Leeds University Library

HIST2030
Module Reading List

The Crusades and the Crusader States in the 12th Century, 2017/18, Semester 1
Professor Graham Loud
g.a.loud@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This bibliography may seem dauntingly long. Do not be put off by its length. This is intended to provide both a considerable range of subjects, of which you will cover only seven during the course of the module, and a generous choice of reading within individual topics. However, you do need to study this bibliography carefully, because there is inevitably some overlap between topics, and thus some items may be useful for more than one subject. If in doubt, please ask me for further guidance.

Items with a star (*) are to be regarded as particularly useful. 

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A. General Reading on the Crusades

*Christopher Tyerman, God's war : a new history of the Crusades (2006, 2007 or 2008) [this is the work that I would recommend the most]

Andrew Jotischky,  Crusading and the Crusader states  (most recent edn, 2017)

[You would be well-advised to purchase one of these volumes, and especially so if you intend also to do HIST 2031, The Crusades and Medieval Christendom]

Jean Richard,   The Crusades, c. 1071-c. 1291   (1999)

H.E. Mayer,  The Crusades  (1988, 2nd. ed.)

Jonathan Riley-Smith The Crusades : a short history (1987)

Jonathan Phillips, The Crusades, 1095-1197 (2002)

Nikolas Jaspert, The Crusades (2006) [too short to be entirely satisfactory]

Joshua Prawer The world of the Crusaders (1972)

Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Oxford illustrated history of the Crusades (1994)

*Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Atlas of the Crusades (1991)

N. Housley,  Contesting the Crusades (2006)

N. Housley,  Fighting for the cross : crusading to the Holy Land (2008)

A. Andrea & A. Holt (eds.) Seven myths of the Crusades (2015)

Steven Runciman,  A history of the Crusades. (3 vols. 1951-5), vol. i The First Crusade, ii The Kingdom of Jerusalem, iii The Kingdom of Acre [classic narrative history, but now rather out-dated. To be read with caution!]

K.M. Setton et al.  A history of the Crusades (5 vols. 1958-1985) [Likewise, the oldest parts of this are beginning to get rather old!] 

On the historiographical background,

Christopher Tyerman, The debate on the Crusades, 1099-2010 (2011)

Two collections of essays will be widely used:

P.W. Edbury (ed.), Crusade and settlement : Papers Presented to R.C. Smail (1985)

Thomas Madden (ed.), The Crusades : the essential readings (2002)

There are also two useful summary chapters in the New Cambridge Medieval History:

J. Riley-Smith, ‘The Crusades, 1095-1198’, The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 4. Pts 1 and 2, c.1024-c.1198. vol. iv, part 1 (2004)

H. E. Mayer, ‘The Latin East, 1098-1204’, The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 4. Pts 1 and 2, c.1024-c.1198, vol. iv, part 2 (2004)

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Reference works

Peter Lock, The Routledge Companion to the Crusades (2006)

Alan V. Murray (ed.), The Crusades : an Encyclopedia (4 vols., 2006)

Alan V. Murray (ed.), The crusades to the Holy Land : the essential reference guide (2015) 

In addition, copies of articles denoted with [ HDC ] are also available in the High Demand Collection in the Library. Articles followed by [ CR ] are available in the ‘Course Readings’ folder on the VLE; articles followed by [ E ] are available electronically through the library website. Items followed by [ DRM ] are available on the ‘De Re Militari’ website.

 

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B. Primary Sources (in translation)

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(a) Western

[First Crusade]

EITHER The deeds of the Franks and other Jerusalem-bound pilgrims : the earliest chronicle of the first crusades, ed. and tr. N. Dass (2011) OR Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum = The deeds of the Franks and the other pilgrims to Jerusalem, ed. & trans. Rosalind Hill (1956)

Fulcher of Chartres, A history of the expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127, trans. F.R. Ryan and H.S. Fink (1969) Book I

Raymond d'Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, trans. J.H. and L. Hill (1968)

Radulf of Caen, The Gesta Tancredi of Ralph of Caen : a history of the Normans on the First Crusade, trans. B.S. Bachrach & D.S. Bachrach (2005)

Albert of Aachen, Historia Ierosolimitana : history of the journey to Jerusalem, ed. & trans. Susan B. Edgington (2007) [this is a very long text, but useful for dipping in to].

[Second Crusade]

Odo of Deuil, ( De profectione Ludovici VII in orientem = The journey of Louis VII to the East ), ed. and trans. V.G. Berry (1948)

De expugnatione Lyxbonensi = The conquest of Lisbon, trans. C.W. David (1936) [E-3.1 DAV]

Caffaro, Genoa and the twelfth-century Crusades, ed. and tr. M. Hall and J. Phillips (2013) 

[Crusader States]

Fulcher of Chartres, A history of the expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127, trans. F.R. Ryan and H.S. Fink (1969), Book I I-III.

