Leeds University Library

CLAS1400
Roman World Reading List - your complete guide to primary sources and secondary reading for this module.

The Roman World: An Introduction, 2017/18
Henry Clarke
h.h.b.clarke@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General reading

Below are some general books on Roman history which cover all or part of the period we will be studying in this module. If you wish to buy a book to support your work on this module, we recommend choosing an item from this section of the reading list.

Overviews of Roman history

Kamm, A., The Romans: an introduction (London, 1995)

Scullard, H.H., From the Gracchi to Nero: a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. , ed. 5 (London, 1982)

Republican period only

Beard, M., and Crawford, M. Rome in the late Republic : problems and interpretations (London, 1985)

Crawford, M.H., Roman Republic (London, 1978 / 1992)

Shotter, D., The fall of the Roman Republic (London, 1994)

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London)

Imperial period only

Alston, R., Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117 A source-based approach (London, 1998)

Goodman, M., The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London, 1997)

Wells, C.M., The Roman Empire . , ed. 2 (London, 1993)

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General reference

These books are useful points of reference for looking up factual information relating to this module (e.g. people, dates, places etc.):

Edward Bispham, Thomas Harrison and Brian A. Sparkes (2006), The Edinburgh companion to ancient Greece and Rome (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider, eds. (2002-) Brill's New Pauly : encyclopaedia of the ancient world (Leiden: Brill)

T.J. Cornell & J. Matthews, Atlas of the Roman world (Oxford, 1982)

S. Hornblower & A.J. Spawforth, The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford, 1996: 3rd edition)

John Roberts, ed. (2007), The Oxford dictionary of the classical world (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

Graham Shipley, ed. (2006) The Cambridge dictionary of classical civilization (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Richard J.A. Talbert, ed. (1988), Atlas of classical history (London: Routledge).

Timothy Venning (2011), A chronology of the Roman Empire (Continuum)

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Class readings

Below are weekly readings from primary sources which relate to lectures and seminars for the first half of this module. You should read the passage indicated as preparation for each lecture. You will find more information about each passage, and questions to help you get the most out of reading it, in the 'Module reading' area of the VLE page. See the folder entitled 'Class readings'.

For lecture 2 – Plutarch, Life of Cicero 1-11 (Cicero’s career up to his victory in the election for the consulship).

For lecture 3 - Plutarch, Life of Pompey 24-30 (Pompey is awarded special military commands to fight against the pirates and then Mithridates).

For lecture 4 - Plutarch, Life of Caesar 1-15 (Caesar's career up to the beginning of his campaigns in Gaul).

For seminar 1 - Julius Caesar, Civil War 3.85-99  and Appian, Civil Wars 2.66-82 (two different accounts of the battle between Caesar and Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BC)

For lecture 7 - Cassius Dio, 53.1-18 (Dio's account and reconstruction of a pivotal speech in the career of Octavian / Augustus)

For lecture 8 - Tacitus, Annals 1.1-15 (A brief summary of Augustus' career, and an account of the first transition from one emperor to another)

For seminar 2 - Suetonius' Lives of Vespasian and Domitian (Contrasting accounts of one 'good' emperor and one 'bad' emperor)

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Part 1 – Roman political history

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Lecture 01 - Roman history: the people and the sources

E. Bispham (2006), 'Literary sources' in Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx, ed. A companion to the Roman Republic (Malden, MA: Blackwell): 29-50.

M.H. Crawford (1978/92), Roman Republic – chapter 1, ‘The Sources’. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

M.H. Crawford, ed. (1983), Sources for ancient history ; Cambridge

C. Hedrick (2006), Ancient history : monuments and documents (Malden and Oxford)

Andrew Lintott (2008) Cicero as evidence : a historian's companion ( Oxford: Oxford University Press)

C.B.R. Pelling, Plutarch and history : eighteen studies (London 2002)

D. Potter (1998), Literary texts and the Roman historian (London)

Chris Howgego (1995), Ancient history from coins (London: Routledge)

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Lecture 02 - Cicero's career and Roman politics

Cicero

Henriette van der Blom (2010), Cicero's role models : the political strategy of a newcomer (Oxford: OUP)

Anthony Everitt (2001), Cicero : a turbulent life (London: John Murray)

M. Fuhrmann (1992), Cicero and the Roman Republic Chapter 7, ‘The battle for the consulship’ (pp. 55-61) is available as an online course reading in the VLE .

