Leeds University Library

PHIL2295
Ethics of Life and Death Module Reading List

Ethics of Life and Death, 2017/18, Semester 2
Dr. Georgia Testa
g.testa@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

There are no specific text books for this course. Much of the reading will consist of journal articles although there will also be some book chapters.

However, some of the recommended articles are included in anthologies:

Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer. Bioethics: An Anthology (Blackwell, various editions)

Hugh LaFollete. Ethics in practice : an anthology (Blackwell, 2007)

Reading is grouped by topic. 

Introduction to Ethical Theory

James Rachels. The elements of moral philosophy (McGraw Hill, any of 2nd-7th editions), sections 7.1, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5 (all on Utilitarianism), 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 10.1 (all on Kantian ethics) 

Julia Driver. Ethics : the fundamentals (Blackwell, 2007), ch. 3, ch. 4 (especially pp. 61-66), ch. 5.

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Encyclopedia entries and surveys

Two extremely useful online tools you may want to consult whenever in doubt:

1. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy at http://plato.stanford.edu/

2. Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy (via Library)

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Readings on particular topics:

* = tutorial readings

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Abortion

 Core reading

*Judith Jarvis Thomson. ‘A Defense of Abortion’, Philosophy & public affairs. 1.1(1971): 47-66.

Don Marquis. ‘Why Abortion is Immoral’, Journal of philosophy. 86.4 (1989): 183-202.

Further reading in relation to Thomson

David Boonin-Vail. 'A defense of "A Defense of Abortion":The Responsibility Objection to Thomson's Argument', Ethics. ISSN: 0014-1704 107.2 (1997): 286-313.

David Boonin. A defense of abortion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), chapter 4.

Michael Davis. ‘Foetuses, famous violinists, and the right to continued aid’.  The philosophical quarterly. 33 (1983): 259–78

John Martin Fischer. 'Abortion, Autonomy, and Control Over One's Body', Social philosophy and policy. ISSN: 0265-0525; 1471-6437 20.2 (2003): 286-306. 

Gerald Lang. 'Nudging the Responsibility Objection', Journal of applied philosophy. 25.1 (2008): 56-71).

Ian McDaniel. 'The responsibility objection to abortion'. Bioethics. . 29.4 (2015): 291-299.

Jeff McMahan. The ethics of killing : killing at the margins of life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 362–98

Harry Silverstein. ‘A woman’s ‘responsibility’ for the fetus’, Social theory and practice.. 13 (1987): 103–19

Anton Tupa. 'Killing, Letting Die, and the Morality of Abortion', Journal of applied philosophy. ISSN: 0264-3758 26.1 (2009): 1-26.

Further reading in relation to Marquis

Don Marquis. ‘An argument that abortion is wrong’, in Ethics in practice : an anthology, ed. Hugh LaFollette (Blackwell, 2007): 137-147.

Don Marquis. 'Strong's objection to the future of value account', Journal of medical ethics. 37 (2011): 384-88.

Eric Reitan. 'Avoiding the personhood issue: abortion, identity, and Marquis's 'future-like-ours' argument'. Bioethics. . 30.4 (2016): 272-281.

Carson Strong. 'A critique of "the best secular argument against abortion"', Journal of medical ethics. 34 (2008): 727-731.

Carson Strong. 'Reply to Marquis: how things stand with the "future like ours" argument', Journal of medical ethics. 38 (2012): 567-569.

William Simkulet. 'The Parenthood Argument', Bioethics. ISSN: 0269-9702 32 (2018): 10-15. 

Other topics 

Paul Bassen. ‘Present Sakes and Future Prospects: the Status of Early Abortion’, Philosophy & public affairs. 11.4 (1982): 314-337.

J.A. Burgess. 'Potential and Foetal Value', Journal of applied philosophy. 27.2 (2010): 140-153.

Elizabeth Harman. ‘The potentiality problem’, Philosophical studies. 114 (2003): 173-98.

Elizabeth Harman. 'Creation Ethics: The Moral Status of Early Fetuses and the Ethics of Abortion', Philosophy & public affairs. 28.4 (1999): 310-324.

Rosalind Hursthouse. Chapter 3 'Trying to prove the foetus does not matter' in her Beginning lives (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987): 89-130 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Gerald Lang. 'Is there potential in potentiality? ' Philosophical Papers 41.4 (2012): 129-147. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Eileen McDonagh. 'Models of motherhood in the abortion debate' in in Donna Dickenson (ed), Ethical issues in maternal-fetal medicine (Cambridge University Press, 2002), specifically 222-230.

