Leeds University Library

PIED2455
Module Reading List

State and Politics in Africa, 2017/18, Semester 1
Dr Alex Beresford
A.Beresford@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Links to some of the latest research articles will be on the VLE - this reading list is meant only as a starting point.

Readings for the course

These are some general readings that you may find helpful for general reading (including some provocative texts).

Bach, D. and M. Gazibo (2012) Neopatrimonialism in Africa and beyond London: Routledge

Bayart, J.F. (2007)  The state in Africa: The politics of the belly Cambridge: Polity

Cooper, F. (2002) Africa since 1940 : the past of the present Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper, F. (2014) Africa in the world : capitalism, empire, nation-state. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Davidson, B. (1992)  The black man's burden : Africa and the curse of the nation-state London: Currey

Fanon, F. (2008).  Black skin, white masks. Grove press.

Herbst, J. (2014) States and power in Africa : comparative lessons in authority and control Princeton: Princeton University Press

Mbembe, A. (2001)  On the postcolony. Berkely: University of California Press

Poku, N., & Mdee, A. (2011).  Politics in Africa : A new introduction . Zed Books.

Thompson, A. (2000; 2004; 2010) An Introduction to African Politics . London: Routledge. Introduction and conclusion

 

Week 1: Colonial legacies

Lecture: Course introduction: the legacies of colonialism

This lecture provides an introduction to the colonial state and the lasting legacies of colonialism. It will also briefly explore African nationalist resistance to colonial rule.

Seminar: Colonial legacies

The purpose of this seminar is to explore the nature of the colonial state and the legacies of colonialism that continue to affect African states and societies today.

Questions for Seminar Discussion :

See VLE for details and also for core readings for the seminar

General:

Cooper, F. (2002) Africa since 1940 : the past of the present Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 3 & 4

Davidson, B. (1992) The black man's burden : Africa and the curse of the nation-state London: Currey

Fanon, F., (1965)  The wretched of the earth  Grove Press

Mazrui, A. A. (1980). The African condition : a political diagnosis. Cambridge University Press.

Mkandawire, T. 2001. “African Intellectuals and Nationalism in the Changing Global Context”. Australasian Review of African Studies 23(1):11-37.

Rodney, W. (2012). How europe underdeveloped africa.

Thompson, A. (2000; 2004) An Introduction to African Politics. London: Routledge. Ch. 3

Tordoff, W. (2002) Government & Politics in Africa. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Chapters 2, 3 & 8

Background to the Colonial State:

Ayandele, E. A. (1966).  The missionary impact on modern Nigeria, 1842-1914 : a political and social analysis  London Longmans.

Berman, B. (1997) The Perils of Bula Matari: Constraint and Power in the Colonial State. Canadian Journal of African Studies 31 (3): 556-570

Berman, B. (1990) Control and Crisis in Colonial Kenya: The Dialectic of Domination. Oxford: James Currey. Chapter 10 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Branch, D. & N. Cheeseman (2006) The Politics of Control in Kenya: Understanding the Bureaucratic-Executive State. Review of African political economy. 33 (107): 11-31

Freund, B. (1984; 1998) The Making of Contemporary Africa. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press. Ch 9 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Lonsdale, J. & B. Berman (1979) Coping with the contradictions: the development of the colonial state in Kenya. The journal of African history. 20 (4): 487-505

Mamdani, M. (1996) Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of late Colonialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Young, C. (1994) The African colonial state in comparative perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press

African Nationalism:

* Anderson, D. (2005) Histories of the Hanged: Britains dirty war in Kenya and the end of empire. London: Phoenix. Chapter 1 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Anderson, D. (2005) ‘Yours in Struggle for Majimbo’: Nationalism and the Party Politics of Decolonisation in Kenya, 1955-1964. Journal of contemporary history. 40 (3): 547-564

Austin, D. (1964) Politics in Ghana, 1947-1960 Oxford: Oxford University Press

* Berman, B. (1991) Nationalism, Ethnicity and Modernity: The Paradox of Mau Mau. Canadian Journal of African Studies 25 (2): 181-206

Berman, B. and J. Lonsdale (1992) Unhappy Valley, Vol. 2: Violence and Ethnicity. Oxford: James Currey. Ch. 12: The Moral Economy of Mau Mau

* Baylies, C. (1985) State & class in post-colonial Africa. In M. Zeitlin (ed.) Political power and social theory. Greenwich, Conn.: Jai Press.

