Leeds University Library

HIST2115
HIST2115 Charles the Great to Alfred the Great Reading List

Charles the Great to Alfred the Great: Franks, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings in the Ninth Century, 2017/18, Semester 1
Professor Julia Barrow
j.s.barrow@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General reading on Western Europe in the ninth century

The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 3, c.900-c.1024, ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: CUP, 1999)

(Hereafter abbreviated NCMH ii and NCMH iii. These are big books broken up into short but definitive chapters on separate chronological periods of political history and a wide variety of other themes - social, cultural and religious. A good point to get your bearings from)

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011) Excellent survey of the social and political framework of the Carolingian empire; good survey of events; recommended for purchase

The Oxford illustrated history of the Vikings, ed. by Peter Sawyer (Oxford: OUP, 1997), esp. chapters by Nelson and Keynes, which are good introductions to the impact of the Vikings on the Franks and the Anglo-Saxons respectively 

From the Vikings to the Normans, ed. by Wendy Davies (Oxford: OUP, 2003): about Britain and Ireland 800-1100

J.L. Nelson, ‘England and the Continent in the ninth century: I: ends and beginnings’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th ser., 12 (2002) – discusses trends in historiography of ninth century

The early Middle Ages: Europe 400-1000, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Oxford: OUP, 2001) – very brief, but contains useful chapters by Chris Wickham, Jean-Pierre Devroey, Mayke de Jong and Ian Wood on (respectively) society, economy, religion and culture 

Matthew Innes, An introduction to early medieval western Europe, 400-900 : the sword, the plough and the book (London: Routledge, 2003)

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751-987 (London: Longman, 1983)

Carolingian culture : emulation and innovation, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1994): essays on different aspects of the Carolingian Renaissance 

P.E. Dutton, ed. Carolingian Civilization: a Reader, 2nd edn (Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2004): selected sources in translation

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Charlemagne, Father of Europe

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011), pp. 65-79 (events of the reign) and 154-97 (coronation of 800 and patterns of government) : good starting point

Charlemagne : empire and society, ed. by Joanna Story (Manchester: MUP, 2005): introductory essays by experts on different aspects of Charlemagne and his empire; another good starting point

The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751-987 (London: Longman, 1983)

Carolingian culture : emulation and innovation, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1994)

P.E. Dutton, ed. Carolingian Civilization: a Reader, 2nd edn (Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2004): selected sources in translation

Roger Collins, Charlemagne (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998). Useful narrative, but very little commentary about why things happened

Alessandro Barbero, Charlemagne : father of a continent (Berkeley: UC Press, 2004)

Heinrich Fichtenau, The Carolingian Empire (Oxford: Blackwell, 1957)

Timothy Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser. 35 (1985)

Stuart Airlie, ‘Narratives of triumph and rituals of submission: Charlemagne’s mastering of Bavaria’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th ser., 9 (1999)

Donald Bullough, ‘Europae Pater’, English historical review., 85 (1970), 59-105

Paul E. Dutton, Charlemagne's mustache : and other cultural clusters of a dark age (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)

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Charlemagne’s government and law

Rosamond McKitterick, Charlemagne : the formation of a European identity (Cambridge: CUP, 2008)

François-Louis Ganshof (1895-1980), The Carolingians and the Frankish monarchy : studies in Carolingian history (London: Longman, 1971)

François-Louis Ganshof, Frankish institutions under Charlemagne (Providence: Brown UP, 1968)

Jennifer Davis, Charlemagne's Practice of Empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2015)

Rosamond McKitterick, The Carolingians and the Written Word (Cambridge: CUP, 1989)

The Uses of literacy in early medieval Europe, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1990)

H.R. Loyn and John Percival, The Reign of Charlemagne : documents on Carolingian government and administration (London: Edward Arnold, 1975) (contains translations of several Carolingian capitularies, as well as several other administrative texts)

Paul Fouracre, ‘Carolingian justice’, in La giustizia nell'alto Medioevo (secoli V-VIII) : 7-13 aprile 1994., Settimane di studio, 42 (Spoleto: Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo, 1995), ii, pp. 771-803

Stuart Airlie, ‘“For it is written in the law”: Ansegis and the writing of Carolingian royal authority’, in Early medieval studies in memory of Patrick Wormald, ed. by Stephen Baxter and others (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009)

Matthew Innes, State and society in the early Middle Ages : the middle Rhine valley, 400-1000 (Cambridge: CUP, 2000)

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Narrative sources about Charlemagne

Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Two lives of Charlemagne, tr. Lewis Thorpe (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969)

Charlemagne and Louis the Pious : the lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, transl. by Thomas F.X. Noble (University Park, PA: Penn State UP, 2009)

Paul Dutton, Charlemagne's courtier : the complete Einhard (Peterborough, Ont: Broadview, 1998)

Paul Dutton, Carolingian Civilization: a Reader, 2nd edn (Peterborough, Ont: Broadview, 2004)

Carolingian chronicles : Royal Frankish annals and Nithard's Histories, transl. by B.W. Scholz (Ann Arbor, MI: U Michigan P, 1970)

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Kingship, court and coronation

Kings and kingship in medieval Europe, ed. by Anne Duggan (London: King’s College London CLAMS, 1993), chapter 5, Janet Nelson, 'The political ideas of Alfred of Wessex'

Queens and queenship in medieval Europe : proceedings of a conference held at King's College London, April 1995, ed. by Anne Duggan (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997), chapter 15 (Nelson)

Janet Nelson, ‘Kingship and empire’, in J.H. Burns, ed. The Cambridge history of medieval political thought c.350-c.1450 (Cambridge: CUP, 1988)

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011), chapter 6, ‘Elite society’ on aristocracy

Catherine Cubitt, ed. Court culture in the early Middle Ages : the proceedings of the first Alcuin Conference (Turnhout: Brepols, 2003) (chapters by Nelson, Innes, Bullough) 

Coronations : medieval and early modern monarchic ritual, ed. by Janos Bak (Berkeley: UCP, 1990)

Rituals of royalty : power and ceremonial in traditional societies, ed. by D. Cannadine and S. Price (Cambridge: CUP, 1987)

Janet Nelson, Politics and Ritual (London: Hambledon, 1986)

Henry Mayr-Harting, ‘Charlemagne, the Saxons and the imperial coronation of 800’, English historical review., 111 (1996)

Robert Folz, The coronation of Charlemagne, 25 December 800 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974)

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Charlemagne’s family life

Pauline Stafford, Queens, concubines and dowagers : the king's wife in the early Middle Ages 2nd edn (London: Batsford, 1998)

Janet Nelson, ‘Women at the court of Charlemagne’ in her The Frankish world, 750-900 (Hambledon, 1996): also in Medieval queenship, ed. J.C. Parsons (Stroud: Sutton, 1994)

Anton Scharer, ‘Charlemagne’s daughters’, in Early medieval studies in memory of Patrick Wormald, ed. by Stephen Baxter (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009)