William of Tyre, A history of deeds done beyond the sea, trans. E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey (2 vols. 1941) [Vol. 2 is the useful one]

Walter the Chancellor's the Antiochene Wars, trans. T.S. Asbridge & S.B. Edgington (1999)

[Third Crusade]

P. Edbury (ed.), The conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade : sources in translation
Sources in Translation (1996) [includes the Chronicle of Ernoul]

Ambroise The Crusade of Richard lion-heart trans. M.J. Hubert and J.L. La Monte (1940) or The history of the Holy War : Ambroise's Estoire de la guerre sainte., ed. & trans. Malcom Barber and Marianne Ailes, vol. ii translation

H. Nicholson (ed.), Chronicle of the Third Crusade : a translation of the Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta Regis Ricardi (1997)

G.A. Loud, The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa : the History of the expedition of the Emperor Frederick, and related texts (2010)

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(b) Byzantine

The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, trans. E.R.A. Sewter, (Penguin Classics, 1969)

John Cinnamus, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, trans. C.M. Brand (1976)

Niketas Choniates, O City of Byzantium : Annals of Niketas Choniates, trans. H.P. Magoulias (1984) [M-6NIC]

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(c) Muslim

*F. Gabrieli, Arab historians of the crusades (1969) [an excellent collection]

The Damascus chronicle of the Crusades trans. H.A.R. Gibb (1932)

Usama ibn Munqidh, The Book of Contemplation: Islam and the Crusades, tr. P. Cobb (2008) OR An Arab-Syrian gentleman and warrior in the period of the Crusades : memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh (Kitab al-I'tibar) , trans. P.K. Hitti (1929)

The travels of ibn Jubayr trans. R.J.C. Broadhurst, (1951) pp. 295-325 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva (N-1.3)

The rare and excellent history of Saladin trans. D.S. Richards (2001), also translated as Beha-ed-Din, The Life of Saladin, (Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, Vol. XII, 1897)

Conquete de la Syrie et de la Palestine : par Saladin (al-Fath al-quss f l-fath al-quds ), trad. Française, by H. Masse (1972) (C-1.3)

The chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the crusading period, from al-Kamil fi'l-ta'rikh trans. D.S. Richards, i 1097-1146: The Coming of the Franks and the Muslim Response (2006)

The chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the crusading period, from al-Kamil fi'l-ta'rikh, trans. D.S. Richards, ii 1146-1193: The Age of Nur al-Din and Saladin (2007)

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(d) Collections of Sources

J. A. Brundage, The Crusades : a documentary survey. (1962) [Poor]

L. & J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades : idea and reality, 1095-1274 (1981) [excellent, especially on ideas]

E. Peters (ed.) The First Crusade : the chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and other source materials (1971) [a bad selection, but does contain useful extracts from otherwise untranslated Albert of Aachen and important letters].

E.M. Hallam (ed.) Chronicles of the crusades, (1989)

S.J. Allen & E. Amt The Crusades : a reader (2003) [a useful collection].

C. Tyerman (ed.), Chronicles of the First Crusade, 1096-1099 (2012) [much better than the Peters collection above]

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(e) Module Website – VLE Blackboard

Go to the HIST2030 site on the VLE then to 'Learning Resources' -- 'Contemporary Sources for the Crusade'.

[You are expected to use the translations on this website. Students who fail to use relevant material from this website for papers and essays may well be marked down. ]

This contains translations of the following texts: 

(1) ‘Letters concerning the Second Crusade'

(2) ‘The Capture of Almeria and Tortosa by Caffaro' [NB – see a more recent translation in Caffaro, Genoa and the twelfth-century Crusades, ed. and tr. M. Hall and J. Phillips (2013)]

(3) 'The Autobiography of William of Tyre'

(4) ‘The Conquest of the Holy Land by Saladin’

(5) ‘The Expedition of Frederick Barbarossa’ [extract from a work now available in print, see above]

(6) ‘Philip II of France on the Third Crusade'

(7) 'The Tract about Conditions and Places in the Holy Land'

(8) ‘A Letter of Jacques de Vitry, 1216’ [contains useful information about the religious groups in the Crusader states]

Links to other useful online sites:

The VLE contains links to two approved sites

(1) The 'Medieval Sourcebook' of Fordham University

(2) De Re Militari: the Society for Medieval Military History. This last has some very useful material for the Crusades, both translations of primary texts and secondary articles.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY BY TOPIC

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I Crusading Ideas

C. Erdmann, The origin of the idea of crusade (Eng. trans. 1977) [Old, originally published in 1935, but still fundamental]

*J. Riley-Smith, What were the Crusades? (1977)

J. Riley-Smith, The first crusaders, 1095-1131 (1997), chapters 2-3, pp. 23-80.

F.H. Russell, The just war in the Middle Ages (1975) [Philosophy M-4.2 RUS]

J.A. Brundage, Medieval canon law and the crusader (1962)

P.J. Cole, The preaching of the crusades to the Holy Land, 1095-1270 (1991)

William J. Purkis, Crusading spirituality in the Holy Land and Iberia, c.1095-c.1187 (2008), chapters 1-4.

I.S. Robinson, 'Gregory VII and the soldiers of Christ, History lviii (1973) 169-192 [HDC]

*H.E.J. Cowdrey. ' Pope Urban II's preaching of the first crusade History lv (1970) 177-188 [reprinted in H.E.J. Cowdrey, Popes, monks and crusaders (1984), and in The Crusades : the essential readings ] [HDC]

H.E.J. Cowdrey, ‘Christianity and the morality of warfare during the first century of Crusading’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 1, Western approaches ed. M. Bull & N. Housley (2003), 175-92. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

E.O. Blake, ' The formation of the 'crusade idea' ', Journal of ecclesiastical history. . xxi (1970) 11-31 [HDC]

J.A. Brundage, 'The Army of the First Crusade and the Crusade Vow', Medieval Studies xxxiii (1971) 334-343 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

*J. Riley-Smith, ' Crusading as an act of love ', History lxv (1980) 177-192 [HDC] [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ]

T.P. Murphy (ed.), The holy war (1976), especially the essays by Cowdrey and Brundage [Cowdrey's essay is reprinted in Popes, monks and crusaders ]

*C.J. Tyerman, 'Were there any Crusades in the twelfth century? ', English historical review. cx (1995), 553-577 [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ] – a very important, if controversial, essay

Janus Moller Jensen, 'Peregrinatio sive Expeditio: why the First Crusade was not a pilgrimage', al-Masaq : Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 15 (2003), 119-38.