C. Habicht (1990), Cicero the politician

W.K. Lacey and B.W.J.G. Wilson (1978), Res publica: Roman politics and society according to Cicero (London : Bristol Classical Press)

W.K. Lacey (1978), Cicero and the end of the Roman Republic (London: Hodder and Stoughton)

Andrew Lintott (2008) Cicero as evidence : a historian's companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Xhapter 10, 'Candidature and consulship' (pp. 129-48) is available as an online course reading in the VLE .

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapter 15, 'Consulship of Cicero' is available as an online course reading in the VLE .

J.M. May (2002), 'Cicero: his life and career' in Brill's companion to Cicero : oratory and rhetoric (Leiden, Boston: Brill).

Thomas N. Mitchell (1979), Cicero : the ascending years (New Haven; London: Yale University Press).

Thomas N. Mitchell ( 1991) Cicero : the senior statesman (New Haven; London: Yale University Press)

E. Rawson (1975), Cicero : a portrait (London: Allen Lane). Chapter 4, ‘The bid for the consulship’ (pp. 44-59) is available as an online course reading in the VLE .

H.H. Scullard (1964), 'The political career of a novus homo ' in T.A. Dorey, ed. Cicero (London: Routledge). Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

D.R. Shackleton Bailey (1971), Cicero ( London: Duckworth)

D.R. Shackleton Bailey, ed. (1980) Cicero: Select letters (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Catherine Steel (2005), Reading Cicero : genre and performance in late republican Rome ( London: Duckworth).

D. Stockton (1971), Cicero : a political biography (Oxford: OUP). Chapter 4, ‘Consul designatus’ (pp. 64-83), is available as an online course reading in the VLE .

T. Wiedemann (1994), Cicero and the end of the Roman Republic (London: Bristol Classical Press).

The Republican political system

T. Corey Brennan (2004), 'Power and process under the Republican 'constitution'' in Flower, H.I. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (Cambridge): 31-65 (chapter 2).

M. H. Crawford (1978/92), Roman Republic - chapters 3, 7 and appendix 1. Appendix 1 available as an online course reading in the VLE .

P. Garnsey and R. Saller (1987) , The Roman Empire : economy, society and culture , ( London : Duckworth) – chapter 8 (on patronage). Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

M. Goodman (1997), The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London) – ch. 4, 'The political language of Rome.' Available online

A. Lintott (1999) The constitution of the Roman Republic ( Oxford: Clarendon Press )

F.G. Millar (1984), 'The Political Character of the Classical Roman Republic', The journal of Roman studies. . 74: 1-19

F.G.B. Millar (1998), The crowd in Rome in the late Republic

Claude Nicolet (1980) The world of the citizen in republican Rome

J.A. North (1990), ‘Democratic Politics in Republican Rome’, in Past & Present. 126: 3-21

Jeremy Paterson (1985), 'Politics in the late Republic', in T.P. Wiseman, ed. Roman political life, 90 B.C.-A.D. 69. (Exeter: University of Exeter)

J.R. Patterson (2000), Political life in the city of Rome (London: Bristol Classical Press).

Francisco Pina Polo (2011), The consul at Rome : the civil functions of the consuls in the Roman Republic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx, ed. (2006), A companion to the Roman Republic (Malden, MA: Blackwell) – see chapter 12 by J.A. North ('The constitution of the Roman Republic'), chapter 18 by A. Yakobson ('Popular power in the Roman Republic') and chapter 19 by E. Deniaux ('Patronage').

Rachel F. Vishnia (2012), Roman elections in the age of Cicero : society, government, and voting (London: Routledge)

T.P. Wiseman (1985) 'Competition and co-operation', in T.P. Wiseman, ed. Roman political life, 90 B.C.-A.D. 69. . (Exeter: University of Exeter) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

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Lecture 03 - The rise of Pompey

Pompey

P. A. Brunt (1971), Social conflicts in the Roman Republic - pp. 112-140. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

P. Greenhalgh (1980/1), Pompey: the Roman Alexander

E. S. Gruen (1974), The last generation of the Roman Republic – pp. 62-74. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapters 12 and 13.

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. - chapter 5, 'The rise of Pompey' (pp. 85-104). Available online

D. Shotter (1994), The fall of the Roman Republic (London) - chapter 5, 'Sulla and the senate' (available as an online course reading in the VLE ) and 6, 'The domination of Pompey (pp. 38-65).

R. Seager (1969 / 2002) Pompey the Great : a political biography (Oxford).

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London) - chapters 3 and 4.

