Leeds University Library

HIST2031
Module Reading List

The Crusades and Medieval Christendom, 2017/18, Semester 2
Professor Graham Loud
g.a.loud@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Bibliography

This bibliography has been drawn up on an extended scale, both for classes and for essay writing. Do not be put off by its length. This is intended to provide both a wide range of subjects, and a generous choice of reading within individual topics, so that no student is ever at a loss for something relevant to read. Remember that each group will undertake only seven topics. However, you do need to study this bibliography carefully, because there is inevitably some overlap between topics, and thus some items may be useful for more than one subject. If in doubt, please ask me for further guidance .

Copies of articles denoted with [ HDC ] are available in the High Demand Collection in the Edward Boyle Library . Articles followed by [ E ] are also available electronically, either through the library website or on the module website on the VLE. Articles marked [ DReM ] are available on the ‘De Re Militari’ website, the website of the Society for Medieval Military History: http://www.deremilitari.org

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A. General Reading on the Crusades

H.E. Mayer, The Crusades (1988, 2nd. ed.)

Jean Richard, The Crusades, c. 1071-c. 1291 (1999)

Andrew Jotischky, Crusading and the Crusader states (2004)

Christopher Tyerman, God's War : a new history of the Crusades (2006)[recommended]

Christopher Tyerman, The debate on the Crusades, 1099-2010 (2011)

Jonathan Riley-Smith The Crusades : a short history (1987)

Jonathan Phillips, The Crusades, 1095-1197 (2002)[particularly useful as an overview of the previous century of crusading history]

Nikolaus Jaspert, The Crusades (2006)

Joshua Prawer The world of the Crusaders (1972)

Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Oxford illustrated history of the Crusades (1994)

Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Atlas of the Crusades (1991)


Two collections of essays will be widely used:

P.W. Edbury (ed.), Crusade and settlement : Papers Presented to R.C. Smail (1985)

Thomas Madden (ed.), The Crusades : the essential readings (2002)

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Reference works

Peter Lock, The Routledge companion to the Crusades (2006)

Alan V. Murray (ed.), The Crusades : an encyclopedia (4 vols., 2006)

Alan V. Murray (ed.), The crusades to the Holy Land : the essential reference guide (2015)

 

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B. Primary Sources (in translation)

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(a) Western

[Fourth Crusade]

Geoffrey de Villehardouin, 'The Capture of Constantinople',available in C. Smith, tr. and ed., Chronicles of the Crusades (2008) [ HDC ]; and in M. Shaw, tr. and ed., Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin Classics, 1963).

Robert of Clari, Conquest of Constantinople , trans. E.H. McNeal (1936)

A.J. Andrea (ed.), The capture of Constantinople : the Hystoria Constantinopolitana of Gunther of Pairis (1995)

A.J. Andrea (ed.), Contemporary sources for the Fourth Crusade (2000)

[The Crusade and the Crusader States in the Thirteenth Century]

Philip of Novara, The wars of Frederick II against the Ibelins in Syria and Cyprus , trans. J.L. La Monte and M.J. Hubert (1936) (C-1.3)

J. Shirley (trans.), Crusader Syria in the thirteenth century : the Rothelin continuation of the history of William of Tyre with part of the Eracles or Acre text (1999)

Joinville, 'Life of St. Louis', in Smith, tr. and ed., Chronicles of the Crusades , or Shaw, tr. and ed., Chronicles of the Crusades [as above]

Jacques de Vitry The History of Jerusalem, (in Palestine Pilgrims Text Society , vol. XI, 1896)

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(b) Byzantine

Niketas Choniates, O city of Byzantium : Annals of Niketas Choniates , trans. H.P. Magoulias (1984) [M-6NIC] [useful for the Fourth Crusade]

George Akropolites, The history , ed. & trans. Ruth Macrides (2007)

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(c) Muslim

F. Gabrieli, Arab historians of the crusades (1969) [an excellent collection]

The chronicle of Ibn al-Athīr for the crusading period from al-Kāmil fīʼl-taʼrīkh , trans. D.S. Richards: see esp. vol. iii, 1193-1231: The Ayyubids after Saladin and the Mongol Menace (2009)

Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders : selections from the Tarikh al-duwal wa’l-Muluk of ibn al-Furat , trans. U. & M. C. Lyons & J. Riley Smith (1971) [Semitic V-2]

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(d) Collections of Sources

J. A. Brundage, The Crusades : a documentary survey (1962) [Poor]

L. & J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades : Idea and Reality, 1095-1274 (1981)

E Peters (ed.), Christian society and the Crusades, 1198-1229 : sources in translation, including The capture of Damietta by Oliver of Paderborn (1971)[ Contains a full translation of Oliver of Paderborn’s account of the Fifth Crusade, but has been superseded by the below:]

J. Bird, E. Peters and J. M. Powell (eds.), Crusade and Christendom : annotated documents in translation from Innocent III to the fall of Acre, 1187-1291 (2013). [A tremendously useful collection of documents on the entirety of the crusading movement in the thirteenth century. Most importantly, it contains a full translation of Oliver of Paderborn’s account of the Fifth Crusade.]

E.M. Hallam (ed.) Chronicles of the crusades , (1989)

S.J. Allen & E. Amt The Crusades : a reader (2003). [Chapters 6-10 are useful for this module.]

