Leeds University Library

Module Reading List

Black Internationalism, 2017/18, Semester 2
Dr Kate Dossett
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Seminar 1: Introduction to Black Internationalism Studies

African Studies Review, Vol. 43, No. 1, Special Issue on the Diaspora. (Apr., 2000), pp. 11-45.


· Patterson, Tiffany R. and Kelley, Robin D.G. (2000) “Unfinished Migrations: Reflections on the African Diaspora and the Making of the Modern World,” 11–46.

· ‘“Unfinished Migrations”: Commentary and Response,” Brent Hayes Edwards; Cheryl Johnson-Odim; Agustín Laó-Montes; Michael O. West; Tiffany; Ruby Patterson; Robin D. G. Kelley.

You might also browse the the African Diaspora Studies issue of Radical History Review, Winter 2009.especially Lisa Brock’s article "Nation and the Cold War: Reflections on the Circuitous Routes of African Diaspora Studies." Radical History Review, no. 103, Winter2009, pp. 7-15.

Questions to Consider:

Ø What models of black internationalism have dominated scholarship on the African Diaspora?

Ø What new ways do Patterson and Kelley propose?

Ø What critiques/correctives do the commentators offer?


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Seminar 2: Gender, Sexuality, Home and Diaspora

Special Issue of Gender & history., Vol.15 No.3 November 2003, pp. 397–408.

· ‘Introduction: Gender, Sexuality, and African Diasporas’ Sandra by Gunning, Tera W. Hunter and Michele Mitchell: pp. 397–408

· Also see Patrick Manning, Anne MacPherson and Martin Summers for interesting articles on gender and diaspora studies.

Beverly Guy Sheftall, Shifting contexts : lessons from integrating black, gender and African diaspora studies,Womens Studies Quarterly, 1998 26 (3-4): 17-24. Also available in Mary M. Lay, Janice Monk and Deborah S. Rosenfelt eds., Encompassing gender : integrating international studies and women's studies.

Eve Alys Weinbaum, “Reproducing Black Globality: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Sexual Politics of Black Internationalism.” Social text. 19.2 (2001): 15–41.

James Clifford, Routes : travel and translation in the late twentieth century (Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press, 1997).

Carol Boyce Davies, Black women, writing and identity : migrations of the subject, (London, Routledge, 1994).

Wahneema Lubiano, “Black Nationalism and Black Common Sense: Policing Ourselves and Others.” In Lubiano ed., The house that race built, (New York, Random House, 1997): 232-252. 

Michele Stephens, Black empire : the masculine global imaginary of Caribbean intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962

Filomina Chioma Steady (ed.), The Black woman cross-culturally (Schenkman Publishing Company, Inc., 1981).

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, Sharon Harley and Andrea Benton Rushing eds., Women in Africa and the African diaspora : a reader (Howard University Press, 1987)

Barbara Bair, ‘Pan-Africanism as Process: Adelaide Casely Hayford, Garveyism, and the Cultural Roots of Nationalism’ in Imagining home : class, culture, and nationalism in the African diaspora, ed. Lemelle and Kelley, pp. 121–44; and 

Verene Shepherd, Bridget Brereton and Barbara Bailey eds., Engendering history : Caribbean women in historical perspective (St. Martin’s Press, 1995)

Beryl Satter, ‘Marcus Garvey, Father Divine and the Gender Politics of Race Difference and Race Neutrality’, American Quarterly. 48 (1996), pp. 43–76;

Hilary McD. Beckles, Centering woman : gender relations in Caribbean slave society (1999)

Rosalyn Terborg Penn, ‘Free Women Entrepreneurs from the 1820s to the 1850s: The Cases of Nancy Prince and Mary Seacole’, Crossing boundaries : comparative history of black people in diaspora, ed. Hine and McLeod, pp. 159–75;


Home and Diaspora:

Suki Ali, Ch 6: “Moving Homes: Gender, Diaspora, Ethnicity,” in Mixed-race, post-race : gender, new ethnicities, and cultural practices, (2003) 123-142.

Thembisa Waetjen, “The ‘home’ in homeland: gender, national space, and Inkatha’s politics of ethnicity,” Ethnic and racial studies. Volume 22 Number 4 July 1999 pp. 653–678.

Stephen Legg, ‘Gendered Politics and nationalized homes: women and the anti-colonial struggle in Delhi, 1940-1947.’ Gender, place and culture : a journal of feminist geography. 10 (2003): 7-28

bell hooks, ‘Homeplace: a site of resistance’ in Yearning : race, gender, and cultural politics, (Turnaround, 1991). pp 41-49

Alison Blunt, Domicile and diaspora : Anglo-Indian women and the spatial politics of home, (Oxford, 2005). and

Bonnie Honig, ‘Difference, Dilemmas, and the Politics of Home,” Social research. vol. 61., No.3, (Fall, 1994).

Rosemary Marangoly George, The politics of home: postcolonial relations and twentieth century fiction (CUP, 1996) esp. Introduction.

Avtar Brah, Cartographies of diaspora : contesting identities, (1995).


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Seminar 3: Global and Overlapping Diasporas

Robin Cohen, Global Diasporas: an introduction, (Routledge, 2001). espc. “Victim diasporas,” “Cultural diasporas and their homelands” and “Cultural Diasporas” 

Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur eds., Theorizing diaspora : a reader,(Oxford, Blackwell, 2003). esp. “Introduction,” pp 1-22 and Stuart Hall, “Cultural Identity and Diaspora,” 233-246

Paul Gilroy, Against race : imagining political culture beyond the color line, Chapter 3: Identity, Belonging and the Critique of Pure Sameness, especially, 115-133.