The army and military campaigning

R. Davies (1989) , Service in the Roman Army

E. Gabba (1977) , Republican Rome: The Army and the Allies (Oxford)

L. Keppie (1984 / 1998), The Making of the Roman Army: from Republic to empire

E. Badian (1968) Roman Imperialism in the Late Republic (Oxford)

W.V. Harris (1979), War and Imperialism in Republican Rome (Oxford)

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Lecture 04 - The rise of Caesar

Julius Caesar

J.A. Crook, A. Lintott and E. Rawson, eds.(1994), The Cambridge ancient history . Vol.9 chapter 10 by P. Wiseman, pp. 408-423.

E. Bradford (1984), Julius Caesar : the pursuit of power (London)

F.Cairns and E.Fantham, eds, (2003), Caesar against liberty? : perspectives on his autocracy (Cambridge)

L. Canfora (2007), Julius Caesar: the people's dictator (Edinburgh).

M. Griffin (2009), A companion to Julius Caesar (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell) – see esp. chapter 2 by E. Badian ('From the Iulii to Caesar'), chapter 3 by E.S. Gruen ('Caesar as a Politician') and chapter 4 by J.T. Ramsey ('The Proconsular Years'). Available online

E. S. Gruen (1974), The Last Generation of the Roman Republic ( Berkeley ) : chs 3 & 11

A. Kamm (2006) Julius Caesar: a life (London)

R. Garland (2003), Julius Caesar (Bristol)

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapters 16, 17 and 18.

C. Meier (1995), Caesar (London)

J. Sabben-Clare (1971), Caesar and Roman politics, 60-50 B.C . .

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. - pp. 105-134.

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London) - chapter 6. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

S. Weinstock (1971), Divus Julius (Oxford)

Z. Yavetz (1983), Julius Caesar and his public image (London)

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Seminar 01 - The battle of Pharsalus

Please note that the passages from Julius Caesar and Appian are also linked from the 'Seminars' folder on the module's VLE page. You will also find some of the secondary material for this seminar available in the ' Online Course Readings Folder'.

Primary texts (both provided on the seminar worksheet)

Julius Caesar, The civil wars . 3.85-99 (full text also available online at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Caesar/Civil_Wars/3D*.html#85 )

Appian, The civil wars . 2.66-82 (full text also available online at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Civil_Wars/2*.html#66 )

The events of Pharsalus

L. Canfora (2007), Julius Caesar : the people's dictator (Berkeley: University of California Press) – chapter 21, ‘From the Rubicon to Pharsalus’. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

P. Greenhalgh (1981), Pompey : the Republican prince (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson) – chapter 9, ‘Pharsalia’. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

N. Fields (2009), Warlords of Republican Rome : Caesar versus Pompey (Barnsley: Pen and Sword) – chapter 7. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

A. Kamm (2006), Julius Caesar : a life (Oxford: Routledge) – chapter 7, ‘The Dictator’

R. Seager (1979 / 2002), Pompey the Great : a political biography (Oxford: Blackwell) – chapter 13, ‘The Civil War’. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London) - pp. 181-187.

Caesar as an author

William W. Batstone and Cynthia Damon (2006), Caesar's Civil War (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press)

R.M. Ogilvie (1982), ‘Caesar’ in E.J. Kenney and W.V. Clausen, eds. The Cambridge history of classical literature . Vol. 2, Latin literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 281-5.Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

K. Raaflaub (2009), ‘The Bellum civile ’ in M. Griffin, ed., A companion to Julius Caesar (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell): 175-91. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

Appian as an author

G.S. Bucher (2000), ‘The Origins, Program, and Composition of Appian’s Roman History ’ in Transactions of the American Philological Association. 130: 411-458.

G.S. Bucher (2005), ‘Fictive Elements in Appian’s Pharsalus Narrative’, in Phoenix. 59: 50-76.

Basic background information about Appian and his methods at Livius.org: http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/appian/appian.html

Introduction to the Loeb edition of Appian’s History by Horace White (1912-13): http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Introduction*.html

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Lecture 05 - The civil war and Caesar's dictatorship

P.A. Brunt (1988) The fall of the Roman Republic and related essays – pp. 489-498. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

M. H. Crawford (1978), Roman Republic (London; 2nd ed.1992) - chapter 15. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

J.A. Crook, A. Lintott and E. Rawson, eds. (1994) The Cambridge ancient history . Vol.9 - chapter 11 by E. Rawson, pp. 424-67

N. Fields (2009), Warlords of Republican Rome : Caesar versus Pompey (Barnsley: Pen and Sword)

M. Griffin (2009), A companion to Julius Caesar (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell) – see esp. chapter 5 by J.F. Gardner ('The Dictator') and chapter 6 by A. Lintott ('The Assassination').

