Leeds University Library

HIST3510
Pastors and Prelates: Bishops in England, France and Germany 950-1100 HIST3510

Pastors and Prelates: Bishops in England, France and Germany, 950-1100, 2017/18, Semester 2
Professor Julia Barrow
j.s.barrow@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General reading

Timothy Reuter, 'A Europe of bishops: the age of Wulfstan of York and Burchard of Worms', in Patterns of episcopal power : bishops in tenth and eleventh century western Europe = Strukturen bischöflicher Herrschaftsgewalt im westlichen Europa des 10. und 11. Jahrhunderts / herausgegeben von , ed. by Ludger Körntgen and Dominik Wassenhoven (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011); an adapted version of this article is published as 'Bishops, Rites of Passage, and the symbolism of state in pre-Gregorian Europe', in Sean Gilsdorf, ed. The bishop : power and piety at the first millennium ISBN: 3825874885 (pbk.) (Muenster, 2004). Important on ritual and symbolism.

Michel Parisse, 'The bishop: prince and prelate', in Sean Gilsdorf, ed. The bishop : power and piety at the first millennium (Muenster, 2004). Outlines the main features of bishops' activities in this period, and is a useful introduction to this module.

Heinrich Fichtenau, Living in the tenth century : mentalities and social orders , trans. by Patrick Geary (Chicago: UChicagoP, 1991; originally published Stuttgart, 1984) (recommended for purchase: this book helps you understand how people in this period thought and behaved)

Gerd Tellenbach, The Church in western Europe from the tenth to the early twelfth century , trans. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: CUP, 1993)

Sarah Hamilton, Church and people in the medieval west, 900-1200 (Harlow: Pearson, 2013), esp. ch. 2

Mayke de Jong, 'Religion', in The early Middle Ages , ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Oxford: OUP, 2001), pp. 131-64

Julia Barrow, 'Religion', in The central Middle Ages : Europe 950-1320 , ed. by Daniel Power (Oxford: OUP, 2006), pp. 121-8

Rosamond McKitterick, 'The Church', in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 3, c.900-c.1024 , ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: CUP, 1999)

Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100 , ed. by Thomas F.X. Noble and Julia M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008) 

For background on the preceding period see articles by Reynolds, de Jong, Smith and Noble in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900 , ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Top of page

Sources in translation

The annals of Flodoard of Reims, 919-966 , trans. by Steven Fanning and Bernard S. Bachrach (Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2004)

Richer of Saint-Rémy, Histories , ed. and trans. by Justin Lake, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2011)

Rodulfus Glaber, Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum libri quinque = The five books of the Histories / Rodulfus Glaber ; edited and translated by John France ; Eiusdem auctoris Vita domni Willelmi abbatis = The life of St William , ed. and trans. by John France and Neithard Bulst (Oxford: Clarendon, 1989)

Heresy and authority in medieval Europe : documents in translation , ed. by Edward Peters (London: Scolar, 1980), pp. 66-71 on the Orleans heretics of 1022 

Fulbert of Chartres, The letters and poems of Fulbert of Chartres , ed. and trans. Frederick Behrends (Oxford: Clarendon, 1976)

The Bayeux Tapestry : the complete tapestry in colour , ed. by David Wilson (London: Thames and Hudson, 1985), an important source for the life of Bishop Odo of Bayeux, who probably commissioned it. There are several other facsimiles of the Bayeux Tapestry in the Library, e.g. volumes ed. by C. Gibbs-Smith and by Frank Stenton 

History and politics in late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe : the chronicle of Regino of Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg , trans. by Simon MacLean (Manchester: MUP, 2009)

Medieval monarchy in action : the German Empire from Henry I to Henry IV , trans. by Boyd H. Hill (London: Allen and Unwin, 1972) provides translations of excerpts from Widukind of Corvey and Hrotswitha of Gandersheim and translations of several charters issued by Ottonian and Salian rulers: note e.g. Otto I's foundation of Magdeburg as an archbishopric (no. 12) and Henry II's settlement of the Gandersheim dispute (no. 28)

Widukind of Corvey, Deeds of the Saxons , tr. B.S. Bachrach and D.S. Bachrach (Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2014)

The complete works of Liudprand of Cremona , trans. with introduction by Paolo Squatriti (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2007)

The works of Liudprand of Cremona : Antapodosis : liber de rebus gestis Ottonis : relatio de legatone Constantinopolitina , trans. by F.A. Wright (London: Routledge, 1950)

Liudprand of Cremona's Account of his Legation to Constantinople (968) and Ottonian Imperial Strategy, in English historical review. , Volume 116 Issue 467 June 2001

The letters of Gerbert, with his papal privileges as Sylvester II , trans. by Harriet Lattin (New York and London: Columbia UP and OUP, 1961)

D. S. Bachrach, tr. The histories of a medieval German city, Worms c. 1000-c. 1300 : translation and commentary (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014) [contains Life of Bishop Burchard of Worms]

Ottonian Germany : the chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg , trans. by David Warner (Manchester: MUP, 2001) is a translation of Thietmar of Merseburg's Chronicle

Burchard of Worms, selections from Corrector in Medieval Handbooks of Penance , ed. by John McNeill and Helena Gamer (New York: Columbia UP, 1938), pp. 321-45

Burchard of Worms, Preface to Decretum , in Prefaces to Canon Law books in Latin Christianity : selected translations, 500-1245 , ed. by Robert Somerville and Bruce C. Brasington (New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1998), pp. 99-104

Eleventh-century Germany : the Swabian chronicles : selected sources , trans. by I.S. Robinson (Manchester: MUP, 2008): contains chronicles by Herman of Reichenau, Berthold of Reichenau and Bernold of St Blasien: the two latter contain quite a lot of material about bishops

The papal reform of the eleventh century : lives of Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII , trans. by I.S. Robinson (Manchester: MUP, 2004) contains the Life of Bruno, bishop of Toul (later Pope Leo IX)

