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PHIL2221
PHIL2221 Ancient Philosophy Reading List

Ancient Philosophy, 2017/18, Semester 1
Dr Jamie Dow
j.dow@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Primary texts

There are several primary texts for this course, and passages from one or more of these will constitute part of the reading for each seminar. Thus these texts constitute the basic reading for the course, and copies of each will be available on short loan in the Edward Boyle. However you should try to possess your own copies of these works.

Plato: Meno

Plato: Protagoras

Plato: Gorgias

Plato: Republic

Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics

Aristotle Politics

Recommended Translations:

The recommended translations below are the ones we’ll use in seminars.

They have been selected for (i) their accuracy, and (ii) price – they are cheap to buy new, even cheaper second-hand, and are very widely used, so could be easily sold on after the module.

You must use translations that are in modern English, and that have the text marked with the standard referencing systems (Stephanus pages for Plato - http://plato-dialogues.org/stephanus.htm (e.g. “Meno 70a”, “Republic 327aand Bekker pages for Aristotle (e.g. “Nic. Eth. 1074a5”), as these are the references you must use in presentations, seminar discussions and written work.

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For Plato:

RECOMMENDED (good translations, quite cheap to buy):

Meno – in “Five dialogues ISBN: 0872206335 (pbk.); 9780872206335 (pbk.); 0872206343 (cloth); 9780872206342 (cloth)” (Hackett: tr. Grube / Cooper)

Protagoras ISBN: 0872200957 (hard ; alk. paper); 9780872200951 (hard ; alk. paper); 0872200949 (pbk. ; alk. paper); 9780872200944 (pbk. ; alk. paper) (Hackett: tr. Lombardo / Bell)

Gorgias ISBN: 0872200167 (pbk.); 9780872200166 (pbk.); 0872200175 (hard); 9780872200173 (hard) (Hackett: tr. Zeyl)

Republic ISBN: 9780872201361 (pbk.); 9780872201378 (hbk.); 0872201376 (hbk.); 0872201368 (pbk.) (Hackett: tr. Grube / Reeve)

ALSO GOOD (good translations, more expensive):

Protagoras and Meno ISBN: 9780140449037 paperback; 0140449035 paperback (Penguin: tr. Beresford)

Protagoras (Oxford: tr. Taylor)

Gorgias and Protagoras (Cambridge: tr. Griffith – “Gorgias, Menexenus, and Protagoras ISBN: 9780521546003 (pbk.) : £17.99; 9780521837293 (hbk.) : £50.00; 0521837294 (hbk.) : £50.00; 0521546001 (pbk.) : £17.99”)

Meno ; and, Phaedo ISBN: 9780521859479 (hbk.); 0521859476 (hbk.); 9780521676779 (pbk.); 0521676770 (pbk.) (Cambridge: tr. Sedley / Long)

The Republic ISBN: 052148443X (pbk.) : £8.95; 0521481732 (Cambridge: tr. Griffith)

Republic (Penguin: tr. Lee)

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For Aristotle:

RECOMMENDED:

The Nicomachean ethics ISBN: 0192815180: Oxford translation (tr. Brown/Ross)

Politics ISBN: 0872203891 (cloth); 0872203883 (pbk): Hackett translation (tr. Reeve)

ALSO GOOD:

Nicomachean Ethics:

Oxford edition (tr. C. Rowe, with excellent essays and notes by S. Broadie)

Hackett translation (tr. and notes by Irwin)

Cambridge translation (tr. Crisp)

Penguin translation (tr. Barnes/Thomson)

Politics:

Oxford translation (tr. Stalley / Barker)

Penguin translation (tr. Sinclair / Saunders)

Translations to AVOID!

Oxford translations by Waterfield – esp. of Plato’s Republic.

Kindle versions and other cheap electronic versions where what you actually get is a cheap, very old translation that doesn’t use the proper referencing system within the text.

Beware of cheaper / free translations (esp. online) that are in misleading antiquated English, and that lack the proper referencing system for the text!

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Resources & Reading List:

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Primary texts

Plato: Meno

Plato: Protagoras

Plato: Gorgias

Plato: Republic

Aristotle Moral virtue. Nichomachean Ethics

Aristotle Politics

Recommended Translations:

See above.