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(e) Module Website – VLE Blackboard

This contains translations of the following texts for HIST 2031:

(1) ‘The Tract about the Places and Condition of the Holy Land’

(2) ‘Documents relating to the crisis in the Holy Land, 1198’

(3) ‘The Fourth Crusade: selected texts’

(4) ‘Papal letters and other documents concerning the Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire’

(5) ‘A letter of Jacques de Vitry, 1216’

(6) ‘Crusading in Spain’ (including ‘The Capture of Almeria and Tortosa by Caffaro, 1147-48’ and ‘The Campaign of Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212’)

(7) ‘Letters relating to the Crusader States during the pontificate of Gregory IX’

(8) ‘The Crusade against Frederick II: selected texts’.

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D. Topic by Topic Bibliography

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I The Fourth Crusade

Sources: Villehardouin, Robert of Clari, Gunther of Pairis, Niketas Choniates, and Andrea, Contemporary Sources; ‘The Fourth Crusade, selected texts’ and ‘Papal letters and other documents concerning the Fourth Crusade’ (VLE website).

Michael Angold, The Fourth Crusade : event and context (2003)

D.E. Queller, The Fourth Crusade. The Conquest of Constantinople (1978: 2nd ed. with T.F. Madden, 1997) [particularly useful on the Venetians]

Colin Morris, 'Geoffrey de Villehardouin and the Conquest of Constantinople', History. 43 (1968), 24-34 (HDC)

Michael Angold, The Byzantine Empire 1025-1204 : a political history (1984), especially
chaps 11 & 14.

D.E. Queller & S.J Stratton, 'A century of controversy on the Fourth Crusade', Studies in medieval and Renaissance history. 6 (1969) 235-277

D.E. Queller & G.W.Day, ‘Some arguments in defense of the Venetians on the Fourth Crusade’, The American historical review. 81 (1976), 717-37 [E]

D.E. Queller & T.F. Madden, 'Some further arguments in defense of the Venetians on the Fourth Crusade', Byzantion 62 (1993, for 1992), 433-73

Alfred Andrea, ‘Cistercian accounts of the Fourth Crusade. Were they anti-Venetian? ’, Analecta Cisterciensia 41 (1985), 3-41.

John H. Pryor, ‘The Venetian fleet for the Fourth Crusade and the diversion of the crusade to Constantinople’, in The Experience of Crusading i Western Approaches, ed. M. Bull & N. Housley (2003), 103-23 [HDC].

Thomas F. Madden, Enrico Dandolo & the rise of Venice (2003)

Peter Noble,‘Eyewitnesses of the Fourth Crusade – the war against Alexius III’, in Reading Medieval Studies: Annual proceedings of the Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies in the University of Reading. 25 (1998), 75-89 [ DReM ]

Judith Herrin, 'The Collapse of the Byzantine Empire in the Twelfth Century', Birmingham Historical Journal 12 (1970), 188-203.
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

R.L. Wolff, 'The Second Bulgarian Empire. Its Origin and History to 1204', Speculum 24 (1949), 167-206 [E].

Anthony Bryer, 'Cultural relations between East and West in the Middle Ages', in Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages , ed. Derek Baker (1973), pp. 77-94.

T. Madden (ed.), The Fourth Crusade : event, aftermath, and perceptions : papers from the sixth Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Istanbul, Turkey, 25-29 August 2004 (2008) [lots of useful essays – by Jacoby, Madden and others]

J. Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the sack of Constantinople (2004)

Alicia Simpson, Niketas Choniates. A Historiographical Study (2013) [A new look at the chronicler.]

T. Madden,‘Food and the Fourth Crusade: a new approach to the “diversion question”, Logistics of warfare in the age of the Crusades : proceedings of a workshop held at the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 30 September to 4 October 2002 , ed. J. Pryor (2006), 209-28.

G. Ortalli and others (eds.), Quarta crociata : Venezia, Bisanzio, impero latino (Venice, 2006), 301-16. [A number of useful essays – by Angold, Jacoby and others]

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II The Latin Empire of Constantinople

Sources: Villehardouin [as above]

‘Papal Letters and other documentsconcerning the Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire' [VLE website]

George Akropolites, The history , tr. Ruth Macrides (2007)

Crusaders as Conquerors , trans. Harold E. Lurier (1964)

Secondary:

A History of the Crusades , ed. K. Setton, vol. ii, chaps. 6-7

Peter Lock, The Franks in the Aegean, 1204-1500 (1995) [excellent]

Michael Angold, The Fourth Crusade : event and context (2003), chapters 6-9.

R.L. Wolff, 'The Organization of the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople 1204-1261: Social and Administrative Consequences of the Latin Conquest', Traditio 6 (1948), 33-60
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

R.L. Wolff, 'Politics in the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople', Dumbarton Oaks papers 8 (1954), 225-303

R.L. Wolff, 'Mortgage and Redemption of an Emperor's Son: Castile and the Latin Empire of Constantinople', Speculum 29 (1954), 45-84 [E]

D.J. Geanakoplos, 'Greco-Latin relations on the eve of the Byzantine restoration; the Battle of Pelagonia - 1259', Dumbarton Oaks papers 7 (1953) 99-135

B.M. Bolton, 'A Mission to the Orthodox? The Cistercians in Romania', Studies in church history 13 (1976), 169-181
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

John Doran, ‘Rites and wrongs: the Latin mission to Nicea, 1234’, Studies in church history. 32 (1996), 131-144.
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Christopher Schabel, 'Antelm the nasty, first Latin Archbishop of Patras', in Diplomatics in the Eastern Mediterranean 1000-1500 : aspects of cross-cultural communication , ed. A.D. Beihammer, M.G. Parani and C.D. Schabel (2008), pp. 93-137.