Janet Nelson, ‘Making a difference’, in After Rome's fall : narrators and sources of early medieval history : essays presented to Walter Goffart, ed. by A.C. Murray (Toronto: U Toronto P, 1998)

Matthew Innes, ‘Charlemagne’s will’, English historical review., 112 (1997)

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Charlemagne’s myth

Matthew Gabriele and Jace Stuckey, ed. The legend of Charlemagne in the Middle Ages : power, faith, and crusade (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

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The Frankish Empire after Charlemagne (814-877)

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Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald

NCMH ii, articles by Nelson, Fried

M. Costambeys, M. Innes and S. MacLean, The Carolingian world, chs. 4, 8

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Louis the Pious

Charlemagne's heir : new perspectives on the reign of Louis the Pious (814-840), ed. by Peter Godman and Roger Collins (Oxford: OUP, 1990)

Mayke de Jong, 'Hraban Maur as mediator', in Splendor Reginae : passions, genre et famille : mélanges en l'honneur de Régine le Jan, ed. Laurent Jegou, Sylvie Joye et al. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015)

Mayke de Jong, ‘What was public about public penance? ’, in La giustizia nell'alto Medioevo : (secoli IX-XI) : 11-17 aprile 1996, Settimane di studio, 44 (Spoleto: Centro italiano per lo studio dell’alto medioevo, 1997), ii, pp. 863-902

Mayke de Jong, 'Power and humility in Carolingian society: the public penance of Louis the Pious', Early Medieval Europe, 1 (1992), 29-52

Mayke de Jong, The penitential state : authority and atonement in the age of Louis the Pious, 814-840, (Cambridge: CUP, 2009) . This book and the following one explore the political significance of penance in Louis' reign.

Courtney Booker, Past convictions : the penance of Louis the Pious and the decline of the Carolingians (Philadelphia, PA: U Penn. P, 2009)

Charlemagne and Louis the Pious : the lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, transl. by Thomas Noble (University Park, PA: Penn. State UP, 2009)

Son of Charlemagne : a contemporary life of Louis the Pious , transl. by Allen Cabaniss (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1961)

Charlemagne's cousins : contemporary lives of Adalard and Wala, transl. by Allen Cabaniss (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1967): translation of the Lives of Adalard and Wala

David Ganz, 'The Astronomer's Life of Louis the Pious', in Rome and religion in the medieval world : studies in honor of Thomas F.X. Noble, ed. by Valerie Garver and Owen M. Phelan (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014)

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Charles the Bald

Janet Nelson, Charles the Bald (London: Longman, 1992) : best starting-point (see also Nelson's articles in NCMH ii)

Janet Nelson, Politics and Ritual (London : Hambledon, 1986)

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Charles the Bald and the image of Kingship’, History today., 38 (6) June 1988

J.L. Nelson, ‘Early medieval rites of queen-making’, in Queens and queenship in medieval Europe : proceedings of a conference held at King's College London, April 1995, ed. by Anne Duggan 

Jane Hyam, ‘Ermentrude and Richildis’, in Charles the Bald : court and kingdom : papers based on a colloquium held in London in April 1979, ed. by M.T. Gibson and J.L. Nelson 

The annals of St-Bertin, transl. by Janet Nelson (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1991)

Hincmar of Rheims : life and work, ed. by Rachel Stone and Charles West (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2015), ch 5

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Lothar I and Louis the German

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the early Middle Ages c.800-1056 (Harlow: Longman, 1991), ch. 4 : best starting-point

Elina Screen, ‘The importance of the emperor: Lothar I and the Frankish civil war 840-843’, Early medieval Europe., 12 (2003)

Eric Goldberg, Struggle for empire : kingship and conflict under Louis the German, 817-876 (Ithaca NY, 2006)

Eric Goldberg, ‘ Regina nitens sanctissima Hemma: Queen Emma (827-876), Bishop Withar of Augsburg, and the Witgar belt’, in Representations of power in medieval Germany 800-1500, ed. by Björn Weiler and Simon MacLean (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), pp. 57-95

Simon MacLean, ‘Ritual, misunderstanding, and the contest for meaning: representations of the disrupted royal assembly at Frankfurt (873)’, in Representations of power in medieval Germany 800-1500, ed. by Björn Weiler and Simon MacLean (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), pp. 97-119

The annals of Fulda, transl. by Timothy Reuter (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992)

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Court and aristocracy

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011), chapter 6, ‘Elite society’ on aristocracy (best starting-point)

Stuart Airlie, ‘The palace of memory: the Carolingian court as political centre’, in Courts and regions in medieval Europe, ed, by S. Rees Jones, R. Marks and A.J. Minnis (York: York Medieval Press, 2000); repd in Stuart Airlie, Power and its problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Variorum, 2012)

Rachel Stone, Morality and masculinity in the Carolingian empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), ch. 5

Rachel Stone, ‘In search of the Carolingian dear lord’, in Frankland : the Franks and the world of the early Middle Ages : essays in honour of Dame Jinty Nelson, ed. by Paul Fouracre and David Ganz (Manchester: MUP, 2008)

Matthew Innes, ‘Charlemagne’s will’, English historical review., 112 (1997)

Gerd Althoff, ‘Amicitiae [Friendships]’ in Lester Little and Barbara Rosenwein, ed. Debating the Middle Ages : issues and readings (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)

Gerd Althoff, Family, friends and followers : political and social bonds in early medieval Europe, tr. by Christopher Carroll (Cambridge: CUP, 2004; original published Darmstadt, 1990), ch. 2 (deals with 6th-11th cs, so be selective) 

Paul Dutton, The politics of dreaming in the Carolingian empire (Lincoln, Neb.: U Nebraska P, 1994)

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Lothar II’s divorce case

Karl Heidecker, The divorce of Lothar II : Christian marriage and political power in the Carolingian world (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2010)

Rachel Stone, Morality and masculinity in the Carolingian empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), chs. 8-9

Valerie Flint, ‘Magic and marriage in ninth-century Francia’, in  The Culture of Christendom : essays in medieval history in memory of Denis L.T. Bethel, ed. by Marc Meyer (London: Hambledon, 1993)

Valerie Flint, ‘Susanna and the Lothar crystal’, Early medieval Europe., 4, (1995) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

S. Airlie, ‘Private bodies and the body politic in the divorce case of Lothar II’, Past & present., 161 (1998), 3-38.

BBC Radio 4 programme: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b00snm1v/A_History_of_the_World_in_100_Objects_Inside_the_Palace_Secrets_at_Court_(700_950_AD)_Lothair_Crystal/

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The Anglo-Saxons from Offa’s reign (757-96) to Alfred’s accession (871)

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General

The Anglo-Saxons, ed. by James Campbell (London: Phaidon, 1982) : best starting point