Busia, A.P., 2006. What is Africa to me? Knowledge possession, knowledge production, and the health of our bodies politic in Africa and the Africa diaspora.  African studies review., 49 (01), pp.15-30.

Cabral, A., 1979.  Unity and struggle : speeches and writings. Monthly Review Press.

* Coleman, J. S. (1954) Nationalism in Colonial Africa. The American political science review. 68: 404-426

Cooper, F. (1988) Mau Mau and the discourses of Decolonisation. The journal of African history. 29: 313-320

Fanon, F (1968) The Wretched of the Earth Penguin: London

Furedi, F. (1973-4) The Social Composition of the Mau Mau Movement in the White Highlands. Journal of peasant studies. 1: 486-505

Githuku, N. (2016)  Mau Mau crucible of war : statehood, national identity, and politics of postcolonial Kenya  London: Lexington

Hodgkin, T. (1956) Nationalism in Colonial Africa. New York: New York University Press. Ch 5

Iliffe, J. (1979) A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ch 15 & 16

*Lonsdale, J. (1981) The state and social processes in Africa. African Studies Review 24 (2/3): 139-226

* Mamdani, M. (1990) State and civil society in contemporary Africa: reconceptualising the birth of state nationalism and the defeat of popular movements. African Development 15 (3/4): 46-70

Mazrui, A. A., & Tidy, M. (1984). Nationalism and new states in Africa : from about 1935 to the present  (Vol. 1948). Nairobi: Heinemann.

Moi, D. arap (1986) Kenya African Nationalism: Nyayo Philosophy and Principles London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Mulford, D. C. (1967) Zambia : the politics of independence, 1957-1964 London: Oxford University Press

Nantambu, K. (1998). Pan-Africanism Versus Pan-African Nationalism: An Afrocentric Analysis.  Journal of black studies. , 28 (5), 561-574.

* Nkrumah, K. (1963) Africa must unite. London: Panaf. Ch 6 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Nugent, P. (2004) Africa since independence : a comparative history. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Ch 1 available as an online course reading in the VLE

* Nyerere, J. (1966) Freedom and unity = Uhuru na umoja : a selection from writings and speeches, 1952-65. London: Oxford University Press. Esp. Chapters 10, 24 and 37

Rotberg, R (1966). "African Nationalism: Concept or Confusion? " Journal of modern African studies., 4, 1

Rotberg, R. (1965) The rise of nationalism in central Africa : the making of Malawi and Zambia, 1873-1964. London: Oxford University Press

Sithole, N. (1968).  African nationalism.

Throup, D. (1985) The Origins of Mau Mau. African affairs. 84 (336): 399-433

Young, C. (1982), Ideology and development in Africa. New Haven. Yale University Press

Evolving modes of consciousness and ideology: nationalism and ethnicity. In D. Apter & C Rosberg (eds) Political Development and the New Realism in Sub-Saharan Africa Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia

Case of Nigeria :

Dudley, B. (1982) An introduction to Nigerian government and politics. London: Macmillan. Ch 3 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Coleman, J. S. (1954) Nationalism in Colonial Africa. The American political science review. 68: 404-426

* Coleman, J. S. (1971) Nigeria : background to nationalism. Berkeley: University of California Press

Hastings, A. (1997) The construction of nationhood : ethnicity, religion and nationalism: . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 6: Some African case studies ( available as an online course reading in the VLE )

Hodgkin, T. L. (1956) Nationalism in Colonial Africa. New York: New York University Press. Esp. Chapter 5

