotle’s Virtue of Character a Mean?”, in Polansky, R (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, CUP, 2014.  

D. Bostock Aristotle’s Ethics (OUP, 2000), ch. 2.

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and Reason in Plato and Aristotle, OUP, chh. B2, C2 and D2..

 

 

More difficult:

D.S. Hutchinson The Virtues of Aristotle

S. Leighton "Aristotle's Courageous Passions", in Phronesis, (33), 1988

C. Reeve The Practices of Reason, ch.2

N. Sherman The Fabric of Character

S. Broadie Ethics with Aristotle ch. 2.

J. Moss Aristotle on the Apparent Good ch. 7.

R. Hursthouse “The central doctrine of the mean” in R. Kraut (ed.) The Blackwell Guide to

Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics.

H. Curzer Aristotle and the Virtues (OUP: 2012) esp. ch. 2.

 

 

 

10. The virtue of justice

Q. What is Aristotle's account of justice? How is justice related to the other virtues? What is the relation between justice in the individual and justice in the state?

 

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle N.E. Book V, with commentary in AET, ch.10, and P. Book III

Essay by Williams in EAE

Essays by Keyt (ch.11) and Miller in CAP

B. Baumrin “Two Concepts of Justice", in Midwest Studies in Philosophy, (7), 1982

 

More difficult:

N. Dent The Moral Psychology of the Virtues

W.Kullman "Equality in Aristotle's Political Thought", in I. Kajanto (ed.) Equality and Inequality of Man in Ancient Thought

W. Von Leyden Aristotle on Equality and Justice: His Political Argument

F. Rosen "The Political Context of Aristotle's Categories of Justice", Phronesis, (20), 1975

F. Wolff “Justice et Pouvoir", in Phronesis, (33), 1988

H. Curzer Aristotle and the Virtues (OUP: 2012) esp. ch. 11.

 

 

11. Aristotle's good society

Q. What is the relation between individual and society in Aristotle's good society? Is Aristotle's conception of the good society (a) defensible and (b) still relevant today?

 

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle P. Books I-III and VI-VIII, with introduction by Everson

Essays by Bradley and Depew in CAP

J. Annas “The Good Life and the Good Lives of Others” in E. Paul, F.D. Miller, and J. Paul (eds.), The Good Life and the Human Good

J. Barnes, et al. Articles on Aristotle, Vol. 2

M. Nussbaum O.S.A.P., Supplementary Volume, 1988

and D. Charles

M. Nussbaum Essay in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (Eds.) The Quality of Life

R. Kraut Aristotle’s Politics, Books VII and VIII (Transl with Introduction and Commentary)

 

More difficult:

D.J. Allan “Individual and State in the Ethics and Politics", in Fondation Hardt, Entretiens sur l'Antiquite Classique IX, La Politique d'Aristote

R. Develin "The Good Man and the Good Citizen", in Phronesis, (18), 1973

G. Huxley “On Aristotle's Best State", in P. Cartledge and F. Harvey (eds.) Crux

C. Johnson "Who is Aristotle's Citizen", in Phronesis, (29), 1984

G. Patzig (ed.) XI Symposium Aristotelicum: Studien zur Politik des Aristoteles (most of the articles are in English)

 

Updated J. Dow (2017) based on CB Megone (2012 and earlier).

 

This list was last updated on 20/09/2017