Catriona Mackenzie. 'Abortion and Embodiment'. Australasian journal of philosophy. 70.2 (1992): 136-155.

Laura Purdy. Reproducing persons : issues in feminist bioethics (Cornell University Press, 1996), chapter 5, 'Is abortion murder? ' and chapter 7, 'Abortion and the argument from convenience'. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Alex Rajczi. 'Abortion, Competing Entitlements, and Parental Responsibility', Journal of applied philosophy. 26.4 (2009): 379-396.

Peter Singer. ‘Taking life: the embryo and the foetus’, ch.6 in his Practical Ethics (Cambridge, 2008): 135-174. 

Michael Tooley. ‘Abortion and infanticide’, Philosophy & public affairs. 2.1 (1972): 37-65 and widely anthologised. e.g. Bioethics: An Anthology eds. Kuhse and Singer.

Mary Anne Warren. ‘On the moral and legal status of abortion’, in Ethics in practice : an anthology ed. LaFollette: 126-136.

Background reading

Ronald Dworkin. Life's Dominion: An Argument about Abortion and Euthanasia (Harper Collins, 1993, 1995)

Philippa Foot. ‘The problem of abortion and the doctrine of double effect’, in her Virtues and vices and other essays in moral philosophy (1967) and reprinted in Killing and letting die, ed. Steinbock & Norcross (Fordham University Press, 1994): 266-279.

Philippa Foot. ‘Killing and letting die’, reprinted in Killing and letting die, ed. Steinbock & Norcross (1994), ch.17, pp.280-289. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Rosalind Hursthouse. Chapter 2 'The moral status of the foetus' in her Beginning lives (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987): 27-88

Rosalind Hursthouse. ‘Virtue theory and abortion’, in Ethics in practice : an anthology, ed. Hugh La Follette (Blackwell, 2007): 158-167.

Margaret Olivia Little. 'The Moral Permissibility of Abortion’, in Ethics in practice : an anthology, ed. Hugh La Follette (Blackwell, 2007): 148-157.

David Oderberg, Applied ethics : a non-consequentialist approach, ch. 1.

Rachels, James (ed.) (1979). Moral problems : a collection of philosophical essays, Part II, pp.104-203 (various essays)

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Reproduction

Core reading: Procreative freedom, rights and harmful choices 

*David Archard. ‘Wrongful Life’, Philosophy. 79 (2004): 403-420.

Allen Buchanan, Dan Brock, Norman Daniels, Daniel Wilkler. From chance to choice : genetics and justice (Cambridge University Press, 2000), chapter 6 'Reproductive Freedom and the Prevention of Harm'.

Bonnie Steinbock and Ron McClamrock. ‘When Is Birth Unfair to the Child? ’ Hastings Center report. . 24.6 (1994): 15-21.

Further reading: Procreative freedom, rights and harmful choices

Rebecca Bennett, John Harris. 'Are there lives not worth living? ' in Donna Dickenson (ed), Ethical issues in maternal-fetal medicine (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Elizabeth Brake and Joseph Millum. ‘Parenthood and Procreation’, Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource].

Dan Brock. ‘Shaping Future Children’ The journal of political philosophy. 13.4 (2005): 377-398, particularly the introduction and sections I and II. 

Joel Feinberg. 'The Child's Right to an Open Future' in William Aiken & Hugh LaFollette eds. Whose child? : Children's rights, parental authority, and state power ISBN: 0847662829 (pbk.) (Rowman and Littlefield, 1980) : 124-153, particularly sections 1, 3 and 4.

Jean McHale. 'Is there a duty not to reproduce? ' in Donna Dickenson (ed), Ethical issues in maternal-fetal medicine (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Laura Purdy. Reproducing persons : issues in feminist bioethics (Cornell University Press, 1996), chapter 1, 'Genetics and reproductive risk: can having children be immoral? '

John A. Robertson. Children of choice : freedom and the new reproductive technologies (Princeton University Press, 1994), chapter 2 'The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty'. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

M. A. Roberts. 'The Non-Identity Problem', Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource].

Core reading: Surrogacy

 *Susan Dodds and Karen Jones. 'Surrogacy and Autonomy', Bioethics. ISSN: 0269-9702 3.1 (1989): 1-17.

Justin Oakley. 'Altruistic Surrogacy and Informed Consent', Bioethics. ISSN: 0269-9702 6.4 (1992): 269-287. [This is a response to Dodds and Jones]

Further reading: Surrogacy 

Elizabeth S Anderson. 'Is Women's Labor A Commodity?', Philosophy & public affairs. ISSN: 0048-3915 19.1 (1990): 71-92.

