Leeds University Library

IDEA5366M
Module Reading List

Distributive Justice and Scarce Medical Resources (Online), 2017/18, Semester 2
Dr Joe Saunders
J.Saunders@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue
 

Unit 6.1: Introduction

Required Reading

Parfit, D. (1997). Equality and Priority. Ratio 10(3): 202-221.

Frankfurt, H. (1987). Equality as a Moral Ideal. Ethics 98: 21-43.

Further Reading

Williams, Bernard, 1973, “The Idea of Equality,” in: B. Williams, Problems of the self : philosophical papers, 1956-1972 , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 230-249, reprinted in L. Pojman & R. Westmoreland (eds.), Equality : selected readings , Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997, pp. 91-102.

Daniels, Norman, 1981, “Health care needs and distributive justice”, Philosophy & public affairs. , 10(2): 146–79, SECTIONS III and IV (pp. 149-160) ONLY.

Equality

Temkin, L. (2003) Equality, Priority or What? Economics and philosophy. 19: 61-87. 

Gosepath, Stefan, "Equality", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),

Parfit, Derek, 1997, “Equality and Priority,” Ratio. , 10: 202-221.

Dworkin, Ronald, 1981, “What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare,” Philosophy & public affairs. 10, pp. 185-246, reprinted in: R. Dworkin, Sovereign virtue : the theory and practice of equality , Cambridge: Harvard University Press 2000, pp.11-64

Dworkin, Ronald, 1981, “What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources,” Philosophy & public affairs. 10, pp. 283-345, reprinted in: R. Dworkin, Sovereign virtue : the theory and practice of equality , Cambridge: Harvard University Press 2000, pp.65-119.

Anderson, Elizabeth, 1999, “What Is the Point of Equality? ” Ethics. , 109: 287-337.

Justice and Health

Daniel Wikler and Sarah Marchand, ‘Macro-allocation: dividing up the health care budget’ in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 306-315.

Daniels, Norman, "Justice and Access to Health Care", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

Sreenivasan, Gopal, "Justice, Inequality, and Health", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

Anand, S., Peter, F., and Sen, A. (eds.) (2004). Public health, ethics and equity . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Buchanan, B., (2009), Justice and health care : selected essays . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Daniels, N. (2008). Just Health: Meeting Health Needs Fairly . New York: Cambridge University Press.

Daniels, N. (1985). Just Health Care . New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jennifer Jackson. (2006). Ethics in medicine . Cambridge: Polity. Chapter 9, 'Distributive Justice in Health Care'.

S Gorovitz et al (eds.), Moral problems in medicine Second Edition,  (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall,1983), Ch. IV, esp. Right to Health Care, Medical Resources as Commodities and Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources.

John Arras and Robert Hunt (eds.), Ethical issues in modern medicine , Second Edition. (Palo Alto, California: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1983) esp. part VI, Social Justice and Health Policy.

Tom L Beauchamp and Leroy Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics , 3rd edition (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1994), Part VI.

Theories of Justice

Will Kymlicka, Contemporary Political Philosophy, An Introduction , Second Edition. Will Kymlicka, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Jonathan Wolff, An introduction to political philosophy , (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice , (New York: Basic Books, 1984). esp. Ch.3 (pp.64-94).

Thomas Nagel, Equality and partiality , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Lamont, Julian and Favor, Christi, "Distributive Justice", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

Top of page

Unit 6.2: Justice and Health

Required Reading

Buchanan, A. (1984). The right to a decent minimum of health care. Philosophy and Public Affairs 13(1): 55-78.

Daniels, N. (1981). Health care needs and distributive justice. Philosophy and Public Affairs 10(2): 146-179.
SECTIONS III and IV (pp. 149-160) ONLY.

Further Reading

Fried, C. (1976). Equality and rights in medical care. Hastings Center Report 6(1): 29-34.

Sreenivasan, G. (2009). Justice, Inequality, and Health. In Zalta, E.N. (ed.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Wolff, J. (2012). The Demands of the Human Right to Health Aristotelian Society. Supplementary volume 86: 217-237.

International human rights documents:

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Available online
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1976). Available online
  • Substantive Issues Arising in the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 14: The right to the highest available standard of health care. (2000) Available online
In addition, you might want to look at the following texts:

Gopal Sreenivasan, 'A Human Right to Health? Some Inconclusive Scepticism', Aristotelian Society. Supplementary volume. . (2012) Vol. 86, 239-265.

Norman Daniels, ‘Is there a right to health care and, if so, what does it encompass? ’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 316-325.

Journal of medicine and philosophy. Vol 4. Issue 2. (1979). Special Issue on the Right to Health Care.

C Nedwick, Who should we treat? : rights, rationing, and resources in the NHS Second Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Top of page

Unit 6.3: Rawls and Welfare Liberalism

Required Reading

Kymlicka, W. (2002). Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction , 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pages 55-70 ONLY .
Available as an Online Course Reading .

Rawls, J. (1971).  A Theory of Justice . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
See especially Section 1, pp. 3-4 and Section 2, p. 7. Further, see sections 1-4, 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24-26, 29 and 82.