David Jacoby, 'The encounter of two societies: western conquerors and Byzantines in the Peleponnesus after the Fourth Crusade', The American historical review 78 (1973), 873-906 [E]

B. Arbel, B. Hamilton & D. Jacoby, (eds.), Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204 (1989)

Michael Angold, A Byzantine government in exile : government and society under the Laskarids of Nicaea, 1204-1261 (1975)

Peter Lock, 'The Latin secular church in Crusader Greece', Medieval history 1 (1991) pp 93-107

G. Perry, John of Brienne : King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Constantinople, c.1175-1237 (2013), esp. chs. 4-5.

D. Jacoby, ‘After the Fourth Crusade: the Latin Empire of Constantinople and the Frankish States’, The Cambridge history of the Byzantine Empire c. 500--1492 , ed. J. Shepherd (2008).

T. Madden (ed.) The Fourth Crusade : event, aftermath, and perceptions : papers from the sixth Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Istanbul, Turkey, 25-29 August 2004 (2008) [lots of useful essays – by Jacoby, Madden and others]

P. Noble, ‘Baldwin of Flanders and Henry as military commanders in the Latin Empire of Constantinople’, Knighthoods of Christ : essays on the history of the Crusades and the Knights Templar, presented to Malcolm Barber , ed. N. Housley (2007)

G. Ortalli and others (eds.) Quarta crociata : Venezia, Bisanzio, impero latino (Venice, 2006), 301-16. [A number of useful essays – by Angold, Jacoby and others]

N. Chrissis, Crusading in Frankish Greece : a study of Byzantine-Western relations and attitudes, 1204-1282 (2012)

N. Chrissis and M. Carr (eds.) Contact and conflict in Frankish Greece and the Aegean, 1204-1453 : crusade, religion and trade between Latins, Greeks and Turks (2014)

J. Chrysistomides, ‘Symbiosis in the Peloponnese in the Aftermath of the Fourth Crusade’, in Byzantium and Venice, 1204-1453 : collected studies (2011), essay no. x, 155-67. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

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III The Military Orders

Sources

M. Barber & K. Bate, The Templars : selected sources (2002)

J. Upton-Ward (trans.), The rule of the Templars : the French text of the rule of the order of the Knights Templar (1992)

The Rule of the Teutonic Knights, ‘Medieval Sourcebook’
Available online at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1k.html

Secondary

General

All volumes of the journal Ordines Militares , devoted to the Military Orders, are now available online: see http://www.ordinesmilitares.umk.pl/ , and follow the link to ‘Orders online’. This journal contains a large number of useful articles – it’s worth having a hunt and seeing what you can find!

Joshua Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem , chapter 14, pp. 252-79.

A.J. Forey, The military orders, from the twelfth to the early fourteenth centuries (1991)

A.J. Forey, Military orders and crusades (1994) [an excellent collection of essays].

* A.J. Forey, 'The Emergence of the Military Order in the Twelfth Century', Journal of ecclesiastical history 36 (1985) 175-195 [HDC]

Helen Nicholson, Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights : images of the military orders, 1128-1291 (1993)

Helen Nicholson, The Military Orders (2001)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, Templars and Hospitallers as professed religious in the Holy Land (2009)

Tom License,'The Templars and Hospitallers, Christ and the Saints', Crusades 4 (2005), 39-57.

Malcolm Barber (ed.), The military orders (1994) [a miscellaneous collection; there are useful essays on the Templars by Phillips and Pringle, on the Teutonic Knights, and on the suppression of the Templars].

* Joshua Prawer 'Military Orders and Crusader Politics in the Second Half of the Thirteenth Century', Die Geistlichen Ritterorden Europas , ed. J. Fleckenstein und M. Hellmann (Vorträge und Forschungen 26, 1980), pp 217-229 [HDC]

A.J. Forey, 'The Military Orders and holy war against Christians in the thirteenth century', English historical review. 104 (1989), 1-24 [E] [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)].

The Templars

Malcom Barber, The new knighthood : a history of the Order of the Temple (1994)

Helen Nicholson, The Knights Templar : a new history (2001)

Malcolm Barber, 'The Origins of the Order of the Temple', Studia monastica 12 (1970) [reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics, Twelfth-Fourteenth Centuries (1994)].

Jonathan Riley-Smith, 'The Templars and the Castle of Tortosa in Syria', English historical review. 84 (1969) 278-288 [E]

Joachim Schenk, 'Forms of lay association with the Order of the Temple', Journal of Medieval History 34 (2008), 79-103 [E]

The Knights Hospitallers

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights of St. John in Jerusalem and Cyprus, c.1050-1310 (1967)

Helen Nicholson, The Knights Hospitaller (2001)

Judith Bronstein, The Hospitallers and the Holy Land : financing the Latin East, 1187-1274 (2005)

Anthony Luttrell, ‘The earliest Hospitallers’, in Montjoie : studies in Crusade history in honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer , ed. B.Z. Kedar, J. Riley-Smith & R. Hiestand (1997), 37-54.

A.J. Forey, 'The Militarisation of the Hospital of St. John', Studia monastica 26 (1984), 75-89 [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)

Karl Borchardt et al. The Hospitallers, the Mediterranean, and Europe : Festschrift for Anthony Luttrell . (2007)

The Teutonic Knights

Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades (1980), chapter 3

Nicholas Morton, The Teutonic knights in the Holy Land, 1190-1291 (2009)

I. Sterns, 'The Teutonic Knights in the Crusader States', in A history of the Crusades. Vol.5, The impact of the Crusades on the Near East , ed. N.P. Zacour & H.W. Hazard (1985), pp. 315-378

Hubert Houben, 'Intercultural communications: the Teutonic Knights in Palestine, Armenia and Cyprus', in Diplomatics in the Eastern Mediterranean 1000-1500 : aspects of cross-cultural communication , ed. A.D. Beihammer, M.G. Parani and C.D. Schabel (2008), pp. 139-157.