Simon Keynes, ‘England, 700-900’ in NCMH, ii

Barbara Yorke, Kings and kingdoms in early Anglo-Saxon England (London: Seaby, 1990)

F.M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd edn (Oxford: OUP, 1971)

Rory Naismith, Money and power in Anglo-Saxon England : the southern English kingdoms, 757-865 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012)

N.P. Brooks, ‘England in the ninth century: the crucible of defeat’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 29 (1979), repd in Nicholas Brooks, Communities and warfare, 700-1400 (London: Hambledon, 2000)

Nicholas Brooks, The early history of the Church of Canterbury : Christ Church from 597 to 1066 (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1984), esp. ch. 6 on Offa and chs. 7-8 on the ninth century : note: developments in church history are part of political history, especially in the eighth and ninth centuries

N.P. Brooks, Church, state and access to resources in early Anglo-Saxon England (Leicester: University of Leicester and Friends of Brixworth, 2003)

English historical documents, I, ed. Dorothy Whitelock, 2nd edn (London: Eyre Methuen, 1979)

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Mercia

F.M. Stenton, ‘The Mercian supremacy’, in F.M. Stenton, Preparatory to Anglo-Saxon England : being the collected papers of Frank Merry Stenton (Oxford: OUP, 1970)

Aethelbald and Offa : two eighth-century kings of Mercia : papers from a conference held in Manchester in 2000, Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies, ed. by David Hill and Margaret Worthington (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2005)

Steven Bassett, ‘Divide and rule? The military infrastructure of eighth- and ninth-century Mercia’, Early medieval Europe., 15 (2007), 53-85

Pauline Stafford, The East Midlands in the early Middle Ages (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1985)

Martin Biddle and Birthe Kjølbye-Biddle, ‘Repton and the Vikings’, Antiquity., 66 (1992)

Dawn Hadley, ‘Viking and native: re-thinking identity in the Danelaw’, Early medieval Europe., 11 (2002), 45-70

Dawn Hadley, ‘“And they proceeded to plough and support themselves”: the Scandinavian settlement of Anglo-Saxon England’, in Anglo-Norman Studies 19: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1996 (Woodbridge, 1997), 69-96

Dawn Hadley, The Northern Danelaw : its social structure, c.800-1100 (London: Leicester UP, 2000)

Peter Sawyer, Anglo-Saxon Lincolnshire (Lincoln: Society for the History and Archaeology of Lincolnshire, 1998)

R.A. Hall, ‘The five boroughs of the Danelaw: a review of present knowledge’, Anglo-Saxon England.,18 (1989), 149-206

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Wessex

Barbara Yorke, Wessex in the early Middle Ages (London: Leicester UP, 1995)

Simon Keynes, ‘The control of Kent in the ninth century’, Early medieval Europe., 2 (1993) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Rory Naismith, Money and power in Anglo-Saxon England : the southern English kingdoms, 757-865 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012)

See also section on Alfred below

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Northumbria

David Rollason, Northumbria, 500-1100 : creation and destruction of a medieval kingdom (Cambridge: CUP, 2003)

Donald Bullough, Alcuin : achievement and reputation ; being part of the Ford lectures delivered in Oxford in Hilary Term 1980 (Leiden: Brill, 2003)

R.A. Hall, English Heritage book of Viking age York (London: Batsford, 1994) – a very general account, but a useful introduction to the subject

R.A. Hall, ed. Viking age York and the north (London: CBA, 1978)

R.A. Hall, ed. Aspects of Anglo-Scandinavian York (York: CBA, 2004): updates previous item

David Rollason with Derek Gore and Gillian Fellows-Jensen, tr. Sources for York history to AD 1100 (York: York Archaeological Trust, 1998)

Symeon of Durham, Libellus de exordio atque procursu istius, hoc est Dunhelmensis, ecclesie = Tract on the origins and progress of this the Church of Durham, ed. and transl. by David Rollason (Oxford: OUP, 2000)

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The Vikings in England

Dawn Hadley, The Vikings in England : settlement, society and culture (Manchester: MUP, 2006)

Clare Downham, 'The earliest Viking activity in England', English Historical Review, 132 (2017), 1-12

Gillian Fellows-Jensen, ‘The Vikings in England: a review’, Anglo-Saxon England., 4 (1975) – overview of work done on place-names and settlement down to 1975

Pauline Stafford, ‘The Danes and the Danelaw’, History today. October 1986 pp. 17-23

Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by Dawn Hadley and Julian Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000)

Items by Biddle, Hadley, Sawyer and Hall in section on Mercia, above

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On the other side of the Irish sea

Dáibhí Ó Cróinin, Early medieval Ireland, c. AD 400 - AD1200 (London: Longman, 1995)

Colman Etchingham, ‘North Wales, Ireland and the Isles: the insular Viking zone’, Peritia., 15 (2001) 145-87

Clare Downham, Viking kings of Britain and Ireland : the dynasty of Ívarr to A.D. 1014 (Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2007) 

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The Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Churches in the Ninth Century

Mayke de Jong, ‘Religion’, in The early Middle Ages, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Oxford: OUP, 2001), pp. 131-64 – useful overview

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The Frankish Church

Mayke de Jong, ‘Charlemagne’s church’ in Charlemagne : empire and society, ed. by Joanna Story (Manchester: MUP, 2005), pp. 103-35 – useful overview, and best starting point 

J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Frankish Church (Oxford: Clarendon, 1983)

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘The church’, in NCMH iii (for the early tenth century and beyond)

chapters by Nelson, Morris, Barrow, Palazzo and Angenendt in The Cambridge History of Christianity III: Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100, ed. T.F.X. Noble and J.M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008)

Hincmar of Rheims : life and work, ed. by Rachel Stone and Charles West (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2015): note chs 5-6 on politics, 7-9 on law and 12-14 on pastoral care and heresy

Rachel Stone, 'Spiritual heirs and families: episcopal relatives in early medieval Francia', in Celibate and Childless Men in Power: Ruling Eunuchs and Bishops in the Pre-Modern World, ed. Almut Hofert, Matthew Mesley and Serena Tolino (London: Routledge, 2018 [in fact 2017])

The church in town and countryside : papers read at the seventeenth summer meeting and the eighteenth winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. by David Baker, Studies in Church History 16 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1979): article by J. Nelson

Janet Nelson, ‘Making ends meet: wealth and poverty in the Carolingian church’, repd in Janet Nelson, The Frankish world, 750-900 (London: Hambledon, 1996)

Janet Nelson, ‘The Church’s military service in the ninth century: a contemporary view’, in The Church and war : [papers read at the Twenty-First Summer Meeting and the Twenty-Second Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society], ed. by W.J. Sheils, Studies in Church History 20 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1983), repd in Janet Nelson, Politics and Ritual (London: Hambledon, 1986)