Further Reading

VIDEO - Michael Sandel, Justice , Episode 7 part 2 , and Episode 8 .

Wenar, L. (2013). John Rawls. In Zalta, E.N. (ed.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .

Daniels, N. (1981). Health care needs and distributive justice.  Philosophy and Public Affairs 10(2): 146-179.
SECTIONS V, VII, and VIII (pp. 160-179) ONLY.

Feminist Critique of Rawls / Disability and Justice

Nussbaum, M. (2007).  Frontiers of justice: disability, nationality, species membership . London: Belknap.

Okin, S.M. (2008).  Justice, gender, and the family . New York: Basic Books.

Wasserman, D. et al. (2013). Disability and Justice. In Zalta, E.N. (ed.)  The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .

In addition, you might want to look at the following texts:

Thomas Pogge, John Rawls : his life and theory of justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), Chs. 4 & 6.

John Rawls, ‘Justice as Fairness’, Philosophical review. , 67.2 (1958), pp.164-194.

K Kukathas and P Pettit , Rawls : a theory of justice and its critics , (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990).

Norman Daniels - Applying Rawls to Health

Daniels, N., 1985, Just Health Care , New York: Cambridge University Press.

Daniels, N., 2008, Just Health: Meeting Health Needs Fairly , New York: Cambridge University Press.

Top of page

Unit 6.4: Nozick and Libertarianism

Required Reading

Kymlicka, W. (2002). Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction , 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pages 103-110 ONLY (pp.96-101, 103-106 in First Edition).
Available as an Online Course Reading .

Robert Nozick, Anarchy, state and utopia (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998 – Reprint), selections pp. 150-1, 160-4, 168-72, 198, 228 .

Further Reading

VIDEO - Michael Sandel, Justice , Episode 3 .

Cohen, G.A. (1995). Self-Ownership, Freedom and Equality . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nozick, R. (1974). Anarchy, State and Utopia . Oxford: Blackwell., Preface p. ix, 'Why side constraints? ', pp. 30-33, 'The Entitlement Theory', pp. 149-153, 'Redistribution and property rights' starting p. 167, and all subsequent sections as far as the end of 'The original position and end-result principles' on p. 204, 'Natural assets and arbitrariness' starting p. 213 and all subsequent sections to the end of the chapter on p. 231.

In addition, you might want to look at the following texts:

Adam Swift,  Political philosophy : a beginners' guide for students and politicians (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001), pp. 30-47 on Nozick and on justice as desert.

Jonathan Wolff,  Robert Nozick : property, justice and the minimal state , (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991), Ch. 1, section on self-ownership (pp.7-9), Ch. 2 (in its entirety), Ch. 4, pp. 73-100.

Top of page

Unit 6.5: QALYS and Needs

Required Reading

Lockwood, M. (1988). Quality of life and resource allocation.Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series 23: 33-55.

Broome, J. (1988). Good, fairness and QALYs.Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series. 23: 57-73.

Further Reading

Harris, J. (1987). QALYfying the Value of Life. Journal of Medical Ethics. 13: 117-123.

In addition, you might want to look at the following texts:

Paul T. Menzel, ‘Rescuing Lives: Can’t We Count? ’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 43, pp.407-409.

Alan Williams, ‘Economics of coronary artery bypass grafting’, British medical journal. . v.291(6497), (1985), pp.736-737. Available here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1416676/

David Braybrooke, Meeting needs , (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987).

David Wiggins, “The Claims of Need”, in his Needs, Values, Truth , (Oxford: Blackwell: 1987).

Garrett Thompson, Needs , (London: Routledge 1987).

Chris Megone, “What is Need? ”, in Anne Corden, Eileen Robertson and Keith Tolley (eds.) Meeting needs in an affluent society : a multi-disciplinary perspective , (Aldershot: Avebury, 1992), pp.1230.

Eileen Robertson and Keith Tolley (eds.) Meeting needs in an affluent society : a multi-disciplinary perspective , (Aldershot: Avebury, 1992), esp. Chs. 1, 4, 9, 14.

Chris Megone , “The Quality of Life: Starting from Aristotle”, in S. Baldwin, C. Godfrey, C. Propper (eds.) Quality of life : perspectives and policies (London: Routledge, 1990), pp.2839.

S. Baldwin, C. Godfrey, C. Propper (eds.) Quality of life : perspectives and policies (London: Routledge, 1990)

Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen (eds.) The quality of life , (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).

Philosophy and medical welfare eds. J M Bell and Susan Mendus, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), (esp. essays by Lockwood, Harris and Broome).

John Brome, “Selecting People Randomly”, Ethics. . 95 (1984), pp.38-55.

John Harris, “The Survival Lottery”, in Peter Singer (ed.) Applied ethics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).

Baruch Brody, “Ethical Reflections in International Health Care Expenditure”, in E. Matthews and M Marlowe (eds.), Philosophy and health care , (Ashgate: Avebury, 1992).

M H Cooper, Rationing health care , (London: Croom Helm, 1975).

