Leeds University Library

Module Reading List

Medicine and Warfare in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 2017/18, Semester 2
Dr Jessica Meyer
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Reading List:

In addition to the suggested readings listed below, the Bamji Collection held by Special Collections contains nearly 1000 printed books and pamphlets relating to the medical history of the war, including both primary sources and secondary literature. You will be expected to explore this collection to identify a source for your source analysis but you are also encouraged to explore the secondary literature as part of your wider reading around the subject, with some of secondary literature held in Bamji listed below. In using these works, please bear in mind that Special Collections is non-circulating and you will not be able to photocopy volumes yourself.

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Week 1: Introduction

Core texts:

Cooter, R., ‘Medicine and the Goodness of War’, CBMH/BCJM 7 (1990), pp.147-159 Available at: http://www.cbmh.ca/index.php/cbmh/article/view/212/211

Harrison, M., ‘The Medicalization of War – The Militarization of Medicine’, Social history of medicine. 9 (1996), pp.267-276

Additional Reading:

Blackmore, K., The dark pocket of time : war, medicine, and the Australian state, 1914-1935, 1914-1935 (2008)

Bosenquet, N., ‘Health Systems in Khaki: The British and American Medical Experience’ in H. Cecil and P. Liddle, (eds.), Facing Armageddon : the First World War experienced. (1997)

Bourke, J., ‘Wartime’ in Roger Cooter and John Pickstone (eds.), Medicine in the twentieth century (2000)

Brown, K., Fighting fit : health, medicine and war in the twentieth century (2008)

A History of the Army Medical Department (Edinburgh and London, 1974)

Cirillo V.J., Bullets and bacilli : the Spanish-American War and military medicine (2004)

Cooter, R., ‘War and Modern Medicine’ in W.F. Bynum and R. Porter (eds.), Companion encyclopedia of the history of medicine (1994)

Cooter, R., M. Harrison and S. Sturdy (eds.), Medicine and modern warfare. (1999)

________. War, medicine and modernity (1999)

Dolev, E., Allenby's military medicine : life and death in World War I Palestine (2007)

Fraser, I., ‘The Mitchiner Memorial Lecture: The Doctor’s Debt to the Soldier’, British medical journal. (1971)

Gabriel, R.A. and Metz, K.S., A history of military medicine (1992)

Ghosh, A. (ed.), History of the Armed Forces Medical Services, India (1988)

Harrison, M., The medical war : British military medicine in the First World War: British Military Medicine in the First World War (Oxford, 2010)

________. Medicine and victory : British military medicine in the Second World War: British Military Medicine in the Second World War (Oxford, 2008)

Kelly, C., War and the militarization of British Army medicine, 1793-1830 (London, 2011)

London, P.S., ‘An Example to Us All: The Military Approach to the Care of the Injured’, Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps. 134 (1988), pp. 81-90

MacLeod, R. and M. Lewis (eds.), Disease, medicine, and empire : perspectives on Western medicine and the experience of European expansion (1988)

McLaughlin, R., The Royal Army Medical Corps (1972)

Shepherd, J., The Crimean doctors : a history of the British Medical Services in the Crimean War (1991)

Van Bergen, L., Before my helpless sight : suffering, dying and military medicine on the Western Front, 1914-1918 (2009)

Wellcome Collection, War and medicine (2008)

Whitehead, I.R., Doctors in the Great War (1999)


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Week 2: Introduction to primary sources and artefacts

There is no specific recommended reading for this week. Please prepare by spending some time exploring the catalogue of the Bamji Collection at https://library.leeds.ac.uk/special-collections-explore/159638/bamji_collection.


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Week 3: Voluntary Organisations and Humanitarianism

Barnett, M., Empire of humanity : a history of humanitarianism (2013)

Best, G., Humanity in warfare : the modern history of the international law of armed conflicts (1980)

Clifford, J., A good uniform : the St. John story (1967)

________. For the service of mankind : Furley, Lechmere and Duncan, St. John Ambulance founders. (1971)

Forsythe, D., The humanitarians : the International Committee of the Red Cross (2005)

Gill, R., ‘The Rational Administration of Compassion: The Origins of British Relief in War’, Le mouvement social., 227 (2009), pp.9-26

Hutchinson, J., Champions of charity : war and the rise of the Red Cross (1997)

Jones, H., ‘International or Transnational? Humanitarian Action during the First World War’, European review of history = Revue européenne d'histoire., 15 (2009), pp.697-713

Makita, Y., ‘The Alchemy of Humanitarianism: The First World War, the Japanese Red Cross and the Creation of an International Public Health Order’, First World War studies. 5 (2014), pp.117-130

Moorehead, C., Dunant's dream : war, Switzerland and the history of the Red Cross (1998)

Oliver, B., The British Red Cross in action (1966)

Oppenheimer, M. and M. Kleinig, ‘”There is no trace of him”: The Australian Red Cross, its Wounded and Missing Bureaux and the 1915 Gallipoli Campaign’, First World War studies. 6 (2015), pp.277-292.