Paul Fouracre, ‘Eternal light and earthly need’, in Property and power in the early Middle Ages, ed. by Wendy Davies and Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Carine van Rhijn, Shepherds of the Lord : priests and episcopal statutes in the Carolingian period (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007)

Men in the Middle: Local Priests in Early Medieval Europe, ed. Steffen Patzold and Carine van Rhijn (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016)

John Van Engen, 'Christening, the kingdom of the Carolingians and European humanity',  in Rome and religion in the medieval world : studies in honor of Thomas F.X. Noble, ed. by Valerie Garver and Owen M. Phelan (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014)

Matthew Bryan Gillis, Heresy and Dissent in the Carolingian Empire: the Case of Gottschalk of Orbais (Oxford: OUP, 2017)

Valerie Flint, The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1993)

Christopher Carroll, ‘The bishoprics of Saxony’, Early medieval Europe., 8 (1999), 219-46

Felice Lifshitz, ‘The migration of Neustrian relics in the Viking Age’, Early medieval Europe., 4 (1995), 175-92

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Missionaries, Vikings and Christianity

Simon Coupland, ‘The rod of God’s wrath or the people of God’s wrath? The Carolingian theology of the Viking invasions’, Journal of ecclesiastical history., 42 (1991), 535-54

Ian Wood, ‘Christians and pagans in ninth-century Scandinavia’, in The christianization of Scandinavia : report of a symposium held at Kungälv, Sweden, ed. by B. Sawyer, P. Sawyer and I. Wood (Alingsås: Viktoria, 1987)

Ian Wood, The missionary life : saints and the evangelisation of Europe, 400-1050 (Harlow: Longman, 2001)

Ian Wood, ‘The northern frontier: Christianity face to face with paganism’, and Lesley Abrams, 'Germanic Christianities'  in The Cambridge History of Christianity III, Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100, ed. by T.F.X. Noble and J.M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008)

James Palmer, ‘Rimbert’s Vita Anskarii and Scandinavian mission in the ninth century’, Journal of ecclesiastical history., 55 (2004) 235-56

Lesley Abrams, ‘The Anglo-Saxons and the Christianization of Scandinavia’, Anglo-Saxon England., 24 (1995)

S. Hvass, ‘Jelling from Iron Age to Viking Age’, in People and places in northern Europe 500-1600 : essays in honour of Peter Hayes Sawyer, ed. by Ian Wood and Niels Lund (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1991)

K.J. Krogh, ‘The royal Viking-Age monuments at Jelling’, Acta Archaeologica., 53 (1982) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Richard Fletcher, The conversion of Europe : from paganism to Christianity, 371-1386 AD (London: HarperCollins, 1998)

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Carolingian monasteries

Mayke de Jong, ‘Carolingian monasticism: the power of prayer’, in NCMH ii, 622-53

Anne-Marie Helvétius and Michel Kaplan, ‘Asceticism and its institutions’ in The Cambridge History of Christianity III, Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100 ed. by T.F.X. Noble and J.M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008), pp. 275-98

David Rollason, ‘The miracles of St Benedict’, in Studies in medieval history presented to R.H.C. Davis, ed. by H. Mayr-Harting and R.I. Moore (London: Hambledon, 1985), pp. 73-90

Walter Horn and E. Born, The plan of St. Gall : a study of the architecture & economy of & life in a paradigmatic Carolingian monastery, 3 vols (Berkeley: UCP, 1979): vol. 3 contains C.W. Jones’ translation of Adalard of Corbie’s ‘Customs of Corbie’, informative about the economic management of a Carolingian abbey

Mayke de Jong, ‘Growing up in a Carolingian monastery’, Journal of Medieval History., 9 (1983), 99-128

Mayke de Jong, In Samuel's image : child oblation in the early medieval West (Leiden: Brill, 1996): about child oblates in monasteries

Janneke Raaijmakers, The making of the monastic community of Fulda, c.744 - c.900 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012)

Barbara Rosenwein, Negotiating space : power, restraint and privileges of immunity in early medieval Europe. (Manchester: MUP, 1999), chs. 5-6 (about monastic immunity)

Anchoress and abbess in ninth-century Saxony : the Lives of Liutbirga of Wendhausen and Hathumoda of Gandersheim, transl. by F.S. Paxton (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2009)

Anna Trumbore Jones, ‘Pitying the desolation of such a place: rebuilding religious houses and constructing memory in Aquitaine in the wake of the Viking incursions’, Viator. 37 (2006), 85-102 Available online

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Hagiography and Saints’ Cults

Soldiers of Christ : saints and saints' lives from late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, ed. by T.F.X. Noble and Thomas Head (London: Sheed and Ward, 1995)

J.M.H. Smith, ‘Oral and written: saints, miracles and cults in Brittany’, Speculum. 65 (1990), 309-43

J.M.H. Smith, ‘The problem of female sanctity in Carolingian Europe’, Past & present.., 146 (1995), 3-37

Thomas Head, Hagiography and the cult of saints : the diocese of Orléans, 800-1200 (New York: CUP, 1991)

Patrick Geary, Furta Sacra, rev. edn (Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1990), chs. 2, 6

J.M.H. Smith, ‘Emending evil ways...’, in Conversion in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages : seeing and believing, ed. by K. Mills and A. Grafton (Rochester, NY: U Rochester P, 2003)

J.M.H Smith, ‘Einhard: the sinner and the saints’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th ser. 13 (2003), 55-77

Felice Lifshitz, ‘The migration of Neustrian relics in the Viking age: the myth of voluntary exodus, the reality of coercion and theft’, Early medieval Europe., 4 (1995), 175-92

For Anglo-Saxon saints’ cults, see items by Rollason, Thacker and Johnson-South below.

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J.M.H. Smith, ‘Religion and lay society’, in NCMH ii, 654-78

The Cambridge History of Christianity III, Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100 ed. T.F.X. Noble and J.M.H. Smith, parts 4-5

Marcelle Thiébaux, tr. Dhuoda, Handbook for her warrior son : Liber manualis (Cambridge: CUP, 1998)

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Carolingian renaissance

Carolingian culture : emulation and innovation, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1994)

Donald Bullough, Alcuin : achievement and reputation ; being part of the Ford lectures delivered in Oxford in Hilary Term 1980 (Leiden: Brill, 2003)

Alcuin of York, c AD 732 to 804 - his life and letters, transl. by Stephen Allott (York: William Sessions, 1974)

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish kings and culture in the early Middle Ages (Aldershot: Variorum, 1995)

Donald Bullough, Carolingian renewal : sources and heritage (Manchester: MUP, 1991): note especially ‘Alcuin and the kingdom of Heaven’ and the opening of ‘Texts, chant and the chapel of Louis the Pious’, which gives an account of the baptism of King Harald

Patrick Wormald and Janet Nelson, ed. Lay intellectuals in the Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2007)

Anne Freeman, ‘Theodulf of Orleans and the Libri Carolini ’, Speculum., 32, 1957

James Palmer, Anglo-Saxons in a Frankish world, 690-900 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009)

