Leeds University Library

HIST3515
Module Bibliography

The Baltic Crusades: The Conquest and Conversion of North-Eastern Europe, 1180-1410, 2017/18, Semester 1
Dr Alan Murray
A.V.Murray@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

HIST 3515: The Baltic Crusades

 

Bibliography

 

1. General Works

1.1. General Reference

The Crusades : an encyclopedia , ed. Alan V. Murray, 4 vols (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2006) [A-Z reference work with many relevant short articles on the Baltic Crusades; electronic version available through Library catalogue]

 

1.2. Collections of Essays

 

The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009).

Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001)

Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia , ed. Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi and Carsten Selch Jensen (Farnham, 2011).

Culture clash or compromise? : the Europeanisation of the Baltic Sea area, 1100-1400 AD : papers of the 11th Visby Symposium, held at Gotland Centre for Baltic Studies, Gotland University College, Visby, October 4th-9th, 1996. (Acta Visbyensia XI) , ed. Nils Blomkvist (Visby, 1998).

The North-Eastern frontiers of medieval Europe : the expansion of Latin Christendom in the Baltic lands , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014)

 

1.3. Monographs and Essays

Bartlett, Robert, The making of Europe : conquest, colonization and cultural change, 950-1350 (London, 1993).

Blomkvist, Nils, The discovery of the Baltic : the reception of a Catholic world-system in the European north (AD 1075-1225) (AD 1075–1225) (Leiden, 2004).

Christiansen, Eric, The Northern Crusades : The Baltic and the Catholic Frontier, 1100–1525 (London, 1980), 2nd edn (London, 1997).

Eihmane, Eva, ‘The Baltic Crusades: A Clash of Two Identities’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 37–52.

Fletcher, Richard, The conversion of Europe : from paganism to Christianity, 371-1386 AD (London, 1997).

Fonnesberg-Schmidt, Iben, ‘Pope Honorius III and Mission and Crusades in the Baltic Region’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 103–22.

Fonnesberg-Schmidt, Iben, The popes and the Baltic crusades, 1147-1254 (Leiden, 2007).

Jensen, Carsten Selch, Kurt Villads Jensen and John H. Lind, ‘Communicating Crusades and Crusading Communications in the Baltic Region’, The Scandinavian economic history review. 49 (2001), 5–25.

Jensen, Kurt Villads, ‘Crusading at the Fringe of the Ocean: Denmark and Portugal in the Twelfth Century’, in Medieval history writing and crusading ideology , ed. Tuomas M. S. Lehtonen and Kurt Villads Jensen (Helsinki, 2005), pp. 195–204.

Jensen, Kurt Villads, ‘Denmark and the Crusading Movement: The Integration of the Baltic Region into Medieval Europe’, in Ships, guns and Bibles in the North Sea and Baltic States, c.1350-c.1700 , ed. Allan I. Macinnes, Thomas Riis and Frederik G. Pedersen (East Linton, 2000), pp. 188–205.

Johnson, Edgar N., ‘The German Crusade in the Baltic’, in A History of the Crusades , ed. Kenneth M. Setton and Marshall W. Baldwin, 6 vols (Madison, 1969–89), 3: 545 85

Kala, Tiina, ‘The Incorporation of the Northern Baltic Lands into the Western Christian World’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), 1150–1500 , pp. 3–20.

Lind, John H., Carsten Selch Jensen, Kurt Villads Jensen and Ane L. Bysted, Jerusalem in the north : Denmark and the Baltic Crusade, 1100-1552 , (Turnhout, 2012).

Rowell, Stephen C., ‘Baltic Europe, c. 1300 – c. 1415’, in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 6, c.1300-c.1415 , ed. Michael Jones (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 695–734.

Urban, William, ‘The Frontier Thesis and the Baltic Crusade’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 45–71.

Urban, William, ‘Victims of the Baltic Crusade’, Journal of Baltic Studies. 29 (1998), 195–212.