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Commentaries on Plato’s works

R. Sharples: Plato Meno ISBN: 0856682497 (pbk) : £6.95; 0856682489

D. Scott Plato's Meno ISBN: 9780521104685; 0521640334 (hbk.) : £40.00; 9780521640336

C.C.W. Taylor: Protagoras

T. Irwin: Gorgias ISBN: 0198720912; 0198720874

E.R. Dodds: Plato's Gorgias

J. Annas: An introduction to Plato's Republic ISBN: 0198274289

J.M. Day: Plato's Meno in focus

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Secondary texts on Plato’s works

T. Irwin: Plato’s Ethics (hereafter PE): This is the main secondary text.

T. Irwin: Classical thought ISBN: 0192891774 (pbk) : No price; 0192191969

T. Irwin: Plato's moral theory : the early and middle dialogues ISBN: 019824567X; 0198246145 (pbk) (hereafter PMT)

W.K.C. Guthrie: A History of Greek Philosophy, Vols. 3 & 4

R. Kraut: The Cambridge companion to Plato

G. Santas: Socrates, philosophy in Plato's early dialogues ISBN: 9780710093271 (pbk); 0710093276 (pbk); 0710089996; 9780710089991

G. Fine: Plato ISBN: 0198752067 (v. 1); 0198752040 (v. 2) 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul (An excellent new collection with a number of relevant articles.)

G. Santas (ed.) The Blackwell guide to Plato's Republic ISBN: 9781405115643 (pbk. : alk. paper); 1405115637 (hbk. : alk. paper); 1405115645 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9781405115636 (hbk. : alk. paper)

G.R.F. Ferrari The Cambridge Companion to Plato’s Republic

H.H. Benson A companion to Plato ISBN: 9781405191111 (pbk.); 1405191112 (pbk.)

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Companions to Aristotle’s Ethical and Political works:

A.O. Rorty (ed.), Essays on Aristotle's Ethics , (Hereafter EAE)

W.D. Hardie, Aristotle's Ethical Theory (Hereafter AET)

D. Bostock, Aristotle's ethics ISBN: 0198752652 (pbk)

D. Keyt and A companion to Aristotle's Politics ISBN: 155786098X (Hereafter CAP)

R. Kraut (ed.) The Blackwell guide to Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics ISBN: 1405120215 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9781405120203 (hardcover : alk. paper); 1405120207 (hardcover : alk. paper); 9781405120210 (pbk. : alk. paper)

R. Polansky (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics ISBN: 9781139022484 (ebook); 9780521192767 (hardback); 9780521122733 (paperback)

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Introductory books or articles, and books of general relevance

J. Ackrill Aristotle the philosopher ISBN: 0192891189 (pbk) : Unpriced; 0192191314

J. Annas The morality of happiness ISBN: 0195096525 (pbk); 019507999X (Hereafter MOH)

J. Barnes Aristotle ISBN: 0192875817 (pbk) : £1.50; 0192875825 (O.U.P. Past Masters / Aristotle : a very short introduction ISBN: 0192854089.)

J. Barnes (ed.) The Cambridge companion to Aristotle ISBN: 0521422949 (pbk); 0521411335

J. Barnes, Articles on Aristotle. 2, Ethics and politics ISBN: 0715609300; 0715609297, (Ethics and Politics)

R. Hursthouse On virtue ethics ISBN: 0198238185

T. Irwin Classical thought ISBN: 0192891774 (pbk) : No price; 0192191969

T. Irwin Aristotle’s First Principles

J. Lear Aristotle : the desire to understand ISBN: 0521347629 (pbk); 0521345235 (Hereafter Lear)

C.B. Megone “Aristotelian Ethics”, in Encyclopedia of applied ethics

J.O. Urmson Aristotle's ethics ISBN: 0631159460

In recent years there have been a number of good books wholly or partly devoted to Aristotle's ethics and political philosophy. . In the list that follows the relevant chapters are not always cited (Broadie, for example, discusses every topic; and Irwin (above), Kraut and Reeve discuss many), so it is worth consulting these on most of the Aristotle essay topics below. See the course tutor if you need further advice. These books include:

J.M. Cooper Reason and human good in Aristotle ISBN: 0872200221

A. Kenny Aristotle on the perfect life ISBN: 0198240171

R. Kraut Aristotle on the human good ISBN: 069107349X (alk. paper) : 37.50

M. Nussbaum The Fragility of Goodness

C.D.C. Reeve Practices of reason : Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics ISBN: 019823984X

N. Sherman The fabric of character : Aristotle's theory of virtue. ISBN: 0198244517

J. Anton Essays in ancient Greek philosophy. Vol.4, Aristotle's ethics ISBN: 9780791406540 Volume 4 (Hereafter A. Preuss EAGC)

S. Broadie Ethics with Aristotle ISBN: 0195066014 (alk. paper)

R. Heinaman (ed.) Aristotle and moral realism ISBN: 1857283392

J. Moss Aristotle on the apparent good : perception, phantasia, thought, and desire ISBN: 9780199656349 (hbk.) : £35.00; 0199656347 (hbk.) : £35.00

A journal with several relevant articles is: Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. (Hereafter O.S.A.P.).

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The topics below cover Plato first then Aristotle (we will cover 10 out of 11 of these set topics in the course)

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1a The definition issue: What is virtue?