The Epistolae vagantes of Pope Gregory VII , ed. and trans. by H.E.J. Cowdrey (Oxford: Clarendon, 1972)

Wulfstan of Winchester, The life of St Æthelwold , ed, and trans. by Michael Lapidge and Michael Winterbottom (Oxford: Clarendon, 1991)

Property and piety in early medieval Winchester : documents relating to the topography of the Anglo-Saxon and Norman city and its minsters , ed. and trans. A.R. Rumble (Oxford: Clarendon, 2002) contains translations of several charters concerning Winchester, including the New Minster refoundation charter, drafted by Æthelwold

The early lives of St Dunstan , ed. and trans. by Michael Winterbottom and Michael Lapidge (Oxford: Clarendon, 2012)

Byrhtferth of Ramsey, The lives of St Oswald and St Ecgwine , ed. and trans. by Michael Lapidge (Oxford: Clarendon, 2009)

Rosalind C. Love, 'The Life of St Wulfsige of Sherborne by Goscelin of Saint-Bertin: a new translation with introduction, appendix and notes', in St. Wulfsige and Sherborne : essays to celebrate the millennium of the Benedictine Abbey, 998-1998 , ed. by Katherine Barker, David A. Hinton and Alan Hunt (Oxford: Oxbow, 2005)

The political writings of Archbishop Wulfstan of York , trans. Andrew Rabin (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015): very clear and useful commentary on the writings of Wulfstan the Homilist, and some additional work not by him, e.g. the Northumbrian Priest's Law of the mid-11th c.

For alternative translations of some of the work of Wulfstan the Homilist (archbishop of York), see English Historical Documents , I: 500-1042 , ed. by Dorothy Whitelock, 2nd edn (London: Eyre Methuen, 1979); Anglo-Saxon prose , ed. by Michael Swanton (London: Dent, 1975) [for Die Institutes of polity, civil and ecclesiastical : Ein Werk Erzbischof Wulfstans von York ; Sermo Lupi ]

English historical documents , I: 500-1042 , ed. by Dorothy Whitelock, 2nd edn (London: Eyre Methuen, 1979) also contains translations of The Northumbrian Priests' Law and some episcopal charters

Anglo-Saxon wills , ed. by Dorothy Whitelock (Cambridge: CUP, 1930): for wills by bishops see nos 1, 4, 18, 35  

Anglo-Saxon conversations : the Colloquies of Aelfric Bata , ed. by Scott Gwara and trans. by D.W. Porter (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997)

William of Malmesbury, Saints' lives : lives of SS. Wulfstan, Dunstan, Patrick, Benignus and Indract , ed. and trans. by Michael Winterbottom and R.M. Thomson (Oxford: Clarendon, 2002)

Rules for clergy living in communities drawn up in the eighth and ninth centuries that carried on being important in the tenth and eleventh centuries: The Chrodegang rules : the rules for the common life of the secular clergy from the eighth and ninth centuries , ed. and trans. Jerome Bertram (Aldershot: Ashgatge, 2005); The Old English version of the enlarged rule of Chrodegang , ed. and trans. Brigitte Langefeld (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2003) 

Top of page

Modern biographies of individual bishops

Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004); also available on-line. Here you can find biographies of several tenth and eleventh-century English bishops (e.g. Dunstan, Oswald, Æthelwold, Wulfstan the Homilist, St Wulfstan, Stigand, Giso and many more)

Bishop Æthelwold: his Career and Influence , ed. by Barbara Yorke (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997)

St Dunstan : his life, times and cult , ed, by Nigel Ramsay, Margaret Sparks and Tim Tatton-Brown (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1992)

St. Oswald of Worcester : life and influence , ed. by Nicholas Brooks and Catherine Cubitt (London: Leicester UP, 1996)

Wulfstan, archbishop of York : the proceedings of the second Alcuin Conference , ed. by Matthew Townend (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004)

St. Wulfsige and Sherborne : essays to celebrate the millennium of the Benedictine Abbey, 998-1998 , ed. by Katherine Barker, David A. Hinton and Alan Hunt (Oxford: Oxbow, 2005)

Emma Mason, St Wulfstan of Worcester c.1008-1095 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990)

St. Wulfstan and his world , ed. by Julia Barrow and Nicholas Brooks (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005)

M.F. Smith, 'Archbishop Stigand and the eye of the needle', in Anglo-Norman Studies XVI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1993 , ed, by Marjorie Chibnall (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1994)

S.D. Keynes, 'Giso, bishop of Wells', in Anglo-Norman Studies XIX: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1996 , ed. by Christopher Harper-Bill (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997)

Margaret Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (Oxford: Clarendon, 1978)

H.E.J. Cowdrey, Lanfranc : scholar, monk, and archbishop (Oxford: OUP, 2003)

David Bates, Bishop Remigius of Lincoln 1067-1092 (Lincoln, 1992) [pamphlet]

W.M. Aird, 'An absent friend: the career of Bishop William of St Calais', in Anglo-Norman Durham, 1093-1193 , ed. David Rollason, Margaret Harvey and Michael Prestwich (Woodbridge, 1994)

Richard Allen, 'Praesul praecipue, atque venerande: the career of Robert, archbishop of Rouen, 989-1037', in Society and culture in medieval Rouen, 911-1300 , ed. by Leonie V. Hicks and Elma Brenner (Turnhout: Boydell, 2013)

Richard Allen, 'A proud and headstrong man: John of Ivry, bishop of Avranches and archbishop of Rouen, 1060-1079', Historical research. , 83 (2010)

Top of page

Bishops and politics

Top of page

Bishops and politics in Germany and Lotharingia

The bishop reformed : studies of episcopal power and culture in the central Middle Ages , ed. by John S. Ott and Anna Trumbore Jones (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), esp. chs. 1, 7-9: note esp. ch. 7: Theo Riches, 'Bishop Gerard I of Cambrai-Arras, the Three Orders, and the Problem of Human Weakness'