Earl Lewis, “To Turn as on a Pivot: Writing African Americans into a History of Overlapping Diasporas.” The American historical review. 100 (1995): 765-87.

Robin D. G. Kelley, “ ‘But a Local Phase of a World Problem’: Black History’s Global Vision.” The Journal of American history. (December, 1999, Vol 86. No.3).

Michael West, “Crossing Boundaries: Research Notes on South Asians and Africans in Africa, The Americas and Europe.” Comparative Studies in South Asian, Africa, and the Middle East, 1996, Vol. 16: 48-52.

Darlene Clark Hine and Jacqueline McLeod eds., Crossing boundaries : comparative history of black people in diaspora. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1999). 

Robin D.G. Kelley and Betsy Esch, “Black Like Mao: Red China and Black Liberation,” Souls, (1999) 4: 6-41


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Seminar 4: Pan-Africanism as Process:  Pan-African Writing and Activism in the Black Atlantic.  

Primary Sources:

C. L. R. James, A History of Pan-African Revolt,    C.L.R. James, Black Jacobins (1938. James Walvin edition 2001) The Black Jacobins Reader Edited by Charles Forsdick and Christian Høgsbjerg with a Foreword by Robert A. Hill (Duke University Press)
George Padmore ed., Colonial and - coloured unity: a programme of action: history of the Pan-African Congress (London: Hammersmith Bookshop, 1963.   Hakim Adi, Marika Sherwood, “The 1945 Manchester Pan-African Congress revisited.” with Colonial and - coloured unity / edited by George Padmore. London: New Beacon Books, 1995.   Christian Høgsbjerg C.L.R. James in Imperial Britain (Duke University Press)   Christian Høgsbjerg, “That Dreadful Country”: C. L. R. James’s Early Thoughts on American Civilization’,  Journal of American Studies, 51, 1 (2017).   “The most striking West Indian creation between the wars”: C.L.R. James, the International African Service Bureau and Militant Pan-Africanism in Imperial Britain”, in Shane Pantin and Jerome Teelucksingh (eds.) Ideology, Regionalism and Society in Caribbean History (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017). also see https://christianhogsbjerg.com/   Marika Sherwood, Manchester and the 1945 Pan-African Congress, (London: Savannah Press, 1995)   Ashley Dawson, "The Rise of the Black Internationale: Anti-Imperialist Activism and Aesthetics in Britain during the 1930S." Atlantic Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, Aug. 2009, pp. 159-174.   Hakim Adi West Africans in Britain: 1900-1960 Nationalism, Pan Africanism and Communism (1998).   Minkah Makalani In the Cause of Freedom: Radical Black Internationalism From Harlem to London, 1917-1939 (Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina Press, 2011).   Barbara Bush, Imperialism, Race and Resistance, Africa and Britain, 1919-1945. (London, Routledge, 1999).    P. Olisanwuche Esedebe, Pan-Africanism: the idea and movement, 1776-1991,  (Washington, D.C.: Howard University, 1994).   J. Ayodele Langley. Pan-Africanism in West Africa, 1900-1945. (Oxford, 1973).   Hakim Adi and Marika Sherwood, Pan-African history: political figures from Africa and the diaspora since 1787, (London, New York: Routledge, 2003. Sidney J. Lemelle and Robin D.G. Kelley eds., Imagining home: class, culture, and nationalism in the African diaspora, (London: Verso, 1994). Especially “Introduction” by Lemelle and Kelley.   Imanuel Geiss, The Pan-African movement, (London : Methuen, 1974).   Stephen Howe, Afrocentrism: Mythical Pasts and Imagined Homes. (London and New York: Verso, 1998).   Stuart Hall, 1990. “Cultural Identity and Diaspora. In Identity, Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence and bTishart.
______. 1996. "The Question of Cultural Identity." In Modernity and Introduction to
Modern Societies, ed. Stuart Hall et al. Oxford: Blackwell, 596-634.   Drake, St. Clair. 1982. "Diaspora Studies and Pan-Africanism." In Joseph E. Harris, ed., Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press.   S.K.B. Asante, Pan-African protest: West Africa and the Italo-Ethiopian crisis, 1934-1941, ( London : Longman, 1977).   Waibinte E. Wariboko, "I Really Cannot Make Africa My Home: West Indian Missionaries as "outsiders' in the Church Missionary Society Civilizing Mission to Southern Nigeria, 1898-1925."The Journal of African History (2004), 45: 221-236   Wilson J. Moses, The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850-1925. (OUP, 1988).   Robert S. Levine, Martin R. Delany: A Documentary Reader, (Chapel Hill, 2003).   Richard Brent Turner, “Edward Wilmot Blyden and Pan-Africanism: The Ideological Roots of Islam and Black Nationalism in the United States, Muslim World, 1997 87(2): 169-182.   Tunde Adeleke “Black Americans and Africa: A Critique of the Pan African and Identity paradigm,” in International Journal of African Historical Studies 3 1998. Vol. 31 No. 3.
Brandon Kendhammer, “DuBois the pan-Africanist and the development of African nationalism,” Ethnic and Racial Studies Vol. 30 No. 1 January 2007 pp. 51-71 Richard Cullen Rath, ‘Echo and Narcissus: The Afrocentric Pragmatism of W.E.B. Du Bois Journal of American History, Vol. 84, No. 2. (Sep., 1997): 461-495.   William R. Scott, The sons of Sheba's race: African-Americans and the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935-1941, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1930.   Joseph E. Harris, African-American reactions to war in Ethiopia, 1936-1941. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994).