Other Military Monastic Orders

A.J. Forey, 'The Military Order of St. Thomas of Acre', English historical review 92 (1977), 481-503 [E].

Malcolm Barber, ‘The Order of St. Lazarus and the Crusades’, The Catholic historical review 80 (1994), 439-56 [reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics].

J.F. O'Callaghan, The Spanish military order of Calatrava and its affiliates (1975)

A. V. Murray, ‘The Swordbrothers at war: observations on the military activity of the Knighthood of Christ in the conquest of Livonia and Estonia (1203-1227)', Ordines Militares 18 (2013).

The Fall of the Templars

Malcolm Barber, The trial of the Templars (1978)

Peter Partner, The murdered magicians : the Templars and their myth (1982)

J. Burgtorf, P. E. Crawford, & Helen Nicholson (eds.), The debate on the trial of the Templars (1307-1314) ISBN: 9780754665700 (hbk.) : £60.00; 0754665704 (hbk.) : £60.00; 9781409410096 (ebk.) (2010)

A.J. Forey, 'The Military Orders in the Crusading Proposals of the late-thirteenth century', Traditio 36 (1980) 317-345 [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)]
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

A.J. Forey, The fall of the Templars in the Crown of Aragon (2001)

Sophia Menache, ‘The Templar Order: a failed ideal? ’, in The Catholic Historical Review 79 (1993), 1-21 [E].

Malcolm Barber, 'The Social context of the Templars, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society Ser. IV.34 (1984), 27-46 [E][reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics].

M-L. Favreau-Lilie, ‘The Military orders and the escape of the Christian population of the Holy Land in 1291’, Journal of Medieval History 19 (1993), 201-27 [E].

Malcolm Barber, ‘Lepers, Jews and Moslems. The plot to overthrow Christendom in 1321’, History 66 (1981), 1-17 [E][reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics].

Malcolm Barber, ‘The World Picture of Philip the Fair’, Journal of Medieval History 8 (1982), 13-27 [E] [reprinted in his Crusaders and Heretics (1994)].

Joseph R. Strayer, The reign of Philip the Fair (1980), chapter 4, ‘The king and the church’.

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IV The Islamic World in the Thirteenth Century

Primary Sources

The chronicle of Ibn al-Athīr for the crusading period from al-Kāmil fīʼl-taʼrīkh , trans. D.S. Richards: vol. iii, 1193-1231: The Ayyubids after Saladin and the Mongol Menace (2009)

Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders : selections from the Tarikh al-duwal wa’l-Muluk of ibn al-Furat , trans. U. & M. C. Lyons & J. Riley Smith (1971) [Semitic V-2]

Secondary

P.M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades : the Near East from the eleventh century to 1517 (1986)

R.S. Humphreys From Saladin to the Mongols : the Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260 (1977)

R.S. Humphreys, 'Ayyubids, Mamluks and the Latin East in the thirteenth century', Mamluk studies review 2 (1998), 1-17 [DReM]

Robert Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages : the early Mamluk sultanate, 1250-1382 (1986)

Robert Irwin, Mamluks and Crusaders: Men of the Pen and Men of the Sword ( 2010)

Peter Thorau, The Lion of Egypt : Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the thirteenth century (1992)

P.M. Holt, Early Mamluk diplomacy, 1260-1290 : treaties of Baybars and Qalāwūn with Christian rulers (1995)

Angus Stewart, ‘Between Baybars and Qalāwūn: under-age rulers and succession in the Early Mamlūk Sultanate’, al-Masāq. 19 (2007), 47-54.

Claude Cahen, Pre-Ottoman Turkey : a general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history c.1071-1330 (1968)

Bernard Lewis, The Assassins : a radical sect in Islam (1967)

N. Christie, Muslims and Crusaders : Christianity's Wars in the Middle East, 1095-1382, from the Islamic Sources (2014)

A. Mallett, Popular Muslim reactions to the Franks in the Levant, 1097-1291 (2014)

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(b) Western Attitudes to Islam

R.W. Southern, Western views of Islam in the Middle Ages (1965)

N. Daniel, Islam and the West : the making of an image (1960)

B.Z. Kedar, Crusade and mission : European approaches toward the Muslims (1984)

Jean Richard, La papauté et les missions d'Orient au Moyen Age (XIIIe-XVe siècles) (1977)

Jean Richard, Croisés, missionnaires et voyageurs : les perspectives orientales du monde latin médiéval (1983)

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V The Mongols

C. Dawson (ed.), Mission to Asia (1955)

Bernard Lewis, 'The Mongols, the Turks and the Muslim Polity', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society Ser.V 18 (1968), 49-68 [E].

David Morgan, The Mongols (2007).

*Peter Jackson, The Mongols and the West, 1221-1410 (2005)

Peter Jackson, ‘The Mongols and Europe’, in New Cambridge Medieval History v, ed. David Abulafia (1999), 703-19.

Peter Jackson, 'The Crusade against the Mongols (1241)', Journal of ecclesiastical history 42 (1991), 1-18.

Peter Jackson, 'The Crisis in the Holy Land 1260', English Historical Review 95 (1980) 480-513 [E].

Peter Jackson, 'Medieval Christendom's encounter with the alien', Historical research. 74 (2001), 347-69.

Sylvia Schein, ‘Gesta Dei per Mongolos. The Genesis of a Non-event’, English Historical Review 94 (1979), 805-19 [E].