Timothy Reuter, 'The "imperial church system" of the Ottonian and Salian rulers: a reconsideration', Journal of ecclesiastical history. , 33 (1982), 347-74, repd. in Timothy Reuter, Medieval polities and modern mentalities , ed. Janet Nelson (Cambridge: CUP, 2006)

John Nightingale, 'Bishop Gerard of Toul (963-94) and attitudes to episcopal office', in Warriors and churchmen in the high Middle Ages : essays presented to Karl Leyser , ed. by Timothy Reuter (London: Hambledon, 1992)

J.R. Webb, 'Representations of the warrior-bishop in eleventh-century Lotharingia', Early medieval Europe. , 24 (2016), 103-30

Benjamin Arnold, 'German bishops and their military retinues in the medieval empire', German history. , 7 (1989), 161-83 (deals with a long timespan from tenth to fifteenth century)

The bishop : power and piety at the first millennium , ed. by Sean Gilsdorf (Munster: LIT Verlag, 2004): article by Sean Gilsdorf, 'Bishops in the middle: mediatory politics and the episcopacy' 

Patterns of episcopal power : bishops in tenth and eleventh century western Europe = Strukturen bischöflicher Herrschaftsgewalt im westlichen Europa des 10. und 11. Jahrhunderts / herausgegeben von , ed. by Ludger Körntgen and Dominik Wassenhoven (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011)

Henry Mayr-Harting, Religion and society in the medieval West, 600-1200 : selected papers (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), chs. 8, 10

Steven Vanderputten and Diane J. Reilly, 'Reconciliation and record keeping: heresy, secular dissent and the exercise of episcopal authority in eleventh-century Cambrai', Journal of Medieval history. , 37 (2011)

Top of page

Bishops and politics in France

John Ott, Bishops, authority, and community in northwestern Europe, c.1050-1150 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015) [about bishops in the province of Rheims]

Constance B. Bouchard, 'The bishop as aristocrat: the case of Hugh of Chalon', in The bishop : power and piety at the first millennium , ed. by Sean Gilsdorf (Munster: LIT Verlag, 2004)

R.I. Moore, The Origins of European Dissent (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985), at 25-30 for the 1022 Orléans heresy

Michael Frassetto, 'The heresy at Orleans in 1022 in the writings of contemporary churchmen', Nottingham medieval studies. , 49 (2005), 1-17

Michael D. Barbezat, 'The fires of hell and the burning of heretics in the accounts of the executions at Orleans in 1022', Journal of Medieval history. , 40 (2014), 399-420

Top of page

Bishops and politics in England

Nicholas Brooks, The early history of the Church of Canterbury : Christ Church from 597 to 1066 (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1984) , chs. 10-11

Frank Barlow, The English Church, 1000-1066 , 2nd edn (London: Longman, 1979), ch. 2

Catherine Cubitt, 'Archbishop Dunstan: a prophet in politics? ', in Myth, rulership, church and charters : essays in honour of Nicholas Brooks , ed. by Julia Barrow and Andrew Wareham (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008)

Catherine Cubitt, 'Individual and collective sinning in tenth- and eleventh-century England: penance, piety and the law', in  Religion und Politik im Mittelalter : Deutschland und England im Vergleich = Religion and politics in the Middle Ages : Germany and England by comparison / Herausgegeben von , ed. by Ludger Körntgen and Dominik Wassenhoven (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013)

See also items dealing with coronation liturgy in section on Liturgy, Worship and Saints' Cults

Top of page

Family and social networks (important for political context)

Gerd Althoff, Family, friends and followers : political and social bonds in early medieval Europe , trans. by Christopher Carroll (Cambridge: CUP, 2004; originally published Darmstadt, 1990)

Gerd Althoff, 'Friendship and political order', in Friendship in medieval Europe , ed. by Julian Haseldine (Stroud: Sutton, 1999)

Constance B. Bouchard, Sword, miter, and cloister : nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980-1198 (Ithaca, NY, 1987)

Constance B. Bouchard, 'The bishop as aristocrat: the case of Hugh of Chalon', in The bishop : power and piety at the first millennium , ed. by Sean Gilsdorf (Munster: LIT Verlag, 2004) 

John Ott, Bishops, authority, and community in northwestern Europe, c.1050-1150 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), ch. 5

Régine Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir dans le monde franc (VIIe-Xe siècle) : essai d'anthropologie sociale (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1995) 

Régine Le Jan, 'Continuity and change in the tenth-century nobility', in Nobles and nobility in medieval Europe : concepts, origins, transformations , ed. by Anne Duggan (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2002): unfortunately not much on bishops, but useful for the family backgrounds many French and German bishops came from

Julia Barrow, The clergy in the medieval world : secular clerics, their families and careers in north-western Europe, c. 800-c. 1200 (Cambridge: CUP, 2015), pp. 53-64 and ch. 4

Top of page

Germany under the Ottonians and Salians

The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 3, c.900-c.1024 , ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: CUP, 1999) , chs. 9-12

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the early Middle Ages c.800-1056 (Harlow: Longman, 1991)

Timothy Reuter, Medieval polities and modern mentalities , ed. by Janet Nelson (Cambridge: CUP, 2006)

Karl Leyser, Medieval Germany and its neighbours 900-1250 (London: Arnold, 1982)

Karl Leyser, Communications and power in medieval Europe : the Carolingian and Ottonian centuries , ed. by Timothy Reuter (London: Hambledon, 1994)

Karl Leyser, Communications and power in medieval Europe : the Gregorian revolution and beyond , ed. by Timothy Reuter (London: Hambledon, 1994), chs. 2-3

The empress Theophano : Byzantium and the West at the turn of the first millennium , ed. by Adalbert Davids (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Gerd Althoff, Otto III , trans. by Phyllis Jestice (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 2003)

Representations of power in medieval Germany 800-1500 , ed.. by Bjorn Weiler and Simon MacLean (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006)