M. Markowski, ‘Crucesignatus: its origins and early usage’, Journal of Medieval History. x (1984), 157-65 [E].

P.J. Cole ‘”Oh God, the heathen hath come into your inheritance” (Ps. 78.1). The theme of religious pollution in Crusade documents’, in Crusaders and Muslims in twelfth-century Syria ed. M. Shatzmiller (1993), 84-111.

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II The Byzantine Background

The Alexiad of Anna Comnena

G. Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine state (Eng. trans. 1968)

R.J.H. Jenkins, Byzantium : the imperial centuries, A. D. 610-1071. 602-1071 (1966)

R.J.H. Jenkins, The Byzantine Empire on the eve of the Crusades (Hist. Assoc. Pamphlet G-24: 1953)

P. Charanis, 'Byzantium, the West and the Origins of the First Crusade', Byzantion. xix (1949) 17-36

S. Vryonis, 'Byzantium, the Social Basis for decline in the Eleventh Century', Greek, Roman, and Byzantine studies. ii (1959) 159-75

S. Vryonis, The decline of medieval hellenism in Asia Minor and the process of Islamization from the eleventh through the fifteenth century (1971). chaps. 1-3.

M. Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025-1204 : a political history (1984)

S. Runciman, The Eastern schism : a study of the papacy and the Eastern Churches during the XIth and XIIth centuries (1955)

Ralph-Johannes Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096-1204 (1993)

L. Neville, Anna Komnene : the life and work of a medieval historian ISBN: 9780190498177; 9780190498191; 9780190498184 ebk (2016)

*Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (2003)

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III The Muslim Background

(a) The Islamic World at the Time of the Crusades

A history of the Crusades, ed. K. Setton, Vol. I The First Hundred Years, ed. M.W. Baldwin, chaps. 3-4, pp. 181-276

E. Ashtor, A social and economic history of the Near East in the Middle Ages (1976), especially chaps. 5-6

Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades : Islamic perspectives (1999)

Claude Cahen, Pre-Ottoman Turkey : a general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history c.1071-1330 (1968)

P.K. Hitti, History of the Arabs, especially chap. 45. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

P.M. Holt (ed.), The Eastern Mediterranean lands in the period of the Crusades (1977), especially chaps. 4-5

*P.M. Holt, The age of the Crusades : the Near East from the eleventh century to 1517 (1986)

Bernard Lewis, The Assassins : a radical sect in Islam. (1967)

Ronnie Ellenblum, The collapse of the eastern Mediterranean : climate change and the decline of the East, 950-1072 (2012)

C. F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt. Vol.1, Islamic Egypt, 640-1571/ edited by Carl F. Petry ; general editor, M.W. Daly. (1998) [ see esp. the chapters on the Fatimids and on the Ayyubids ]

M. Brett,  ‘Abbasids, Fatimids and Seljuqs,’ in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. iv, part 2 (2004), 675-720.

S. Humphreys, ‘Zengids, Ayyubids and Seljuqs’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. iv, part 2 (2004), 721-752.

N. Christie, Muslims and Crusaders : Christianity's Wars in the Middle East, 1095-1382, from the Islamic Sources (2014)

P. Cobb, The race for paradise : an Islamic history of the Crusades ISBN: 9780199532018 (hbk.) : £20.00 (2014)

The Muslim texts, especially the introduction to the The Damascus chronicle of the Crusades

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(b) Attitudes to Islam

R.W. Southern, Western views of Islam in the Middle Ages (1965)

D.C. Munro, 'Western Attitudes to Islam during the Crusades', Speculum. vi (1931) 329-343

N. Daniel, Islam and the West : the making of an image (1960)

C.H. Haskins, Studies in the history of mediaeval science (1927)

B.Z. Kedar, Crusade and mission : European approaches toward the Muslims (1984)

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IV The First Crusade

Sources: Gesta Francorum, Fulcher, Raymond d'Aguilers, Anna Comnena Bks. 10-11; The Crusades : a reader, pp. 39-53. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

S.Runciman, A history of the Crusades., vol. I The First Crusade (1951)

Thomas Asbridge, The first crusade : a new history (2004)

Jonathan Phillips (ed.,), The first crusade : origins and impact ( 1997), especially the essays by J. France, J. Sheppard and C. Hillenbrand.

*J. France, Victory in the East : a military history of the First Crusade (1994) [excellent]

J. Riley-Smith, The first crusade and the idea of crusading (1986)

C. Cahen, 'An Introduction to the First Crusade', Past & present. 6 (1954) 6-31

Jason T. Roche, 'In the wake of Mantzikert: The First Crusade and the Alexian Reconquest of Western Anatolia', History. (2009), 135-53.

H.E.J. Cowdrey, ' Pope Urban II's preaching of the first crusade ', History lv (1970), 177-188 [HDC] [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ]

H.E.J. Cowdrey, 'The Gregorian Papacy, Byzantium and the First Crusade', in J.D. Howard-Johnston (ed). Byzantium and the West c.850-c.1200 : Proceedings of the XVIII Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Oxford 30th March - 1st April 1984. (1988), pp. 145-169

J. France, 'The departure of Tatikios from the Crusading Army', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. 44 (1971), 131-47 - Available online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2281.1971.tb02060.x/pdf

J. France, 'The crisis of the First Crusade', from the defeat of Kerbogha to the departure from Arqa', Byzantion. 40 (1970), 276-308.