General Q. What sort of definition of virtue is Socrates seeking, and is he right about the importance of determining its definition? What connections are there, for Socrates, between knowing a definition, moral understanding, and moral theory?

In answering this Q., you might think about the following issues: What definitions of virtue does Meno offer and why does Socrates reject them? What kinds of definition are there? What would S. count as a satisfactory definition of a moral concept? Is S. right to stress the priority of the issue of definition? Of what practical use would a definition be? Is it possible to define virtue? How plausible is the suggestion that virtue is knowledge?

Plato: Meno ISBN: 0856682497 (pbk) : £6.95; 0856682489 70a-80d, 87c-89e, and 98b-100c with Sharples' notes

Protagoras 318-320, and 357e to end with Taylor's notes

R.E. Allen: The dialogues of Plato ISBN: 0300032269 (v. 1 ; alk. paper); 9780300032260 (v. 1 ; alk. paper); 0300044887 (v. 1 ; pbk.); 9780300044881 (v. 1 ; pbk.); 0300048742 (v. 2 ; cloth); 9780300048742 (v. 2 ; cloth); 0300056990 (v. 2 ; pbk.); 9780300056990 (v. 2 ; pbk.); 0300063431 (v. 3 ; cloth); 9780300063431 (v. 3 ; cloth); 0300074387 (v. 3 ; pbk.); 9780300074383 (v. 3 ; pbk.); 9780300077292 (v. 4 ; pbk.); 0300077297 (v. 4 ; pbk.); 0300066163; 9780300066166 Vol. I, Introduction to the Meno

H.H. Benson: "The Priority of Definition and the Socratic Elenchus", in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 8

H.H. Benson Clitophon's challenge : dialectic in Plato's Meno, Phaedo, and Republic ISBN: 9780199324842 (e-book) (OUP, 2015) chapter 2.

Doyle, J. (2012) ‘Socratic Methods’, Oxford studies in ancient philosophy., vol. 42, 39–75.

Doyle, J. (2010) ‘The Socratic Elenchus: No Problem’, in Smiley, T. J., Lear, J., and Oliver, A. (eds), The force of argument : essays in honor of Timothy Smiley780203859810 (e-book) , London, Routledge, pp. 68–81.

T. Brickhouse: "Socrates on Goods, Virtue and Happiness", in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 5

I.M. Crombie: "Socratic Definition", in J.M. Day (ed.), Plato's Meno in focus ISBN: 0415002982 (pbk); 0415002974 (and Paideia, Vol.5, Special Plato Issue)

M.T. Fere-John: "The Unity of Virtue and the Objects of Socratic Inquiry", in Journal of the history of philosophy. ISSN: 0022-5053 20

Lloyd Gerson: "Plato on Virtue, Knowledge and the Unity of Goodness", in J. Anton & R. Preus (eds.), Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy. Vol. 3, Plato

T. Irwin: Plato's moral theory : the early and middle dialogues ISBN: 019824567X; 0198246145 (pbk) (PMT), Chs. 1-3

T. Irwin: Plato's ethics, Chs. 2, 3, and 9

C.C.W. Taylor: "Socratic Ethics", in Barry Gower and Michael Stokes (eds.), Socratic questions : new essays on the philosophy of Socrates and its significance ISBN: 0415069319

G. Vlastos: Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher, Ch. 8

G. Vlastos: "The Socratic Elenchus", in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 1 1983

D. Zeyl: “Socratic Virtue and Happiness", in Archiv fur Gesichte der Philosophie 64, 1982 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/10/2017) 

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1b. How is virtue acquired? Is it teachable?

Q. What arguments do Socrates and Protagoras provide in the Meno and the Protagoras concerning the acquisition of virtue and what does their discussion suggest about the way in which virtue is in fact acquired? Why are they so concerned as to whether virtue is teachable or not?

Plato: Protagoras 316-328, and 357e to end, with Taylor's notes

Meno ISBN: 0856682497 (pbk) : £6.95; 0856682489 87c-100c with Sharples' notes cf. Republic, books III-VII

M. Nill: Morality and self-interest in Protagoras, Antiphon and Democritus ISBN: 9004073191

M. Nussbaum: The Fragility of Goodness, Ch. 4

G. Kerferd: “Protagoras' doctrine of justice and virtue in the Protagoras of Plato”, in The journal of Hellenic studies. ISSN: 0075-4269, 73

O. Bataban: "The Myths of Protagoras and Plato's Theory of Measurement", in History of Philosophy Quarterly 4 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

A. Nehamas: "Meno's Paradox and Socrates as Teacher" esp. section 1, in J.M. Day (ed.), Plato's Meno in focus ISBN: 0415002982 (pbk); 0415002974 (also in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 1985)

A. Nehamas: "Socratic Intellectualism", in Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy 2, 1986 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

A. Rorty: "Commentary on A. Nehamas....Did Socrates teach Arete?", in Procs. of Boston Area Colloq. in Ancient Philosophy 2, 1986 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/10/2017) 

M. Nussbaum: "Aristophanes and Socrates on Learning Practical Wisdom", in Yale Classical Studies. 26, 1980

R. Kraut Socrates and the state ISBN: 0691022410 (pbk); 0691076669, pp 279 ff.

T. Irwin: Plato's moral theory : the early and middle dialogues ISBN: 019824567X; 0198246145 (pbk), Ch. 4

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2. Practical Knowledge: Socrates’ claim that virtue is knowledge and apparent denial of the possibility of weakness of will ("Noone knowingly does wrong").