Kastfelt, N. (1993) Christianity, Colonial Legitimacy and the Rise of Nationalist Politics in Northern Nigeria. In T. Ranger & O. Vaughan (eds) Legitimacy and the state in twentieth-century Africa : essays in honour of A.H.M. Kirk-Greene Basingstoke: Macmillan

Last, M. (1967) The Sokoto caliphate. London: Longmans

* Mackintosh, J. P. (1966) Nigerian government and politics London: Allen and Unwin. Chapter 1 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Melson, R. & H. Wolpe (eds) (1971) Nigeria : modernization and the politics of communalism. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. Chapter 3 & 17

Post, K. W. J. (1963) The Nigerian Federal election of 1959 : politics and administration in a developing political system. London: Oxford University Press. Chapter 2 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Reynolds, J. (1997) The Politics of History: The Legacy of the Sokoto Caliphate in Nigeria. Journal of Asian and African studies. 32 (1-2): 50-65

* Sklar, R. (1963) Nigerian political parties : power in an emergent African nation. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. Esp. Chapters 2 & 3

Schwarz, F. A. O. (1963; 1983) Nigeria : the tribes, the nation, or the race - the politics of independence Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Chapters 4 & 5

* Whitaker, C. S. (1970) The politics of tradition continuity and change in Northern Nigeria, 1946-1966. Princeton: Princeton University Press

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Week 2: The postcolonial state

Lecture: The post-colonial state

The lecture introduces the idea of ‘post-colonial states’ and important continuities and change between the colonial and post-colonial periods. In particular, it will introduce the concept of the ‘gatekeeper state’.

Seminar: Africa’s weak (but enduring) gatekeeper states

In this seminar we will look at how and why African state borders have remained relatively unchanged since independence, and the implications this has for how we understand African sovereignty. In particular, the seminars will discuss Fred Cooper’s notion of the ‘gatekeeper state’ and the nature of African sovereignty.

Questions and reading for Seminar Discussion:

See VLE

Background reading

Clapham, C (1996) Africa and the international system : the politics of state survival Part 1.

Harbeson, J and Donald Rothchild (2000) “The African State and State System in Flux” in John Harbeson and Donald Rothchild, Africa in world politics : the African state system in fl

Mbembe, A. (2001)  On the postcolony. Berkely: University of California Press

Young, C, (1994) The African colonial state in comparative perspective Chapter 4 ‘Constructing Bula Matari’

Freund, B (1994, 1998) The Making of Contemporary Africa (Chapter 6)

Contemporary Sovereignty and Statehood

Bayart, JF (1999) “From kleptocracy to the felonious state? ” in Bayart, JF (ed) The criminalization of the state in Africa Oxford: James Currey

Bayart, JF (2000) "Africa in the world: A history of extraversion" African affairs. 99, 395

Boone, C (1998) “Empirical statehood and reconfigurations of Political order” in Leonardo Villalon and Phillip A Huxtable, eds. The African state at a critical juncture : between disintegration and reconfiguration

Callaghy, T et al Intervention and transnationalism in Africa : global-local networks of power (2001)

Clapham, C (2002) “The Challenge to the state in a globalized world” Development and change. 33 775-795.

Clarke, W and Jeffrey Herbst, (1996) “Somalia and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention” Foreign affairs. 75, 2 pp70-85.

Dunn, K (2001) and Time Shaw eds. Africa's challenge to international relations theory

*Englebert, P. (2009) Africa : unity, sovereignty, and sorrow. London: Lynne Rienner

Githuku, N. (2016)  Mau Mau crucible of war : statehood, national identity, and politics of postcolonial Kenya  London: Lexington

Herbst, J (1989) ‘The creation and maintenance of national boundaries in Africa’ International organization. 43, 4 673-692

Herbst, J  ( 2000). States and power in Africa : comparative lessons in authority and control *Jeffrey Herbst, “ New Approach to Sovereignty in Africa” SAIS Review vol. XXI no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2001) pp 219-223.

Pfaff, W (1996) “A New Colonialism? Europe must go back to Africa” Foreign affairs. 74, 1, pp 2-6.

