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Module Reading List

A Key Thinker in Philosophy of Religion: In Dialogue, 2017/18, Semester 2
Dr Tasia Scrutton
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Reading List:

Problem of evil (Weeks 1 – 4)

Core text

Hick, John. 2010. Evil and the God of love. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Other reading

Problem of evil - general

Meister, Chad. 2012. Evil : a guide for the perplexed. London: Continuum

Murray, Michael and Rea, Michael, An introduction to the philosophy of religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)

Peterson (et al), Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010 [4th edition])

Taliaferro, Draper and Quinn (ed.s), A companion to philosophy of religion (2nd ed.) (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2010)

And many others…. Any introduction to the philosophy of religion is likely to have a section on the problem of evil.

Augustinian (and Neo-Augustinian) approaches

Boyce, Kenneth. 2011. Non-moral evil and the free will defense. Faith and Philosophy 28.4, 371 – 384 - Available online:

Hohyun, Sohn. 2007. The beauty of hell?: Augustine’s aesthetic theodicy and its critics. Theology today. 64.1, 47 - 57

Kraal, Anders. 2013. A Humean objection to Plantinga’s quantitative free will defense. International journal for philosophy of religion. 73.3, 221 - 233

Kriegler, Rudolf J. 2014. Faith and reason: the original sin. Science et Esprit 66.3, 395 – 415

Langtry, Bruce. 2010. The prospects for the free will defence. Faith and Philosophy 27.2, 142 - 152 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Lowery, Richard H. 1998. The dark side of the soul: human nature and the problem of evil in Jewish and Christian traditions. Journal of Ecumenical Studies. 35.1, 88 – 100

Matthews, Gareth B. 2010. The problem of evil in Augustine and Descartes. Patristic tradition and intellectual paradigms in the 17th century. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 181 – 198

Plantinga, Alvin. 1975. God, freedom and evil. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Swinburne, Richard. 1998. Providence and the problem of evil. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Willows, Adam M. 2014. Augustine, the origin of evil, and the mystery of free will. Religious studies. 50.2, 255 – 269

For more articles and books, try web searches such as ‘free will defense’, ‘original sin’, Augustinian theodicy’ on ATLA, Leeds University library and Google Scholar.

Hick and the Irenaean solution to the problem of evil

Adams, Marilyn McCord. 1999. Horrendous evils and the goodness of God. London: Cornell University Press

Graves, Thomas H. 1991. A critique of John Hick’s theodicy from an African perspective. Perspectives in Religious Studies 18.1, 23 - 37

Hick, John. 1970. Freedom and the Irenaean theodicy again. Journal of theological studies. 21.2, 419 - 422

Mesle, Robert C. The problem of genuine evil: a critique of John Hick’s theodicy. Journal of Religion. 66.4, 412 – 430

Morris, Marla Beth. 1993. A critique of John Hick’s theodicy. Journal of Theta Alpha Kappa 17.2, 4 - 17

Scott, Mark S.M. 2010. Suffering and soul-making: rethinking John Hick’s theodicy. Journal of Religion. 90.3, 313 -334

Ward, Keith. 1969. Freedom and the Irenaean theodicy. Journal of theological studies. 20.1, 249 – 254

For more options, read sections on the problem of evil/theodicy in philosophy of religion introductions. You will also find more books and articles by doing Google Scholar, Leeds University library and ATLA searches (e.g. on ‘Irenaean theodicy’, Hick theodicy’, ‘Hick problem of evil’ etc.)

Hick’s critics and other responses to the problem of evil

Fiddes, Paul. 1988. The creative suffering of God. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988

Sarot, Marcel. 1992. God, passibility and corporeality. Kampen: The Netherlands: Kok Pharos Publishing House

Scrutton, Anastasia Philippa. 2011 Thinking through feeling : God, emotion, and passibility. New York: Continuum

Simpson, Robert. 2009. Some moral critique of theodicy is misplaced, but not all. Religious studies. 45.3, 339 – 346.

Søvik, Atle. 2008. Why almost all moral critique of theodicies is misplaced. Religious studies. 44. 4, 479 – 484

Søvik, Atle. 2010. More on moral critique of theodicies: reply to Robert Simpson. Religious studies. 47. 3, 383 - 388.

Surin, Kenneth. 1983. Theodicy? The Harvard theological review. 76.2, 225 - 247

Surin, Kenneth. 1986. Theology and the problem of evil. Oxford: Blackwell.

Swinton, John. 2007. Raging with compassion : pastoral responses to the problem of evil. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B Eerdmans Pub.

Tilley, Terence. 1991. The evils of theodicy. Washington D.C: Georgetown University Press, 1991

For more options, try Google Scholar, Leeds University library and ATLA searches (e.g. on ‘theodicy moral critiques’, ‘divine suffering’, ‘God suffering’, ‘passibility’.)