Pierre Riché, Daily life in the world of Charlemagne (Liverpool: Liverpool UP)

C.R. Dodwell, The pictorial arts of the West, 800-1200 (New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1993)

Henry Mayr-Harting, ‘Charlemagne as a patron of art’ in The Church and the arts : papers read at the 1990 summer meeting and the 1991 winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. D. Wood, Studies in Church History, 21 (Oxford: Blackwell: 1992), pp. 43-77

David Ganz, Corbie in the Carolingian Renaissance (Sigmaringen: Thorbecke, 1990)

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Anglo-Saxon church

John Blair, The church in Anglo-Saxon society (Oxford: OUP, 2005) esp. pp. 291-323

Catherine Cubitt, Anglo-Saxon church councils c.650-850 (London: Leicester UP, 1995)

Nicholas Brooks, The early history of the Church of Canterbury : Christ Church from 597 to 1066 (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1984), esp. ch. 6 on Offa and chs. 7-8 on the ninth century

Alcuin, The bishops, kings, and saints of York, ed. and transl. by Peter Godman (Oxford: OUP, 1982)

Pastoral care before the parish, ed. by John Blair and Richard Sharpe (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1992)

Barbara Yorke, Nunneries and the Anglo-Saxon royal houses (London: Continuum, 2003), chs. 2-3

Sarah Foot, Veiled women, 2 vols (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), esp. ch. 2 in vol. 1

David Rollason, Saints and relics in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford: Blackwell, 1989), ch. 6 and account of cult of Cuthbert in ch. 8

Paul Cavill, ‘Analogy and genre in the legend of St Edmund’, Nottingham medieval studies., 47 (2003), 21-45

A.T. Thacker, ‘Kings, saints and monasteries in pre-Viking Mercia’, Midland history., 10 (1985) 1-25

A.T. Thacker, ‘Chester and Gloucester’, Northern history., 18 (1982), 199-211 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by Dawn Hadley and Julian Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), esp. articles by Abrams, Barrow, Halsall

Dawn Hadley, ‘Conquest, colonisation and the church: ecclesiastical organisation in the Danelaw’, Historical research. 69 (1996), 109-128

Dawn Hadley, The Vikings in England : settlement, society and culture (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2006), ch. 5

Julia Barrow, 'Danish ferocity and abandoned monasteries: the twelfth-century view', and Rob Bartlett, 'The Viking Hiatus in the cult of saints' in The long twelfth-century view of the Anglo-Saxon past, ed, by Martin Brett and David Woodman (Farnham: Ashgate, 2015), pp. 77-93

William Aird, St Cuthbert and the Normans : the Church of Durham, 1071-1153 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998) ch. 1

Eric Cambridge, ‘Why did the community of St Cuthbert settle at Chester-le-Street? ’, in St. Cuthbert, his cult and his community to AD 1200, ed. by Gerald Bonner, David Rollason and Clare Stancliffe (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1989)

Historia de Sancto Cuthberto : a history of Saint Cuthbert and a record of his patrimony, ed. by Ted Johnson-South (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2002)

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Warfare in the ninth century

Some of the articles below can also be found on the De re militari website, http://www.deremilitari.org

For the political events of the reigns of Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald, see The Frankish empire after Charlemagne section above.

Timothy Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 35 (1985), 75-94 : this article and the following one are important reading for key political developments in the Frankish empire

Timothy Reuter, ‘The end of Carolingian military expansion’, in Charlemagne's heir : new perspectives on the reign of Louis the Pious (814-840), ed. by Peter Godman and Roger Collins (Oxford: OUP, 1990) and repd in Timothy Reuter, Medieval polities and modern mentalities (Cambridge: CUP, 2006), 251-67

Simon Coupland, ‘Carolingian arms and armour’, Viator., 21 (1990), 29-50 Available online

Simon Coupland, ‘The Carolingian army and the struggle against the Vikings’, Viator., 35 (2004), 49-70 Available online

Guy Halsall, Warfare and society in the barbarian West, 450-900 (London: Routledge, 2003)

Guy Halsall, review of B.S. Bachrach, Early Carolingian warfare : prelude to empire (Philadelphia, 2001), in Peritia., 16 (2002), 483-8

N.P. Brooks, review of G. Halsall, Warfare and society in the barbarian West, 450-900 (London, 2003), in English historical review., 120 (2005), 424-6

Timothy Reuter, ‘The recruitment of armies in the early middle ages: what can we know? ’, in Military Aspects of Scandinavian Society in a European Perspective AD1-1360 (1997), available at http://www.deremilitari.org

Timothy Reuter, ‘Carolingian and Ottonian warfare’, in Medieval warfare : a history, ed. by Maurice Keen (Oxford: OUP, 1999)

Matthew Innes, State and society in the early Middle Ages : the middle Rhine valley, 400-1000 (Cambridge: CUP, 2000)

F.L. Ganshof, ‘Charlemagne’s army’, in his Frankish institutions under Charlemagne (Providence: Brown UP, 1968)

A.J. Kosto, ‘Hostages in the Carolingian world 714-840’, Early medieval Europe, 11 (2002), 123-47

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Ethos of warfare

Karl Leyser, ‘Early medieval canon law and the beginnings of knighthood’, in Karl Leyser, Communications and power in medieval Europe : the Carolingian and Ottonian centuries (London: Hambledon, 1994)

Violence and society in the early medieval West, ed. by Guy Halsall (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998), articles by Nelson and Fouracre

Rachel Stone, Morality and masculinity in the Carolingian empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), ch. 3 ‘Warfare’

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Fortifications and bridges

Carroll Gillmor, ‘War on the rivers’, Viator., 19 (1988), 79-109 Available online

Carroll Gillmor, ‘The logistics of fortified bridge-building’, Anglo-Norman Studies, 11: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1988 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1989), pp. 87-106

Simon Coupland, ‘The fortified bridges of Charles the Bald’, Journal of Medieval History., 17 (1991), 1-12

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Carolingian Marches (border areas; fines imperii )

J.M.H. Smith, ‘Fines imperii: the marches’ in NCMH ii, 169-89

C.J. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy (London: Macmillan, 1981)

K.F. Drew, ‘The Carolingian Military Frontier in Italy’, Traditio : studies in ancient and medieval history, thought and religion, 20 (1964), 437-47 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J.M.H. Smith, Province and empire : Brittany and the Carolingians (Cambridge: CUP, 1992)

Pierre Bonnassie, From slavery to feudalism in south western Europe (Cambridge: CUP, 1991): about Catalonia

Jonathan Jarrett, Rulers and Ruled in Frontier Catalonia, 880-1010 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2010

Roger Collins, The Basques (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986)

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Viking allies and mercenaries

J.L. Nelson, ‘England and the Continent in the ninth century: II the Vikings and Others’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th ser., 13 (2003), 1-28