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Seminar 5: Negritude

   La Revue du monde noir = The Review of the black world, 1931-1932 : collection complète, no. 1 à 6 / préface de Louis-Thomas Achille. Aime Cesaire, Discourse on colonialism (in translation)
Julio Finn, Voices of négritude: with an anthology of négritude poems translated from the French, Portuguese and Spanish (London: Quartet, 1987).   T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting, Negritude Women ________________.“Erasures and the Practice of Diaspora Feminism,” Small Axe, March 2005, 9, 1.   Jennifer Anne Boittin, ’In Black and White: Gender, Race Relations, and the Nardal Sisters in Interwar Paris' French Colonial History 6 (2005) 120-135. (e-journal).   Brent Hayes Edwards, “The uses of ’diaspora’” African diasporas in the New and Old Worlds: consciousness and imagination edited by Geneviève Fabre and Klaus Benesch. (Amsterdam, N.Y, 2006).    Brent Hayes Edwards, The Practice of Diaspora esp. Ch.3 ‘Feminism and L’Internationalisme Noir: Paulette Nardal” and Ch. 4: “Vagabond Internationalism: Claude McKay’s Banjo,”   For an interesting discussion of Edwards see a roundtable on his book in Small Axe, March 2005, 9, 1.   Michael Goebel,  Anti-Imperial Metropolis: Interwar Paris and the Seeds of Third World Nationalism . New York:  Cambridge University Press,  2015.   Gary Wilder,  Freedom Time: Negritude, Decolonization, and the Future of the World, Durham, N.C.:  Duke University Press,  2015.   Gary Wilder The French imperial nation-state: negritude & colonial humanism between the two world wars (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 2005).   Elizabeth Ezra, The Colonial Unconscious: Race and Culture in Interwar France (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000).   Sieglinde Lemke, Primitivist Modernism: Black Culture and the Origins ofTransatlantic Modernism (OUP, 1998). 
Petrine Archer Straw, Negrophilia: avant-garde Paris and Black culture in the 1920s, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000).   Brett A. Berliner, Ambivalent Desire: The Exotic Black Other in Jazz-Age France (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002);   A. James Arnold, Modernism and negritude: the poetry and poetics of Aimé Césaire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981).   Belinda Elizabeth Jack, Negritude and literary criticism: the history and theory of "Negro-African" literature in French (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996).   Tyler Edward Stovall, Paris Noir: African Americans in the City of Light. (Boston, 1996).   Erica L. Griffin, “The ‘Invisible Woman’ Abroad: Jessie Fauset’s New Horizon” in Dolan Hubbard ed., Recovered Writers: Recovered Texts (University of Tennessee Press, 1997).    Theresa Leininger-Miller, New Negro Artists in Paris: African American painters and sculptors in the city of light, 1922-1934 (Brunswick, N.J, 2001)   Michel Fabre, From Harlem to Paris: Black American Writers in France, 1840-1980 (Urbana, 1991)   Asake Bomani and Belvie Rooks, eds., Paris connections: African-American artists in Paris. (San Francisco: Q.E.D. Press, 1992)   Kotti Sree Ramesh and Kandula Nirupa Rani, Claude McKay: the literary identity from Jamaica to Harlem and beyond (Jefferson, N.C. ,2006)   James Haskins, Bricktop. 1st ed. (New York, 1983.)   Michel Fabre, ‘The Harlem Renaissance abroad: French critics and the new Negro literary movement (1924-1964) in Temples for tomorrow: looking back at the Harlem Renaissance ed. Genevieve Fabre and Michel Feith. (Bloomington, Indiana, 2001)   Carl Pederson, ‘The Tropics in New York: Claude McKay and the New Negro Movement,” in Fabre and Feith eds., Temples for Tomorrow.   Brent Hayes Edwards, ‘Three Ways to translate the Harlem Renaissance,” in Fabre and Feith eds., Temples for tomorrow.   Chidi Ikonné, ‘René Maran and the New Negro’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)   Mbulamwanza Mudimbe-Boyi, ‘African and Black American Literature: The “Negro Renaissance” and the Genesis of African Literature in French’ in Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994.   Bridget Jones, ‘With ‘Banjo’ By My Bed: Black French Writers Reading Claude McKay’ in Wintz  ed., Analysis and Assessment 1890-1994  

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Seminar 6: One-to one Consultations and preparation for Week 8 2000 word essay.


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Seminar 7: The International Left

Primary Sources:

Negro Worker (class handout)
George Padmore, Pan-Africanism or communism?: The coming struggle for Africa    Philip S. Foner and James S. Allen eds., American communism and Black Americans : a documentary history, 1919-1929 (1987)
Philip S. Foner and Herbert Shapiro eds., American communism and Black Americans : a documentary history, 1930-1934 (1991)   Ch.11 ‘Communists in the 1930s’; Ch. 13 ‘Black American Looks at Communism’; Ch 15 ‘Blacks and the Trade Union Movement’ in Theodore G. Vincent ed. Voices of a black nation : political journalism in the Harlem Renaissance   Evelyn Crawford and Mary Louise Patterson eds., Letters From Langston : From the Harlem Renaissance To the Red Scare and Beyond (California University Press, 2015).   Claude McKay Amiable with big teeth : a novel of the love affair between the communists and the poor black sheep of Harlem edited with an introduction by Jean-Christophe Cloutier and Brent Hayes Edwards. (New York, New York : Penguin Books, 2017)   F.B.I files on radical Harlem artists "F.B Eyes" Available at http://omeka.wustl.edu/omeka/exhibits/show/fbeyes  
Harry Haywood , Black Bolshevik : autobiography of an Afro-American Communist (Chicago: Liberator Press, c1978).
James Ford, Negro's Struggle Against Imperialism - http://www.unz.org/Pub/Communist-1930jan-00022
Secondary: Nikhil Pal Singh, 'Retracing the Black-Red Thread,' American Literary History 2003 15(4): 830-840.   Cedric Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition Cheryl Higashida. Black Internationalist Feminism: Women Writers of the Black Left, 1945-1995. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2011)   Carole Boyce Davies, Left of Karl Marx: the political life of black Communist Claudia Jones (Durham, 2008)   Claudia Jones : a life in exile / Marika Sherwood with Donald Hinds, Colin Prescod and the 1996 Claudia Jones Symposium   Glenda Gilmore, Defying Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights 1919-1950 (W.W.Norton, 2008)   Eric S. McDuffie, Sojourning for freedom : black women, American communism, and the making of black left feminism (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011)   William J. Maxwell, "F.B. Eyes: The Bureau Reads Claude McKay," in Mullen and Smethurst eds, Left of the color line: race, radicalism, and twentieth-century literature of the United States. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva
William J. Maxwell, F.B. eyes: how J. Edgar Hoover's ghostreaders framed African American literature (Princeton University Press, 2015)   Roderick D. Bush, The end of white world supremacy : black internationalism and the problem of the color line  (Philadelphia, PA. : Temple University Press, 2009)   Maxim Matusevich, "Harlem Globe-Trotters: Black Sojourners in Stalin’s Soviet Union," in In Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar ed., The Harlem Renaissance revisited: politics, arts, and letters (2010).   Manning Marable, "Marxism, Memory, and the Black Radical Tradition: Introduction to Volume 13," Souls, 13:1, Jan-Mar2011, pp 1-16 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva
Oliver Ayers, "Black Nationalism and Opposition to Organized Labour in 1930s New York City," European journal of American culture. Mar 2015, Vol. 34 Issue 1, p5-24.   Robin D.G. Kelley, Ch. 5 Afric’s Sons With Banner Red: African American Communists and the Politics of Culture, 1919-1934 in Race rebels: culture, politics, and the black working class pp.103-121.   Lashawn Harris, "Running with the Reds: African American women and the Communist Party during the Great depression," Journal of African American History 94.1 (Winter 2009).   Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Black Intellectual   Earl Ofari Hutchinson Blacks and reds: race and class in conflict, 1919-1990   Robin D.G. Kelley, Race Rebels: Culture, Politics and the Black Working Class (1994) esp. Chs. 5 and 6.    Robin D.G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression. (1990)   Robin D. G. Kelley. Freedom dreams: the Black radical imagination Boston , (Beacon Press, c2002).   Winston James, ‘Being Red and Black in Jim Crow America: On the Ideology and Travails of Afro-America’s Socialist Pioneers, 1877-1930’, in Charles Payne & Adam Green, eds., Time Longer Than Rope: A Century of African American Activism: 1850-1950.   Angela Davis, Ch. 10 ‘Communist Women,’ in Women, race & class (1983) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   Mark Naison, Communists in Harlem during the Depression (1983)   Mark Solomon, The Cry Was Unity: Communists and African Americans, 1917-36. (1998).   Bill Mullen, Popular Fronts: Chicago and African American Cultural Politics, 1935-1946, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999).  Danny Duncan Collum, ed., “African Americans in the Spanish Civil War: "This ain't Ethiopia, but it'll do" (New York, G.K.Hall).   William J. Maxwell, New Negro, Old Left: African-American Writing and Communism Between the Wars.    Paul Gardullo, ‘Just keeps rollin’ along’: rebellions, revolutions and radical black memories of slavery in the 1930s.” Patterns of Prejudice, Vol 41, No. 3 (July 2007).   Anthony Dawahare, Nationalism, Marxism, and African American literature between the wars: a new Pandora's box (University of Mississippi Press, 2003).   Kate A. Baldwin, Beyond the color line and the Iron Curtain: reading encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963.   James Edward Smethurst, The new red Negro: the literary left and African American poetry, 1930-1946, (New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).   Barbara Foley, Specters of 1919: class and nation in the making of the new Negro (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003).   Gary Edward Holcomb, Claude McKay, code name Sasha: queer Black Marxism and the Harlem Renaissance.   Bill V. Mullen and James Smethurst eds., Left of the color line: race, radicalism, and twentieth-century literature of the United States (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, c2003).      Seminar 8: Black Empire, Black Fascism.

George S. Schuyler, Black and conservative; the autobiography of George S. Schuyler.. New Rochelle: Arlington, 1966.

———. [Samuel I. Brooks]. Black empire. Ed. Robert A. Hill and R.Kent Rasmussen. Boston: Northeastern UP, 1991.

———. Black no more : a novel. 1931. Boston: Northeastern UP, 1989. 

———. [Rachel Call]. “Revolt in Ethiopia.” in Ethiopian stories. Ed. Robert A. Hill. Boston: Northeastern UP, 1994. 123–227.

———. “The Rise of the Black Internationale.” The Crisis Aug. 1938: 255þ.

Jeffrey B., Leak, ed. Rac[e]ing to the right : selected essays of George S. Schuyler. Knoxville: U of Tennessee, P, 2001.

Fritz Gysin, “Black Pulp Fiction: George Schuyler’s Caustic Vision of a Pan-African Empire.” Empire : American studies : selected papers from the bi-national conference of the Swiss and Austrian Associations for American Studies at the Salzburg Seminar, November 1996. Ed. John G. Blair and Reinhold Wagnleitner. Tu¨bingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1997.

Yogita Goyal, "Black Nationalist Hokum: George Schuyler's Transnational Critique." African American Review, vol. 47, no. 1, Spring2014, pp. 21-36.