R. Amitai-Preiss, Mongols and Mamluks : the Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281 (2004)

R. Amitai-Preiss and D. Morgan, eds., The Mongol empire and its legacy (1999)

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VI The Crusader States in the Thirteenth Century

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(a) The Politics of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

Sources : Philip of Novara, Rothelin Continuation, ‘Letters relating to the "Crusader States" during the pontificate of Gregory IX’ [website]

Jean Richard, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (2 vols. 1979), especially vol. II.

Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions (1980), especially chap. 3

C Marshall, Warfare in the Latin east, 1192-1291 (1992)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The feudal nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277 (1973)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, 'A Note on Confraternities in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. 44 (1971), 301-8.

Jonathan Riley-Smith 'The Assise sur la Ligèce and the Commune of Acre', Traditio 27 (1971), 179-204
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

G.A. Loud, 'The Assise sur La Ligèce and Ralph of Tiberias', Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail , ed. P.W. Edbury (1985), pp. 204-212

H.E. Mayer, 'On the beginning of the Communal Movement in the Holy Land, the Commune of Tyre', Traditio 24 (1968), 443-457

H.E. Mayer 'Ibelin versus Ibelin: the struggle for the regency of Jerusalem 1253-1258', in his Probleme des lateinischen Königreichs Jerusalem (1983)

David Jacoby 'The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the collapse of Hohenstaufen power in the Levant', Dumbarton Oaks papers xl (1986) 83-101 [reprinted in D. Jacoby, Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian expansion (1989)]

P. Jackson, 'The End of Hohenstaufen rule in Syria, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 59 (1986), 20-36

P. Jackson, 'The Crisis in the Holy Land 1260', English historical review 95 (1980) 480-513 [E]

P. W. Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Woodbridge, 1997). (There is more in the same vein, esp. on Cyprus, in Edbury’s The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374 (1991)).

G. Perry, John of Brienne : King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Constantinople, c.1175-1237 (2013), esp. chs. 1-4.

*P. W. Edbury, ‘The Crusader States’ in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 5, c.1198-c.1300 , ed. D. Abulafia (1999). [A good short summary.]

A. V. Murray, ‘Women in the Royal Succession of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1291)’, Mächtige Frauen? : Königinnen und Fürstinnen im europäischen Mittelalter (11. - 14. Jahrhundert), ed. Claudia Zey, Vorträge und Forschungen, 81 (Ostfildern: Thorbecke, 2015), pp. 131-62. [E]

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(b) The Society of the Crusader States

Sources: ‘The Tract about the Places and Conditions of the Holy Land’, ‘A letter of Jacques de Vitry 1216’ [website]

Joshua Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem : European colonialism in the Middle Ages (1972)

J. Prawer, Palestinian Agriculture and the Crusader Rural System', in his Crusader institutions , chap. 6; a revised version of the essay first published (in French) in Byzantion 22 (1952) and 23 (1953)

J. Riley-Smith, 'Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants', Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages , ed. D. Baker (Edinburgh 1973)

David Jacoby, 'Crusader Acre in the thirteenth century: urban layout and topography', Studi medievali. , Ser. III.20 (1979), 1-45 [reprinted in D. Jacoby, Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian Expansion (1989)]

M. Mack, 'The Italian quarters of Frankish Tyre. Mapping a medieval city', Journal of Medieval History 33 (2007), 147-165.

H.E. Mayer, 'Latins, Muslims and Greeks in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem', History. 63 (1978), 175-192 [reprinted in his Probleme des lateinischen Königreichs Jerusalem (1983)] [HDC]

B.Z. Kedar, 'The subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant', in Muslims under Latin rule, 1100-1300 , ed. James M. Powell (1990), pp. 135-74 [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ]

Michael Gervers & Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi, Conversion and continuity : indigenous Christian communities in Islamic lands, eighth to eighteenth centuries (Toronto, 1990), especially Hadia Dajani-Shakeel, 'Natives and Franks in Palestine: Perceptions and Interactions', pp 161-84; Elias El-Hayek, 'Struggle for Survival: The Maronites of the Middle Ages', pp 407-21.

Alan V. Murray, 'Ethnic Identity in the Crusader States: The Frankish Race and the Settlement of Outremer', in Concepts of national identity in the Middle Ages , ed. S. Forde, L. Johnson and A.V. Murray (1995), 59-73

P.W. Edbury, ‘Fiefs and vassals in twelfth and thirteenth century Jerusalem’, Crusades 1 (2002), 49-62.

B. Hamilton, The Latin Church in the Crusader states : the secular church (1980), especially chapters 9-14.

Sylvia Schein, 'The Patriarchs of Jerusalem in the late Thirteenth Century', Outremer : studies in the history of the crusading kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer , ed. B.Z. Kedar, H.E. Mayer & R.C. Smail (1992), pp. 297-305

Andrew Jotischky, The Perfection of Solitude : Hermits and Monks in the Crusader States (1995)

H.E. Mayer, Bistümer, Klöster und Stifte im Königreich Jerusalem (1977) [an important study for anyone who can read German]

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(c) The Other Crusader States in the Levant

P.W. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374 (1991)

Nicholas Coureas, The Latin Church in Cyprus, 1195-1312 (1997)

Christopher Schabel, Greeks, Latins, and the church in early Frankish Cyprus (2010)

T.S.R. Boase (ed.), The Cilician kingdom of Armenia (1978)

Kristian Molin, Unknown crusader castles (2001)

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(d) The Noble Families of Jerusalem

Steven Tibble, Monarchy and lordships in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291 (1989)

M. E. Nickerson, 'The Seigneurie of Beirut in the twelfth century and the Brisebarre family of Beirut-Blanchegarde', Byzantion 19 (1949), 141-85.