Ormerod Greenwood, J., Friends and relief : a study of two centuries of Quaker activity in the relief of suffering caused by war or natural calamity (1975)

Rozario, K., ‘”Delicious Horrors”: Mass Culture, the Red Cross and the Appeal of Modern American Humanitarianism’, American Quarterly., 55 (2003), pp.417-55


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Week 4: Evacuation, Transport and Logistics

Allen, T., Hospital ships from the Great War (1999)

Bricknell, M., ‘The Evolution of Casualty of Evacuation in the British Army 20th Century’, parts 1-4, Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps., 148-149 (2002-2003): pp.200-7, 314-322, 85-95, 166-174

Brown, I.M., British logistics on the Western Front, 1914-1919 (1998)

Carden-Coyne, A., The politics of wounds : military patients and medical power in the First World War (2014), Chapter 1.

Cole, H.N., On wings of healing : the story of the Airborne Medical Services 1940-1960 (1963)

Doan, L., ‘Primum Mobile: Women and Auto/mobility in the Era of the Great War’, Women : a cultural review., 17 (2006), pp.34-5

Haller, J.S., Farmcarts to Fords : a history of the military ambulance, 1790-1925 (1992)

Harrison, M., “Medicine and the management of modern warfare” History of science. 34 (1996), pp.379-410

Macpherson, W.G., History of the Great War Based on Official Documents: Medical services, general history Vol. 2 (1923)

Plumridge, J.H. Hospital Ships and Ambulance Trains (1975)

Spiers, E. Engines for empire : the Victorian military and its use of railways (2015)


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Week 5: Disease, Hygiene and Illness Prevention

Arnold, D., Colonizing the body : state medicine and epidemic disease in nineteenth-century India (1993)

Beardsley, E.H., ‘Allied Against Sin: American and British Responses to Venereal Disease in World War 1’, Medical history. 20 (1976), pp.189-202

Bourke, J. Dismembering the male : men's bodies, Britain and the Great War (2008), Chapters 2 and 4.

Campbell, J.D., ‘”"The Army isn't all work" : physical culture in the evolution of the British Army, 1860-1920 (2012)

Curtin, P.D., Death by Migration: Europe's encounter with the tropical world in the nineteenth century (1989)

_______. Disease and empire : the health of European troops in the conquest of Africa (1998)

Granshaw, L., ‘”Upon this Principle I have based a Practice”: The Development and Reception of Antisepsis in Britain, 1867-90’ in J. V. Pickstone (ed.), Medical innovations in historical perspective (1992)

Harrison, M., ‘The British Army and the Problem of Venereal Disease in France and Egypt During the First World War’, Medical history. 39 (1995): pp.133-58

________. The medical war : British military medicine in the First World War: British Military Medicine in the First World War (2010), Chapter 6.

________. Public health in British India : Anglo-Indian preventive medicine 1859-1914 (1994)

Hall, L., ‘”War always brings it on”: War, STDs, the Military, and the Civilian Population in Britain, 1850-1950’ in R. Cooter, M. Harrison and S. Sturdy (eds.), Medicine and modern warfare. (1999)

Hardy, A., ‘”Straight Back to Barbarism”: Antityphoid Inoculation and the Great War, 1914’, Bulletin of the history of medicine., 74 (2000), pp.265-90.

Long, L. A.. Rehabilitating bodies : health, history, and the American Civil War (2004), Chapter 3.