 

1.4. Surveys of Research

Ekdahl, Sven, ‘Crusades and Colonisation in the Baltic’, in Palgrave advances in the Crusades , ed. Helen J. Nicholson (Basingstoke, 2005), pp. 172–203.

Ekdahl, Sven, ‘Crusades and Colonisation in the Baltic: A Historiographic Analysis’, in The North-Eastern frontiers of medieval Europe : the expansion of Latin Christendom in the Baltic lands , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 1-42.

 

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2. Primary Sources and Commentary

2.1. Henry of Livonia

The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia , trans. James Brundage, 2nd edition (New York, 2003).

Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia , ed. Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi and Carsten Selch Jensen (Farnham, 2011), pp. 107-32.

Murray, Alan V., ‘Henry of Livonia and the Wends of the Eastern Baltic: Ethnography and Biography in the Thirteenth-Century Livonian Mission’, Studi medievali. 54 (2013), 807-33 [on VLE]

Šnē, Andris, ‘The Image of the Other or the Own: Representation of Local Societies in Heinrici Chronicon ’, in The medieval chronicle. 4 , VI, ed. Erik Kooper (Amsterdam, 2009).

 

2.2. The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle

The Livonian rhymed chronicle , trans. Jerry C. Smith and William Urban (Bloomington, 1977).

Murray, Alan V., ‘The Structure, Genre and Intended Audience of the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 235–51.

 

2.3. Nikolaus von Jeroschin

The chronicle of Prussia : a history of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, 1190-1331 by Nicolaus von Jeroschin , trans. Mary Fischer (Aldershot, 2010).

Fischer, Mary, Di Himels Rote : the idea of Christian chivalry in the chronicles of the Teutonic order ’: (Göppingen, 1991).  

 

2.4. Novgorod Chronicle

The chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1471 , trans. Robert Michell and Nevill Forbes, Camden Third Series 25 (London, 1914), repr. Hattiesburg, Miss., 1970.

 

2.5. Documents

Nicholson, Helen (trans.), ‘Documents relating to the Baltic Crusade (1199-1266)’

https://web.archive.org/web/20080221093816/http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/sources/baltic1.htm [sources on the Sword Brothers]

 

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3. The Crusades in Livonia and Estonia

3.1. Mission and Conversion

Bombi, Barbara, ‘Celestine III and the Conversion of the Heathen on the Baltic Frontier’, in Pope Celestine III, 1191-1198 : diplomat and pastor , ed. John Doran and Damian J. Smith (Farnham, 2008), pp. 144–58.

Bombi, Barbara, ‘Innocent III and the Praedicatio to the Heathens in Livonia (1198–1204)’, in Medieval history writing and crusading ideology , ed. Tuomas M. S. Lehtonen and Kurt Villads Jensen (Helsinki, 2005), pp. 207–15.

Brundage, James A., ‘The Thirteenth-Century Livonian Crusade: Henricus de Lettis and the First Legatine Mission of William of Modena’, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas n.s. 20 (1972), 1–9.

Jensen, Carsten Selch, ‘How to Convert a Landscape: Henry of Livonia and the Chronicon Livoniae ’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 151–68.

Jensen, Carsten Selch, ‘The Early Stage of Christianisation in Livonia in Modern Historical Writings and Contemporary Chronicles’, in Medieval history writing and crusading ideology , ed. Tuomas M. S. Lehtonen and Kurt Villads Jensen (Helsinki, 2005), pp. 207–15.

Jensen, Carsten Selch, ‘The Nature of the Early Missionary Activities and Crusades in Livonia 1185–1201’, in Medieval spirituality in Scandinavia and Europe : a collection of essays in honour of Tore Nyberg , ed. Lars Bisgaard, Carsten Selch Jensen, Kurt Villads Jensen and John H. Lind (Odense, 2001), pp. 121–38.

Kala, Tiina, ‘Rural Society and Religious Innovation: Acceptance and Rejection of Catholicism among the Native Inhabitants of Medieval Livonia’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 169–90.