P.W. Edbury, 'John of Jaffa's Title to the county of Jaffa and Ascalon', English Historical Review 98 (1983), 115-133 [E]

P. W. Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Woodbridge, 1997)

H.E. Mayer, 'The Double County of Jaffa and Ascalon. One Fief or Two? ' Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail (1985), pp. 181-7

H.E. Mayer, Kings and Lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)

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VII The Crusades to Egypt and Palestine in the Thirteenth Century

Sources :Oliver of Paderborn, Joinville

Peter Jackson, ed., The Seventh Crusade, 1244-1254 : sources and documents (2007)

Secondary:

James M. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade 1213-1221 (1986)

D. Abulafia, Frederick II: a Medieval Emperor (1988)

Louise B. Robbert, 'Venetian participation in the Crusade of Damietta', Studi Veneziani 30 (1995), 15-33 [DReM]

Michael Lower, The Barons' Crusade : a call to arms and its consequences (2005) [about the 1238-41 expeditions]

William C. Jordan, Louis IX and the challenge of the crusade : a study in rulership (1979)

Caroline Smith, Crusading in the age of Joinville (2006)

Jean Richard, Saint Louis : Crusader King of France (1992), especially chapters 5-8, pp. 85-152, and chapters 15-16, pp. 293-329.

Jean Richard, 'La politique orientale de Saint Louis. La Croisade de 1248', in his Les relations entre l'Orient et l'Occident au Moyen Age : études et documents (1977), chapter 10

S.D. Lloyd, 'The Lord Edward's Crusade, 1270-2: its setting and significance'; War and government in the Middle Ages : essays in honour of J.O. Prestwich (1984) 120-133

S. Schein, Fideles crucis : the papacy, the West, and the recovery of the Holy Land, 1274-1314 (1991)

A.J. Forey, 'The Military Orders in the Crusading Proposals of the late-thirteenth century', Traditio 36 (1980), 317-345 [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)]
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Bjorn Weiler, ‘The Negotium Terrae Sanctae in the Political Discourse of Latin Christendom, 1215-1311’, International history review 25 (2003), 1-36.

Jacques Le Goff, Saint Louis , tr. by Gareth Gollrad (Notre Dame, Ind., 2008) [A massive but very important study of the king.]

G. Perry, John of Brienne : King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Constantinople, c.1175-1237 (2013) – esp. ch. 3.

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VIII England and the Crusades in the Thirteenth Century

C.J. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095-1588 (1988)

S.D. Lloyd, English society and the crusade, 1216-1307 (1988)

S.D. Lloyd, 'The Lord Edward's Crusade, 1270-2’ [as in previous section]

Penny J. Cole, 'Purgatory and Crusade in St Gregory's Trental', International history review 17 (1995), 713-725

Gerald of Wales, The journey through Wales ; and The description of Wales , trans. L. Thorpe (Penguin Classics 1978)

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IX Crusades Against Christians

Primary Sources

J. Shirley (trans.), The song of the Cathar wars : a history of the Albigensian Crusade (1996)

W.A. & M.D. Sibley (trans.), The history of the Albigensian Crusade : Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay's Historia Albigensis (1998)

W.A. & M.D. Sibley (trans.), The chronicle of William of Puylaurens : the Albigensian crusade and its aftermath (2003)

‘The Crusade against Frederick II’ [ website ].


Secondary:

Norman Housley, 'Crusades against Christians. Their Origins and Early Development, c.1000-1216', Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail , ed. P.W. Edbury (1985), pp. 17-36 [reprinted in The Crusades. The Essential Readings]

E. Kennan, 'Innocent III and the First Political Crusade', Traditio 27 (1971), 231-249.

William L. Wakefield. Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in southern France, 1100-1250 (1974)

J.R. Strayer, The Albigensian Crusades (1971)

Jonathan Sumption, The Albigensian Crusade (1978; 2nd. ed. 1999)

Mark R. Pegg, A most holy war : the Albigensian Crusade and the battle for Christendom (2008) [to be treated with caution]

J.R. Strayer, 'The Political Crusades of the Thirteenth Century', A history of the Crusades , ed. Kenneth Setton, vol. ii (1962), pp. 343-378.

R. Rist, The papacy and crusading in Europe, 1198-1245 (2009)

R. Rist, ‘Papal policy and the Albigensian Crusades: continuity or change? ’, Crusades 2 (2003), 99-108.

Jessalynn Bird, 'Paris masters and the justification of the Albigensian crusade', Crusades 6 (2007), 117-155.

G.A. Loud, ‘The case of the missing martyrs: Frederick II’s war with the Church 1239-50’, Studies in church history 30 (1993), 141-52 [reprinted in G.A. Loud, Montecassino and Benevento in the Middle Ages (2000)].

P.A. Throop, Criticism of the crusade : a study of public opinion and crusade propaganda (1940)

Elizabeth Siberry, Criticism of crusading 1095-1274 (1985)

Norman Housley, The Italian crusades : the Papal-Angevin alliance and the crusades against Christian lay powers, 1254-1343 (1982)

Bernard Hamilton, ‘The Albigensian Crusade and heresy’, in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 5, c.1198-c.1300 , ed. D. Abulafia (1999)

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X The Crusade in the Baltic

Primary Sources

The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia , trans. J.A. Brundage (1961: 2nd ed. 2003)

The Livonian Rhymed chronicle , trans. W. Urban & J.C. Smith (2nd. ed. 2001)

The chronicle of Prussia : a history of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, 1190-1331 by Nicolaus von Jeroschin, A History of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia , 1190–1331, ed. Mary Fischer (2010)

Secondary

Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades : the Baltic and the Catholic frontier, 1100-1525 (London 1980) [excellent].