Etsuko Taketani, "Colored Empires in the 1930S: Black Internationalism, the U.S. Black Press, and George Samuel Schuyler." American Literature, vol. 82, no. 1, Mar. 2010, pp. 121-149

Alexander M. Bain, “ Shocks Americana!: George Schuyler Serializes Black Internationalism,” American literary history. 2007 19(4):937-963.

On Garvey: 

Adam Ewing, The age of Garvey: how a Jamaican activist created a mass movement and changed global Black politics (Princeton, 2014).

Keisha N. Blain, Set the world on fire : black nationalist women and the global struggle for freedom (Philadelphia, 2018)

Kenneth S. Jolly, By our own strength : William Sherrill, the UNIA, and the fight for African American self-determination in Detroit (2013)

Michelle Stephens, Black empire : the masculine global imaginary of Caribbean intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962

Colin Grant, Negro with a hat : the rise and fall of Marcus Garvey and his dream of Mother Africa (2008).

K Randall Burkett, Garveyism as a religious movement : the institutionalization of a Black civil religion (Metuchen, N.J, 1978)

Paul Gilroy, The black Atlantic : modernity and double consciousness  (Cambridge, 1993)

Robert Hill & Barbara Bair, eds., Marcus Garvey : life and lessons ; a centennial companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association papers. (Los Angeles 1987)

Winston James, Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth Century America (London, 1998)

Theodore Kornweibel ed ., " "Seeing red" : federal campaigns against black militancy, 1919-1925 " (Bloomington, 1999).

Rupert Lewis, Marcus Garvey : anti-colonial champion (Trenton, N.J, 1988)

Rupert Lewis & Patrick Bryan eds., Garvey: His Work and Impact (Mona, Jamaica, 1988)

Tony Martin, Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement association (Westport, Conn: 1976)

___________. Literary Garveyism : Garvey, black arts, and the Harlem Renaissance (Dover, Mass,)

Judith Stein, The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society (Baton Rouge, 1986)

Theodore G. Vincent, Black Power and the Garvey Movement (San Francisco, 1971)

Keep cool : the black activists who built the jazz age

Mary G. Rolinson, Grassroots Garveyism : the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the rural South, 1920-1927 (Chapel Hill, 2007).

Claudrena N. Harold, The rise and fall of the Garvey movement in the urban South, 1918-1942, (New York, 2007).


Ronald J. Stephens, “Garveyism in Idlewild, 1927 to 1936,” Journal of black studies., Vol. 34, No. 4, 462-488 (2004)

Emory Tolbert, “Outpost Garveyism and the UNIA Rank and File,” Journal of black studies., Vol. 5, No. 3, Working Papers in the Study of Race Consciousness, Part 1 (Mar., 1975), pp. 233-253

Michelle Stephens, “Re-imagining the Shape and Borders of Black Political Space,” Radical History Review, 2003 (87): 169-182.

Michele Mitchell , Righteous propagation : African Americans and the politics of racial destiny after Reconstruction ( Chapel Hill, 2004) especially Ch. 8

Martin Summers, Manliness and its discontents : the Black middle class and the transformation of masculinity, 1900-1930, espc. Chapter 2.

Kate Dossett, Bridging race divides : black nationalism, feminism, and integration in the United States, 1896-1935, (Gainesville, Jan 2008). esp Ch.4.

Ula Y. Taylor, The veiled Garvey : the life & times of Amy Jacques Garvey (Chapel Hill, 2002)

Marlon B. Ross. Manning the race : reforming black men in the Jim Crow era. (2004).

Winston James, Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in early twentieth century America ( London, 1998)

Lois A West ed. ‘Introduction: Feminism Constructs Nationalism’ in  Feminist nationalism (New York, 1997)

Paul Gilroy, The black Atlantic : modernity and double consciousness  (Cambridge, 1993)

Cynthia Enloe, Bananas, beaches & bases : making feminist sense of international politics (Los Angeles, 1989)

Joan French & Honor Ford-Smith, Women, Work and Organization in Jamaica, 1900-1944

Lionel M. Yard, Biography of Amy Ashwood Garvey, 1897-1969: Co-Founder of the UNIA (Washington D.C, 1990)