Sarah Hamilton, 'Most illustrious king of kings: evidence for Ottonian kingship in the Otto III prayerbook (Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 30111', Journal of Medieval history. , 27 (2001), 257-88

Gerd Althoff, Family, friends and followers : political and social bonds in early medieval Europe , trans. by Christopher Carroll (Cambridge: CUP, 2004; originally published Darmstadt, 1990)

Gerd Althoff, 'Friendship and political order', in Friendship in medieval Europe , ed. by Julian Haseldine (Stroud: Sutton, 1999)

Top of page

France and the Year 1000: political thought and heresy

The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 3, c.900-c.1024 , ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: CUP, 1999) , chs. 13, 15, 16

Charles West, Reframing the feudal revolution : political and social transformation between Marne and Moselle, c. 800 to c. 1100 (Cambridge: CUP, 2013) [about Lotharingia]

Theo Riches, 'The Carolingian capture of Aachen in 978 and its historiographical footprint', in Frankland : the Franks and the world of the early Middle Ages : essays in honour of Dame Jinty Nelson , ed. by Wendy Davies and Paul Fouracre (Manchester: MUP, 2008), pp. 181-208

Theo Riches, 'The Peace of God, the "weakness" of Robert the Pious and the struggle for the German throne, 1023-5', Early medieval Europe. , 18 (2010), 202-22

Marco Mostert, The political theology of Abbo of Fleury : a study of the ideas about society and law of the tenth-century monastic reform movement (Hilversum: Verloren, 1987)

Dominique Barthélemy, 'The Peace of God and bishops at war in Gallic lands from the late tenth to the early eleventh century', in Anglo-Norman Studies XXXII : Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2009 , ed. by C.P. Lewis (2009), pp. 1-23

The Peace of God : social violence and religious response in France around the year 1000 , ed. by Thomas Head and Richard Landes (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992)

Jean Dunbabin, France in the Making, 843-1180 , 2nd edn (Oxford: OUP, 2000)

David Bates, Normandy before 1066 (Harlow: Longman, 1982)

Top of page

England 950-1100

Pauline Stafford, Unification and conquest : a political and social history of England in the tenth and eleventh centuries (London: Arnold, 1989)

Edward the Elder, 899-924 , ed. by N.J. Higham and D.H. Hill (London: Routledge, 2001)

Sarah Foot, Æthelstan : the first king of England (New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2011)

Edgar, king of the English, 959-975 : new interpretations , ed. by Donald Scragg (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2008)

George Molyneaux, The formation of the English kingdom in the tenth century (Oxford: OUP, 2015)

Levi Roach, Kingship and consent in Anglo-Saxon England, 871-978 : assemblies and the state in the early middle ages , (Cambridge: CUP, 2013)

Ann Williams, Æthelred the Unready : the ill-counselled king (London: Hambledon and London, 2003)

M.K. Lawson, Cnut : the Danes in England in the early eleventh century (Harlow: Longman, 1993)

The reign of Cnut : King of England, Denmark and Norway , ed. by Alexander R. Rumble (London: Leicester UP, 1994)

Edward the Confessor : the man and the legend , ed. by Richard Mortimer (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2009)

Ann Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge, 1995)

A companion to the Anglo-Norman world , ed. by Christopher Harper-Bill and Elisabeth van Houts (Woodbridge, 2002)

Michael Lapidge, 'Some Latin poems as evidence for the reign of Athelstan', in Anglo-Saxon England. , 9 (1980)

Top of page

Church institutions and law (see also items on penance at the end of the section on clergy and pastoral care)

Janet Nelson, 'Law and its applications', in Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100 , ed. by Thomas F.X. Noble and Julia M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008)

Christof Rolker, Canon law and the letters of Ivo of Chartres (Cambridge: CUP, 2010), ch. 2, 'Canon law before Ivo', surveys the canon law compilations available in the eleventh century

Greta Austin, Shaping church law around the year 1000 : the Decretum of Burchard of Worms (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009)

Thomas Noble, 'The Christian church as an institution', in  Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100 , ed. by Thomas F.X. Noble and Julia M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008)

The bishop reformed : studies of episcopal power and culture in the central Middle Ages , ed. by John S. Ott and Anna Trumbore Jones (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), esp. chs. 1, 3, 4

John Eldevik, Episcopal power and ecclesiastical reform in the German Empire : tithes, lordship and community, 950-1150 (Cambridge: CUP, 2012)

John Eldevik, 'Ecclesiastical lordship and the politics of submitting tithes in medieval Germany: the Thuringian tithe dispute in social context', Viator. , 34 (2003), 40-56

John Gilchrist, 'The office of bishop in the Middle Ages', Legal history review = Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis = Revue d'histoire du droit. , 39 (1971), 85-101

Top of page

Clergy and pastoral care

Sarah Hamilton, Church and people in the medieval west, 900-1200 (Harlow: Pearson, 2013), chs. 2, 3, 5

Julia Barrow, The clergy in the medieval world : secular clerics, their families and careers in north-western Europe, c. 800-c. 1200 (Cambridge: CUP, 2015) ch. 10

Julia Barrow, 'Grades of ordination and clerical careers', in Anglo-Norman Studies XXX: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2007 , ed. by C.P. Lewis (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2008) is an earlier version of ch. 2 in the preceding item

Catherine Cubitt, 'Images of St Peter', in The Christian tradition in Anglo-Saxon England : approaches to current scholarship and teaching , ed. by Paul Cavill (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2004)

Carine van Rhijn, Shepherds of the Lord : priests and episcopal statutes in the Carolingian period (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007) is about clergy and pastoral care in the ninth century, but it supplies useful background for the following period

Maureen Miller, Clothing the clergy : virtue and power in medieval Europe, c. 800-1200 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2014): this is about developments in ecclesiastical vestments, some of which have survived to this day. Many very fine pictures but also plenty of historical context 