General Question: How plausible is Socrates’ denial that weakness of will is possible?

In answering this question think about the following issues: What are the fundamental principles of Socrates' account of practical reason? What does S. mean by the claim that virtue is knowledge? Why does S. deny the possibility of weakness of will?

Plato: Meno, 77b-78c, with Sharples' notes, Protagoras 348-360 with Taylor's notes, Gorgias ISBN: 0198720912; 0198720874 466a-468e with Irwin's notes

G. Nakhnikian: "The First Socratic Paradox", in J.M. Day (Ed.), Plato's Meno in focus ISBN: 0415002982 (pbk); 0415002974 (and Journal of the history of philosophy. ISSN: 0022-5053, 11, 1973)

M. Nussbaum: The Fragility of Goodness, Ch. 4

G. Santas: "Plato's Protagoras and Explanation of Weakness" in Philosophical review. ISSN: 0031-8108, 75, 1966

T. Irwin: Plato's moral theory : the early and middle dialogues ISBN: 019824567X; 0198246145 (pbk), Ch.4

T. Irwin: Plato's Ethics, Ch. 6

Moss, J. (2014) ‘Hedonism and the Divided Soul in Plato’s Protagoras’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie. ISSN: 0003-9101; 1613-0650, vol. 96, no. 3.

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and reason in Plato and Aristotle ISBN: 9780199609611; 0199609616, OUP, ch. D1.

G. Vlastos: “Socrates on Acrasia", in Phoenix. ISSN: 0031-8299 23, 1969

K. McTighe: "Socrates on Desire for the Good and the Involuntariness of Wrongdoing", in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868 29, 1984

T. Penner: "Socrates on Virtue and Motivation", in Lee, Mourelatos, and Rorty (eds.), Exegesis and argument : studies in Greek philosophy presented to Gregory Vlastos ISBN: 9023210395

T. Penner “Socrates on the strength of knowledge: Protagoras 351B-357E”, in Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie. ISSN: 0003-9101; 1613-0650 79, 2 (1997) pp. 117-149..

H.S.Richardson: "Measurement, Pleasure and Practical Science in Plato's Protagoras", in The Journal of History of Philosophy, 28, 1990 - Available online: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/226447/pdf

R. Weiss: "Ignorance, Involuntariness and Innocence; a reply to McTighe", in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868, 30, 1985

D.J. Zeyl: "Socrates and Hedonism: Protagoras 351b-358d", in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868 25, 1980

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3. Plato's conception of human nature -- the theory of mind

Q. How plausible are the arguments Plato gives to defend his conception of the soul (mind)? How does his conception of the mind differ from that of Socrates? Did Plato have good reasons for developing a different conception?

Plato: Republic, 435-445

T. Irwin: Plato's Ethics, Ch. 13

J.M. Cooper: "Plato's theory of human motivation", in History of Philosophy Quarterly 1, 1985 (and in Fine, Plato ISBN: 0198752067 (v. 1); 0198752040 (v. 2) 2)

T. Penner: "Thought and Desire in Plato", in G. Vlastos (ed.), Plato : a collection of critical essays ISBN: 0268015295 (pbk.) (v.1); 0268015287 (v.1); 0268015309 (v.2); 0268015317 (pbk.) (v.2), Vol. 2

C. Kahn: "Plato's Theory of Desire", in Review of metaphysics. ISSN: 0034-6632, 44, 1987

H. Lorenz The brute within : appetitive desire in Plato and Aristotle ISBN: 9780199561698 (pbk.); 0199290636 (alk. paper); 9780199290635 (alk. paper), OUP, 2006. Ch. 2   

C. Shields “Plato’s Divided Soul” in M. McPherran (ed.) Plato's Republic : a critical guide ISBN: 9780521491907 (hbk.); 0521491908 (hbk.),

J. Moss “Appearances and Calculations: Plato’s Division of the Soul,” Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 34, 2008

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and reason in Plato and Aristotle ISBN: 9780199609611; 0199609616, OUP, ch. B1.

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4. Thrasymachus and Callicles: Attacks on the relation between virtue and happiness.

Q. What is the basis of the arguments put forward by Thrasymachus and Callicles? How do the arguments differ? How difficult is the challenge they pose to Plato?