Hakim Adi, "Amy Ashwood Garvey and the Nigerian Progress Union,” in Gendering the African diaspora: women, culture, and historical change in the Caribbean and Nigerian hinterland, eds. Judith Byfield, LaRay Denzer, and Anthea Morrison (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010).
Keisha N Blain, "Confraternity Among All Dark Races": Mittie Maude Lena Gordon and the Practice of Black (Inter)nationalism in Chicago, 1932-1942," Palimpsest : a journal on women, gender and the black international. (Spring 2016) Vol 5, No. 2: 151-181.   Keisha N. Blain, “We Want to Set the World on Fire,": Black Nationalist Women and Diasporic Politics in the New Negro World, 1940-1944," Journal of Social History. Vol. 49, No. 1 (Fall 2015): 194-212.
Melissa. Castillo-Garsow, "Afro-Latin@ Nueva York: Maymie de Mena and the Unsung Afro-Latina Leadership of the UNIA, in Afro-Latinos in Movement: Critical Approaches to Blackness and Transnationalism in the Americas, eds. Petra R. Rivera-Rideau, Jennifer A. Jones, and Tianna S. Paschel (2016).   Natanya Duncan, "Our Men Hesitate Then the Women of the Race Must Come Forward: Henrietta Vinton Davis and the UNIA in New York," New York History, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Fall 2015): 558-583. 
Natanya Duncan, "Princess Laura Kofey and the Reverse Atlantic Experience," in The American south and the Atlantic world eds. Brian Ward, Martyn Bone, and William A. Link (2013).
Reena Goldthree, "Amy Jacques Garvey, Theodore Bilbo, and the Paradoxes of Black Nationalism," in Global circuits of blackness : interrogating the African diaspora eds. Jean Muteba Rahier, Percy C. Hintzen and Felipe Smith ( 2010).
Asia Leeds, "Toward the "Higher Type of Womanhood,": The Gendered Contours of Garveyism and the Making of Redemptive Geographies in Costa Rica, 1922 -1941," Palimpsest : a journal on women, gender and the black international. Volume 2, No. 1 (November 2013): 1-27.
Rhoda Reddock, "The First Mrs. Garvey: Pan-Africanism and Feminism in the Early Twentieth Century British Colonial Caribbean, “A Feminist Africa, Issue 19 (2014): 58-77.
Nydia A. Swaby, "Amy Ashwood Garvey and the Political Aesthetics of Diasporic Social Spaces in London," Symbolism: An International Annual of Critical Aesthetics, Volume 14 (2014): 59-73.
Minkah Makalani, "An International African Opinion: Amy Ashwood Garvey and C.L.R. James in Black Radical London,  Escape From New York: The New Negro Renaissance Beyond Harlem, eds. Davarian L. Baldwin and Minkah Makalani (2013).   Erik S. McDuffie, "The Diasporic Journeys of Louise Little: Grassroots Garveyism, the Midwest, and Community Feminism," Special Issue: Women, Gender Politics, and Pan-Africanism (eds. Keisha N. Blain, Asia Leeds and Ula Taylor), Women, Gender and Families of Color (Fall 2016).   Courtney Morris, "Becoming Creole, Becoming Black: Migration, Diasporic Self-Making, and the Many Lives of Madame Maymie Leona Turpeau de Mena," Special Issue: Women, Gender Politics, and Pan Africanism (eds. Keisha N. Blain, Asia Leeds and Ula Taylor), Women, Gender and Families of Color (Fall 2016).
Special Issue: Women, Gender Politics, and Pan Africanism edited by Keisha N. Blain, Asia Leeds and Ula Taylor, in Women, Gender and Families of Color Vol 4, Issue 2, October 2016.   Barbara Bair, ‘Renegotiating Liberty: Garveyism, Women, and Grassroots Organizing in Virginia’ in  Women of the American South : a multicultural reader / edited by Christie Anne Farnham. (New York, 1997)

Barbara Bair “Ethiopia Shall Stretch Forth her hands unto God”: Laura Kofey and the gendered vision of redemption in the Garvey Movement” in A mighty baptism : race, gender, and the creation of American Protestantism (1996).

Barbara Bair, ‘True Women, Real Men: Gender, Ideology and Social Roles in the Garvey Movement’ in Dorothy O Helly and Susan M Reverby eds., Gendered domains : rethinking public and private in women's history ; essays from the seventh Berkshire Conference on the History of Women (Ithaca, New York, 1992) 

Beryl Satter, “Marcus Garvey, Father Divine and the Gender Politics of Race Difference and Race Neutrality,” American Quarterly., 1996, 48(1): 43-76.

Anne Macpherson, “Colonial Matriarchs, Garveyism, Maternalism, and Belize’s Black Cross Nurses, 1920-1952,” Gender & history., 2003 15 (3): 507-527.

Anne S. Macpherson, ‘A fragile peace: colonial reform, Garveyism, and the Black Cross nurses, 1920-1930’ in From colony to nation : women activists and the gendering of politics in Belize, 1912-1982. (Lincoln, Nebraska, 2007).

Karen Adler, ‘Always Leading Our Men in Service and Sacrifice’: Amy Jacques Garvey, Feminist Black Nationalist’ in Gender & society., Vol 6, Issue 3 (Sept, 1992)

Mark D. Matthews, “Our Women and What They Think”: Amy Jacques Garvey and the Negro World in Black Women in US History ~Vol 3 no 48 1979 pp 866-878

William Seraille, ‘Henrietta Vinton Davis and the Garvey Movement’ Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 7 (July 1983): 7-24

Ula Y. Taylor, ‘Negro Women Are Great Thinkers as well as doers’: Amy Jacques Garvey and Community Feminism in the United States, 1924-1927’ in Journal of women's history. Vol 12. No. 2 (Summer) 


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Seminar 9: Africa and the Diaspora: Anticolonialism and Decolonization.

Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah

Barbara Bush, Imperialism, race, and resistance : Africa and Britain, 1919-1945. (London, Routledge, 1999). 

George Padmore ed.,  Colonial and - coloured unity : a programme of action : history of the Pan-African Congress (London : Hammersmith Bookshop, 1963.

Michale W. Williams, “Marcus Garvey and Kwame Nkrumah: A Case of Ideological Assimilation, Advancement, and Refinement,” Western Journal of Black Studies, 8 (1983).

Michelle D. Commander, Ghana at Fifty: Moving Toward Kwame Nkrumah's Pan-African Dream, American Quarterly. (59:2) Jun 2007, 421-426,428-441,523.

Marika Sherwood, Kwame Nkrumah : the years abroad, 1935-1947 (Legon, Ghana: Freedom Publications, 1996).  

Hakim Adi West Africans in Britain, 1900-1960 : nationalism, Pan-Africanism, and communism (1998).