E. S. Gruen (1974), The last generation of the Roman Republic – pp. 312-356 (chapter 11)

Andrew Lintott (2008) Cicero as evidence : a historian's companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press) – chapter 16, 'The mediator and the partisans' (pp. 281-300) and chapter 17, 'Living with dictatorship' (pp. 301-338). EBook available

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapters 19 and 20.

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. pp. 134-143. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

D. Shotter (1994), The fall of the Roman Republic – ch. 7, 'The first triumvirate and the slide to civil war' and ch. 8, 'Caesar's dictatorship'

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London) - chapters 9 and 10.

W. Jeffrey Tatum (2006), 'The Final Crisis (69-44)' in Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx, ed. A companion to the Roman Republic (Malden, MA: Blackwell): 190-211.

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Lecture 06 - The triumviral period and the rise of Octavian

Werner Eck (2003) The age of Augustus (Blackwell) – chapters 3 to 6 (pp. 9-40). Chapter 3, pp. 9-15 available as an online course reading in the VLE .

W. Eder (2005), 'Augustus and the power of tradition' in K. Galinsky, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus (Cambridge: CUP): 13-32. Available online

K. Galinsky (2012), Augustus : introduction to the life of an emperor (Cambridge: CUP) - chapter 2. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapters 21, 22 and 23.

F. Millar (1973), ‘Triumvirate and principate’ in The journal of Roman studies. 63: 50-67.

J. Osgood (2006), Caesar's legacy : civil war and the emergence of the Roman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

C. Pelling (1996), ‘The triumviral period’ in Alan K. Bowman, Edward Champlin, Andrew Lintott, eds., The Cambridge ancient history. Vol.10 (chapter 1). Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

E. Rawson (1994), 'The aftermath of the Ides' in J.A. Crook, A. Lintott and E. Rawson, eds. (1994) The Cambridge ancient history . Vol.9 : 468-90 (chapter 12)

D. Shotter (1991), Augustus Caesar (Routledge) – chapter 3. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

Pat Southern (1998), Augustus (Routledge) – chapters 2-4 EBook available

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. (London) – chapter 8. Available online

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Lecture 07 - The creation of the principate

Sourcebooks (collections of primary sources)

Kitty Chisholm and J. Ferguson (1981), Rome : the Augustan Age : a source book. (Oxford)

M.G.L. Cooley, ed. (2003), The age of Augustus (LACTOR 17)

Chapters and articles

E.T. Salmon (1956), ‘The Evolution of the Augustan Principate’ in Historia. . 5: 456-78.

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. (London) – chapter 11.

Galinsky, K. (ed.), The Cambridge companion to the Age of Augustus (Cambridge, 2005)- see esp. chapter 2 by E. Gruen, 'Augustus and the making of the principate'.

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapter 24.

F. Millar and E. Segal (1984), Caesar Augustus : seven aspects (Oxford: OUP) – see chapters by Z. Yavetz (pp. 1-36), F. Millar (pp. 37-60, available as an online course reading in the VLE .) and C. Nicolet (pp. 89-128).

Kurt A. Raaflaub and Mark Toher, eds. (1990) Between republic and empire : interpretations of Augustus and his principate (Oxford, Berkeley: University of California Press) – see chapters by C. Meier (pp. 54-70) and W. Eder (pp. 71-122). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

G. Rowe (2006), 'The emergence of a monarchy: 44 BCE-96CE' in D. Potter, ed., A companion to the Roman Empire ( Malden, Mass.: Blackwell): 115-125.

M. Sommer (2010), The complete Roman emperor : imperial life at court and on campaign (Thames & Hudson) - chapter 2. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

Monographs

Werner Eck (2003) The age of Augustus (Blackwell)

K. Galinsky (2012), Augustus : introduction to the life of an emperor (Cambridge: CUP) - see esp. chapter 3.

W.K. Lacey (1996), Augustus and the principate : the evolution of the system (Leeds)

B. Levick (2010), Augustus : image and substance (Harlow: Longman)

D. Shotter (1991), Augustus Caesar (Routledge - revised and expanded, 2005)

Pat Southern (1998), Augustus. (Routledge)

Ronald Syme (1939) The Roman revolution. (OUP, Oxford)

A. Wallace-Hadrill (1993) Augustan Rome (Bristol Classical Press)

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Lecture 08 - Succession and legitimacy

Narrative histories of emperors after Augustus

R. Alston (1998) Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117 , (London: Routledge) – chapters 2 to 9 cover emperors from Tiberius to Trajan.