Susan Wood, The proprietary church in the medieval West (Oxford: OUP, 2006), chs. 14-20 (these are about who owned and ran minor churches c. 900-1200)

Julia Barrow, Who served the altar at Brixworth? : clergy in English minsters c. 800 - c. 1100 (Leicester: Friends of All Saints, Brixworth, 2013) is about later Anglo-Saxon clergy, especially those seeking royal patronage

Medieval purity and piety : essays on medieval clerical celibacy and religious reform , ed. by Michael Frassetto (New York: Garland, 1998): more about monks than about clergy, but important on the formation of ideas about celibacy

John Blair, The church in Anglo-Saxon society (Oxford: OUP, 2005)

Dawn Hadley, The Vikings in England : settlement, society and culture (Manchester: MUP, 2006), ch. 5

Pastoral care in late Anglo-Saxon England , ed. by Francesca Tinti (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2005)

Wendy Davies, Small worlds : the village community in early medieval Brittany (London: Duckworth, 1988)

Helen Gittos, Liturgy, architecture, and sacred places in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 2013)

Helen Foxhall-Forbes, Heaven and earth in Anglo-Saxon England : theology and society in an age of faith (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013)

Victoria Thompson, Dying and death in later Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2004)

Sarah Hamilton, The practice of penance, 900-1050 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2001)

Catherine Cubitt, 'Bishops, priests and penance in late Saxon England', Early medieval Europe. , 14 (2006), 41-63

Catherine Cubitt, 'Individual and collective sinning in tenth- and eleventh-century England: penance, piety and the law', in Religion und Politik im Mittelalter : Deutschland und England im Vergleich = Religion and politics in the Middle Ages : Germany and England by comparison / Herausgegeben von , ed. by Ludger Körntgen and Dominik Wassenhoven (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013)

Ludger Körntgen, 'Canon law and the practice of penance: Burchard of Worms's penitential', Early medieval Europe. , 14 (2006), 103-17 

Top of page

Bishops and Clergy: cathedrals

Julia Barrow, The clergy in the medieval world : secular clerics, their families and careers in north-western Europe, c. 800-c. 1200 (Cambridge: CUP, 2015) ch. 9

Nicholas Brooks, The early history of the Church of Canterbury : Christ Church from 597 to 1066 (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1984)

Canterbury and the Norman Conquest : churches, saints and scholars, 1066-1109 , ed. by Richard Eales and Richard Sharpe (London: Hambledon, 1995)

St Paul's : the cathedral church of London 604-2004 , ed. Derek Keene, Arthur Burns and Andrew Saint (London: Yales UP, 2004)

Francesca Tinti, Sustaining belief : the church of Worcester from c.870 to c.1100 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010)

Henry Mayr-Harting, Church and cosmos in early Ottonian Germany : the view from Cologne (Oxford: OUP, 2007)

Anna Trumbore Jones, ' "The most blessed Hilary held an estate": property, reform and the canonical life in tenth-century Aquitaine', Church history : studies in Christianity and culture. , 85 (2016), 1-39 [The church of Saint-Hilaire in Poitiers was not a cathedral, but had strong connections with the local bishop and its internal organisation was similar to that of cathedrals]

See also items on Orleans in 'Bishops and politics in France' section above

Top of page

Education and cathedral schools

Julia Barrow, The clergy in the medieval world : secular clerics, their families and careers in north-western Europe, c. 800-c. 1200 (Cambridge: CUP, 2015), chs. 6-7

Henry Mayr-Harting, Church and cosmos in early Ottonian Germany : the view from Cologne (Oxford: OUP, 2007)

C. Stephen Jaeger, 'Cathedral schools and humanist learning, 950-1150', Persönlichkeit und Gemeinschaft : Studien zur Staatsauffassung der deutschen Romantik , 61 (1987), 569-616

C. Stephen Jaeger, The envy of angels : cathedral schools and social ideals in medieval Europe, 950-1200 (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994)

J.R. Williams, 'The cathedral school of Rheims in the eleventh century', Speculum. , 29 (1954), 661-77

Cora Lutz, Schoolmasters of the tenth century (Hamden, CT: Archon, 1977)

Michael Lapidge, 'Schools, learning and literature in tenth-century England', in Il secolo di ferro : mito e realtà del secolo X, 19-25 aprile 1990. , 2 vols, Settimane di studio, 38 (Spoleto, 1991), ii, 951-98 ; repd in Michael Lapidge, Anglo-Latin literature, 900-1066 (London: Hambledon, 1993)

Michael Lapidge, Anglo-Latin literature, 900-1066 (London: Hambledon, 1993), chs. 1, 6, 7

John Contreni, The cathedral school of Laon from 850 to 930 : its manuscripts and masters (Munich: Arbeo-Gesellschaft, 1978) [for developments in the immediately preceding period]

Top of page

Liturgy, worship and saints' cults

Sarah Hamilton, Church and people in the medieval west, 900-1200 (Harlow: Pearson, 2013), chs. 5-7

Helen Gittos, Liturgy, architecture, and sacred places in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 2013)

Helen Gittos and Sarah Hamilton, ed. Understanding medieval liturgy : essays in interpretation (Farnham: Ashgate, 2016)

Jesse Billett, 'The Divine Office', in England and the continent in the tenth century : studies in honour of Wilhelm Levison (1876-1947) , ed. by David Rollason, Conrad Leyser and Hannah Williams (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010)

The divine office in the Latin Middle Ages : methodology and source studies, regional developments, hagiography : written in honor of Professor Ruth Steiner , ed. by M.E. Fassler and R.A. Baltzer (Oxford: OUP, 2000)

Sarah Hamilton, The practice of penance, 900-1050 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2001), chs. 4-5

Gisela Muschiol, 'Men, women and liturgical practice ...' in Gender in the early medieval world : East and West, 300-900 , ed. by Leslie Brubaker and Julia Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2004)