Carol Anderson Bourgeois Radicals: The NAACP and the Struggle for Colonial Liberation, 1941–1960 (Cambridge University Press, 2014)

Marc Matera, Black London: the imperial metropolis and decolonization in the twentieth century (University of California Press, 2015)

Nicholas Grant,  Winning Our Freedoms Together: African Americans and Apartheid, 1945-1960, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017)

Kendhammer, Brandon. “Du Bois the Pan-Africanist and the Development of African Nationalism,” Ethnic and racial studies., 2007 30(1): 51-71

Penny M. Von Eschen, Race against empire : black Americans and anticolonialism, 1937-1957, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Hollis Lynch, Black American radicals and the liberation of Africa : the Council on African Affairs 1937-1955 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Africana Studies and Research Center, Cornell University, 1978),

Alphaeus Hunton et al, eds., Proceedings of the Conference on Africa - New Perspectives (New York: Council on African Affairs, 1944),

J. Hargreaves, Decolonization in Africa (Longman, London, 1988)

R. Pearce, The turning point in Africa : British colonial policy 1938-48 (London, Cass, 1982)

J. Ajayi and M. Crowder, History of West Africa, vol. II, chap. 19 (Longman, London, 1985)

F. Cooper, Decolonization and African Society (CUP, Cambridge, 1996), pp.212-16, 248-60

Nicholas Grant, “Crossing the Black Atlantic: The Global Antiapartheid Movement and the Racial Politics of the Cold War, in Radical History Review 2014 (119) pp. 72-9   Nicholas Grant, “The National Council of Negro Women and South Africa: Black Internationalism, Motherhood, and the Cold War, in Palimpsest: A Journal on Women, Gender, and the Black International (2016) 5 (1) pp. 59-87  


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Seminar 10: Black Power: an international movement

Alex Haley and Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X.

The Black Power movement [microform]. (microfilm): (Bethesda, Md: University Publications of America, 2001-2004).

Charles E. Jones, The Black Panther Party (reconsidered) (1998)

William Van Deburg, New day in Babylon : the Black Power movement and American culture, 1965-1975 (1992).

Black power mixtape 1967-1975. (dir. Göran Hugo Olsson, 2011)

The Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution (dir. Stanley Nelson Jr., 2015). Available online here: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=6bcubkt6BwY
 Alex Haley and Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X.   The Black Power Movement (microfilm): (Bethesda, Md: University Publications of America, 2001-2004).   Black Freedom Struggle proquest database of primary sources 

Tim Tyson, ‘Robert F. Williams, “Black Power”, and the Roots of the African American Freedom Struggle’, The Journal of American history. (September 1998)

Philip S. Foner, The Black Panthers speak, (New York, Da Capo Press, 2002).

Peniel E. Joseph ed., The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era (2008)

James Edward Smethurst, The Black Arts Movement : literary nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s (Chapel Hill 2005).

George M. Fredrickson, Black liberation : a comparative history of Black ideologies in the United States and South Africa (OUP, 1995).

Kate Quinn ed., Black power in the Caribbean, (Gainesville, FA: University Press of Florida, 2014)

Nico Slate ed. Black Power Beyond Borders: The Global Dimensions of the Black Power movement (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).
Gail M. Gerhart, Black power in South Africa : the evolution of an ideology, (University of California Press, 1978).

Fabio Rojas, From Black Power to Black studies : how a radical social movement became an academic discipline (2007)

Jama Lazerow and Yohuru Williams, eds., In search of the Black Panther Party : new perspectives on a revolutionary movement, (Duke, 2006). Esp. Davarian L. Baldwin, “The Black Panther Party and the cultural politics of decolonization.”

Roderick D. Bush, The end of white world supremacy : black internationalism and the problem of the color line  (Philadelphia, PA. : Temple University Press, 2009)

Jama Lazerow and Yohuru Williams, eds., In search of the Black Panther Party : new perspectives on a revolutionary movement, (Duke, 2006). Esp. Davarian L. Baldwin, “The Black Panther Party and the cultural politics of decolonization.”   Sohail Daulatzai Black Star, Crescent Moon: The Muslim International and Black Freedom beyond America.  (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012.   Bobby Seale, Seize the time : the story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton, (1991.)

Obi Egbuna, Destroy this temple : the voice of Black Power in Britain , 1971.

R.E.R. Bunce, “Obi B. Egbuna, C. L. R. James and the Birth of Black Power in Britain: Black Radicalism in Britain 1967–72,” Twentieth Century British Histor y, 2011: Vol 22(3): 391-414.

Rob Waters, "Black Power on the Telly: America, Television, and Race in 1960S and 1970S Britain." Journal of British Studies, vol. 54, no. 4, Oct. 2015, pp. 947-970.    Anne-Marie Angelo, “The Black Panthers in London, 1967-1972: A  Diasporic Struggle Navigates the Black Atlantic.” In Radical History Review Winter 2009, pp17-35.   Simon Prince, "'Do What the Afro-Americans Are Doing': Black Power and the Start of the Northern Ireland Troubles." Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 50, no. 3, July 2015, pp. 516-535   Walter Rucker. "Crusader in Exile: Robert F. Williams and the International Struggle for Black Freedom in America." Black Scholar, vol. 36, no. 2/3, Summer/Fall2006, pp. 19-34.   Gender & Black Power:   Ashley D. Farmer, Remaking Black power : how Black women transformed an era, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017)   Ula Taylor, The Promise of Patriarchy : Women and the Nation of Islam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017)   Robyn C. Spencer, The revolution has come : Black power, gender, and the Black Panther Party in Oakland (2016)   Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard, eds, Want to start a revolution? : radical women in the black freedom struggle (2009)   Anne M. Valk, Radical sisters : second-wave feminism and black liberation in Washington, D.C. (Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 2008)   Premilla Nadasen, Welfare warriors : the welfare rights movement in the United States (New York: Routledge, 2005)   Annelise Orleck, Storming Caesar’s Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty (Boston: Beacon Press, 2005)   Kimberly Springer, Living for the revolution : black feminist organizations, 1968-1980 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005)  

Cynthia Griggs Flemming, ‘Black Women and Black Power: The Casey of Ruby Doris Smith Robinson and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee’ in Sisters in the struggle : African American women in the civil rights-black power movement Bettye Collier-Thomas and V.P.Franklin eds.,pp 197-213.  