Anthony A. Barrett, ed. (2008), Lives of the Caesars . (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell) - chapters 1 to 7 cover Augustus to Nero, Vespasian and Hadrian.

M. Goodman (1997) The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) - chapters 5 to 7 cover emperors from Tiberius to Commodus

H.H. Scullard (1982) From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. (London: Routledge) – chapters 13 and 14 cover Tiberius to Nero

Michael Grant (1997) The twelve Caesars (London: Phoenix) - chapters 3 to 12 cover Tiberius to Domitian

C. Wells (1984) The Roman Empire. (London: Fontana) - covers all emperors from Tiberius onwards

Biographies of individual emperors after Augustus

B. Levick (1976), Tiberius the politician (London: Routledge)

Robin Seager (2005) Tiberius (Malden, MA: Blackwell)

D. Shotter (1992), Tiberius Caesar (London)

S. Wilkinson (2005) Caligula (London)

B.M. Levick (1990) Claudius (London: Routledge)

Miriam T. Griffin (1984) Nero : the end of a dynasty (London: Batsford)

Brian W. Jones (1984) The Emperor Titus (London: Croom Helm)

Brian W. Jones (1992) The emperor Domitian (London: Croom Helm)

B.M. Levick (1999) Vespasian (London: Routledge)

P. Southern (1997) Domitian : tragic tyrant (Indiana University Press, Bloomington)

J. Bennett (1997) Trajan : optimus princeps (Indiana University Press, Bloomington)

Routes to legitimacy

P.A. Brunt (1977) ‘Lex de imperio Vespasiani’ in The journal of Roman studies. . 67: 95-116

G.E.F. Chilver (1957) , “The Army in Politics, A.D. 68-70", The journal of Roman studies. . 47: 29-35.

J.H. Corbett (1974) "The Succession Policy of Augustus," in Latomus. 33: 87-97.

Werner Eck (2003) The age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell) – chapters 15, 'The quest for political continuity: the succession'

P. A. L. Greenhalgh (1975) The year of the four emperors (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson)

Simon Price (1987) , 'From noble funerals to divine cult: the consecration of Roman emperors', in D. Cannadine & S. Price (eds.) Rituals of royalty : power and ceremonial in traditional societies . Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

E.S. Ramage (1983) "Denigration of Predecessor under Claudius, Galba, and Vespasian" in Historia. 32 : 201-214.

M. Sommer (2010), The complete Roman emperor : imperial life at court and on campaign (Thames & Hudson) - chapter 3.

K.H. Waters (1963) “The Second Dynasty of Rome” in Phoenix. . 17: 198-218

C. Wells (1984) The Roman Empire. (London: Fontana) – chapter 7, 'Emperors made elsewhere than at Rome'

Kenneth Wellesley (2000) The year of the four emperors (London: Routledge).

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Seminar 02 - 'Good' emperors, 'bad' emperors

Please note that Suetonius' Lives of Vespasian and Domitian are also linked from the 'Seminars' folder on the module's VLE page.

Primary texts 

Suetonius, Life of Vespasian . Full English translation also available online at: http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/suetnius/vspsn.htm

Suetonius , Life of Domitian . Full English translation also avaliable online at: http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/suetnius/domitian.htm

General reading

C. Damon (2006), 'Constructing a narrative' in D. Potter, ed., A companion to the Roman Empire (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell): 23-34.

M. Goodman (1997) The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – ch. 12 Available online

Michael Grant (1997), The twelve Caesars (London: Phoenix) - Introduction. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

Elizabeth Keitel (2007), 'Feast Your Eyes on This: Vitellius as a Stock Tyrant (Tac. Hist. 3.36-39)' in J. Marincola, A companion to Greek and Roman historiography (Malden and Oxford). Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

John Matthews (2007), 'The Emperor and his Historians' in J. Marincola, A companion to Greek and Roman historiography (Malden and Oxford).