Nielsen, Torben K., ‘The Missionary Man: Archbishop Anders Sunesen and the Baltic Crusade, 1206–21’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 95–117.

Rebane, P. Peter, ‘From Fulco to Theoderic: The Changing Face of the Livonian Mission’, in The North-Eastern frontiers of medieval Europe : the expansion of Latin Christendom in the Baltic lands , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 85-116.

Valk, Heiki, ‘Christianisation in Estonia: A Process of Dual Faith and Syncretism’, in The Cross Goes North: Processes of Conversion in Northern Europe , AD 300–1300 , ed. Martin Carver (York, 2003), pp. 571–79.

 

3.2. The Armed Crusade

Bombi, Barbara, ‘Innocent III and the Origins of the Order of the Sword Brothers’, in The military orders. Vol. 3, History and heritage , ed. Victor Mallia-Milanes (Aldershot, 2008), pp. 147–55.

Kļaviņš, Kaspars, ‘The Significance of the Local Baltic Peoples in the Defence of Livonia (Late Thirteenth-Sixteenth Centuries)’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 321–40.

Mugurevics, Evalds, ‘The Military Activity of the Order of the Sword Brethren (1202-1236)’, in The North-Eastern frontiers of medieval Europe : the expansion of Latin Christendom in the Baltic lands , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 117-22.

Murray, Alan V., ‘Music and Cultural Conflict in the Christianization of Livonia, 1190–1290’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 293–306.

Murray, Alan V., ‘The Sword Brothers at War: Some Observations on the Military Activity of the Knighthood of Christ in the Conquest of Livonia and Estonia’, Ordines Militares: Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders 18 (2013), 27–38. - Available online: http://www.medievalists.net/2014/10/05/sword-brothers-war-observations-military-activity-knighthood-christ-conquest-livonia-estonia-1203-1227/livonian-sword-bothers/

Selart, Anti, Livonia, Rus' and the Baltic Crusades in the thirteenth century (Leiden, 2015).

Tamm, Marek, ‘How to Justify a Crusade? The Conquest of Livonia and New Crusade Rhetoric in the Early Thirteenth Century’, Journal of Medieval history. 39 (2013), 431-55.

Turnbull, Stephen, ‘Crossbows or Catapults? The Identification of Siege Weaponry and Techniques in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 307–20.

Urban, William, ‘The Organization of the Defense of the Livonian Frontier in the Thirteenth Century’, Speculum. 48 (1973), 525–32.

Urban, William, The Baltic Crusade (DeKalb, 1975), 2nd edn (Chicago, 1994).

 

3.3. Danish Estonia and the Teutonic Order in Livonia

Auns, Muntis, ‘Acquisition of the Acquired: The Establishing of a Real Administration in Livonia’, in Culture clash or compromise? : the Europeanisation of the Baltic Sea area, 1100-1400 AD : papers of the 11th Visby Symposium, held at Gotland Centre for Baltic Studies, Gotland University College, Visby, October 4th-9th, 1996. (Acta Visbyensia XI) , ed. Nils Blomkvist (Visby, 1998), pp. 259–67.

Brundage, James A., ‘Christian Marriage in Thirteenth-Century Livonia’, Journal of Baltic Studies. 4 (1973), 313–20.

Kala, Tiina, ‘Languages in a North European City’, in Frontiers in the Middle Ages : proceedings of the third European Congress of Medieval Studies (Jyväskylä, 10-14 june 2003) , ed. Outi Merisalo and Päivi Pahta (Louvain-la-Neuve, 2006), pp. 585–603.

Kreem, Juhan, ‘The Teutonic Order as Secular Ruler in Livonia: The Privileges and the Oath of Reval’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 215–32.