Alan V. Murray, 'The Army of Godfrey of Bouillon, 1096-1099: Structure and Dynamics of a Contingent on the First Crusade', in Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire. 70 (1992), 301-29. [reprinted in Medieval warfare, 1000-1300, ed. John France (2006), pp. 423-51]. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Alan V. Murray, ‘Money and logistics in the forces of the First Crusade: coinage, bullion and supply, 1096-99’, in Logistics of warfare in the age of the Crusades : proceedings of a workshop held at the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 30 September to 4 October 2002, ed. John Pryor (2006), pp. 229-49. - Available online: http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/b/b036556.pdf

*John Pryor, 'A view from the masthead: the First Crusade from the sea', Crusades. 7 (2008), 87-152. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

James H. Forse, 'Armenians and the First Crusade', Journal of Medieval History. 18 (1991), 13-22. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Peter Frankopan, The first crusade : the call from the East (2012). [Fascinating, if controversial approach.]

G. Bell, ‘In starvation’s shadow: the role of logistics in the strained Byzantine-European relations during the First Crusade’, Byzantion. 80 (2010), 38-71.

John France,  ‘The First Crusade as a naval enterprise’, Mariner's mirror. 83/4 (1997), 389-97. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

B. Bachrach,  ‘Some Observations on the Role of the Byzantine Navy in the Success of the First Crusade’, Journal of medieval military history. 1 (2002), 83-100. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

*B. Bachrach, ‘The Crusader March from Dorylaion to Herakleia’, in Shipping, trade and crusade in the medieval Mediterranean : studies in honour of John Pryor, ed. R. Gertwagen and E. Jeffreys (2012), 231-254. Available online

A. V. Murray,  ‘The Enemy Within: Bohemund, Byzantium and the Subversion of the First Crusade’, Crusading and pilgrimage in the Norman world, ed. K. Hurlock and P. Oldfield (2015), 31-47. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [CR]

S. Edgington & L. Garcia-Guijarro (eds.) Jerusalem the Golden : the origins and impact of the First Crusade (2014) 

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Background

J. Riley-Smith, The first crusaders, 1095-1131 (1997)

M. Bull, Knightly piety and the lay response to the First Crusade : the Limousin and Gascony, c.970-c.1130 (1993)

M. Bull, 'The roots of lay enthusiasm for the First Crusade', History. lxxviii (1993) 353-372 [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ]

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V The Aftermath of the First Crusade

Anna Comnena : a study, Bks. 11-13

J.G. Rowe, 'Paschal II, Bohemond of Antioch and the Byzantine Empire', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester. xlix (1966-7), 165-202 - Available online: https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-man-scw:1m2923&datastreamId=POST-PEER-REVIEW-PUBLISHERS-DOCUMENT.PDF

E. Joranson, 'The problem of the spurious letter of the Emperor Alexius to the Count of Flanders', The American historical review. lv (1949- 50) [E]

A.C. Krey, 'A neglected passage in the Gesta', The Crusades and other historical essays : presented to Dana C. Munro by his former students (1928), pp. 57 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva ff.

J. Riley-Smith, 'The title of Godfrey of Bouillon', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. lii (1979), 83-7 Available online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2281.1979.tb02085.x/abstract

J. Riley-Smith, ' The motives of the earliest crusaders and the settlement of latin Palestine , English historical review. xcviii (1983) 721-736 [HDC]

Alan V. Murray, ' The title of Godfrey of Bouillon as ruler of Jerusalem ', Collegium Medievale 3 (1990), pp 163-78 [offprint in Brotherton Library]

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VI The Second Crusade

Sources: Cinnamus, Odo of Deuil, William of Tyre, Bk. 16, De Expugnatione Lyxboniense, ‘Letters concerning the Second Crusade’, ‘The capture of Almeria and Tortosa’ [website].

*J. Phillips, The Second Crusade : extending the frontiers of Christendom . (2007)

J. Phillips & M. Hoch (eds.), The Second Crusade : scope and consequences. (2001)

G. Constable, 'The Second Crusade as seen by Contemporaries', Traditio. ix (1953), 213 ff. [still very important] Available online: http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/z/zsn2a038422.pdf

A.J. Forey, ' The second crusade : scope and objectives ', The Durham University journal. lxxxvi (1994), 165-175 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [HDC]

M. Gervers (ed.), The Second crusade and the Cistercians (1995), esp. pp. 79-128. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land : relations between the Latin East and the West, 1119-1187 (1996)

Jonathan Harris Byzantium and the Crusades (2003)

J.J. Norwich, The kingdom in the sun 1130-1194 (1970) chaps. 6-7, pp. 106-142.

A. Grabois, 'The Crusade of King Louis VII: a reconsideration', Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail, ed. P.W. Edbury [See Section A], pp. 94-105.

H. Mayr-Harting, ‘Odo of Deuil, the Second Crusade and the monastery of St. Denis’, in The Culture of Christendom : essays in medieval history in memory of Denis L.T. Bethel ed. M.A. Meyer (1993), 225-41.

P. Stephenson, ‘Anna Comnena’s Alexiad as a source for the Second Crusade? ’, Journal of Medieval History. xxix (2003), 41-54.