Millar, F., The emperor in the Roman world (31 BC-AD 337) (London, 1977) - chapter 6. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

C. Vout (2009), 'Representing the emperor' in Andrew Feldherr, ed. The Cambridge companion to the Roman historians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 261-275. Available online

K.H. Waters (1964) “The Character of Domitian” in Phoenix. 18: 49-77

K.H. Waters (1974) “Trajan's Character in the Literary Tradition” in J.A.S. Evans, ed. Polis and imperium : studies in honour of Edward Togo Salmon pp. 233-252. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

C. Wells (1984) The Roman Empire . (Harvard University Press)- ch. 1, 'The Sources'. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

Individual sources and their issues

Martin Hose (2007), 'Cassius Dio: A Senator and Historian in the Age of Anxiety' in J. Marincola, A companion to Greek and Roman historiography (Malden and Oxford).

Fergus Millar (1964) A study of Cassius Dio

Andrew Wallace-Hadrill (1983), Suetonius : the scholar and his Caesars

G.B. Townend (1967), 'Suetonius and his Influence', in Dorey, T. A., ed. Latin Biography , pp. 79-110. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

Ronald Syme (1958), Tacitus . (2 vols.)

J. Ginsburg (1981), Tradition and theme in the Annals of Tacitus

R. Mellor (1993), Tacitus

R. Mellor (2011), Tacitus' annals Oxford Approaches to Classical Literature .(Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press).

K. Quinn (1963), Latin explorations : critical studies in Roman literature – see chapter 5, 'Tacitus' Narrative Technique'

J. Percival (1980) 'Tacitus and the Principate' in Greece and Rome. 27: 119-33.

K. Wellesley (1954), ‘Can you trust Tacitus? ’ in Greece and Rome. 2 nd series 1: pp. 13-35.

A.J. Woodman (2009), The Cambridge companion to Tacitus [electronic resource] (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

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Lecture 09 – What did an emperor do all day?

Comprehensive overviews

F. Millar (1977), The emperor in the Roman world (31 BC-AD 337) (London)

M. Sommer (2010), The complete Roman emperor : imperial life at court and on campaign (Thames & Hudson)

Primary sources

B. Levick (2000), The government of the Roman Empire: a sourcebook

Specific aspects

Alan K. Bowman, Edward Champlin, Andrew Lintott, eds., The Cambridge ancient history. Vol.10 - chapters 7 (The imperial court), 8 (The imperial finances), and 12 (The administration of justice).

P.A. Brunt (1966), 'The “Fiscus” and its Development' in The journal of Roman studies. 56: pp. 75-91

P.A. Brunt (1990) Roman Imperial Themes – chapters 7 (The ‘Fiscus’ and its Development), 15 (The Revenues of Rome) and 16 (Remarks on the Imperial Fiscus )

J.B. Campbell (1984), The emperor and the Roman army, 31 B.C.-A.D. 235

O. F. Robinson (1992) Ancient Rome : city planning and administration (Routledge)

F.G.B. Millar (1963) "The fiscus in the first two centuries", in The journal of Roman studies. 53: 29ff.

Fergus Millar (1964) "The aerarium and its officials", in The journal of Roman studies. 54: 88ff.

R.J.A. Talbert (1985), The Senate of Imperial Rome , Princeton.

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Lecture 10 – Emperors and empire

Provincial rebellions

B. Bosworth (1973), ‘Vespasian and the provinces: problems of the early 70s AD’ in Athenaeum. 51: 49-78

G. de la Bedoyère (2003) , Defying Rome : the rebels of Roman Britain (Tempus)

M. Goodman (1991) , ‘Opponents of Rome: Jews and others’ in L. Alexander, ed. Images of empire ( Sheffield : Journal for the study of the Old Testament).

M. Goodman (1997). The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – chapter 16, 'Reactions to imperial rule' Available online

R. MacMullen (1967) Enemies of the Roman Order ( London : Routledge)

R. Hingley and C. Unwin (2005) , Boudica : Iron Age warrior queen (London: Continuum International)

B.D. Shaw (2000) , ‘Rebels and outsiders’ in A.K. Bowman, P. Garnsey and D. Rathbone, eds. Cambridge ancient history . Vol. 11, The high Empire, A.D. 70-192 ( Cambridge : CUP)

Governors and provincial administration

R. Alston (1998) Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117 (London: Routledge) - ch. 12, 'Administration' Available online

Werner Eck (2000), 'Chapter 7 - Provincial administration and finance' in Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey, Dominic Rathbone, eds. The Cambridge ancient history . Vol. 11, The high Empire, A.D. 70-192

Werner Eck (2003) The age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell) – chapter 10

M. Goodman (1997). The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – chapter 10, 'The operation of the state in the provinces' Available online

B. Radice (1962), "A Fresh Approach to Pliny's Letters", Greece and Rome. . 9, pp. 160-8. Available online

A.N. Sherwin-White (1966), The letters of Pliny : a historical and social commentary .