A.V. Murray (ed.), Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150-1500 (2001), [especially the essays by Ellers, Urban, Jensen, Nielsen & Mazeika].

F. Lotter 'The Crusading Idea and the Conquest of the Region East of the Elbe', in Medieval frontier societies ed. Robert Bartlett and Angus MacKay (Oxford, 1989), pp 267-306

Karl Jordan, Henry the Lion : a Biography (1986), chapter 4, pp. 66-88.

William L. Urban, The Baltic Crusade (2nd ed. 1994)

William L. Urban, The Prussian Crusade (1990)

William L. Urban, The Livonian Crusade (1981)

William L. Urban 'The Organization of the Defence of the Livonian Frontier in the Thirteenth Century', Speculum 58 (1973), 525-32 [E]

William L. Urban 'The Wendish Princes and the "Drang nach dem Osten"', Journal of Baltic Studies 9 (1978), 225-44 [E]

William L. Urban 'The Diplomacy of the Teutonic Knights at the Curia', Journal of Baltic Studies 9 (1978), 116-28 [E]

William L. Urban 'Roger Bacon and the Teutonic Knights', Journal of Baltic Studies 19 (1988), 363-70 [E]

William L. Urban, 'Victims of the Baltic crusade', Journal of Baltic Studies 29 (1998), [DReM ]

M. Giedroyc 'The Arrival of Christianity in Lithuania: Baptism and Survival (1341-1387)', Oxford Slavonic Papers. xxii (1989), 34-57

A. V. Murray, ‘Henry of Livonia and the Wends of the Eastern Baltic: Ethnography and Biography in the Thirteenth-Century Livonian Mission’, Studi medievali. 54 (2013), 807–33.

 

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XI The Crusades in Spain

Primary Sources:

‘The Capture of Almeria and Tortosa by Caffaro’ [Website]

'The Campaign of Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212' [Website]

S. Barton & R.A. Fletcher, The world of El Cid : chronicles of the Spanish reconquest (2000), especially the ‘Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris’ and the ‘Poem of Almeria’, pp. 148-249, 250-63 respectively.

R. Hamilton & J. Perry, The Poem of the Cid (Penguin Classics 1984)

Colin Smith, Christians and Moors in Spain , 711-1614 (2 vols.; 1988-9)

Secondary:

Angus Mackay Spain in the Middle Ages : from frontier to empire, 1000-1500 (1977), chaps. 1-3.

Derek Lomax The Reconquest of Spain (1978)

Joseph O’Callaghan Reconquest and Crusade in medieval Spain (2002)

Peter Linehan, Spain, 1157-1300 : a partible inheritance (2007)

R.A. Fletcher, 'Reconquest and crusade in Spain c.1050-1150', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Ser. V.37 (1987), 31-47 [E][reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ] [a very important essay]

F. Fernandez-Armesto, 'The survival of a notion of reconquista in late tenth and eleventh-century Leon', Warriors and churchmen in the high Middle Ages : essays presented to Karl Leyser , ed. T. Reuter (1992), pp.123-143.

Bernard Reilly, 'Santiago and St. Denis: the Frenchpresence in eleventh-century Spain', The Catholic historical review 54 (1968-9), 467-483.

Simon Barton, 'El Cid, Cluny and the medieval Spanish reconquista', English historical review. 126 (2011), 517-543.

Simon Barton, 'From tyrants to soldiers of Christ: the nobility of Leon-castile and the struggle against Islam', Nottingham medieval studies 44 (2000), 29-48.

Simon Barton, Traitors to the faith? : Christian mercenaries in al-Andalus and the Maghreb, c.1100-1300 ,, in Medieval Spain : culture, conflict, and coexistence ; studies in honour of Angus MacKay . ed. Roger Collins and Anthony Goodman (2002), pp. 23-45.

Stephen Lay, 'The reconquest as Crusade in the Anonymous De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi ', al-Masāq : Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 14 (2002), 123-30.

*Elena Lourie, 'A society organised for war: medieval Spain', Past & Present 35 (1966) 54-76 [HDC]

James F. Powers, 'Townsmen and soldiers: the interaction of urban and military organization in the militias of medieval Castile', Speculum. 46 (1971), 641-655. [E]

A.J. Forey, ‘The Military Orders and the Spanish Reconquest in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries’, Traditio 40 (1984), 197-234 [reprinted in his Military Orders and Crusades (1994)]
Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Robert I. Burns, 'Immigrants from Islam. The use of Muslims as settlers in thirteenth-century Aragon', The American historical review 80 (1975) [E]

Francois Soyer, 'Muslim freedmen in Leon, Castile and Portugal (1100-1300)', al-Masāq : Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 18 (2006), 129-44.

Elena Lourie, ‘Free Muslims in the Balearics under Christian rule in the thirteenth century’, Speculum 45 (1970), 624-49 [E].

J.F. O'Callaghan, The Spanish military order of Calatrava and its affiliates (1975)

P. O'Banion, '"What has Iberia to do with Jerusalem? " Crusade and the Spanish route to the Holy land in the twelfth century', Journal of Medieval History 34 (2008), 383-95 [E]

H. Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal : a political history of Al-Andalus (1996)

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XII Warfare and Fortifications

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(a) Warfare

R.C. Smail, Crusading warfare, 1097-1193 (1956) [still fundamental, though largely covering the period pre-1200]

C. Marshall, Warfare in the Latin east, 1192-1291 (1992)

Joshua Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem : European colonialism in the Middle Ages , chapter 15

Joshua Prawer, 'The Battle of Hattin', Crusader institutions , chapter 19, pp. 484-500

D. Ayalon, 'Studies on the structure of the Mamluk army', Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 15 (1953) 203 ff., 448 ff.; 16 (1954) 133 ff.