Plato: Republic, 333-354

Gorgias, 481-527, with Irwin's notes and Dodds' notes

J. Annas: An introduction to Plato's Republic ISBN: 0198274289, Ch. 2

T. Irwin: Plato's moral theory : the early and middle dialogues ISBN: 019824567X; 0198246145 (pbk), Chs. 5,3; and 7,2

T. Irwin: Plato's Ethics, Chs. 7-8, and 11

G. Santas: Socrates, philosophy in Plato's early dialogues ISBN: 9780710093271 (pbk); 0710093276 (pbk); 0710089996; 9780710089991 Ch. 8

S. Everson “The Incoherence of Thrasymachus” in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 16 (1998) - Available online: http://www.academia.edu/12890750/The_Incoherence_of_Thrasymachus

T.D. Chappell “The Virtues of Thrasymachus” in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868 Vol 38, No 1, pp. 1-17 (1993)   

T.D. Chappell “Thrasymachus and Definition” in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 18 (2000), pp. 101-107

R. Barney “Socrates’ Refutation of Thrasymachus” in Santas (ed.) The Blackwell guide to Plato's Republic ISBN: 9781405115643 (pbk. : alk. paper); 1405115637 (hbk. : alk. paper); 1405115645 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9781405115636 (hbk. : alk. paper).

R. Woolf “Callicles and Socrates: psychic (dis)harmony in the Gorgias”, Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 18 (2000).

J. Doyle “The fundamental conflict in Plato’s Gorgias” Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. 30 (2006).

J. Doyle “Socrates and Gorgias” Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868 55 (1), 1-25 (2010)

R. Barney “Gorgias’ Defense” Southern journal of philosophy ISSN: 0038-4283 48 (1), 95-121 (2010)

R. Barney “Callicles and Thrasymachus” http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/callicles-thrasymachus/

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5. Justice

Q. What is Plato's conception of justice? Does his view constitute a reply to the objections raised by Callicles, Thrasymachus, Glaucon and Adeimantus? Does he show there is a connection between justice (or, in general, virtue) and happiness?

Plato: Republic, 338-378, 412-445

*J. Annas: An introduction to Plato's Republic ISBN: 0198274289, Chs.3,5,6,12

*T. Irwin: Plato's Ethics, Chs. 14-15

R. Kraut: "Reason and Justice in Plato's Republic”, in Lee, Mourelatos, and Rorty (eds.), Exegesis and argument : studies in Greek philosophy presented to Gregory Vlastos ISBN: 9023210395

B. Williams: "The analogy of the city and the soul in Plato's Republic, also in Exegesis and argument : studies in Greek philosophy presented to Gregory Vlastos ISBN: 9023210395

N.H. Dent: "Common, Civil and Platonic Justice in the Republic", in Polis, 6 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/10/2017) 

*G. Vlastos: "Justice and Happiness in the Republic", in his Platonic studies ISBN: 0691100217 (pbk); 0691071624

*G. Vlastos: Plato : a collection of critical essays ISBN: 0268015295 (pbk.) (v.1); 0268015287 (v.1); 0268015309 (v.2); 0268015317 (pbk.) (v.2), Vol. 2, Essays by Demos, Sachs, Shorey, and Vlastos

J. Cooper: "The Psychology of Justice in Plato", in American philosophical quarterly. ISSN: 0003-0481,14, 1977

*M. Nussbaum: The Fragility of Goodness, Ch.5

F.C. White: "Justice and the Good of Others in Plato's Republic", in History of Philosophy Quarterly, 5, 1988 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

G. Santas: "Two Theories of Good in Plato's Republic", in Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie. ISSN: 0003-9101; 1613-0650, 67, 1985

RGK. Singpurwalla “Plato's Defense of Justice in the Republic”, in G.X. Santas (ed.), The Blackwell guide to Plato's Republic ISBN: 9781405115643 (pbk. : alk. paper); 1405115637 (hbk. : alk. paper); 1405115645 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9781405115636 (hbk. : alk. paper), Oxford: Blackwell, ch. 13, 2006   

R. Kamtekar “Ethics and Politics in Socrates’ defense of justice” in McPherran (ed.) Plato's Republic : a critical guide ISBN: 9780521491907 (hbk.); 0521491908 (hbk.), (2010).

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6. Individual and State

Q. How much control over individuals does the State have in Plato's just society? Why does Plato think this desirable? To what extent is he right?