A.J. Forey, 'The failure of the siege of Damascus in 1148', Journal of Medieval History. x (1984), 13-23 [E: via the De Re Militari website]

M. Hoch, ‘The choice of Damascus as the objective of the Second Crusade’, in Autour de la première croisade : actes du Colloque de la Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Clermont-Ferrand, 22-25 juin 1995, ed. M. Balard (1996), 359-69. Available online: http://www.knightorder.org.uk/history/The%20Choice%20of%20Damascus%20as%20the%20Objective%20of%20the%20Second%20Crusade%20a%20re-evaluation.pdf

A.V. Murray, 'Galilee and Damascus in the period of the Crusades', Nottingham medieval studies. xl (1996), 190-3. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

G.A. Loud, ‘Some reflections on the failure of the Second Crusade’, Crusades. iv (2005), 1-14. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Roche, ‘Conrad III and the Second Crusade: retreat from Dorylaion’, Crusades. v (2006), 85-97. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

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Extra sources on the Second Crusade

The "Historia pontificalis" of John of Salisbury, trans. M. Chibnall (1956), pp. 11-12, 52-62 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

The letters of St. Bernard of Clairvaux trans. B. Scott-James (1953), especially nos. 320, 323, 391-4, 398-400, 408, 410.

Otto of Freising, The deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, trans. C.C. Mierow, (1953), Bk. 1 Chaps. 34-47, 62-65, pp. 69-81, 101-6.

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VII The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

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(a) General

J. Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1972)

J. Richard, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (Eng. trans. 2 vols. 1979)

J. Prawer, Crusader institutions (1980) – [outstanding]

Zacour, N.P. & H.W. Hazard (eds.) A history of the Crusades. Vol.5, The impact of the Crusades on the Near East (1985)

R.J. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096-1204 (1993)

J. Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land : relations between the Latin East and the West, 1119-1187 (1996)

*M. Barber, The Crusader states (2012)

T.S.R. Boase, Kingdoms and strongholds of the Crusaders (1971)

R.C. Smail, The Crusaders in Syria and the Holy Land (1973)

R.C. Smail, Crusading warfare, 1097-1193. (1956)

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(b) Settlement and Social Structure

Sources: Ibn Jubayr, The Autobiography of Usamah, ‘A letter of Jacques de Vitry’ [website]

J. Prawer, 'The Settlement of Latins in Jerusalem', Speculum. xxvii (1952) [E]

J. Prawer, 'Colonization activities in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem', Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire xxix (1951). Available online: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rbph_0035-0818_1951_num_29_4_2115

J. Prawer, 'The Assise de Teneure and the Assise de Vente', The economic history review. Ser. II.iv (1951-2), 77-87

(All three reprinted in Crusader institutions, chaps. 4-5, 14)

J. Prawer, Palestinian Agriculture and the Crusader Rural System', Crusader institutions chap. 6 ; a revised version of the essay first published (in French) in Byzantion. xxii (1952) and xxiii (1953)

Ronnie Ellenblum, Frankish rural settlement in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1998)

J. Riley-Smith, 'Some lesser officials in Latin Syria', English historical review. lxxxvii (1972), 1-26 [reprinted in J. Riley-Smith, Crusaders and Settlers in the Latin East (2008), essay xi] - Available online: http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/LXXXVII/CCCXLII/1.citation

J. Riley-Smith, 'Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants', Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages, ed. D. Baker (Edinburgh 1973) [reprinted in Riley-Smith, Crusaders and Settlers in the Latin East (2008), essay xi]

H.E. Mayer, ' Latins, Muslims and Greeks in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem ', History. lxiii (1978), 175-192 [reprinted in his Probleme des lateinischen Königreichs Jerusalem (1983)] [HDC]

B.Z. Kedar, 'The subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant', in Muslims under Latin rule, 1100-1300, ed. James M. Powell (1990), pp. 135-74 [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ]

Alan V. Murray, 'Ethnic Identity in the Crusader States: The Frankish Race and the Settlement of Outremer', in Concepts of national identity in the Middle Ages, ed. S. Forde, L. Johnson and A.V. Murray (1995), 59-73 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

A. Mallett,  Popular Muslim reactions to the Franks in the Levant, 1097-1291 (2014)

P. Cobb, Usama ibn Munqidh : warrior-poet of the age of Crusades ISBN: 1851684034 (2005)

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(c) The Early Kingdom (to the 1130s)

Sources: Fulcher of Chartres, Bks. 2-3, William of Tyre.

H.E. Mayer, 'The Origins of the County of Jaffa', Israel exploration journal. (1985), 35-85 [reprinted in his Kings and lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)] Available online: http://www.jchp.ucla.edu/Bibliography/Mayer%201985%20%28IEJ%2035%29.pdf

H.E. Mayer, 'The Origins of the lordship of Ramla and Lydda in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem' Speculum. lx (1985), 537-52 [E] [reprinted in his Kings and lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)].

Alan V. Murray, 'The Origins of the Frankish nobility of the Kingdom of Jerusalem', Mediterranean historical review. iv (1989), 281-300 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Alan V. Murray, 'Dynastic Continuity or Dynastic Change? : The Accession of Baldwin II and the Nobility of the Kingdom of Jerusalem', Medieval prosopography. xiii (1992), 1-27. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Alan V. Murray, ' Baldwin II and his Nobles: Baronial Factionalism and Dissent in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1118-1134 ', Nottingham medieval studies. xxxviii (1994), 60-85. [HDC]

Alan V. Murray, ‘”Mighty against the enemies of Christ”: the relic of the True Cross in the armies of the kingdom of Jerusalem’, in The crusades and their sources : essays presented to Bernard Hamilton, ed. John France & William G. Zajac (1998), pp. 217-38 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva .

Alan V. Murray, The Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem : a dynastic history 1099-1125 (2000)

Jean Richard, 'Frankish Power in the Eastern Mediterranean', Mediterranean historical review. ii (1987), 168-87 Available online

J. Riley-Smith, ‘King Fulk of Jerusalem and the “Sultan of Babylon”, in Montjoie : studies in Crusade history in honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer, ed. B.Z. Kedar, J. Riley-Smith & R. Hiestand (1997), 55-66. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [reprinted in J. Riley-Smith, Crusaders and settlers in the Latin East (2008), essay xii].