Mägi, Marika, ‘Districts and Centres in Saaremaa, 1100–1400’, in Culture clash or compromise? : the Europeanisation of the Baltic Sea area, 1100-1400 AD : papers of the 11th Visby Symposium, held at Gotland Centre for Baltic Studies, Gotland University College, Visby, October 4th-9th, 1996. (Acta Visbyensia XI) , ed. Nils Blomkvist (Visby, 1998), pp. 147–57.

Mägi, Marika, At the crossroads of space and time : graves, changing society and ideology on Saaremaa (Ösel), 9th-13th centuries AD (Tallinn, 2002).

Mugurēvičs, Ēvalds, ‘Interactions between Indigenous and Western Culture in Livonia in the 13th to 16th centuries’, in From the Baltic to the Black Sea : studies in medieval archaeology , ed. David Austin and Leslie Alcock (London, 1990), pp. 168–78.

Rebane, P. Peter, ‘The Danish Bishops of Tallinn’, Journal of Baltic Studies. 5 (1974), 315–29.

Rebane, P. Peter, ‘The Jüriöö Mass (St George’s Night Rebellion of 1343)’, in Baltic history , ed. Arvids Ziedonis, Jr, William L. Winter and Mardi Valgemäe (Columbus, Ohio, 1974), pp. 35–49.

Selart, Anti, ‘Orthodox Churches in Medieval Livonia’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 273–90.

Selart, Anti, ‘The Formation of the Estonian Eastern Border during the Middle Ages’, in The dividing line : borders and national peripheries : ed. Maunu Häyrynen and Lars-Folke Landgren (Helsinki, 1997), 27–41.

Skyum-Nielsen, Niels, ‘Estonia under Danish Rule’, in Danish medieval history, new currents , ed. Niels Skyum-Nielsen and Niels Lund (Copenhagen, 1981), pp. 112–35.

Šnē, Andris, ‘The Emergence of Livonia: The Transformations of Social and Political Structures in the Territory of Latvia during the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 53–72.

Tamm, Marek, ‘A New World into Old Words: The Eastern Baltic Region and the Cultural Geography of Medieval Europe’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 11–36.

Valk, Heiki, ‘Christian and Non-Christian Holy Sites in Medieval Estonia: A Reflection of Ecclesiastical Attitudes towards Popular Religion’, in The European frontier : clashes and compromises in the Middle Ages ; international symposium of the Culture Clash or Compromise (CCC) project and the Department of Archaeology, Lund University, held in Lund October 13-15 2000. , ed. Jörn Staecker (Lund, 2004), pp. 299–310. [Not held at Leeds University Library]
 

Valk, Heiki, ‘Christianization and Changes in Faith in the Burial Traditions of Estonia in the 11th–17th Centuries A.D.’, in Rom und Byzanz im Norden : Mission und Glaubenswechsel im Ostseeraum während des 8.-14. Jahrhunderts : Internationale Fachkonferenze der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Verbindung mit der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz Kiel, 18.-25. September 1994 , ed. Michael Müller-Wille, 2 vols (Stuttgart, 1997–99), 2: 37–56.

 

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4. The Crusades against Russia

Hellie, Richard, ‘Alexander Nevski’s April 5 1242 Battle on the Ice’, Russian history = Histoire russe. 33 (2006), 283–87.

Isoaho, Mari, ‘The Warrior in God’s Favour. The Image of Alexander Nevskiy as a Hero Confronting the Western Crusaders’, in Medieval history writing and crusading ideology , ed. Tuomas M. S. Lehtonen and Kurt Villads Jensen (Helsinki, 2005), pp. 284-301.

Lind, John H., ‘Consequences of the Baltic Crusades in Target Areas: The Case of Karelia’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 133–49.

Lind, John H., ‘The Russian Sources of King Magnus Eriksson’s Campaign Against Novgorod 1348–1351 – Reconsidered’, Mediaeval Scandinavia. 12 (1988), 248–72.

Lind, John H.,‘Early Russian-Swedish Rivalry: The Battle on the Neva in 1240 and Birger Magnusson’s Second Crusade to Tavastia’, Scandinavian journal of history. 16 (1991), 269–95.