Smallman-Raynor, M.R. and A.D. Cliff, War epidemics : an historical geography of infectious diseases in military conflict and civil strife, 1850-2000 (2004)

Low-Beer, D., et. al., ‘Disease and Death in the South African War’, Social history of medicine., 17 (2004), pp.223-45

Winter, J.M., The Great War and the British People (1986)


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Week 6: Battlefield Surgery and Medical Specialisation

Bamji, A., ‘Facial Surgery: The Patient’s Experience’ in H. Cecil and P. Liddle, (eds.), Facing Armageddon : the First World War experienced. (1997)

Benison, S., A.C. Barger, and E.L. Wolfe, ‘Walter B. Cannon and the Mystery of Shock: A Study of Anglo-American Co-operation in World War I’, Medical history. 35 (1991), pp.217-49

Benton, E., ‘British Surgery in the South African War: The Work of Major Frederick Porter’, Medical history. 21 (1977), pp.275-90

Cooter, R., Surgery and society in peace and war : orthopaedics and the organization of medern medicine, 1880-1948 (1993)

Grant S-M., ‘Disembodied Identities: Civil War Soldiers, Surgeons, and the Medical Memories of Combat’ in D. Seed, et.al (eds.), Life and limb : perspectives on the American Civil War (2015)

________. ‘”Mortal in this season”: Union Surgeons and the Narrative of Medical Modernisation in the American Civil War’, Social history of medicine. 27 (2014), pp.689-707

Hamilton, D., ‘The Nineteenth Century Surgical Revolution – Antisepsis or Better Nutrition?’, Bulletin of the history of medicine., 56 (1982), pp.30-40

Hardaway, R.M., ‘Wound Shock: A History of Its Study and Treatment by Military Surgeons’, Military Medicine, 169 (2004), pp.265-9 Available at: http://militarymedicine.amsus.org/doi/pdf/10.7205/MILMED.169.4.265

Howell, J.D., ‘”Soldier’s heart”: the redefinition of heart disease and speciality formation in early twentieth-century Great Britain’, Medical history. 29 (1985), pp.34-52

Manring, M., et. al., ‘Treatment of War Wounds: A Historical Review’, Clinical orthopaedics and related research., 467 (2009), pp.168-91

Mayhew, E.R., The reconstruction of warriors : Archibald McIndoe, the Royal Air Force and the Guinea Pig Club (2004)

Palfreeman, L., Spain bleeds : the development of battlefield blood transfusion during the Civil War (2015)

Pelis, K., ‘Taking Credit: The Canadian Army Medical Corps and the British Conversion to Blood Transfusion in WWI’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences., 56 (2001), pp.238-77

Pruitt, B.A., ‘Combat Casualty Care and Surgical Progress’, Annals of surgery., 243 (2006), pp.715-29

Schneidre, W.H., ‘Blood Transfusion in Peace and war, 1900-1918’, Social history of medicine., 10 (1997), pp.106-26

Selcer, P., ‘Standardising Wounds: Alexis Carrel and the Scientific Management of Life in the First World War’, British journal for the history of science. 41 (2007), pp.73-107

Sturdy, S., ‘From the Trenches to the Hospitals at Home: Physiologists, Clinicians and Oxygen Therapy, 1914-30’ in J.V. Pickstone (ed.), Medical innovations in historical perspective (1992)

________. ‘War as Experiment: Physiology, Innovation and Administration in Britain, 1914-1918: The Case of Chemical Warfare’ in R. Cooter, M. Harrison and S. Sturdy (eds.), War, medicine and modernity (1999)

Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, Medicine and surgery in the Great War 1914-1918 : an exhibition to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the armistice, 11 November 1918. (1968)


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Week 7: Psychological Wounds

Acton, C. and J. Potter, Working in a world of hurt : trauma and resilience in the narratives of medical personnel in warzones (2014)

Ahrenfeldt, R. J. Q., Psychiatry in the British Army in the Second World War (1958)

Barham, P., Forgotten lunatics of the Great War (2004)

Bogacz, T., ‘War Neuroses and Social Cultural Change in England, 1914-22: the Work of the War Office Committee of Enquiry into Shell Shock’ Journal of contemporary history., 24 (1989), pp.227-256

Croft, H., ‘Emotional Women and Frail Men: Gender Diagnostics from Shellshock to PTSD, 1914-2010’ in A. Carden-Coyne (ed.), Gender and conflict since 1914 : historical and interdisciplinary perspectives (2012)

Copp, T. and B. McAndrew, Battle exhaustion : soldiers and psychiatrists in the Canadian Army, 1939-1945 (1990)

Eckart, W.U., ‘”The Most Extensive Experiment that Imagination can Conceive”: War, Emotional Stress, and German Medicine, 1914-1918’ in R. Chickering and S. Föster, Great War, total war : combat and mobilization on the Western Front, 1914-1918 (2000)