Henry Parkes, The making of liturgy in the Ottonian church : books, music and ritual in Mainz, 950-1050 (Cambridge: CUP, 2015)

Janet Nelson, Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London: Hambledon, 1986), chs.16-17 on coronation liturgy and rituals (many of the other items in the book are about coronation liturgy in the ninth century, and provide important background)

Janet Nelson, 'The first use of the second Anglo-Saxon ordo ', in Myth, rulership, church and charters : essays in honour of Nicholas Brooks , ed. by Julia Barrow and Andrew Wareham (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008) : a rethink about the context of one set of coronation prayers

Ernst Kantorowicz, Laudes regiae : a study in liturgical acclamations and mediaeval ruler worship (Berkeley, CA: U California Press, 1958)

Ernst Kantorowicz, 'Ivories and litanies', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. , 5 (1942)

Robert Bartlett, Why can the dead do such great things? : saints and worshippers from the martyrs to the Reformation (Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2013)

Thomas Head, Hagiography and the cult of saints : the diocese of Orléans, 800-1200 (Cambridge: CUP, 1990)

Ian Wood, The missionary life : saints and the evangelisation of Europe, 400-1050 (Harlow: Longman, 2001), chs. 9-11

David Rollason, Saints and relics in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford: Blackwell, 1989)

John Crook, 'King Edgar's reliquary of St Swithun', Anglo-Saxon England. , 21 (1992)

D. Sheerin, 'Dedication of the Old Minster, Winchester, in 980', Revue bénédictine. , 88 (1978)

Michael Lapidge, The cult of St Swithun (Oxford, 2003)

Mary Clayton, The cult of the Virgin Mary in Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge: CUP, 1990)

Top of page

Bishops and their resources

Mary Frances Giandrea, Episcopal culture in late Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2007) , chs. 5-6

Christopher Dyer, 'St Oswald and 10,000 West Midland peasants', in St. Oswald of Worcester : life and influence , ed. by Nicholas Brooks and Catherine Cubitt (London: Leicester UP, 1996), pp. 174-93

Christopher Dyer, 'Bishop Wulfstan and his estates', in St. Wulfstan and his world , ed. by Julia Barrow and Nicholas Brooks (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), pp. 137-49

William Aird, St Cuthbert and the Normans : the Church of Durham, 1071-1153 , (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998), chs. 1-2

Francesca Tinti, Sustaining belief : the church of Worcester from c.870 to c.1100 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010)

St Paul's : the cathedral church of London 604-2004 , ed. Derek Keene, Arthur Burns and Andrew Saint (London: Yales UP, 2004)

D.M. Palliser, Medieval York : 600-1540 (Oxford, 2014)

Julia Barrow, 'Way-stations on English episcopal itineraries', English historical review. , 127 (2012), 549-65 (on how bishops organised their estates to assist travel)

Veronica Ortenberg, 'Archbishop Sigeric's journey to Rome in 990', Anglo-Saxon England. , 19 (1990)

Henry Mayr-Harting, 'The church of Magdeburg: its trade and its town in the tenth and early eleventh centuries', in Church and city, 1000-1500 : essays in honour of Christopher Brooke , ed. by David Abulafia, Michael Franklin and Miri Rubin (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 129-50

Timothy Reuter, 'Property transactions and social relations between rulers, bishops and nobles in early eleventh-century Saxony: the evidence of the Vita Meinwerci ', in Property and power in the early Middle Ages , ed. by Wendy Davies and Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Charles West, Reframing the feudal revolution : political and social transformation between Marne and Moselle, c. 800 to c. 1100 (Cambridge: CUP, 2013): note pp. 28-40 on bishops in the ninth century and pp. 242-53 on advocates in the eleventh century

Charles West, 'The significance of the Carolingian advocate', Early medieval Europe. , 17 (2009), 186-206

Top of page

Tithes and other ecclesiastical dues

John Eldevik, Episcopal power and ecclesiastical reform in the German Empire : tithes, lordship and community, 950-1150 (Cambridge: CUP, 2012)

John Eldevik, 'Ecclesiastical lordship and the politics of submitting tithes in medieval Germany: the Thuringian tithe dispute in social context', Viator. , 34 (2003), 40-56

Francesca Tinti, 'The "costs" of pastoral care: church dues in late Anglo-Saxon England', in Pastoral care in late Anglo-Saxon England , ed. by Francesca Tinti (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2005)

Top of page

Bishops, monks and nuns

Joachim Wollasch, 'Monasticism: the first wave of reform', in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 3, c.900-c.1024 , ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: CUP, 1999)

C.H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages , 3rd edn (Harlow: Longman, 2001)

John Nightingale, Monasteries and patrons in the Gorze reform : Lotharingia c.850-1000 (Oxford: OUP, 2001), esp. chs. 6, 7, 10

John Bernhardt, Itinerant kingship and royal monasteries in early medieval Germany, c.936-1075 (Cambridge: CUP, 1993)

Barbara Rosenwein, Rhinoceros bound : Cluny in the tenth century (Philadelphia, PA: UPennP, 1982): Cluny was very independent of episcopal control, and was also highly influential

Barbara Rosenwein, To be the neighbor of Saint Peter : the social meaning of Cluny's property, 909-1049 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell, 1982)

From dead of night to end of day : the medieval customs of Cluny = Du coeur de la nuit à la fin du jour : les coutumes clunisiennes au Moyen Âge , ed. by Susan Boynton and Isabelle Cochelin (Turnhout: Brepols, 2005)

Mayke de Jong, In Samuel's image : child oblation in the early medieval West (Leiden: Brill, 1996)

Elizabeth Dachowski, First among abbots : the career of Abbo of Fleury (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2008): Abbo, abbot of Fleury, was strongly opposed to bishops exercising control over monasteries

Marco Mostert, The political theology of Abbo of Fleury : a study of the ideas about society and law of the tenth-century monastic reform movement (Hilversum: Verloren, 1987)