R. Talbert (1996), ‘Chapter 9 – The Senate and senatorial and equestrian posts’, in Bowman, Champlin and Lintott, eds. The Cambridge ancient history . Vol.10, Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69 324-43

C. Wells (1984) The Roman Empire. (Harvard University Press) – chapter 6

The emperor and the provinces

R. Alston (1998) Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117 (London: Routledge) - ch. 15, 'Provinces and culture'

Mary T. Boatwright (2000), Hadrian and the cities of the Roman empire (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press).

Karl Galinsky (1996), Augustan culture : an interpretive introduction (Princeton: PUP) – ch. 4 , pp. 164-178 (statues; available as an online course reading in the VLE .) and ch. 6, pp. 288-331 (imperial cult).

M. Goodman (1997) The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – ch. 12, 'The image of the emperor' Available online

Millar, F., The emperor in the Roman world (31 BC-AD 337) (London, 1977) - chapter 7

F. Millar (1984), ‘State and subject: the impact of monarchy’ in F. Millar and E. Segal, eds. Caesar Augustus : seven aspects (Oxford: OUP): 37-60. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

Citizenship and the senate

M. Goodman (1997) The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – ch. 13, 'The extent of political unity'

M. Hammond (1957) , ‘The composition of the Roman Senate AD 68-235’ in The journal of Roman studies. 47: 74-81.

R. Hingley (2005), Globalizing Roman culture : unity, diversity and empire (London : Routledge)

A. Lintott (1993) , Imperium Romanum : politics and administration (London) - part II

A. N. Sherwin-White (1973) , The Roman citizenship ( Oxford : Clarendon Press)

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Part 2 – Roman society and literature

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Lecture 11 – Transformation of City of Rome

Barton, I. M. (ed.), 1995. Roman Public Buildings (Exeter)

Favro, D., 1996. The Urban Image of Augustan Rome (Cambridge)

Robinson,O.F., 1992. Ancient Rome: City Planning and Administration (London)

Stambaugh, J.E., 1988. The Ancient Roman City (Baltimore)

Wallace-Hadrill, A., 1993 . Augustan Rome (Bristol)

Zanker, P., 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Michigan)

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Lecture 12 – Living Conditions

Barton,I.M. (ed.), 1996. Roman Domestic Buildings (Exeter)

Frier, B.W. 1977. The Rental Market in Early Imperial Rome. The journal of Roman studies. 67 , pp. 27-37.

Ramage, E.S., 1983. Urban Problems in Ancient Rome. In : R.T. Machese (ed.), Aspects of Graeco-Roman Urbanism: Essays on the Classical City (Oxford), pp. 61-92.

Scobie, A., 1986. Slums, Sanitation and Mortality in the Roman World. Klio. 68, pp. 399-433.

Yavetz, Z., 1958. The Living Conditions of the Urban Plebs. Latomus. 17 , pp. 500-17. [= reprinted in Seager, R., 1969. The Crisis of the Roman Republic: Studies in Political and Social History (Cambridge), pp. 162-79].

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Seminar 03 - The Dynamics of Space: Impressions of Pompey's Theatre

Favro, D., 1996. The Urban Image of Augustan Rome (Cambridge), pp. 58-9.

Platner, S. & Ashby, T., 1926. A Topographical Dictionary of Rome (Oxford) - see the entry for ‘ Theatrum Pompei ’. Also available here online .

Richardson, L., 1992. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Baltimore), pp. 383-5. Available as an online course reading in the VLE .

Zanker, P., 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Michigan), pp. 20-1.

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Lecture 13 – Roman Religion

Beard, M., North, J., and Price, S. (eds.), 1998. Religions of Rome , 2 vols (Cambridge)

Boatwright, M.T., Gargola, D.J., & Talbert, R.J.A. (eds.), 2006. A Brief History of the Romans . New York.