Plato: Republic, 368-471, 543-580

P.L. Versenyi: "Plato and his Liberal Opponents", in Philosophy. ISSN: 0031-8191; 1469-817X, 46, 1971

K. Popper: The open society and its enemies, Vol 1

J. Annas: An introduction to Plato's Republic ISBN: 0198274289, Ch. 7

R. Bambrough (ed.) Plato, Popper and politics : some contributions to a modern controversy, Essays by Plamenatz, Russell, Ryle, and Unger,

G. Vlastos: "The Theory of Social Justice", in H. North (ed.), Interpretations of Plato : a Swarthmore symposium ISBN: 9004052623

J. Annas: “Plato’s Republic and Feminism”, in Philosophy., 51, 1976

S. Okin: "Philosopher Queens and Private Wives", in Philosophy & public affairs. ISSN: 0048-3915, 1977

G. Vlastos: “Was Plato a Feminist?”, in Times Literary Supplement, March 17-23, 1989 Available online 

G. Klosko: The Development of Plato's Political Theory, London: Methuen. Chapter 9   

G. Fine: Plato ISBN: 0198752067 (v. 1); 0198752040 (v. 2) 2, Essays by Annas, Taylor, and Burnyeat.

E. Brown "Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Winter 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2011/entries/plato-ethics-politics/

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Topics on Aristotle

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6. Eudaimonia, Human Flourishing

Q. Does Aristotle provide a defensible account of the nature of eudaimonia? What does Aristotle mean by 'eudaimonia'? What does he take to constitute eudaimonia? Does his account of eudaimonia meet the conditions he lays down for an adequate account?

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics book I and book X, ch. 5 ff, with commentary in Aristotle's Ethical Theory ch.2 Essays by T. Nagel and J. Ackrill in Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

J. Annas The morality of happiness ISBN: 0195096525 (pbk); 019507999X , Ch.1

A. Kenny “Happiness” in J. Feinberg (ed.) Moral concepts ISBN: 0198750129 (pbk)

R. Kraut “Two Conceptions of Happiness", in Philosophical review. ISSN: 0031-8108, 1979

S. White "Is Aristotelian Happiness a Good Life or the Best Life", in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy.., (8), 1990; and reply by Crisp, in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy., (10), 1992

More difficult:

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and reason in Plato and Aristotle ISBN: 9780199609611; 0199609616, Oxford, OUP. Ch. A2..

J.M. Cooper “Contemplation and Happiness: A Reconsideration", in Synthese. ISSN: 0039-7857, 1987

R. Heinaman "Eudaimonia and Self-sufficiency in the N.E.", in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868, (33), 1988

A. Kenny "The Nichomachean Conception of Happiness", Oxford studies in ancient philosophy.. Supplementary Volume, 1991

A. Kenny Aristotle on the perfect life ISBN: 0198240171, esp. Chs. 1-3 and 8

G. Lawrence “Aristotle's Conception of Eudaimonia", in Philosophical review. ISSN: 0031-8108, 1992

T.D. Roche "Ergon and Eudaimonia in N.E. I: Reconsidering the Intellectualist Interpretation", in Journal of the history of philosophy. ISSN: 0022-5053, (26), 1988

S. Broadie Ethics with Aristotle ISBN: 0195066014 (alk. paper) ch. 1.

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7. Human nature -- a) The Function Argument

Q. a) Does mankind have an ergon or function? What role does the investigation of the man's function play in Aristotle's ethical theory?

b) What does Aristotle mean by the claim that man is a political animal? What does he mean by the claim that the state is natural? Are either of these claims defensible?

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics book I, ch.7 with Aristotle's ethical theory, Ch.5

T. Irwin Essay in Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

J. Annas The morality of happiness ISBN: 0195096525 (pbk); 019507999X Chs. 3 and 4

J. Lear Aristotle : the desire to understand ISBN: 0521347629 (pbk); 0521345235, Ch.5.2

R. Kraut "The Peculiar Function of Human Beings", in Canadian journal of philosophy. ISSN: 0045-5091; 1911-0820, (9), 1979

J. Whiting “Aristotle’s Function Argument: A Defense”, in Ancient philosophy. ISSN: 0740-2007, Vol. (8).1, pp. 33-48. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/10/2017)  

More difficult:

Baker, S. H. (2015) ‘The Concept of Ergon: Towards An Achievement Interpretation of Aristotle’s “Function Argument”’, Oxford studies in ancient philosophy., vol. 48, pp. 227–266.

Essays by Gomez-Lobo and Achtenberg in EAGC

T. Irwin Aristotle’s First Principles

J. McDowell Essay in Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

M. Nussbaum “Aristotle on Human Nature and the Foundations of Ethics” in R. Harrison and J.E.J. Altham (Eds.) World, mind, and ethics : essays on the ethical philosophy of Bernard Williams ISBN: 0521479304

M. Nussbaum Essay in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds.) The Quality of Life

C. Reeve Practices of reason : Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics ISBN: 019823984X, section 22

S. Broadie Ethics with Aristotle ISBN: 0195066014 (alk. paper) pp. 34-50.

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b) This theme is taken further in the Politics: "Man is by Nature a Political Animal"

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics, as above, and Politics. book I

Readings on the Function argument as above. The essay by Bradley in CAP is more general but relevant.