Richard Allen, ‘The Acta archiepiscoporum Rotomagensium and urban ecclesiastical rivalry in eleventh-century Rouen’, in Cathedrals, communities and conflict in the Anglo-Norman world , ed. Paul Dalton, Charles Insley and Louise J. Wilkinson (Woodbridge, 2011)

Cassandra Potts, Monastic revival and regional identity in early Normandy (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997)

Steven Vanderputten, Monastic reform as process : realities and representations in medieval Flanders, 900-1100 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2013)

Steven Vanderputten, Imagining religious leadership in the Middle Ages : Richard of Saint-Vanne and the politics of reform (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2015): look up Archbishop Adalbero of Reims, Bishop Haimo of Verdun and Archbishop Poppo of Trier in the index

Steven Vanderputten, ‘Flemish monasticism, comital power, and the archbishops of Canterbury: a written legacy from the late tenth century’, in England and the continent in the tenth century : studies in honour of Wilhelm Levison (1876-1947) , ed. David Rollason, Conrad Leyser and Hannah Williams (Turnhout, 2010)

Catherine Cubitt, 'The tenth-century Benedictine reform in England', Early medieval Europe. , 6 (1999), 77-94

Julia Barrow, ‘The ideology of the tenth-century English Benedictine ‘reform’’, in Challenging the boundaries of medieval history : the legacy of Timothy Reuter , ed. Patricia Skinner (Turnhout, 2009)

Julia Barrow, ‘The chronology of the Benedictine ‘reform’’, in Edgar, king of the English, 959-975 : new interpretations , ed. Donald Scragg (Woodbridge, 2008)

Barbara Yorke, Nunneries and the Anglo-Saxon royal houses (London: Continuum, 2003), ch. 3

Sarah Foot, Veiled women II: Female Religious Communities in England, 871-1066 (Aldershot, 2000)

Pauline Stafford, ‘“Cherchez la femme”: queens, queens’ lands and nunneries: missing links in the foundation of Reading Abbey’, History. , 85 (2000), 4-27

William Aird, St Cuthbert and the Normans : the Church of Durham, 1071-1153 (Woodbridge, 1998), ch. 3

Top of page

Writing about bishops: historical writing in the tenth and eleventh centuries

Writing medieval history , ed. by Nancy Partner (London: Hodder Arnold, 2005)

Jason Glenn, Politics and history in the tenth century : the work and world of Richer of Reims (Cambridge, 2004)

Justin Lake, Richer of Saint-Rémi : the methods and mentality of a tenth-century historian (Washington, DC, 2013)

Theo Riches, ‘The changing political horizons of Gesta episcoporum from the ninth to eleventh centuries’ in Patterns of episcopal power : bishops in tenth and eleventh century western Europe = Strukturen bischöflicher Herrschaftsgewalt im westlichen Europa des 10. und 11. Jahrhunderts / herausgegeben von , ed. Ludger Körntgen and Dominik Wassenhoven (Berlin, 2011)

Benjamin Arnold, ‘From warfare on earth to eternal paradise: Archbishop Anno II of Cologne, the history of the Western Empire in the “Annolied” and the salvation of mankind’, Viator. , 223 (1992), 95-113

Ann Williams, ‘The dangers of invention: the sack of Canterbury, 1011, and the “theft” of Dunstan’s relics’, in Cathedrals, communities and conflict in the Anglo-Norman world , ed. Paul Dalton, Charles Insley and Louise J. Wilkinson (Woodbridge, 2011)

Richard Allen, ‘The Acta archiepiscoporum Rotomagensium and urban ecclesiastical rivalry in eleventh-century Rouen’, in Cathedrals, communities and conflict in the Anglo-Norman world , ed. Paul Dalton, Charles Insley and Louise J. Wilkinson (Woodbridge, 2011)

Richard Landes, Relics, apocalypse, and the deceits of history : Ademar of Chabannes, 989-1034 (Cambridge MA, 1995)

Symeon of Durham : historian of Durham and the North , ed. by David Rollason (Stamford: Shaun Tyas, 1998)

David Rollason, 'Symeon of Durham and the Community of Durham in the Eleventh Century', in England in the eleventh century : proceedings of the 1990 Harlaxton Symposium , ed. by Carola Hicks (Stamford: Paul Watkins, 1992)

Top of page

Bishops, art and patronage

Nicholas Brooks, The early history of the Church of Canterbury : Christ Church from 597 to 1066 (Leicester, 1984)

Henry Mayr-Harting, Ottonian book illumination : an historical study , 2 vols (London: Harvey Miller, 1991)

Henry Mayr-Harting, Religion and society in the medieval West, 600-1200 : selected papers (Farnham, 2010), ch. 11 and note also ch. 7

Adam Cohen, The Uta Codex : art, philosophy, and reform in eleventh-century Germany (Philadelphia, PA, 2000)

Medieval treasures from Hildesheim ISBN: 9780300196993; 0300196997, ed. P. Barnet, M. Brandt and G. Lutz (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013)

William L. North, ‘Ivories, inscriptions and episcopal self-consciousness in the Ottonian empire: Berthold of Toul and the Berlin Hodegetria’, Gesta. , 42 (2003), 1-18

The bishop : power and piety at the first millennium , ed. by Sean Gilsdorf (Munster: LIT Verlag, 2004): articles by H. Westermann-Angerhausen and by B. Bedos-Rezak

Richard Gameson, ‘St Wulfstan, the library of Worcester and the spirituality of the medieval book’ in St. Wulfstan and his world ed. Barrow and Brooks

Richard Gameson, ‘Book production and decoration at Worcester in the tenth and eleventh centuries’, in St. Oswald of Worcester : life and influence , ed. Nicholas Brooks and Catherine Cubitt (London, 1996), pp. 194-243

Richard Gameson, The manuscripts of early Norman England (c.1066-1130) (c. 1066-1130) (Oxford: OPU, 1999)