Lindkvist, Thomas, ‘Crusades and Crusading Ideology in the Political History of Sweden, 1140–1500’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 119–30.

Lindkvist, Thomas, ‘Crusading Ideas in Late Medieval Sweden’, in Medieval history writing and crusading ideology , ed. Tuomas M. S. Lehtonen and Kurt Villads Jensen (Helsinki, 2005), pp. 257–63.

Nazarova, Evgeniya L., ‘The Crusades against Votians and Izhorians in the Thirteenth Century’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 177–95.

Nicolle, David, Lake Peipus 1242 : battle of the ice (London, 1996).

Noonan, Thomas S., ‘Medieval Russia, the Mongols, and the West: Novgorod’s Relations with the Baltic, 1100-1350’, Mediaeval studies. , 37 (1975), 316-39.

Ostrowski, Donald, ‘Alexander Nevskii’s Battle on the Ice: The Creation of a Legend’, Russian history = Histoire russe. 33 (2006), 289–312.

Selart, Anti, ‘Confessional Conflict and Political Co-operation: Livonia and Russia in the Thirteenth Century’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 151–76.

 

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5. Prussia

5.1. The Teutonic Conquest

Ekdahl, Sven, ‘Horses and Crossbows: Two Important Warfare Advantages of the Teutonic Order in Prussia’, in The military orders. , 2: Welfare and Warfare , ed. Helen J. Nicholson (Aldershot, 1998), 119–51.

Favreau-Lilie, Marie-Luise, ‘Mission to the Heathen in Prussia and Livonia: The Attitudes of the Religious Military Orders Towards Christianization’, in Christianizing peoples and converting individuals , ed. Guyda Armstrong and Ian N. Wood (Turnhout, 2000), pp. 147–56.

Kajzer, Leszek, and Piotr A. Nowakowski, ‘Remarks on the Architecture of the Teutonic Order’s Castles in Prussia’, in The Crusades and the military orders : expanding the frontiers of medieval Latin Christianity , pp. 449–66.

Matuzova, Vera I., ‘Mental Frontiers: Prussians as Seen by Peter of Dusburg’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 253–59.

Mažeika, Rasa, ‘Violent Victims? Surprising Aspects of the Just War Theory in the Chronicle of Peter von Dusburg’, in The clash of cultures on the medieval Baltic frontier , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham, 2009), pp. 123–40.

Murray, Alan V., ‘Heathens, Devils and Saracens: Crusader Concepts of the Pagan Enemy during the Baltic Crusades’, in Crusading on the Edge : Ideas and Practice of Crusading in Iberia and the Baltic Region, 1100-1500 , ed. Torben K. Nielsen and Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt (Turnhout, 2016), pp. 199-224.

Pósán, László, ‘Prussian Missions and the Invitation of the Teutonic Order into Kulmerland’, in The Crusades and the military orders : expanding the frontiers of medieval Latin Christianity : ed. Zsolt Hunyadi and József Laszlovszky (Budapest, 2001), pp. 429–48, reprinted in The North-Eastern frontiers of medieval Europe : the expansion of Latin Christendom in the Baltic lands , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 135-54

Sacred space in the state of the Teutonic Order in Prussia , ed. Jaroslaw Wenta (Torun, 2013).

Starnawska, Maria, ‘Military Orders and the Beginning of Crusades in Prussia’, in The The Crusades and the military orders : expanding the frontiers of medieval Latin Christianity , ed. Zsolt Hunyadi and József Laszlovszky (Budapest, 2001), pp. 417–28, reprinted in The North-Eastern frontiers of medieval Europe : the expansion of Latin Christendom in the Baltic lands , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 123-34.

Szacherska, Stella Maria, ‘Valdemar II’s Expedition to Pruthenia and the Mission of Bishop Christian’, Mediaeval Scandinavia. 12 (1988), 44–75.

Urban, William, The Prussian crusade (Lanham, Md., 1980).