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Religious pluralism (Weeks 5 and 6)

Core text

Hick, John. 1995. The rainbow of faiths : critical dialogues on religious pluralism. London: SCM Press

Other reading

Adam, Graham. 2010. Christ and the other : in dialogue with Hick and Newbigin. Farnham: Ashgate

Aslan, Adnan. 1998. Religious pluralism in Christian and Islamic philosophy : the thought of John Hick and Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Richmond: Curzon

D’Costa, Gavin. 1987. John Hick's theology of religions : a critical evaluation. Lanham, MD: University Press of America

D’Costa, Gavin (ed.). 1990. Christian uniqueness reconsidered : the myth of a pluralistic theology of religions. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books

D’Costa, Gavin. 2009. Christianity and world religions : disputed questions in the theology of religions. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell

Gillis, Chester. 1989. A question of final belief : John Hick's pluralistic theory of salvation. London: Macmillan

Hick, John, and Knitter, Paul (eds.). 2005. The myth of Christian uniqueness : toward a pluralistic theology of religions. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers

Hick, John. 1993. God and the universe of faiths. Oxford: One World (2nd ed.)

Hick, John. 2000. God has many names. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press

Hick, John. 2004. An interpretation of religion : human responses to the transcendent. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (2nd ed.)

Sinkinson, Christopher. 2001. The universe of faiths : a critical study of John Hick's religious pluralism. Carlisle: Paternoster Press

Schmidt-Leukel Perry. 2012. Religious pluralism and the need for an inter-religious theology. In Sugirtharajah, Sharada (ed.). Religious pluralism and the modern world : an ongoing engagement with John Hick. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 19 – 34

For more books and articles, try Google Scholar, Leeds University library and ATLA searches (e.g. on ‘religious pluralism’)


Top of page

Religious epistemology (Week 7)

Core text

Hick, John. 1992. The rationality of religious belief. In Geivett, Douglas and Sweetman, Brendan (ed.s), Contemporary perspectives on religious epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Other texts

Alston, William. 1993. Perceiving God : the epistemology of religious experience. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press

Geivett, Douglas and Sweetman, Brendan (ed.s). 1992. Contemporary perspectives on religious epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hick, John. 1957. Faith and knowledge : a modern introduction to the problem of religious knowledge. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press

Hick, John. 2010. Between faith and doubt : dialogues on religion and reason. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

James, William. 2011. The varieties of religious experience: a study in human nature: being the Gifford Lectures in natural religion delivered at the University of Edinburgh, 1901 – 1902. Toronto: University of Toronto Libraries

While the focus on the lecture is on the idea that religious experience can provide justification for religious belief, there are other important and fascinating aspects to Hick’s religious epistemology. If you wish to write your essay on another aspect of Hick’s epistemology, please come and talk to me.

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Afterlife (Weeks 8 and 9)

Core text

Hick, John. 1994. Death and Eternal Life. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Know Press (or 1980 edition published by Harper and Row)

Other readings

Is there an afterlife? And what kind of beings would we need to be to have one?

Hick, John. 1989. Response to Nielson. Death and afterlife. New York: St Martin’s Press, 31 – 35

Gasser, Georg (ed.). 2010. Personal identity and resurrection : how do we survive our death? Farnham: Ashgate.

Lowe, E.J. 2000. An introduction to the philosophy of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

MacIntosh, J.J. 1989. Reincarnation and Relativized Identity. Religious studies. 25. 2, 153-165. (Don’t panic if you haven’t studied formal logic! The argument is understandable without it, and you won’t be expected to use formal logic in your essay [though you can if you want].)

Nielson, Kai. 1989. God, the soul, and coherence: a response to Davis and Hick. Death and afterlife. New York: St Martin’s Press, 149 – 153 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Price, H.H., (1990) Chapter 22: Personal survival and the idea of another world. FROM: Hick, John,, Classical and contemporary readings in the philosophy of religion , 3rd ed. pp.280-301. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. :: Prentice Hall Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Reichenbach, Bruce R. 1979. Price, Hick and disembodied existence. Religious studies. 15.3, 317 - 325

Reichenbach, Bruce R. 1978. Monism and the possibility of life after death. Religious studies. 14.1

Stoeber, Michael. 1990. Personal identity and rebirth. Religious studies. 26.4, 493 – 500

What kind of afterlife? Considering reincarnation

Burley, Mikel. 2016. Rebirth and the stream of life : a philosophical study of reincarnation, karma and ethics

Burley, Mikel. 2014. Taking reincarnation seriously: critical discussion of some central ideas from John Hick. International Journal for Philosophy and Theology 75.3, 236 – 253 - Available online:

Chadha, Monima, and Trakakis, Nick. 2007. Karma and the problem of evil: a response to Kaufman. Philosophy east and west. 57.4, 533 - 556

Goldschmidt, Tyron, and Seacord, Beth. 2013. Judaism, reincarnation and theodicy. Faith and Philosophy 30.4, 393 - 417 - Available online:

Kaufman, Whitley. 2005. Karma, Rebirth and the problem of evil. Philosophy east and west. 55.1, 15 - 32

Kaufman, Whitley. 2007. Karma, Rebirth, and the Problem of Evil: A Reply to Critics. Philosophy east and west., 57. 4, 556-560.

Sharma, Arvind. 2008. Karma, Rebirth, and the Problem of Evil: An Interjection in the Debate Between Whitley Kaufman and Monima Chadha and Nick Trakakis. Philosophy east and west. 58.4, 572 - 575

The existence of an afterlife, personal identity, and reincarnation are just a few aspects of Hick’s work on the afterlife. He is also famous for other theories, such as replica theory in the context of resurrection, and the idea of eschatological verification. If you are interested in doing your essay on one of these or another aspect of Hick’s eschatology, please speak to me about it

This list was last updated on 10/01/2016