S.Everson Introduction to his edition of the Politics

T. Saunders Aristotle’s Politics / Aristotle. Books 1 and 2 ISBN: 019824892X (acid-free paper); 0198248946 (pbk. : acid-free paper), (Translated with Introduction and Commentary)

More difficult:

Essays by Adkins, Kullman, and Keyt (ch.5) (the best is Kullman's essay) in CAP.

F.D. Miller "Aristotle's Political Naturalism", in Apeiron (Montreal): studies in infinite nature ISSN: 0843-6061, (22), 1989

J. Ferguson "Teleology in Aristotle's Politics", in A. Gotthelf, (ed.), Aristotle on nature and living things : philosophical and historical studies : presented to David M. Balme on his seventieth birthday ISBN: 0935225005 : $32.50; 0862921333 (Bristol Classical Press)

W. Ambler "Aristotle's Understanding of the Naturalness of the City", in The review of politics. ISSN: 0034-6705; 1748-6858, (47), 1985

R. Kraut “Nature in Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics”, Social philosophy and policy. ISSN: 0265-0525; 1471-6437 2007.

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8. Aristotle on the nature and acquisition of virtue

Q. What light does Aristotle’s account of the acquisition of virtue shed on the nature of virtue?

Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics, books II, III, Chs1-5, and VI, with commentary in Aristotle's ethical theory, Chs. 6, 8, 9, 11.

General

J.Annas The morality of happiness ISBN: 0195096525 (pbk); 019507999X, Ch.2

J. Lear Aristotle : the desire to understand, Ch.5

[D.S. Hutchinson The virtues of Aristotle ISBN: 0710208588]

On the acquisition of virtue

M. Burnyeat “Aristotle on learning to be good in Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

R. Hursthouse “Moral habituation” in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. (6), 1988

I. Vasiliou “The role of good upbringing in Aristotle’s ethics” in Philosophy and phenomenological research. ISSN: 0031-8205, (56), 1996

Eric M Cave "Habituation & Rational Preference Revision", Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review vol xxxvii (2), Spring 1998 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

J. Moss Aristotle on the apparent good : perception, phantasia, thought, and desire ISBN: 9780199656349 (hbk.) : £35.00; 0199656347 (hbk.) : £35.00 ch. 8.

M. Jimenez “Aristotle on Becoming Virtuous by Doing Virtuous Actions”, Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868 61.1, 3-32 (2016).   

H. Curzer Aristotle and the virtues ISBN: 9780191629150 (e-book) (OUP: 2012) esp. chh 14-16.

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and reason in Plato and Aristotle ISBN: 9780199609611; 0199609616, OUP, ch. B2.

On motivation and the nature of virtue

Q. What does Aristotle’s analysis of intentional action and prohairesis reveal about the nature of virtue?

Essays by Ackrill, Irwin (ch.8), and Wiggins (ch.13) in Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

[G. E.Anscombe "Thought and Action in Aristotle", in R. Bambrough (ed.), New essays on Plato and Aristotle]

[D. Charles Aristotle's philosophy of action ISBN: 0715621084; 0715610058]

[A.R. Mele “Choice and Virtue in the Nichomachean Ethics", in Journal of the history of philosophy. ISSN: 0022-5053, (19), 1981]

T. Irwin “Disunity in the Aristotelian virtues”, with discussion by Kraut, in Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. supplementary volume 1989

J. McDowell "Virtue and Reason", The monist. ISSN: 0026-9662; 2153-3601, (62), 1979

C. Reeve Practices of reason : Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics ISBN: 019823984X, Ch.2

B. Williams “Acting as the virtuous person acts” in R. Heinaman (ed.) Aristotle and moral realism ISBN: 1857283392

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9. The definition of virtue: the golden mean and practical wisdom

Q. a) What is Aristotle's doctrine of the golden mean and what is its role in Aristotle’s definition of virtue?

or b) Does Aristotle’s definition provide a plausible account of virtue? Can it be applied to characteristics widely held to be virtues such as temperance, courage and (widely so held by the Greeks at least) justice?

or c) What light does Aristotelian virtue theory shed on what an agent should do in particular circumstances?

Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics Books II-IV, except III chs. 1-5, and VI with commentary in Aristotle's Ethical Theory , Chs. 7, 11

Essays by Kosman, Urmson, Pears, and Sorabji in Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

L. Brown “What is ‘the mean relative to us’ in Aristotle’s Ethics?”, in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868,(62), 1997

C.M. Young "Aristotle on Temperance", in Philosophical review. ISSN: 0031-8108, (97), 1988

R. Hursthouse "A False Doctrine of the Mean", in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. ISSN: 0066-7374, (81), 1980

L. Brown “Why is Aristotle’s Virtue of Character a Mean?”, in Polansky, R (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics ISBN: 9781139022484 (ebook); 9780521192767 (hardback); 9780521122733 (paperback), CUP, 2014.   