J. Riley-Smith, ‘Families, Crusades and Settlement in the Latin East’, in J. Riley-Smith, Crusaders and settlers in the Latin East (2008), essay ix. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

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(d) Government

J.L. La Monte, Feudal monarchy in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100 to 1291 (Cambridge, Mass. 1932) [to be used with care, good on details, esp. chaps. 4-8, conclusions rather dated].

J. Riley-Smith, The feudal nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277 (1971), especially chapters 5 & 7.

S. Tibble, Monarchy and lordships in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291 (1989)

J. Prawer, ' The nobility and the feudal regime in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem ', Lordship and community in medieval Europe : selected readings, ed. F.L. Cheyette (1968) pp.156-172 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [reprinted in Crusader institutions, chap. 2, pp 20-45] [HDC]

Deborah Gerish, 'Ancestors and predecessors: royal continuity and identity in the first kingdom of Jerusalem', Anglo-Norman Studies20 Proceedings of the Battle Conference in Dublin, 1997 , ed. C. harper-Bill (1998), 127-50. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Deborah Gerish, 'The True Cross and the kings of Jerusalem', The Haskins Society journal. 8 (1996/9), 137-55.

P.W. Edbury, 'Feudal Obligations in the Latin East', Byzantion 47 (1977) 328-356

S. Reynolds, ‘Fiefs and vassals in twelfth-century Jerusalem: a view from the west’, Crusades. i (2002), 29-48.

P.W. Edbury, ‘Fiefs and vassals in twelfth and thirteenth century Jerusalem’, Crusades. i (2002), 49-62.

B.Z. Kedar, 'The general tax of 1183 in the Crusading Kingdom: innovation or adaptation', English historical review. lxxxix (1974), 339- 345

*H.E. Mayer, 'Studies in the history of Queen Melisende', Dumbarton Oaks papers. xxvi (1972), 95-182 – very important [reprinted in H.E. Mayer, Probleme des lateinischen Königreichs Jerusalem (1983)]

H.E. Mayer, 'The Beginnings of King Amalric of Jerusalem', in The Horns of Hattin, ed. B.Z. Kedar (1992), pp 121-135

H.E. Mayer, 'The Wheel of Fortune: Seignorial Vicissitudes under Kings Fulk and Baldwin III of Jerusalem', Speculum. lxv (1990), 860-7 [E] [reprinted in his Kings and lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)].

M. Barber, ‘The career of Philip of Nablus in the kingdom of Jerusalem’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 2, Defining the crusader kingdom, ed. P.W. Edbury & J. Phillips (2003), 60-75.

A. V. Murray, ‘Women in the Royal Succession of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1291)’, Mächtige Frauen? : Königinnen und Fürstinnen im europäischen Mittelalter (11. - 14. Jahrhundert), ed. C. Zey (2015), 131-162. [CR]

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VIII The Noble Families of Jerusalem

S. Tibble, Monarchy and lordships in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291 [see above, section VII (d)]

J.L. La Monte, 'John d'Ibelin. The Old Lord of Beirut 1177-1236', Byzantion. xii (1937) 417 ff.

J.L. La Monte, 'The Lords of Le Puiset on the Crusades', Speculum. xvii (1942), 100 ff. [E]

J.L. La Monte, 'The Lords of Sidon in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries', Byzantion. xvii (1944/5), 183 ff.

J.L. La Monte, The Lords of Caesarea in the period of the Crusades', Speculum. xxii (1947), 145 ff.

M. E. Nickerson, 'The Seigneurie of Beirut in the twelfth century and the Brisebarre family of Beirut-Blanchegarde', Byzantion. xix (1949), 141-85.

H.E. Mayer, Kings and lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)

P. W. Edbury,  John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1997)

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IX The Principality of Antioch

Walter the Chancellor, Albert of Aachen [see primary sources]

T.S. Asbridge, ‘The “Crusader” community at Antioch: the impact of interaction with Byzantium and Islam’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Ser. VI.ix (1999), 305-25.

T.S. Asbridge, The creation of the principality of Antioch, 1098-1130 (2000)

T.S. Asbridge, ‘Alice of Antioch: a case study of female power in the twelfth century’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 2, Defining the crusader kingdom, ed. P.W. Edbury & J. Phillips (2003), 29-47.

C. Cahen, La Syrie du nord à l'époque des croisades et la principauté franque d'Antioche. (1940)

M. Barber, The Crusader states (2012)

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X The Collapse of the First Kingdom of Jerusalem 1174-87

Sources: William of Tyre, Bks. 19-23, Ernoul & contemporary letters, in Edbury (ed.), The conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade : sources in translatio n [above], ‘The Conquest of the Holy Land by Saladin’ [on module website].

M.W. Baldwin, Raymond III of Tripolis and the fall of Jerusalem (1140-1187) (1936) [to be used with care, now rather dated].

*B. Hamilton, The leper king and his heirs : Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (2000) [excellent, even if you disagree with his views]

R.C. Smail, ' Latin Syria and the West 1149-1187 ', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., ser. V.xix (1969) 1-20 [HDC]

R.C. Smail, ‘The international status of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem 1150-1197’, The Eastern Mediterranean lands in the period of the Crusades, ed. P.M. Holt (1977), pp. 23-43. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

B. Hamilton, ' "The Elephant of Christ", Reynald of Chatillon', Studies in church history. xv (1978) 97-108 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

B. Hamilton, ' Miles of Plancy and the Fief of Beirut, in The Horns of Hattin : proceedings of the Second Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Jerusalem and Haifa, 2-6 July 1987 , ed. B.Z. Kedar (1992) pp 136-146 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [HDC]

R.L. Nicolson, Joscelyn III and the fall of the crusader states, 1134-1199. (1973) [rather disappointing].