Young, C (2004) “The end of the post-colonial state in Africa? Reflections on changing African Political Dynamics” African affairs. 103, 23-49.

Zartman, W. (1995) Collapsed states : the disintegration and restoration of legitimate authority

Secessionism and Federalism

Englebert, P and Rebecca Hummel (2005) " Let's Stick Together: Understanding Africa's Secessionist Deficit. " African affairs., 104 (416):399-427.

Englebert, P (2007) "Wither the Separatist Motive? " In Kevin Dunn and Morten Boas (eds.) African guerrillas : raging against the machine  pp. 55-68

*Adam, H. (1994) “Formation and recognition of new states: Somaliland in contrast to Eritrea” Review of African political economy. 59.

Spears, I (2003) “Reflections on Somaliland & Africa's Territorial Order” Review of African political economy. 95

Menkhaus, K (2003) “State collapse in Somalia: second thoughts” Review of African political economy. 97

Bradbury, M Adan Yusuf Abokor, Haroon Ahmed Yusuf (2003) “Somaliland: choosing politics over violence” Review of African political economy. 97 455 – 478

*Young, C (1998) “The African colonial state revisited” Governance.  11, 1

Prunier, G (1994) “Somaliland: birth of a new country? ” in Charles Gurdon, ed. The Horn of Africa

De St. Jorre, J (1972) The Nigerian Civil War.

Luckham, R (1971) The Nigerian military : a sociological analysis of authority & revolt, 1960-67, 1960-67

Lofchie, M (1965) Zanzibar : background to revolution

Cameron, G (2002) “Zanzibar’s Turbulent Transition” in Review of African political economy. No. 92 313-330.

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Week 3: The politics of patronage 

Lecture: The politics of patronage

In this lecture, we are concerned with patronage politics (aka gatekeeper politics, neopatrimonialism), which are often cited as the main means of mobilising political support in Africa during decolonisation and after Independence. This, according to Chabal and Daloz, is the way in which ‘Africa works’. The lecture will introduce the notion of ‘personal rule’ in Africa and ‘the politics of the belly’. It will also explore some of the more recent literature which debates whether neopatrimonialism is an unchanging or a fluid, heterogeneous and contested feature of African politics.

Seminar: Does Africa ‘work’?

Africa often seems, to the outside observer, to be the site of breakdown and failure. The purpose of the seminar is to further discuss ideas about patronage politics, 'neopatrimonialism' and, in particular, to explore the idea that Africa actually ‘works’ – just in a very different way to Western states and societies.

Questions and readings for Seminar Discussion:

See VLE

Background Readings

Chabal, P. and JP Daloz, (1999) “The Political Instrumentalization of Disorder” in Africa works : disorder as political instrument pp. 141-163

Booth, D. and F. Golloba Mutebi (2012) Developmental Patrimonialism? The Case of Rwanda African affairs. 111 (444): pp. 379-403.

Beresford, A. (2015) Power, patronage and gatekeeper politics in South Africa. African affairs

Ekeh, P.P. 1975. “Colonialism and the Two Publics in Africa: A Theoretical Statement.”  Comparative studies in society and history. .17(01): 91-112.

Mkandawire, T. (2015). Neopatrimonialism and the political economy of economic performance in Africa: Critical reflections. World politics., 67(03), 563-612.

General Readings

Akech, M. (2011). Constraining government power in Africa. Journal of democracy. , 22(1), 96-106.

Allen, C. (1995) Understanding African Politics. Review of African political economy. 65: 301-320

Amoah, L. G. A. (2012). Constructing a new public administration in Africa: Reflections on philosophical clarity and the process-orientation turn. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 34(3), 385-406.

Bach, D. and M. Gazibo (2012)  Neopatrimonialism in Africa and beyond London: Routledge

Bates, R. H. (1983) Modernization, Ethnic Cooperation, and the Rationality of Politics in Contemporary Africa. In D. Rothchild & V. Olunsorola (eds) State versus ethnic claims : African policy dilemmas: . Boulder Colorado, CO: Westview Press.