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(b) Fortifications

Hugh Kennedy, Crusader castles (1994) [excellent, the best book on the subject]

T.E. Lawrence, Crusader castles (2 vols., 1936) - (Special Collections, English P-40LAW). (2nd ed., ed by D. Pringle, 1988)

Kristian Molin, Unknown Crusader Castles (2001)

A history of the Crusades. Vol.4, The art and architecture of the Crusader states , ed. H.W. Hazard (1976), chapter 4.

Denys Pringle, Churches, Castles and Landscape in the Frankish East (2013)

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XIII Crusader Art

A history of the Crusades. Vol.4, The art and architecture of the Crusader states , ed. H.W. Hazard (1976)

Jaroslav Folda, Crusader art : the art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, 1099-1291 (2008)

Hugo Buchtal, Miniature painting in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1957)

Jaroslav Folda, Crusader manuscript illumination at Saint-Jean d'Acre, 1275-1291 (1976)

Kurt Weitzmann, 'Icon Painting in the Crusader Kingdom', Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20 (1966), 49-83

Lucy Ann Hunt, 'Art and colonialism: the mosaics of the church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (1169) and the problem of "Crusader" art', Dumbarton Oaks Papers 45 (1991)

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XIV The Trade of the Holy Land

Joshua Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem : European colonialism in the Middle Ages (1972), chapter 16

Joshua Prawer, Crusader institutions (1980), chapter 8

Jonathan Riley-Smith, 'Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants', Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages , ed. D. Baker (Edinburgh 1973)

R.S. Lopez, 'The Trade of Medieval Europe: the South', Cambridge Economic History of Europe ii (2nd edn. 1987), pp.306-379

E.H. Byrne, 'Genoese Trade with Syria in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Century', The American Historical Review 25 (1919-20), 191-219 [E].

E.H. Byrne, Genoese shipping in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries (1930) - (Economics H-4)

L.B. Robbert, 'Venice and the Crusaders', in A history of the Crusades. Vol.5, The impact of the Crusades on the Near East , ed. N.P. Zacour & H.W. Hazard (1985), pp. 379-451.

F.C. Lane, Venice : a maritime republic (1973), chapters 4-5, and especially 7.

David Jacoby, Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian expansion (1989)

David Jacoby, ‘New Venetian evidence on Crusader Acre’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 2, Defining the crusader kingdom , ed. P.W. Edbury & J. Phillips (2003), 240-56.

David Jacoby, ‘Aspects of everyday life in Frankish Acre’, Crusades 4 (2005), 73-105.

Ruthy Gertwangen, ‘The Crusader port of Acre: Layout and Problems of Maintenance’, in Autour de la première croisade : actes du Colloque de la Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Clermont-Ferrand, 22-25 juin 1995 , ed. M. Balard (1996), 553-81.

S. Epstein, Genoa & the Genoese, 958-1528 (1996), esp. chs. 2-3.

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XV The Crusade after 1291

Primary Source

Pierre Dubois, De Recuperatione Terrae Sanctae / The recovery of the Holy Land. , trans. W. I. Brandt (1956) [E book]

Secondary

Norman Housley The Later Crusades, 1274-1580 : from Lyons to Alcazar (1992)

Kenneth Setton, A History of the Crusades. Vol.3, The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (1975); [but see also the review of this by P.W. Edbury, English Historical Review 91 (1976) 603-6].

A.S. Atiya, The Crusade in the later Middle Ages (1938) [to be used with care]

Sylvia Schein, Fideles crucis : the papacy, the West, and the recovery of the Holy Land, 1274-1314 (1991)

Sylvia Schein, ' Gesta Dei per Mongolos . The genesis of a non-event', English historical review 94 (1979), 805-819 [E].

J.F. Verbruggen, The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, from the Eighth century to 1340 (2nd ed. 1997), pp. 288-305 [discusses plans for a new Crusade after 1291].

Norman Housley, The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades, 1305-1378 (1986)

Norman Housley, ‘Costing the Crusade: budgeting for Crusader activity in the fourteenth century’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 1, Western approaches ed. M. Bull & N. Housley (2003), 45-59.

Norman Housley, 'The Franco-papal Crusade negotiations of 1322-3', Papers of the British School of Rome 48 (1980), 166-85. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

A.T. Luttrell, 'The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century', Europe in the late Middle Ages , ed. J. Hale, J.R.L. Highfield & B. Smalley (1965), pp. 122-154
Extract available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

A.T. Luttrell, 'Venice and the Knights Hospitallers of Rhodes in the Fourteenth Century', Papers of the British School at Rome 26 (1958)

Norman Housley 'The Franco-papal Crusade negotiations of 1322-3', Papers of the British School at Rome 48 (1980), 166-185

C.J. Tyerman, 'Marino Sanudo Torsello and the Lost Crusade: Lobbying in the Fourteenth Century'. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society , Ser. V.32 (1982), 57-74 [E].

C.J. Tyerman, 'Sed nihil fecit? The last Capetians and the recovery of the Holy Land', War and government in the Middle Ages : essays in honour of J.O. Prestwich . Essays in Honour of J.O. Prestwich, ed. J. Gillingham and J.C. Holt (1984) pp. 170-181. (C-1.09 GIL)

C.J. Tyerman, 'Philip VI and the Recovery of the Holy Land', English historical review 100 (1985), 25-52 [E]

This list was last updated on 15/12/2015