H.E. Mayer, 'Henry II of England and the Holy Land', English Historical Review. xcvii (1982), 721-739

R.C. Smail, 'The Predicaments of Guy de Lusignan 1183-87', Outremer : studies in the history of the crusading kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer Presented to Joshua Prawer, ed. B.Z. Kedar, H.E. Mayer and R.C. Smail (1982), pp.159-176

*Peter Edbury, ' Propaganda and faction in the kingdom of Jerusalem : the background to Hattin ', in Crusaders and Muslims in twelfth-century Syria, ed. Maya Shatzmiller (1993), 173-189 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [HDC] [crucial]

Peter Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1997)

B.Z. Kedar, 'The Battle of Hattin revisited', in The Horns of Hattin : proceedings of the Second Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Jerusalem and Haifa, 2-6 July 1987, pp. 190-207.

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XI The Church in the Crusader States

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(a) The Secular Church

J.L. La Monte, Feudal monarchy in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100 to 1291 [as in (VII(d) above], chapter 10 pp.203-216

*Bernard Hamilton, The Latin Church in the Crusader states : the secular church (1980)

Bernard Hamilton, 'A Medieval Urban Church, the case of the Crusader States', Studies in church history. xvi (1979) 159-170 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [reprinted in B. Hamilton, Crusaders, Cathars and the holy places (1999)]

B. Hamilton, ‘Ralph of Domfront, Patriarch of Antioch (1135-40)’, Nottingham medieval studies. xxviii (1984), 1-21 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [reprinted in B. Hamilton, Crusaders, Cathars and the holy places (1999)]

B. Hamilton, ‘Aimery of Limoges. Latin Patriarch of Antioch (c. 1142-96) and the unity of the Churches’, in East and West in the crusader states : context, contacts, confrontations II : acta of the congress held at Hernen Castle in May 1997, ed. K. Ciggaar & H. Teule (1999), 1-12 [also useful for the native communities].

A history of the Crusades. Vol.5, The impact of the Crusades on the Near East [above section VII(a)], chapter 5. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Riley-Smith, 'The Latin Clergy and the settlement in Palestine and Syria, 1098-1100', The Catholic historical review. lxxiv (1988) 539- 557

J.G. Rowe, 'Paschal II and the relations between the spiritual and temporal powers in the Kingdom of Jerusalem', Speculum. xxxii (1957), 470-501 [E]

J.G. Rowe, 'The Papacy and the Ecclesiastical Province of Tyre', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester. xliii (1960), 160-189 [CR] - Available online: https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-man-scw:1m2855&datastreamId=POST-PEER-REVIEW-PUBLISHERS-DOCUMENT.PDF

H.E. Mayer, 'The Concordat of Nablus', Journal of Ecclesiastical History. xxxiii (1982), 531-543

Y. Katzir, 'The Patriarch of Jerusalem. Primate of the Latin Kingdom', Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail, ed. P.W. Edbury (1985), pp. 169-175

P.W. Edbury and J.G. Rowe, ' William of Tyre and the patriarchal election of 1180 ', English historical review. xciii (1978), 1-25 [HDC]

B.Z. Kedar, 'The Patriarch Eraclius', Outremer : studies in the history of the crusading kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer [as above], pp. 177-204

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(b) Monasticism

B. Hamilton, ‘Rebuilding Zion: the Holy Places of Jerusalem in the twelfth century’, Studies in church history. xiv (1977), 105-116. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

B. Hamilton, 'Ideals of Holiness: Crusaders, Contemplatives and Mendicants', International history review. xvii (1995), 693-712

*A. Jotischky, The perfection of solitude : hermits and monks in the crusader states (1995)

H.E. Mayer, Bistmer, Klster und Stifte im Knigreich Jerusalem (1977) [an important study for anyone who can read German]

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XII The Native Communities in the Crusader States

Sources: ‘The Tract about the places and conditions of the Holy Land’, ‘A letter of Jacques de Vitry 1216’ [website]

*Christopher McEvitt, The Crusades and the Christian world of the East : rough tolerance. Rough Tolerance (2008)

Hadia Dajani-Shakeel, 'Natives and Franks in Palestine: Perceptions and Interactions', in Conversion and continuity : indigenous Christian communities in Islamic lands, eighth to eighteenth centuries, pp 161-84 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Elias El-Hayek 'Struggle for Survival: The Maronites of the Middle Ages', in Conversion and continuity : indigenous Christian communities in Islamic lands, eighth to eighteenth centuries pp 407-21

B.Z. Kedar Crusade and mission : European approaches toward the Muslims (Princeton, 1984)

*B.Z. Kedar, 'The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant', in Muslims under Latin rule, 1100-1300, ed. James M. Powell (Princeton, 1990), pp 135-74 [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ]

Conversion and continuity : indigenous Christian communities in Islamic lands, eighth to eighteenth centuries  ed. Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi (Toronto, 1990)

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XIII William of Tyre. The great crusader historian

‘The lost autobiographical chapter of William of Tyre’ [website]

*P.W. Edbury/J.G. Rowe, William of Tyre : historian of the Latin East (1988)

P.W. Edbury/J.G. Rowe, ' William of Tyre and the patriarchal election of 1180 ', English historical review. xliii (1978), 1-25 [HDC]

R.H.C. Davies, 'William of Tyre', Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages, ed. D. Baker (1973)

D.W.T.C. Vesey, 'William of Tyre and the Art of Historiography', Mediaeval studies. xxxv (1973), 433-455 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

B. Hamilton, ‘William of Tyre and the Byzantine Empire’, in Porphyrogenita : essays on the history and literature of Byzantium and the Latin East in honour of Julian Chrysostomides, ed. C. Dendrinos et alii (2003), pp. 219-33 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva .

M.R. Tessera, ‘Prudentes homines … qui habebant magis exercitatos’: a preliminary inquiry into William of Tyre’s vocabulary of power’, Crusades. i (2002), 63-72.

R.W. Crawford, 'William of Tyre and the Maronites', Speculum. xxx (1955) [E]

M.R. Morgan, The chronicle of Ernoul and the continuations of William of Tyre (1973) [rather technical]

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XIV Saladin and the Third Crusade

Sources: Ambroise; A Chronicle of the Third Crusade; Edbury, The Fall of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade; The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin or al-Nawadir al-Sultaniyya wa'l-Mahasin al-Yusufiyya; The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa, [as above] - there is a extract from this last text on the VLE.

A. Ehrenkreutz, Saladin (1972) (See review of this by H.E. Mayer, Speculum. (1974) 724-7)

*M.C. Lyons & D. Jackson Saladin : the Politics of the Holy War (1982) [the best study on the subject]

Hannes Möhring, Saladin, the Sultan and his times, 1138-1193 (2008)

H.A.R. Gibb, 'The Achievement of Saladin', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester. xxv (1952)

D.S. Richards, 'The Early History of Saladin', The Islamic quarterly. xvii (1973), 140-159 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

R. Stephen Humphreys, From Saladin to the Mongols : the Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260 (1977)

C.M. Brand, 'The Byzantines and Saladin: opponents of the Third Crusade', Speculum. xxxvii (1962) 167-181 [E]

Penny J. Cole, 'Christian perceptions of the Battle of Hattin (583/1187)', al-Masaq.: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean6 (1993), 9-39. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Alan V. Murray, ‘Finance and logistics of the Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa’, in In Laudem Hierosolymitani : studies in Crusades and medieval culture in honour of Benjamin Z. Kedar, ed. I. Shagrir, R. Ellenblum & J. Riley-Smith (Aldershot 2007), pp. 357-68 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [CR ] .

J. Gillingham, 'Roger of Howden on Crusade', Medieval historical writing in the Christian and Islamic worlds, ed D.O. Morgan (1982) pp 60-75 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Gillingham, 'Richard I and the science of warfare', in War and government in the Middle Ages : essays in honour of J.O. Prestwich.ed. John Gillingham and J.C. Holt (1984), 194-207. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

John Gillingham,  Richard I (Yale, 1999) [not to be confused with his earlier works entitled Richard the Lionheart

M. Markowski, ‘Richard Lionheart: bad king, bad crusader? ’, Journal of Medieval History. 22 (1997), 351-65.

D. Jacoby, ‘Conrad, Marquis of Montferrat and the kingdom of Jerusalem (1187-92)’, in D. Jacoby, Trade, commodities and shipping in the medieval Mediterranean (1997) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

A.-M. Edde, Saladin (2011), tr. J.-M. Todd. [Recent assessment by a distinguished French historian.]

S. Humphreys, ‘Zengids, Ayyubids and Seljuqs’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. iv, part 2 (2004), 721-752.

N. Christie, Muslims and Crusaders : Christianity's Wars in the Middle East, 1095-1382, from the Islamic Sources (2014)

P. Cobb, The race for paradise : an Islamic history of the Crusades ISBN: 9780199532018 (hbk.) : £20.00 (2014)

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XV Warfare and Fortifications

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(a) Warfare

R.C. Smail, Crusading warfare, 1097-1193. (1956) [fundamental]

C. Marshall, Warfare in the Latin east, 1192-1291 (1992)

J. Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem : European colonialism in the Middle Ages, chapter 15 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Prawer, 'The Battle of Hattin', Crusader institutions chapter 19, pp. 484-500

*John Pryor (ed.), Logistics of warfare in the age of the Crusades : proceedings of a workshop held at the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 30 September to 4 October 2002 (2006)

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(b) Fortifications

*Hugh Kennedy, Crusader castles (1994) [excellent, the best book on the subject]

Ronnie Ellenblum, Crusader castles and modern histories (2007)

P. Deschamps, Les Chateaux des Croisés en Terre Sainte i Le Crac des Chevaliers : tude historique et archologique (1934), ii La defense du royaume de Jrusalem : tude historique, geographique et monumentale (1939), iii La dfense du comt de Tripoli et de la principaut d'Antioche : tude historique, gographique, toponymique et monumentale (1973) (each volume has a vol. of plates attached - Architecture E DES)

T.E. Lawrence, Crusader castles (2 vols., 1936) - (Special Collections, English P-40LAW). (2nd ed., ed by D. Pringle, 1988)

K. Molin, Unknown crusader castles (2001)

A history of the Crusades. Vol.4, The art and architecture of the Crusader states, ed. H.W. Hazard (1976), chapter 4. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

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XVI Crusader Art

Jarsolav Folda, Crusader Art (2008)

A history of the Crusades. Vol.4, The art and architecture of the Crusader states, ed. H.W.
Hazard (1977)

H. Buchtal, Miniature painting in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1957)

K. Weitzmann, 'Icon Painting in the Crusader Kingdom', Dumbarton Oaks Papers. xx (1966), 49-83

L.A. Hunt, 'Art and colonialism: the mosaics of the church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (1169) and the problem of "Crusader" art', Dumbarton Oaks Papers. xlv (1991)

This list was last updated on 08/09/2017