Farah Jasmine Griffin, ‘Ironies of the Saint’: Malcolm X, Black Women and the Price of Protection in ibid, pp 214-229. 

Tracye A. Matthews, “No One Ever Asks What a Man’s Role in the Revolution Is”: Gender Politics and Leadership in the Black Panther Party, 1966-1971.’ In ibid, pp 231-256 

Kimberly Springer, ‘Black Feminists Respond to Black Power Masculinism,’ in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era, pp. 105-118 Duchess Harris, ‘From the Kennedy Commission to the Combahee Collective: Black Feminist Organizing, 1960-1980’ in ibid, 280-306. Stephen Ward, ‘The Third World Women’s Alliance: Black Feminist Radicalism and Black Power Politics,’ in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era, pp. 119-144   Rhonda Y. Williams, ‘Black Women, Urban Politics, and Engendering Black Power,’ in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era, pp. 79-103   Charise Cheney, ‘“We Men Ain’t We”: Mas(k)ulinity and the Gendered Politics of Black Nationalism’, in Time longer than rope : a century of African American activism, 1850-1950, ed. by Charles Payne and Adam Green (2003), pp. 536-563 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Regina Jennings, “Why I Joined the Party: An Africana Womanist Reflection.” In The Black Panther Party (reconsidered), ed. Charles Jones, 257-65 (1998).

Angela LeBlanc-Ernest, “The Most Qualified Person to Handle the Job’: Black Panther Party Women, 1966-1982.’ In ibid, 305-34.

Ula Y. Taylor, “As-Salaam Alaikum, My Sister, Peace Be Unto You: The Honorable Elijah Muhammed and the Women Who followed Him.’ Race and society. 1 (1998): 177-196.

V. T Rajshekar,. 1995. Dalit : the black untouchables of India, Atlanta: Clarity Press.

Barbara R., Joshi, ed. 1986. Untouchables: Voices of the Dalit Liberation Movement. London: Zed Press.

Gail Omvedt, 1991. "The Anti-Caste Movement and the Discourse of Power." Race and class. 33 July-Sept) : 15-27.

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Seminar 11: Afrocentrism

Molefi Kete Asante Afrocentricity : the theory of social change, (Buffalo, NY: Amulefi Publishing Co., 1980).

__________. "African American Studies: The Future of the Discipline .” The Black Scholar 1992 22(3): 20-29.

_____. The Afrocentric idea. Rev. and expanded ed. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. .

_____. "Are You Scared of Your Shadow? A critique of Sidney Lemelle’s ‘The Politics of Cultural Existence,” Journal of black studies. 1996 26(4): 524-533.

_____. "The Ideological Significance of Afrocentricity in Intercultural Communication,” Journal of black studies., 1983 14(1): 3-19.

_____. Kemet, Afrocentricity and knowledge, ( Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1990).

_____. The painful demise of Eurocentrism : an Afrocentric response to critics. Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 1999.

Martin Bernal, Black Athena: the Afroasiatic roots of classical civilization (London, 1987).

Martin Bernal, edited by David Chioni Moore Black Athena writes back : Martin Bernal responds to his critics (Durham, N.C. 2001).

Martin Bernal, The Afrocentric Interpretation of History: Martin Bernal Replies to Mary Lefkowitz,” Journal of blacks in higher education. (Spring 1996): 86-94.

Ronald W. Walters, Pan Africanism in the African diaspora : an analysis of modern Afrocentric political movements, (1993).

Tunde Adeleke “Black Americans and Africa: A Critique of the Pan African and Identity paradigm,” in The international journal of African historical studies. 3 1998. Vol 31 No. 3

_____________. “Will the Real Father of Afrocentricity Please Stand,” Western journal of black studies., 2001 25 (1): 21-29.

Sidney Lemelle, “The Politics of Cultural Existence: Pan-Africanism, Historical Materialism and Afrocentricity,” Race and class. 1993 35(1): 93-112.

Opoku Agyeman , Pan-Africanism and its detractors : a response to Harvard's race-effacing universalists. (Lewiston: E. Mellen Press, 1997).

Donald Collins and Marc Hopkins. “Afrocentricity: the Fight for Control of African American Thought,” Black Issues in Higher Education, 1993 10(12): 24-25.

Nah Dove, “African Womanism: An Afrocentric theory,” Journal of black studies. 1998 28(5): 515-539 .

Gerald Early, “Afrocentrism: From Sensationalism to Measured Deliberation,” Journal of blacks in higher education. 1994(5): 86-87.

Clenora Hudson-Weems, (1197) "African Womanism and the Critical Need for African Theory and Thought,” Western journal of black studies. 21(3): 79-84 .

Monteiro-Ferreira, “Afrocentricity and the Western Paradigm,” Journal of Black Studies,  v. 40  no. 2, pp. 327-336

Clenora Hudson-Weems, "Africana Thought-Action: An Authenticating Paradigm for Africana Studies." Western Journal of Black Studies, vol. 29, no. 3, Fall2005, pp. 622-628

Terry Kershaw, “Afrocentrism and the Afrocentric Method,” " Western journal of black studies., 1992 16(3): 160-168.

Dhyana Ziegle , Molefi Kete Asante and Afrocentricity : in praise and in criticism, ( Nashville, TN: James C. Winston Pub., 1995). 

This list was last updated on 15/01/2018