Simon Coupland and Janet Nelson, ‘The Vikings on the Continent’, History today., 38, December 1988, 12-19

Simon Coupland, ‘From poachers to gamekeepers: Scandinavian warlords and Carolingian kings’, Early medieval Europe., 7 (1998), 85-114

Simon Coupland, ‘The Frankish tribute payments to the Vikings and their consequences’, Francia. 26/1 (1999), 1-37

Niels Lund, ‘Allies of God or man? ’, Viator., 20 (1989), 45-59 Available online

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Vikings – the debates

The Oxford illustrated history of the Vikings, ed. by Peter Sawyer (Oxford: OUP, 1997) : a good starting point

Else Roesdahl, The Vikings, 2nd edn (London: Penguin, 1998)

Vikings : life and legend, ed. Gareth Williams, Peter Pentz and Matthias Wemhoff (London: British Museum, 2014)

Barbara Crawford, ‘The Vikings’ in From the Vikings to the Normans, ed. by Wendy Davies (Oxford: OUP, 2003)

The Cambridge history of Scandinavia, I: Prehistory to 1520, ed. by Knut Helle (Cambridge: CUP, 2003), chs 5-8

Judith Jesch, Women in the Viking age (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1991)

Peter Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings, 2nd edn (London: Edward Arnold, 1971; 1st edn 1961). Sawyer’s thesis, stated at its most extreme form in the first edition, is that the numbers of Viking raiders were very small.

N.P. Brooks, ‘England in the ninth century: the crucible of defeat’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 29 (1979), 1-20, repd. in Nicholas Brooks, Communities and warfare, 700-1400 (London: Hambledon, 2000) – rebuttal of Sawyer’s case for low numbers, based on a much more discerning analysis of the annalistic sources. Brooks' views on the impact of the Vikings on the Anglo-Saxon church is too extreme, however. 

J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, ‘The Vikings in Francia’, in J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, Early medieval history (Oxford: Blackwell, 1975), pp. 217-236

Simon Coupland, ‘The Vikings on the Continent in myth and history’, History., 88 (2003), 186-203

Alfred Smyth, Scandinavian kings in the British Isles, 850-880 (Oxford: OUP, 1977)

Alfred Smyth, ‘The effect of Scandinavian raiders on the English and Irish churches: a preliminary reassessment’, in Britain and Ireland, 900-1300 : insular responses to medieval European change, ed. by Brendan Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 1999)

Roberta Frank, ‘Viking atrocity and Skaldic verse: the rite of the Blood Eagle’, English historical review., 99 (1984), 332-43

Roberta Frank, ‘The Blood Eagle again’, Saga-book of the Viking Club., 22 (1988), 80-3 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by Dawn Hadley and Julian Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), esp. articles by Hadley, Trafford (too extreme), Innes and Townend

Dawn Hadley, ‘In search of the vikings: the problems and the possibilities of interdisciplinary approaches’ in Vikings and the Danelaw: Select Papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, ed. J. Graham-Campbell, R. Hall, J. Jesch and D.N. Parsons (Oxford: Oxbow, 2001)

Felice Lifshitz, ‘The migration of Neustrian relics in the Viking age: the myth of voluntary exodus, the reality of coercion and theft’, Early medieval Europe. 4 (1995), 175-92

Paul Cavill, ‘Analogy and genre in the legend of St Edmund’, Nottingham medieval studies., 47 (2003), 21-45 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

The long twelfth-century view of the Anglo-Saxon past, ed. by Martin Brett and David A. Woodman (Farnham: Ashgate, 2015), chs. 2, 5

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The writing of history

Matthew Innes and Rosamond McKitterick, ‘The writing of history’, in Carolingian culture : emulation and innovation, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1994)

Rosamond McKitterick, History and memory in the Carolingian world (Cambridge, CUP: 2004)

Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Two lives of Charlemagne transl. by Lewis Thorpe (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969)

Charlemagne and Louis the Pious : the lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, transl. by Thomas Noble (University Park, PA: Penn State UP, 2009)

P.E. Dutton, ed. Carolingian Civilization: a Reader, 2nd edn (Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2004) – among much else contains excerpts from Annals of St Vaast, Annals of Xanten, Abbo’s Siege of Paris and the Ludwigslied

Alcuin, The bishops, kings, and saints of York, ed. and transl. by Peter Godman (Oxford: OUP, 1982)

Carolingian chronicles : Royal Frankish annals and Nithard's Histories. tr. B.W. Scholz (Ann Arbor, MI, 1970)

François-Louis Ganshof, The Carolingians and the Frankish monarchy : studies in Carolingian history [by] F.L. Ganshof (London: Longman, 1971), ch. 1 on Einhard

Matthew Kempshall, ‘Some Ciceronian models for Einhard’s Life of Charlemagne’, Viator. 26 (1995), 11-38 Available online

David Ganz, 'The Astronomer's Life of Louis the Pious', in Rome and religion in the medieval world : studies in honor of Thomas F.X. Noble, ed. by Valerie Garver and Owen M. Phelan (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014)

The annals of St-Bertin, transl. by J.L. Nelson (Manchester: MUP, 1991)

J.L. Nelson, Rulers and ruling families in early medieval Europe : Alfred, Charles the Bald, and others (Aldershot: Variorum, 1999), chs 9, 16-17

The annals of Fulda, transl. by Timothy Reuter (Manchester: MUP, 1992)

Paul Fouracre, ‘The context of the OHG Ludwigslied ’, Medium aevum., 54, 1985, 87-103

Anton Scharer, ‘The writing of history at King Alfred’s court’, Early medieval Europe., 5 (1996), 185-206 (see also section on Alfred towards the end of this list)

Barbara Yorke, ‘The representation of early West Saxon history in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle’ and Anton Scharer, ‘The Anglo-Saxon chronicle and continental annal-writing’, in Reading the Anglo-Saxon chronicle : language, literature, history, ed. A. Jorgensen (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), respectively 141-60 and 161-66

James Campbell, ‘Asser’s Life of Alfred’, in James Campbell, The Anglo-Saxon state (London: Hambledon, 2000)

Matthew Innes, ‘Memory, orality and literacy in an early medieval society’, Past & present., 158 (1998), 3-36

J. Nelson, ‘Public histories and private histories in the work of Nithard’, in Nelson, Politics and Ritual  (London : Hambledon, 1986)

Stuart Airlie, ‘“Sad stories of the death of kings”: narrative patterns and structures of authority in Regino of Prüm’s Chronicle ’, in Narrative and history in the early medieval West, ed. by Elizabeth Tyler and Ross Balzaretti (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), 105-131, repd. in Stuart Airlie, Power and its problems in Carolingian Europe (Aldershot: Variorum, 2012), ch. 12

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Vikings, Towns, Trade and Slavery

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Economy (general)