Humphries, M. ‘War’s Long Shadow: Masculinity, Medicine, and the Gendered Politics of Trauma, 1914-1939’, The Canadian historical review. 91 (2010), pp.503-531

Jones, E., et. al., 'Flashbacks and post-traumatic stress disorder: the genesis of a 20th-century diagnosis', British Journal of Psychiatry., 182 (2003), pp.158-163

Jones, E. and S. Wessely, Shell shock to ptsd : military psychiatry from 1900 to the gulf war (2005)

Linden, S.C., A.J. Lees and E. Jones, ‘Shell Shock at Queen Square: Lewis Yealland 100 years on’, Brain. (2013)

Leese, P. Shell shock : traumatic neurosis and the British soldiers of the First World War (2002)

Lerner, P. Hysterical men : war, psychiatry, and the politics of trauma in Germany, 1890-1930 (2003)

Loughran, T, ‘A crisis of masculinity? Re-writing the history of shell-shock and gender in First World War Britain’, History compass. 11 (2013), pp. 727-738. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/hic3.12082/full

________. ‘Shell-shock, trauma and the First World War: The making of a diagnosis and its histories’ Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 67 (2012), pp. 94-119. Available at: http://jhmas.oxfordjournals.org/content/67/1/94.full

Micale, M.S. and P. Lerner (eds.), Traumatic pasts : history, psychiatry, and trauma in the modern age, 1870-1930 (2001)

Reid, F. Broken men : shell shock, treatment and recovery in Britain, 1914-1930 (2010)

Roberts-Pedersen, E., ‘The Hard School: Physical Treatments for War Neurosis in Britain during the Second World War’, Social history of medicine., 29 (2016), pp.611-632

Shephard, B., A war of nerves : soldiers and psychiatrists, 1914-1994 (2002)

Smith, R.T. and G. True, ‘Warring Identities: Identity Conflict and the Mental Distress of American Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan’, Society and mental health. 4 (2014), pp.147-61.

Winter, J. (ed.), Journal of contemporary history., 35 (2000)


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Week 8: Nursing and Gender

Baly, M., Florence Nightingale and the nursing legacy (1986)

Brooks, J. and C.E. Hallett, One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854-1953 (2015)

Brown, M., ‘”Like a Devoted Army”: Medicine, Heroic Masculinity, and the Military Paradigm in Victorian Britain’, The journal of British studies. 49 (2010), pp.592-622

Butler, J., ‘Very Busy in Bosche Alley: One Day of the Somme in Sister Kit McNaughton’s Diary’, Health and history, 6 (2004), pp.18-32

Darrow, M., ‘French Volunteer Nursing and the Myth of War Experience in World War I’, The American historical review. 101 (1996), pp.80-106

________. French women and the First World War : war stories of the home front (2000), Chapter 5

Das, S., Touch and intimacy in First World War literature (2005)

Fell, A.S. and C.E. Hallett (eds.), First World War nursing : new perspectives New Perspectives (2013)

Furneaux, H., Military Men of Feeling: Emotion, Touch, and Masculinity in the Crimean War (2016)

Geddes, J. F., ‘The Women’s Hospital Corps: Forgotten Surgeons of the First World War’, Journal of medical biography, 14 (2006), pp.109-17

Hallett, C.E., Containing trauma : nursing work in the First World War (2009)

________. Veiled warriors : Allied nurses of the First World War (2014)

Higgonet, M. (ed.), Nurses at the front : writing the wounds of the Great War (2001)

Krippner, M., The quality of mercy : women at war, Serbia 1915-18 (1980)

Lee, J., ‘Sisterhood at the Front: Friendship, Comradeship, and the Feminine Appropriation of Military Heroism among World War I First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY)’ Women's studies international forum., 31 (2008), pp.16-29

Leneman, L., In the service of life : the story of Elsie Inglis and the Scottish Women's Hospitals (1994)

________. ‘Medical Women at War’, Medical history., 38 (1994), pp.160-77

Long, L.A., Rehabilitating bodies : health, history, and the American Civil War (2004), Chapter 6

Summers, A., Angels and citizens : British women as military nurses, 1854-1914 (1988)

Taylor, E., Wartime nurse : one hundred years from the Crimea to Korea, 1854-1954 (2001)

Watson, J.K., ‘War in the Wards: The Social Construction of medical Work in First World War Britain’, The journal of British studies., 41 (2002), pp.484-510


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Week 9: Hospital Cultures

Abel-Smith, B. The hospitals, 1800-1948 : a study in social administration in England and Wales (1964)

Bourke, J. ‘Bodily Pain, Combat and the Politics of Memoirs: Between the American Civil War and the War in Vietnam’, Social history., 46 (2013), pp.43-61

Carden-Coyne, A., ‘Painful Bodies and Brutal Women: Remedial Massage, Gender Relations and Cultural Agency in Military Hospitals, 1914-1918’, Journal of war and culture studies., 1 (2008), pp.139-58.