Bates (1986) Modernisation, ethnic competition & the rationality of politics in Africa. In M Doro & N Stultz, eds, Governing in Black Africa. London: Africana Publishing Co.

*Bayart, J-F. (1993) The state in Africa : the politics of the belly. New York: Longman Publishing

Bayart, J-F (1999) The criminalization of the state in Africa Oxford: Currey

**Beresford, A. (2015) Power, patronage and gatekeeper politics in South Africa. African affairs.

Beresford, A. (2015) South Africa's political crisis : unfinished liberation and fractured class struggles Basingstoke: Palgrave (forthcoming October 2015)

Berman, B. (1998) Ethnicity, Patronage and the African State. African affairs. 97: 305-341

Bratton, N. and N. van de Walle (1994) Neopatrimonial Regimes and Political Transitions in Africa World politics. 46 (04).  pp 453-489

* Bratton, M. & N. van de Walle (1997) Democratic experiments in Africa : regime transitions in comparative perspective Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2

Booth, D. (2011) 'Working with the grain and swimming against the tide' DFID Working Paper: http://www.institutions-africa.org/filestream/20110606-appp-working-paper-18-working-with-the-grain-and-swimming-against-the-tide-by-david-booth

**Booth, D. and F. Golloba Mutebi (2012) Developmental Patrimonialism? The Case of Rwanda African affairs. 111 (444): pp. 379-403.

*Clapham, C. (ed.) (1982) Private patronage and public power : political clientelism in the modern state.. London: Pinter. Especially chapters by Clapham and Medard

Cromwell, E., & Chintedza, A. (2005). Neo‐patrimonialism and Policy Processes: Lessons from the Southern African Food Crisis. IDS bulletin. , 36(2), 103-108.

Decalo, S (1985) “African Personal Dictatorships” Journal of modern African studies., Vol. 23, No. 2 pp. 209-237.

Eberlei, W., Meyns, P., & Mutesa, F. (2005). Poverty reduction in a political trap? : the PRS process and neopatrimonialism in Zambia. UNZA Press.

Erdmann, G. and U. Engel (2007) 'Neopatrimonialism Reconsidered: Critical Review and Elaboration of an Elusive Concept' Commonwealth & comparative politics.. 45 (1) pp. 95-119

Hyden, G. (2006) African politics in comparative perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Esp. Chapter 4

*Jackson, R.H. and Carl G. Rosberg (1984) “Personal Rule: Theory and Practice in Africa “ Comparative politics., Vol. 16, No. 4. pp. 421-442;

Joseph, R. (1987) Democracy and prebendal politics in Nigeria : the rise and fall of the Second Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Kelsall, T. (2008), Going with the Grain in African Development? Development policy review. 26: pp. 627–655.

*Kelsall, T (2011) Rethinking the Relationship between Neo-patrimonialism and Economic Development in Africa IDS Bulletin Vol. 42, No. 2. pp. 76-87

*Kelsall, T and D. Booth (2011) Developmental Patrimonialism? Rethinking Business and Politics in Africa. DFID Report:  https://www.gov.uk/government/news/dfid-research-developmental-patrimonialism-rethinking-business-and-politics-in-africa

*Kelsall, T (2012) Neo-Patrimonialism, Rent-Seeking and Development: Going With the Grain? New political economy. Vol. 17, No. 5. pp. 677-682

Kelsall, T (2013) Business, politics and the state in Africa : challenging the orthodoxies on growth and transformation London: Zed Books

Lemarchand, R. (1971) Political Clientelism and Ethnicity in Tropical Africa: Competing Solidarities in Nation-Building. The American political science review. 66 (1): 68-90

Lemarchand, R. and N. Clegg (1977) Political Clientelism and Development: A Preliminary Analysis Comparative politics., Vol. 4, No. 2 pp. 149-178

Lemarchand, R. (1998) The State, the Parallel Economy and the Changing Structure of Patronage Systems. In D. Rothchild & N. Chazan (eds) The precarious balance : state and society in Africa. Westview Press Inc, Colorado