Jean-Pierre Devroey, ‘The economy’, in The early Middle Ages, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Oxford: OUP, 2001) provides a useful quick introduction

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011): chs 5 and 7 provide a slightly longer introduction – good starting point

Adriaan Verhulst, The Carolingian economy (Cambridge: CUP, 2002) – more detail

Richard Hodges and David Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne & the origins of Europe : archaeology and the Pirenne thesis (London: Duckworth, 1983). This book is a rethink of a great but outdated classic, Henri Pirenne, Mohammed and Charlemagne (London: Allen and Unwin, 1939), originally written in 1920s

Peter Spufford, Money and its Use in Medieval europe (Cambridge: CUP, 1988)

P. Grierson and M. Blackburn, Medieval European Coinage, I: The Early Middle Ages (5th-10th Centuries) (Cambridge: CUP, 1986)

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Towns and trade

Peter Sawyer, ‘Kings and merchants’ in Early medieval kingship, ed. by P.H. Sawyer and Ian Wood (Leeds: School of History, University of Leeds, 1977)

Helen Clark and Bjorn Ambrosiani, Towns in the Viking Age, rev. edn (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1991)

Adriaan Verhulst, The rise of cities in north-west Europe (Cambridge: CUP, 1999), esp. ch. 3; deals with Flanders

Simon Coupland, ‘Trading places: Quentovic and Dorestad reassessed’, Early medieval Europe., 11 (2002), 209-32

Richard Hodges and Brian Hobley, The Rebirth of Towns (London: CBA, 1988)

H.B. Clarke, ‘Proto-towns and towns in Ireland and Britain in the ninth and tenth centuries’ in Ireland and Scandinavia in the early Viking age, ed. by H.B. Clarke, M. Ní Mhaonaigh and R. Ó Floinn (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1998)

Patrick Wallace, ‘Ireland’s Viking towns’, in The Vikings in Ireland, ed. by A.C. Larsen (Roskilde: Viking Ship Museum, 2001)

R.A. Hall, ‘The five boroughs’, Anglo-Saxon England., 18 (1989), 149-206

The Cambridge urban history of Britain I, ed. by David Palliser (Cambridge: CUP, 2000)

Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by D. Hadley and J. Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000): articles by Hall, Stocker

See items on York under Anglo-Saxons: Northumbria above

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Slavery

Alice Rio, Slavery after Rome, 500-1100 (Oxford: OUP, 2017), esp. ch 1 ('Slave raiding and slave trading'); note also chs 4-5

Michael McCormick, The origins of the European economy : communications and commerce, c.700-c.900 (Cambridge: CUP, 2001), esp. pp. 733-77 on slave-trading

Michael McCormick, ‘New Light on the “Dark Ages”: How the Slave Trade Fuelled the Carolingian Economy’, Past & present., 177 (2002), 17-54

David Pelteret, Slavery in early mediaeval England : from the reign of Alfred until the twelfth century (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1995)

David Pelteret, ‘The image of the slave in some Anglo-Saxon and Norse sources’, Slavery & Abolition : a journal of slave and post-slave studies., 23 (2002), 75-90

R.M. Karras, Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia (New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1988)

R.M. Karras, ‘Concubinage and slavery in the Viking age’, Scandinavian studies., 60 (1990), 141-62

Poul Holm, ‘The slave trade of Dublin, ninth to twelfth centuries’, Peritia., 5 (1986), 317-45

David Pelteret, ‘Slavery in the Danelaw’, in R. Samson, Social approaches to Viking studies (Glasgow: Cruithne, 1991)

H-W. Goetz, ‘Serfdom and the Beginnings of a “seigneurial system” in the Carolingian period’, Early medieval Europe. 2 (1993), 29-51

Adriaan Verhulst, ‘The decline of slavery’, Past & present., 133 (1991), 195-203

J. Henning, ‘Slavery or freedom? The causes of early medieval Europe’s economic advancement’, Early medieval Europe., 12 (2003), 269-77

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Alfred the Great

Patrick Wormald, 'Alfred', in Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, 61 vols (Oxford: OUP, 2004) : good quick introduction to Alfred

Richard Abels, Alfred the Great : war, kingship, and culture in Anglo-Saxon England, (Harlow: Longman, 1998) - another good starting point

Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge, Alfred the Great : Asser's Life of Alfred and other contemporary sources (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983)

Alfred the Great : papers from the eleventh-centenary conferences, ed. by Timothy Reuter (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003) – note articles by Brooks, Keynes and Stafford on politics, by Abels on campaigns against Vikings, by Nelson and Scharer on Alfred’s Carolingian contemporaries and by Yorke on Alfred’s reputation after his death

Barbara Yorke, Wessex in the early Middle Ages (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1995)

M.A.S. Blackburn and D.N. Dumville, ed. Kings, currency, and alliances : history and coinage of southern England in the ninth century (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998), esp. articles by Keynes, Charles-Edwards and Blackburn)

J. Nelson, ‘“A king across the sea”. Alfred in continental perspective’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 36 (1986), 47-66

J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Charles the Bald and Alfred’ in J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, Early Germanic Kingship (Oxford: Clarendon, 1971)

David Pratt, The political thought of King Alfred the Great (Cambridge: CUP, 2007)

Janet Nelson, ‘The political ideas of Alfred of Wessex’ in Kings and kingship in medieval Europe, ed. by Anne Duggan (London: KCL, CLAMS, 1993), repd. in Nelson, Rulers and ruling families in early medieval Europe : Alfred, Charles the Bald, and others (Ashgate, 1999)

Janet Nelson, ‘Reconstructing a royal family’, in People and places in northern Europe 500-1600 : essays in honour of Peter Hayes Sawyer, ed. by Ian Wood and Niels Lund (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1991), repd. in Nelson, Rulers and ruling families in early medieval Europe : Alfred, Charles the Bald, and others (Ashgate, 1999)

Janet Nelson, Rulers and ruling families in early medieval Europe : Alfred, Charles the Bald, and others (Ashgate: Variorum, 1999)

Anton Scharer, ‘The writing of history at King Alfred’s court’, Early medieval Europe., 5 (1996), 185-206

James Campbell, ‘Asser’s Life of Alfred’, in James Campbell, The Anglo-Saxon state (London: Hambledon, 2000)

Paul Kershaw, ‘Illness, power and prayer in Asser’s Life of King Alfred ’, Early medieval Europe., 10 (2001), 201-24

David Pratt, ‘The illnesses of King Alfred the Great’, Anglo-Saxon England., 30 (2001)

Simon Keynes, ‘The cult of King Alfred the Great’, Anglo-Saxon England., 28 (1999), 225-356 (about Alfred’s posthumous reputation)

Simon Keynes, ‘A tale of two kings: Alfred the Great and Æthelred the Unready’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 36 (1986), 195-217

M.J. Swanton, ‘King Alfred’s ships: text and context’, Anglo-Saxon England., 28 (1999), 1-22