________., The politics of wounds : military patients and medical power in the First World War (2014)

Geddes, J. F., ‘Deeds and Words in the Suffrage Military Hospital in Endell Street’, Medical history., 51 (2007), pp.79-98

Reznick, J. Healing the nation : soldiers and the culture of caregiving in Britain during the Great War (2004)

Rosenberg, C.E. ‘Inward Vision and Outward Glance: The Shaping of the American Hospital, 1880-1914’, Bulletin of the history of medicine., 53 (1976), pp.346-91.

Serlin, D., ‘Crippling Masculinity: Queerness and Disability in U.S. Military Culture, 1800-1945’, GLQ : a journal of lesbian and gay studies., 9 (2003): pp.149-79

Smith, A.R., From battlefield to Blighty : Frodsham Auxiliary Military Hospital, 1915-1919 (2001)


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Week 10: Survival and Pensions

Anderson, J., War, disability and rehabilitation in Britain : "soul of a nation" (2011)

Anderson, J. and A. Carden-Coyne (eds.), ‘Enabling the Past: New Perspectives in Disability Studies’, European review of history = Revue européenne d'histoire. Special Issue 13, 4 (2006)

Anderson, J., M. Salvante and P. Verstraete (eds.), ‘Commemorating the Disabled Soldier’, First World War studies. Special Issue 6, 1 (2015)

Biernoff, S., ‘The Rhetoric of Disfigurement in First World War Britain’, Social history of medicine. 24, (2011), pp.666-685

Bourke, J. Dismembering the male : men's bodies, Britain and the Great War (1996), Chapter 1

________. ‘Love and Limblessness: Male Heterosexuality, Disability and the Great War’, Journal of war and culture studies. (2015), pp.1-17

Carden-Coyne, A., Reconstructing the body : classicism, modernism, and the First World War: Classicism, Modernism, and the First World War (2009)

Cohen, D., The war come home : disabled veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939 (1999)

Gerber, D.A., ‘Disabled Veterans, the State, and the Experience of Disability in Western Societies, 1914-1950’, Journal of Social History. 34 (2003), pp.899-916

Grant S-M., ‘The Lost Boys: Citizen-Soldiers, Disabled Veterans, and Confederate Nationalism in the Age of People’s War’, The Journal of the Civil War Era, 2 (2012), pp.233-259

Jones, E., et. al., 'Post-combat syndromes from the Boer War to the Gulf: a cluster analysis of their nature and attribution', British medical journal. (Clinical Research Ed.), 324 (2002), pp.321-324

Koven, S., ‘Remembering and Dismemberment: Crippled Children, Wounded Soldiers, and the Great War in Britain’, The American historical review., 99 (1994), pp.1167-1202

Larsson, M., ‘Restoring the Spirit: The Rehabilitation of Disable Soldiers in Australia after the Great War’, Health and history, 6 (2004), pp.45-59

________. ‘Families and Institutions for Shell-Shocked Soldiers in Australia after the First World War’, Social history of medicine., 22 (2009), pp.97-114

________. Shattered ANZACs : living with the scars of war (2009)

Linker, B., War's waste : rehabilitation in World War I America (2011)

Malone, C., ‘A job fit for heroes? Disabled veterans, the Arts and Crafts Movement and Social Reconstruction in post-World War I Britain’, First World War studies. 4 (2013), pp.201-18

Mantin, M. ‘Coalmining and the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-servicemen after the First World War, Social history. 41 (2016), pp.155-70

Perry, H.R., Recycling the disabled : army, medicine, and modernity in ww1 germany (2014)

Parsons, G.A. ‘The Construction of Shell Shock in New Zealand, 1919-1939: A Reassessment’, Social history of medicine., 26 (2013), pp.56-73


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Week 11: What is Military Medicine?

Please revisit the readings from week 1 for this week.

This list was last updated on 28/11/2016