Chris Horn, “Priority Setting in the NHS”, British medical journal. , v. 307, August (1993).

Rudolf Klein, “Dimensions of Rationing – who should do what? ”, British medical journal. , v. 307, (1993).

John Harris, ‘Micro-allocation: deciding between patients’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 293-305.

Top of page

Unit 6.6: Personal Responsibility

Required Reading

Moss, A.H. and Siegler, M. (1991). Should Alcoholics Compete Equally for Liver Transplantation?. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 265(10).

Ubel, P. (2003). Transplantation in Alcoholics: Separating Prognosis and Responsibility From Social Biases. Liver Transplantation and Surgery 3(3): 343-346.

Further Reading

Arneson, R. J. (2004) Luck Egalitarianism Interpreted and Defended Philosophical topics. 32: 1-20.

Anderson, E. (1999) What Is the Point of Equality? Ethics. 109: 287-337.

Daniels, N., 2009, “Social and Individual Responsibility for Health”, in  Responsibility and distributive justice , C. Knight and Z. Stemplowska (eds.), Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Fleurbaey, M. (1995) Equal Opportunity or Equal Social Outcome? Economics and philosophy. 11: 25-55. 

John Harris, ‘Micro-allocation: deciding between patients’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 293-305.

Ubel, P. A. (2003) Transplantation in Alcoholics: Separating Prognosis and Responsibility from Social Biases. Liver transplantation. 3 (2): 343-346. 

Top of page

Unit 6.7: Ageism

Required Reading

Daniels, N. (1985). Chapter 5: Am I My Parents Keeper?. In Just Health Care. Cambridge University Press.

Shaw, A.B. (1994). In Defence of Ageism. Journal of Medical Ethics 20: 188-194.

Further Reading

Callahan, D. (1995). Setting Limits: Medical Goals in an Ageing Society. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Harris, J. (1985). The Value of Life. Psychology Press. pp. 87-110.

Rivelin, M. (1995). Protecting elderly people: flaws in ageist arguments. British Medical Journal 310(6988): 1179-82.

Veatch, R.M. (2006). How age should matter: justice as the basis for limiting care to the elderly. In Winslow GR, Walters JW, (eds.) Facing limits : ethics and health care for the elderly. Boulder: Westview, 211-29. Not held at Leeds University Library

In addition, you might want to look at the following texts:

Norman Daniels, ‘A Lifespan Approach to Health Care’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics: an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 49, pp. 465-474.

The journal of law, medicine and ethics. . (Spring 2012). Symposium: The Graying of America. Particularly papers by:

  • Daniel Callahan: Must we ration healthcare for the elderly?
  • David Gruenewald: Can health care rationing ever be rational?
  • Peggye Dilworth-Anderson et al: Social justice, health disparities, and culture in the care of the elderly.

Hugh Lazenby, ‘Is Age Special? Justice, Complete Lives, and the Prudential Lifespan Account’, Journal of applied philosophy. . 28.4 (2011).

Leonard Fleck, ‘Just Caring: In Defense of Limited Age-based Healthcare Rationing’, Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics. . 19 (2010): 27-37.

Dennis McKerlie, ‘Equality between age-groups’, Philosophy & public affairs. 21.3 (1992)

Dennis McKerlie, ‘Justice Between the Young and the Old’, Philosophy & public affairs. . 30.2 (2001)

Norman Daniels, Am I my parents' keeper? : an essay on justice between the young and the old (OUP, 1988).

Norman Daniels, ‘Justice between adjacent generations: Further thoughts’ The journal of political philosophy. . 16. 4 (2008).

John Harris, ‘The Value of Life’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 46, pp.428-436.

J Evans, ‘Age and Equality’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. . , Volume 530 (1988), pp.118-124.

N.G. Levensky, ‘Age as a criterion for rationing health care’. New England journal of medicine. . 332 (1990), pp.1813-5.

M. McKee, E. Mossialos and A. Dixon, ‘Paying for the NHS: are we asking the right question? ’ Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 95 (2002), pp.59-60.

R Klein, ‘Warning signals from Oregon’, British medical journal. . 304 (1992).

J Dixon and HG Welch, ‘Priority setting: lessons from Oregon’, Lancet. ., Volume 337, Issue 8746, (1991), pp.891 – 894.

J M Bell and Susan Mendus (eds.), Philosophy and medical welfare , (Cambridge University Press, 1988), especially the chapters by Broome and Harris.

Top of page

Unit 6.8: Rationing at the Bedside

Required Reading

Crisp, R. et. al. (1996). Rationing in general practice. British Medical Journal 312: 1528.

Lauridsen, S. (2009). Administrative Gatekeeping. Bioethics 23(5): 311-320.

Further Reading

Hurst, S. and Davies, M. (2007). A Framework for Rationing by Clinical Judgement. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17(3): 247-266.

Rescher, N. (1969). The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy. Ethics 79(3): 173-186.

Veatch, R. (1997). Who should manage care? The case for patients. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7(4): 391-401.

This list was last updated on 01/06/2015