 

5.2. The Teutonic Order State in Prussia

Arnold, Udo, ‘Eight Hundred Years of the Teutonic Order’, in The military orders. : Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick , ed. Malcolm Barber (Aldershot, 1994), pp. 223–35.

Burleigh, Michael, ‘The German Knights: The Making of a Modern Myth’, History today. 35 (1985), 24–29.

Burleigh, Michael, ‘The Knights, Nationalists, and the Historians: Images of Medieval Prussia from the Enlightenment to 1945’, European history quarterly. 17 (1987), 35–55.

Burleigh, Michael, Prussian society and the German order : an aristocratic corporation in crisis c. 1410-1466 (New York, 1984).

Dygo, Marian, ‘The Political Role of the Cult of the Virgin Mary in Teutonic Prussia in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries’, Journal of Medieval history. 15 (1989), 63–81 .

Ehlers, Axel, ‘The Use of Indulgences by the Teutonic Order in the Middle Ages’, in The military orders. Vol. 3, History and heritage , ed. Victor Mallia-Milanes (Aldershot, 2008), pp. 139–46.

Fischer, Mary, ‘Biblical Heroes and the Uses of Literature: The Teutonic Order in the Late Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 261–75.

Fischer, Mary, ‘The Books of the Maccabees and the Teutonic Order’, Crusades. 4 (2005), 21–37.

Górski, Karol, ‘The Teutonic Order in Prussia’, Medievalia et humanistica. 17 (1966), 20–37.

Mazeika, Rasa, ‘Of Cabbages and Knights: Trade and Trade Treaties with the Infidel on the Northern Frontier, 1200–1390’, Journal of Medieval history. 20 (1994), 63–76.

Militzer, Klaus, ‘From the Holy Land to Prussia: The Teutonic Knights between Emperors and Popes and their Policies until 1309’, in Mendicants, military orders and regionalism in medieval Europe , ed. Jürgen Sarnowsky (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 71–81.

Munzinger, Mark R., ‘The Profits of the Cross: Merchant Involvement in the Baltic Crusade (c. 1180–1230)’, Journal of Medieval history. 32 (2006), 163–85.

Sterns, Indrikis, ‘Crime and Punishment among the Teutonic Knights’, Speculum. 57 (1982), 84–111.

The Teutonic Order in Prussia and Livonia : the political and ecclesiastical structures 13th-16th century, ed. Roman Czaja and Andrzej Radziminski (Cologne, 2015).

Urban, William, ‘Roger Bacon and the Teutonic Knights’, Journal of Baltic Studies. 19 (1988), 363–70.

Urban, William, ‘The Diplomacy of the Teutonic Knights at the Curia’, Journal of Baltic Studies. 9 (1978), 116–28.

Wenskus, Reinhard, ‘The Teutonic Order and the Non-German Population of Prussia’, in The North-Eastern frontiers of medieval Europe : the expansion of Latin Christendom in the Baltic lands , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 307-27.

 

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6. The Crusades against Lithuania

6.1. The Crusading Powers

Du Boulay, Francis R. H., ‘Henry of Derby’s Expeditions to Prussia 1390–1 and 1392’, in The reign of Richard II : essays in honour of May McKisack , ed. F. R. H. du Boulay and Caroline Barron (London, 1971), pp. 153–72.

Chollet, Loïc, ‘Croisade ou évangélisation? La polémique contre les Chevaliers teutoniques à l’aune des témoignages des voyageurs français de la fin du Moyen Age’, Ordines Militares: Yearbook for the Study of the Military Orders 20 (2015), pp. 175-203. [on VLE]

Chollet, Loïc, ‘Les Voyages en Prusse vus de France: La perception de la croisade contre la Lituanie dans quelques sources francophones (fin XIVe – début XVe siècle)’, Studia z Dziejów Średniowiecza 19 (2015), 51-79. [on VLE]

Ehlers, Axel, ‘The Crusade of the Teutonic Knights against Lithuania Reconsidered’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 21–44 .