D. Bostock Aristotle's ethics ISBN: 0198752652 (pbk) (OUP, 2000), ch. 2.

Price, A. W. (2011) Virtue and reason in Plato and Aristotle ISBN: 9780199609611; 0199609616, OUP, chh. B2, C2 and D2..

More difficult:

D.S. Hutchinson The virtues of Aristotle ISBN: 0710208588

S. Leighton "Aristotle's Courageous Passions", in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868, (33), 1988

C. Reeve Practices of reason : Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics ISBN: 019823984X, ch.2

N. Sherman The fabric of character : Aristotle's theory of virtue. ISBN: 0198244517

S. Broadie Ethics with Aristotle ISBN: 0195066014 (alk. paper) ch. 2.

J. Moss Aristotle on the apparent good : perception, phantasia, thought, and desire ISBN: 9780199656349 (hbk.) : £35.00; 0199656347 (hbk.) : £35.00 ch. 7.

R. Hursthouse “The central doctrine of the mean” in R. Kraut (ed.) The Blackwell guide to Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics ISBN: 1405120215 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9781405120203 (hardcover : alk. paper); 1405120207 (hardcover : alk. paper); 9781405120210 (pbk. : alk. paper).

H. Curzer Aristotle and the virtues ISBN: 9780191629150 (e-book) (OUP: 2012) esp. ch. 2.

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10. The virtue of justice

Q. What is Aristotle's account of justice? How is justice related to the other virtues? What is the relation between justice in the individual and justice in the state?

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics. Book V, with commentary in Aristotle's ethical theory, ch.10, and P. Book III

Essay by Williams in Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

Essays by Keyt (ch.11) and Miller in A companion to Aristotle's Politics ISBN: 155786098X

B. Baumrin “Two Concepts of Justice", in Midwest studies in philosophy. ISSN: 0363-6550, (7), 1982

More difficult:

N. Dent The moral psychology of the virtues ISBN: 0521257263

W.Kullman "Equality in Aristotle's Political Thought", in I. Kajanto (ed.) Equality and inequality of man in ancient thought : papers read at the colloquium in connection with the Assemblée générale of the Fédération internationale det [sic] études classiques held in Helsinki in August, 1982 ISBN: 9516531202

W. Von Leyden Aristotle on equality and justice : his political argument ISBN: 0333385152

F. Rosen "The Political Context of Aristotle's Categories of Justice", Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868, (20), 1975

F. Wolff “Justice et Pouvoir", in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868 (33), 1988

H. Curzer Aristotle and the virtues ISBN: 9780191629150 (e-book) (OUP: 2012) esp. ch. 11.

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11. Aristotle's good society

Q. What is the relation between individual and society in Aristotle's good society? Is Aristotle's conception of the good society (a) defensible and (b) still relevant today?

Easier or more basic:

Aristotle The politics ISBN: 0521357314 (pbk ; cased) : £4.95. Books I-III and VI-VIII, with introduction by Everson

Essays by Bradley and Depew in A companion to Aristotle's Politics ISBN: 155786098X

J. Annas “The Good Life and the Good Lives of Others” in E. Paul, F.D. Miller, and J. Paul (eds.), The good life and the human good ISBN: 0521437598 (pbk.)

J. Barnes, et al. Articles on Aristotle. 2, Ethics and politics ISBN: 0715609300; 0715609297,

M. Nussbaum Oxford studies in ancient philosophy. Supplementary Volume, 1988

and D. Charles

M. Nussbaum Essay in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (Eds.) The Quality of Life

R. Kraut Aristotle's Politics : critical essays ISBN: 9780742534247 (pbk.); 0742534235 (hbk.); 0742534243 (pbk.), Books VII and VIII (Transl with Introduction and Commentary)

More difficult:

D.J. Allan “Individual and State in the Ethics and Politics", in Fondation Hardt, Entretiens sur l'Antiquite Classique IX, La Politique d'Aristote Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

R. Develin "The Good Man and the Good Citizen", in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868, (18), 1973

G. Huxley “On Aristotle's Best State", in P. Cartledge and F. Harvey (eds.) Crux : essays in Greek history presented to G.E.M. de Ste. Croix on his 75th birthday ISBN: 0715620924

C. Johnson "Who is Aristotle's Citizen", in Phronesis. ISSN: 0031-8868, (29), 1984

G. Patzig (ed.) XI Symposium Aristotelicum: Studien zur Politik des Aristoteles (most of the articles are in English) - Available online: http://digi20.digitale-sammlungen.de/en/fs1/object/display/bsb00044684_00001.html

Updated J. Dow (2017) based on CB Megone (2012 and earlier).

This list was last updated on 20/09/2017