Paul Kershaw, ‘The Alfred-Guthrum treaty’, in Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by D. Hadley and J. Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000)

David Dumville, Wessex and England from Alfred to Edgar : six essays on political, cultural, and ecclesiastical revival (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1992)

NB: Alfred Smyth, King Alfred the Great (Oxford: OUP, 1995) should only be handled with extreme caution: if you do look at it try also to read the following review articles:

Janet Nelson, ‘Waiting for Alfred’, Early medieval Europe., 7 (1998)

S. Keynes, ‘On the authenticity of Asser’s Life of King Alfred ’, Journal of ecclesiastical history. 47 (1996)

Items by Yorke and Scharer in The Writing of History above

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The Late Ninth and Early Tenth Centuries: New Political Directions

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Francia at the end of the ninth century

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011), pp. 419-35

Simon MacLean, ‘The Carolingian response to the revolt of Boso, 879-887’, Early medieval Europe., 10 (2001), 21-48

Simon MacLean, Kingship and politics in the late ninth century : Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2003)  

Simon MacLean, ‘Queenship, nunneries and royal widowhood in Carolingian Europe’, Past & present., 178 (2003), 3-38

History and politics in late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe : the chronicle of Regino of Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg, transl. by Simon MacLean (Manchester: MUP, 2009)

Stuart Airlie, ‘The Nearly men: Boso of Vienne and Arnulf of Bavaria’, in Nobles and nobility in medieval Europe : concepts, origins, transformations, ed. Anne Duggan (London: KCL CLAMS, 2000); repd in Stuart Airlie, Power and its problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), ch. 11

Stuart Airlie, ‘“Sad stories of the death of kings”: narrative patterns and structures of authority in Regino of Prüm’s Chronicle ’, in Narrative and history in the early medieval West, ed. by Elizabeth Tyler and Ross Balzaretti (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), 105-131, repd. in Stuart Airlie, Power and its problems in Carolingian Europe (Aldershot: Variorum, 2012), ch. 12

Paul Fouracre, ‘The context of the OHG Ludwigslied ’, Medium aevum , 54 (1985), 87-103

The annals of Fulda, transl. by Timothy Reuter (Manchester: MUP, 1992)

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the early Middle Ages c.800-1056 (Harlow: Longman, 1991)

Timothy Reuter, ‘Sex, lies and oath-helpers: the trial of Queen Uota’, in Timothy Reuter, Medieval polities and modern mentalities (Cambridge: CUP, 2006)

C.J. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy (London: Macmillan, 1981)

Chapters by Nelson and Fried in NCMH ii

Charles West, Reframing the feudal revolution : political and social transformation between Marne and Moselle, c. 800 to c. 1100 (Cambridge: CUP, 2013)

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Tenth-century England

Simon Keynes, ‘England, c.900-1016’ in NCMH, iii

Dawn Hadley, The Vikings in England : settlement, society and culture (Manchester: MUP, 2006)

Pauline Stafford, Unification and conquest : a political and social history of England in the tenth and eleventh centuries (London: Arnold, 1989)

George Molyneaux, The Formation of the English Kingdom in the Tenth Century (Oxford: OUP, 2015)

F.T. Wainwright, ‘Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians’ in The Anglo-Saxons : studies in some aspects of their history and culture presented to Bruce Dickins., ed. by Peter Clemoes (London: Bowes and Bowes, 1959)

Pauline Stafford, ‘The Annals of Æthelflaed’, in Myth, rulership, church and charters : essays in honour of Nicholas Brooks, ed. by Julia Barrow and Andrew Wareham (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008)

Edward the Elder, 899-924, ed. by N.J. Higham and D.H. Hill (London: Routledge, 2001), esp. articles by Abrams, Keynes, Yorke; see also articles by Bailey, Ward, Griffiths

Simon MacLean, ‘Making a difference in tenth-century politics’, in Frankland : the Franks and the world of the early Middle Ages : essays in honour of Dame Jinty Nelson, ed. by Paul Fouracre and David Ganz (Manchester: MUP, 2008)

Sarah Foot, Æthelstan : the first king of England (New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2011)

England and the continent in the tenth century : studies in honour of Wilhelm Levison (1876-1947), ed. by David Rollason, Conrad Leyser and Hannah Williams (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010)

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Tenth-century West Francia

articles by J. Dunbabin and D. Bates in NCMH, iii

Régine Le Jan, ‘Continuity and change in the tenth-century nobility’ in Nobles and nobility in medieval Europe : concepts, origins, transformations, ed. by Anne Duggan (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2000), pp. 53-68

David Bates, Normandy before 1066 (London: Longman, 1982)

Jean Dunbabin, France in the Making, 2nd edn (Oxford: OUP, 2000)

Geoffrey Koziol, The Politics of Memory and Identity in Carolingian Royal Diplomas: the West Frankish Kingdom (840-987) (Turnhout: Brepols, 2012)

Charles West, Reframing the Feudal Revolution: Political and Social Transformation between Marne and Moselle, c.800-c.1100 (Cambridge: CUP, 2013), chs 4-5  

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Tenth-century East Francia

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the early Middle Ages c.800-1056 (Harlow: Longman, 1991)

Timothy Reuter, Medieval polities and modern mentalities (Cambridge: CUP, 2006), chs 15-17

articles by Müller-Mertens, Althoff and Parisse in NCMH iii

Simon MacLean, Ottonian Queenship (Oxford: OUP, 2017), chs 1-2

Heinrich Fichtenau, Living in the tenth century : mentalities and social orders, transl. by Patrick Geary (Chicage: Chicago UP, 1991)

Karl Leyser, Communications and Power: the Carolingian and Ottonian Centuries (London: Hambledon, 1994), chs 5, 12

Timothy Reuter, ‘The medieval nobility in twentieth-century historiography’, in Companion to Historiography, ed. by M. Bentley (London: Routledge, 1997)

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Reference works

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Encyclopaedias

Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. by Joseph Strayer, 10 vols (New York: Scribner, 1982-89)

Lexikon des Mittelalters., 9 vols (Munich: Artemis, 1977-90) 

The Blackwell encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by Michael Lapidge and others (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998) – the first point of call for anything Anglo-Saxon.

Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000, ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, 61 vols (Oxford: OUP, 2004); also available in a fuller electronic version: with the electronic version, in addition to individuals (e.g. Offa, Alfred, Halfdan, Æthelflaed) you can click on the Themes tag and look up whole groups of people, e.g. ‘Rulers of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms’; ‘Viking and Scandinavian kings and leaders’.

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Atlases

Atlas of Medieval Europe, ed. by Angus MacKay and David Ditchburn, 2nd edn (London: Routledge, 2007)

David Hill, An atlas of Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford: Blackwell, 1981)

Cultural atlas of the Viking world, ed. by James Graham-Campbell (New York: Facts on File, 1994)

This list was last updated on 18/09/2017