Elizabeth S Anderson. 'Why Commercial Surrogate Motherhood Unethically Commodifies Women and Children: Reply to McLachlan and Swales', Healthcare Analysis 8 (2000): 19-26. [A companion piece to the above] - Available online: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1023/A:1009477906883.pdf

Brenda M Baker. 'A Case for Permitting Altruistic Surrogacy', Hypatia. ISSN: 0887-5367 11.2 (1996): 34-48.

Tatiana Patrone. 'Is Paid Surrogacy a Form of Reproductive Prostitution?', Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics. ISSN: 0963-1801 27 (2018): 109-122.

Anne Philips. 'It's my body and I'll do what I like with it: Bodies as objects and property', Political theory. ISSN: 0090-5917 39.6 (2011): 724-748. 

Laura M Purdy. 'Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment?', Bioethics. ISSN: 0269-9702 3.1 (1989): 18-34. 

Debra Satz. 'Markets in Women's Reproductive Labor', Philosophy & public affairs. ISSN: 0048-3915 21.2 (1992): 107-131.

Christine Straehle. 'Is there a right to surrogacy?', Journal of applied philosophy. ISSN: 0264-3758 33.2 (2016): 146-159.

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Organ Donation

Core reading

*Michael Gill. ‘Presumed consent, autonomy, and organ donation’, Journal of medicine and philosophy. 29.1 (2004): 37-59 

Govert den Hartogh. ‘Can consent be presumed? ’ Journal of applied philosophy. 28.3 (2011): 295-307

Ben Saunders. ‘Opt-out organ donation without presumptions’ Journal of medical ethics. 38 (2012): 69-72

Further reading

Larry Alexander. 'The ontology of consent'. Analytic philosophy. 55.1 (2014): 102-113.

C Cohen. 'The case for presumed consent to transplant human organs after death' in Stephen Holland (ed) Arguing about bioethics (Routledge, 2012).

Antonia J Cronin, John Harris. ‘Authorisation, altruism and compulsion in the organ donation debate’ Journal of medical ethics. 36 (2010): 627-631

Govert den Hartogh. ‘Tacitly consenting to donate one’s organs’, Journal of medical ethics. 37 (2011): 344-347.

Govert den Hartogh. 'In the best interests of the deceased: A possible justificatin for organ removal without consent?', Theoretical medicine and bioethics. ISSN: 1386-7415 32 (2011): 259-269. [Provides a response to part of Gill's paper]

Douglas MacKay. ‘Opt out and consent’. Journal of medical ethics. 41 (2015): 832-835 

Ben Saunders. ‘Understanding (and) consent: a response to MacKay’. Journal of medical ethics. 42 (2016):203-204

Romelie Rieu. ‘The potential impact of an opt-out system for organ donation in the UK’. Journal of medical ethics. 36 (2010): 534-538.

R M Veatch, J B Pitt. 'The myth of presumed consent: ethical problems in new organ procurement strategies' in Stephen Holland (ed) Arguing about bioethics (Routledge, 2012).

T M Wilkinson. 'Consent and the use of the bodies of the dead', Journal of medicine and philosophy. ISSN: 0360-5310 37.5 (2012): 445-463. [Provides support for Gill's arguments]

Compulsory organ retrieval

Cecile Fabre. Whose Body is it Anyway?ISBN: 9780199532292 (pbk.) : £16.99; 019953229X (pbk.) : £16.99 Oxford University Press, 2006. Chapter 4 - Confiscating cadaveric organs.    

Philip M Rosoff. 'Compulsory Organ Retrieval', Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics. ISSN: 0963-1801 27 (2018): 36-51.

Background reading

Larry Alexander. 'The moral magic of consent (II)'. Legal theory. 2.3 (1996): 165-174.

Tom Dougherty. 'Yes means yes: consent as communication'. Philosophy & public affairs. . 43.3 (2015): 224-254.

Richard Trammel. ‘Saving life and taking life’, ch.18, pp.290-297. - Available online: https://philpapers.org/rec/TRASLA

Martin Wilkinson and Stephen Wilkinson. 'The Donation of Human Organs' Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource].