Ekdahl, Sven, ‘The Treatment of Prisoners of War During the Fighting Between the Teutonic Order and Lithuania’, in The military orders. : Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick , ed. Malcolm Barber (Aldershot, 1994), pp. 263–69.

Keen, Maurice, ‘Chaucer’s Knight, The English Aristocracy and the Crusade’, in English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages , ed. V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherbourne (London, 1982), pp. 45–61.

Murray, Alan V., ‘The Saracens of the Baltic: Pagan and Christian Lithuanians in the Perception of English and French Crusaders to Late Medieval Prussia’, Journal of Baltic Studies. 41 (2010), 413–29.

Smith, L. Toulmin, Expeditions to Prussia and the Holy Land made by Henry earl of Derby (afterwards King Henry IV.) in the years 1390-1 and 1392-3 : Being the accounts kept by his treasurer during two years , Camden Second Series 52 (London, 1894).

Urban, William, ‘The Military Occupation of Semgallia in the Thirteenth Century, in Baltic history , ed. Arvids Ziedonis, Jr., William L. Winter and Mardi Valgemäe (Colum­bus,Ohio, 1974), pp. 21–34.

 

6.2. The Lithuanians

Giedroyć, Michał, ‘The Arrival of Christianity in Lithuania: Baptism and Survival (1341–1387)’, Oxford Slavonic Papers. n.s. 22 (1989), 34–57, reprinted in The North-Eastern frontiers of medieval Europe : the expansion of Latin Christendom in the Baltic lands , ed. Alan V. Murray (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 155-77.

Giedroyć, Michał, ‘The Arrival of Christianity in Lithuania: Between Rome and Byzantium (1281–1341)’, Oxford Slavonic Papers. n.s. 20 (1987), 1–33.

Giedroyć, Michał, ‘The Arrival of Christianity in Lithuania: Early Contacts (Thirteenth Century)’, Oxford Slavonic Papers. n.s. 18 (1985), 1–30.

Mažeika, Rasa, ‘Bargaining for Baptism: Lithuanian Negotiations for Conversion, 1250–1358’, in Varieties of religious conversion in the Middle Ages , ed. James Muldoon (Gaines­­­ville, Fla., 1997), pp. 131–45.

Mažeika, Rasa, ‘Granting Power to Enemy Gods in the Chronicles of the Baltic Crusades’, in Medieval frontiers : concepts and practices , ed. David Abulafia and Nora Berend (Aldershot, 2002), pp. 153–72.

Mažeika, Rasa, ‘When Crusader and Pagan Agree: Conversion as a Point of Honour in the Baptism of King Mindaugas of Lithuania (c. 1240–63)’, in Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 , ed. Alan V. Murray (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 197–214.

Rowell, Stephen C., ‘Of Men and Monsters: Sources for the History of Lithuania in the Time of Gediminas (ca. 1315–1342)’, Journal of Baltic Studies. 24 (1993), 73–112.

Rowell, Stephen C., ‘The Lithuano-Prussian Forest Frontier, c. 1422–1600’, in Frontiers in question : Eurasian borderlands, 700-1700 , ed. Daniel Power and Naomi Standen (New York, 1999), pp. 182–208.

Rowell, Stephen C., Lithuania ascending : a pagan empire within east-central Europe, 1295-1345 (Cambridge, 1994).

Urban, William, The Samogitian Crusade (Chicago, 1989).

Urbanavičiene, Saulė, ‘Survivals of Paganism in 14th–17th-Century Graves in Lithuania’, in Rom und Byzanz im Norden : Mission und Glaubenswechsel im Ostseeraum während des 8.-14. Jahrhunderts : Internationale Fachkonferenze der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Verbindung mit der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz Kiel, 18.-25. September 1994 , ed. Michael Müller-Wille, 2 vols (Stuttgart, 1997–99), 2: 131–42.

This list was last updated on 10/08/2016