Richard Gameson, The role of art in the late Anglo-Saxon church (Oxford, 1995)

Janet Backhouse, ed. The Golden age of Anglo-Saxon art 966-1066 (London, 1984)

Mary Frances Giandrea, Episcopal culture in late Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge, 2007) , ch. 3

Veronica Ortenberg, The English Church and the Continent in the tenth and eleventh centuries : cultural, spiritual, and artistic exchanges (Oxford, 1992)

The Benedictional of St Æthelwold : a masterpiece of Anglo-Saxon art ; a facsimile , facsimile edition with introduction by Andrew Prescott (London, 2002)

Robert Deshman, The Benedictional of Æthelwold (Princeton, 1995)

Robert Deshman, 'The Leofric Missal and tenth-century English art', Anglo-Saxon England. , 6 (1977), 145-73

Robert Deshman, 'Otto III and the Warmund Sacramentary: a study in political theoloy', Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte. , 34 (1971), 1020

Michelle P. Brown, Manuscripts from the Anglo-Saxon age (London, 2007), pp. 85-174 (mostly pictures of book art and some script)

T.A. Heslop, ‘The production of de luxe manuscripts and the patronage of King Cnut and Queen Emma’, Anglo-Saxon England. , 19 (1990)

C.R. Dodwell, Anglo-Saxon art : a new perspective (1982)

C.R. Dodwell, The pictorial arts of the West, 800-1200 (New Haven, CT, 1993)

Catherine Karkov, The art of Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge, 2011)

Robin Fleming, ‘Acquiring, flaunting and destroying silk in late Anglo-Saxon England’, Early medieval Europe. , 15 (2007), 127-58

The study of the Bayeux Tapestry , ed. Richard Gameson (Woodbridge, 1997)

King Harold II and the Bayeux Tapestry , ed. Gale Owen-Crocker (Woodbridge, 2005)

J.J.G. Alexander, Norman illumination at Mont St. Michel, 966-1100 (Oxford, 1970)

Top of page

Architecture

Richard Gem, 'Craftsmen and administrators in the building of the Confessor's abbey', in Edward the Confessor : the man and the legend , ed. by Richard Mortimer (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2009)

Richard Gem, Book of St Augustine's Abbey , Canterbury , English Heritage (London: Batsford, 1997)

Richard Gem, 'How much can Anglo-Saxon buildings tell us about liturgy? ' in The liturgy of the late Anglo-Saxon church , ed. by Helen Gittos and M.B. Bedingfield, Henry Bradshaw Society Subsidia, 5 (London: Boydell, 2005), pp. 271-89

Eric Fernie, Romanesque architecture : the first style of the European age (New Haven CT 2014)

Eric Fernie, The architecture of Norman England (Oxford: OUP, 2000)

A companion to the Anglo-Norman world , ed. by Christopher Harper-Bill and Elisabeth van Houts (Woodbridge, 2002), ch. 11

Medieval art and architecture at Winchester Cathedral. , British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions (Leeds, 1983)

Martin Biddle, ‘Felix urbs Winthonia: Winchester in an age of monastic reform’, in Tenth-century studies : essays in commemoration of the millennium of the Council of Winchester and 'Regularis Concordia' , ed. David Parsons (London and Chichester: Phillimore, 1975)

H.M. Taylor, 'Tenth-century church building in England and on the continent', in Tenth-century studies : essays in commemoration of the millennium of the Council of Winchester and 'Regularis Concordia' , ed. David Parsons (London and Chichester: Phillimore, 1975)

Martin Biddle, ‘Archaeology, architecture and the cult of saints in Anglo-Saxon England’, in The Anglo-Saxon church : papers on history, architecture, and archaeology in honour of Dr H.M. Taylor , ed. L.A.S. Butler and R.K. Morris, CBA Res. Rept. 60 (London, 1986)

Note also, for comparative purposes: Maureen Miller, The bishop's palace : architecture and authority in medieval Italy (Ithaca, NY, 2000)

Top of page

Gregorian Reform

Gerd Tellenbach, The Church in western Europe from the tenth to the early twelfth century , trans. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: CUP, 1993)

Julia Barrow, 'Ideas and applications of reform', in Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100 , ed. by Thomas F.X. Noble and Julia M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008)  : tries to open up the question of 'reform' as a concept

Kathleen G. Cushing, Reform and the papacy in the eleventh century : spirituality and social change (Manchester, 2005)

Uta-Renate Blumenthal, The investiture controversy : church and monarchy from the ninth to the twelfth century (Philadelphia, PA: UPennP, 1988)

H.E.J. Cowdrey, 'The structure of the church 1024-1073', in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 4. Pts 1 and 2, c.1024-c.1198 , ed. by David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2004)

H.E.J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian reform (Oxford: Clarendon, 1970)

H.E.J. Cowdrey, Pope Gregory VII, 1073-1085 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1998) 

I.S. Robinson, 'Reform and the church 1073-1122', in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 4. Pts 1 and 2, c.1024-c.1198 , ed. by David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2004)

John Gilchrist, ‘Was there a Gregorian reform movement in the eleventh century? ’, The Canadian Catholic Historical Association, Study Sessions , 37 (1970), 1-10 Available online: http://www.cchahistory.ca/journal/CCHA1970/Gilchrist.pdf

John Howe, Before the Gregorian reform : the Latin Church at the turn of the first millennium (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2016) wants to put the beginnings of the reform process in the tenth century, but treats sources uncritically and does not analyse use of the term 'reform'

Megan McLaughlin, Sex, gender, and episcopal authority in an age of reform, 1000-1122 (Cambridge: CUP, 2010)

Giles Constable, The reformation of the twelfth century (Cambridge: CUP, 1996)

Note also, for comparative purposes: Maureen Miller, The formation of a medieval church : ecclesiastical change in Verona, 950-1150 (Ithaca, NY, 1993)

This list was last updated on 04/05/2017