Dumézil, G., 1970. Archaic Roman Religion (Chicago)

Feeney, D., 1998. Literature and Religion at Rome: Cultures, Contexts, and Beliefs (Cambridge)

Ogilvie, R.M., 1986. The Romans and their Gods (London)

Scheid, J., 2003. An Introduction to Roman Religion (Edinburgh)

Scullard, H.H., 1981. Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (London)

Warrior, W.M., 2006. Roman Religion (Cambridge)

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Lecture 14 – Patronage and Slaves

Bradley, K.R., 1984. Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire: A Study in Social Control , Brussels

Bradley, K.R., 1994. Slavery and Society at Rome (Cambridge)

Wallace-Hadrill, A., 1989. Patronage in Roman Society: from Republic to Empire. In : A. Wallace-Hadrill (ed.), Patronage in Ancient Society (London), pp. 63-87.

Wiedemann, T., 1987. Slavery ( Greece & Rome. New surveys in the classics) no. 19 ; Oxford.

Wiedemann, T., 1992. Greek and Roman Slavery (London)

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Lecture 15 – Pliny the Elder and Luxury

Beagon, M., 1992. Roman Nature: the Thought of Pliny the Elder (Oxford), pp. 1-25, 75-91, 190-4.

Edwards, C., 1993. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome (Cambridge), pp. 137-72 (esp. 163-72).

Wallace-Hadrill, A., 1990. Pliny the Elder and Man’s Unnatural History. Greece and Rome 37 , pp. 80-96.

Zanker, P., 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Michigan), pp. 135-9, 159-62.

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Lecture 16 – Pliny the Elder and Racial Prejudice

Balsdon,J.P.V.D., 1979. Romans and Aliens (London), pp. 30-71, 214-259.

Isaac, B., 2007. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton)

Petrochilos, N., 1974. Roman Attitudes to the Greeks (Athens)

Sherwin-White, A., 1967. Racial Prejudice in Imperial Rome. (Cambridge)

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Seminar 04 -- Roman attitudes towards the Greeks

Balsdon,J.P.V.D., 1979. Romans and Aliens (London): pp. 30-54.

Petrochilos, N., 1974. Roman Attitudes to the Greeks (Athens).

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Lecture 17 – Roman Family

Dixon, S., 1992. The Roman Family (Baltimore)

Dixon, S. (ed.), 2001. Childhood, Class and Kin in the Roman World (London)

Kapparis, K.A., 2002. Abortion in the Ancient World (London)

Rawson, B. (ed.), 1992. The Family in Ancient Rome: New Perspectives (London)

Treggiari, S., 1991. Roman Marriage (Oxford)

Wiedemann, T., 1989. Adults and Children in the Roman Empire (London)

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Lecture 18 – Crime and Punishment

Bauman,R.A., 1996. Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome (London)

Coleman, K.M., 1990. Fatal charades: Roman executions staged as mythological enactment. The journal of Roman studies. . 80 , pp. 44-73.

Harries, J., 2007. Law and Crime in the Roman World (Cambridge)

Nippel, W., 1984. Policing Rome. The journal of Roman studies. . 74 , pp. 20-9.

Robinson, O.F., 2007. Penal Practice and Penal Policy in Ancient Rome (London)

Skinner, M.B., 1998. Quod multo fit aliter in Graecia ... In : J.B. Hallett and M.B. Skinner (eds.), Roman Sexualities (Princeton), pp. 3-25.

Skinner, M.B., 2005. Sexuality in Greek and Roman Culture (Malden), 1-20

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Lecture 19 – Roman Leisure

Austin, R.G., 1924. Roman board games, I. Greece and Rome. 4 , pp. 25-30.

Bell, R.C., 1969. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations (Oxford)

Coleman, K.M., 1993. Launching into History: Aquatic Displays in the Early Empire. The Journal of Roman Studies 83 , pp. 48-74.

Purcell, N., 1995. Literate games: Roman urban society and the game of alea . Past & Present 147 , pp. 3-37.

Toner, J.P., 1995. Leisure and Ancient Rome (Cambridge)

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Lecture 20 – Pliny the Elder and Animal Rights

Beagon, M., 1992. Roman Nature: the Thought of Pliny the Elder (Oxford), pp. 124-58. (Available as an online course reading in the VLE ).

Green, S.J., 2008. Save the Cows? Augustan Discourse and Animal Sacrifice in Ovid’s Fasti . Greece and Rome 55 , pp. 39-54.

Sorabji, R., 1993. Animal Minds & Human Morals: the Origins of the Western Debate (London), pp. 170-9. (Available as an online course reading in the VLE )

Toynbee,J.M.C., 1973. Animals in Roman Life and Art (Baltimore), pp. 15-31. (Available as an online course reading in the VLE )

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Seminar 05 - Revision (see VLE)

This list was last updated on 11/01/2017