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Euthanasia

Core reading

Ronald Dworkin. Life's Dominion: An Argument about Abortion and Euthanasia (Harper Collins, 1993, 1995), ch. 7, particularly pp. 199-217. Copy in Online Course ReadingsAvailable as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

John Harris. 'Euthanasia and the Value of Life' in John Keown (ed) Euthanasia examined : ethical, clinical and legal perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 1997), ch. 1. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Further reading

Dan Brock. 'Voluntary Active Euthanasia', Hastings Center report. 22.2 (1992): 10-22

Dan Brock. 'A Critique of Three Objections to Physician-Assisted Suicide', Ethics. 109.3 (1999): 519-547

Daniel Callahan. 'When self-determination runs amok' in Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer. Bioethics: An Anthology (Blackwell, 2nd edition, 2006) and its companion piece - John Lachs. 'When abstract moral theorising runs amok'. 

Dale Dorsey. 'The Significance of a Life's Shape', Ethics.. 125.2 (2015): 303-330.

Ronald Dworkin. Life's Dominion: An Argument about Abortion and Euthanasia (Harper Collins, 1993, 1995), ch. 3 & 8 .

Joel Feinberg. 'Voluntary Euthanasia and the Inalienable Right to Life', Philosophy & public affairs. 7.2 (1978): 93-123

Phillipa Foot. ‘Euthanasia’, Philosophy & public affairs., 6 (1977); 85-112

Phillipa Foot. ‘The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of Double Effect’ in her Virtues and Vices (Basil Blackwell, 1978) Available online 

Jonathan Glover, 'The Sanctity of Life' in Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer. Bioethics: An Anthology or his Causing death and saving lives (Penguin, 1990), pp. 39-59.

John Harris. 'Consent and end of life decisions', Journal of medical ethics. 29 (2003): 10-15

John Keown (ed). Euthanasia examined : ethical, clinical and legal perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 1997), particularly chapters 2-6, and 10. 

Joseph Raz, 'Death in Our Life' in Journal of applied philosophy. 30 (1): 1-11 (2013).

Peter Singer. 'Taking life: Humans', ch. 7 in his Practical Ethics (Cambridge, 2008).

Bonnie Steinbock. ‘The Intentional Termination of Life’ in her Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine (6th edition)

Judith Jarvis Thomson. 'Physician-Assisted Suicide: Two Moral Arguments' Ethics. 109.3 (1999): 497-518

David Velleman. 'A Right of Self-Termination? ', Ethics. 109.3 (1999): 606-628

David Velleman. 'Against the right to die', Journal of medicine and philosophy. 17 (1992): 665-681

Mary Warnock, Elizabeth MacDonald. Easeful death : is there a case for assisted dying? (Oxford University Press, 2008).

Robert Young. Medically assisted death (Cambridge University Press, 2007), chapter 5, 'The Sanctity of Human Life'.

Background reading

John Harris. The value of life (Routledge, 1985)

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Killing and letting die

Dan Brock. 'Voluntary Active Euthanasia', Hastings Center report. 22.2 (1992): 10-22. 

Philippa Foot. ‘Killing and letting die’, reprinted in Killing and letting die, ed. Steinbock & Norcross (1994), ch.17, pp.280-289.

Helga Kuhse. 'Why Killing is Not Always Worse - and Sometimes Better - Than Letting Die', Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics.  7.4 (1998), 371-4, and in Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer. Bioethics: An Anthology

Andrew McGee. 'Acting to let someone die', Bioethics. . 29.2 (2015): 74-81.

Jeff McMahan. 'Killing, Letting Die, and Withdrawing Aid', Ethics. 103.2 (1993): 250-279.

James Rachels. 'Active and Passive Euthanasia', widely anthologised including in his Moral problems : a collection of philosophical essays and in Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer, Bioethics: An Anthology  Quinn, Warren. ‘Actions, intentions, and consequences: the doctrine of doing and allowing’, Philosophical review. 98 (1989): 287-312.

Alastair Norcross. ‘Killing and Letting Die’, in A companion to applied ethics, ed. Frey and Wellman (Blackwell, 2003): ch.33, pp.451-463. 

Patricia Smith. ‘Bad Samaritans, acts and omissions’, in A companion to applied ethics, ed. Frey and Wellman (Blackwell, 2003): ch.35, pp.4475-486. 

Samuel Scheffler. ‘Doing and allowing’, Ethics. 114 (2004): 215-239.

There are essays in ‘Part II’ of: Steinbock & Norcross (eds.). Killing and letting die (1994). See especially:

Daniel Dinetello: ‘On killing and letting die’, ch.11, pp.192-196.

Jeffrie Murphy. ‘Is killing the innocent absolutely immoral’, ch.12, pp.197-209.

Judith Lichtenberg. ‘The moral equivalence of action and omission’, ch.13, pp.210-229.

This list was last updated on 16/01/2018