Lewis (1996) From prebendalism to predation: the political economy of decline in Nigeria. Journal of modern African studies. 31 (1): 79-103

Le Vine, V. (2004) Politics in Francophone Africa  Lynne Reinner Publishers

Medard, J.F. (2002) 'Corruption in the neo-patrimonial states of Sub-Saharan Africa' in Heidenheimer, A. et al (eds) Political corruption : concepts and contexts

Pitcher, A. et al (2009) Rethinking Patrimonialism and Neopatrimonialism in Africa. African Studies Review 52 (1): 125-156.

Reno, W. (1997) "Sovereignty and Personal Rule in Zaire" African studies quarterly [electronic resource]. Vol. 1, No 3

*Schatzberg, M. (1993) ‘Power, Legitimacy and 'Democratisation' Africa. Vol. 63,

Schatzberg, M. (2001) Political legitimacy in Middle Africa : father, family, food. Bloomington: Indiana University Press

*Szeftel, M. Corruption, Clientelism and Catastrophe Review of African political economy. 27 (85) 427-441 pp.

Sindzingre, A. (2010, August). The concept of neopatrimonialism: Divergences and convergences with development economics. In German Institute of Global and Area Studies Workshop on Neopatrimonialism in Various Word Regions. Hamburg, August

Tripp, A. (2001) Women’s Movements and Challenges to Neopatrimonial Rule: Preliminary Observations from Africa Development and change. 32, 1 pp. 33-54

Van de Walle, N. (2003)‘Presidentialism and clientelism in Africa's emerging party systems’ Journal of modern African studies., 41 : 297-321

*Van de Walle, N. (2007) The Path from Neopatrimonialism: Democracy and Clientelism in Africa Today  Centre for International Studies Working Paper

Von Soest, C. (2007) How does neopatrimonialism affect the African state's revenues? The case of tax collection in Zambia Journal of modern African studies. 45 (4) pp 621-645. 

Wai, Z. (2012). Neo-patrimonialism and the discourse of state failure in Africa. Review of African political economy. 

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Week 4: Africa rising?

Lecture: Economic Crisis and Reform 

In the 1970s and 1980s, the development community increasingly placed the blame for the sub-continent’s poor development on African governments. Their critique implied that African economies were ‘structurally imbalanced’ and corrupt. It was argued that Structural Adjustment policies (SAPs) were needed to stimulate economic growth. This lecture introduces SAPs and some of the problems associated with them. It will also discuss the key repercussions of the reforms for various actors and society at large and how neoliberal reforms have evolved over time. In particular, we will explore the arguments that the African continent is now 'rising' after centuries of underdevelopment. 

Seminar: The Impact of neoliberal policies and transformations

The aim of this seminar is to critically analyse the impact (intended and unintended) of SAPs in Africa, both in terms of politics and society.

Questions for  and readings for seminar discussion

See VLE

General Readings:

Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. (2010). Why is Africa poor? . Economic history of developing regions , 25(1), 21-50.

Bangura, Y. (1995) Perspectives on the politics of structural adjustment, informalisation and political change in Africa’ in T. Mkandawire & A. Olukoshi (eds) Between liberalisation and oppression : the politics of structural adjustment in Africa. Dakar: Codesria

Bangura, Y. (1986). Structural adjustment and the political question.  Review of African political economy. , 13 (37), 24-37.

Beckman, B., Buhlungu, S., & Sachikonye, L. (2010). Trade unions & party politics : labour movements in Africa .

Biersteker, T. & P. M. Lewis (1997) The Rise and Fall of Structural Adjustment in Nigeria. In L. Diamond, A. H. M. Kirk-Greene & O. Oyediran (eds) Transition without end : Nigerian politics and civil society under Babangida. Boulder: Lynne Rienner

Bracking, S. (2000) The uncertain future of bilateralism or, “it takes two fingers to kill a louse”. Review of African political economy. 27 (86): 559-76

Brown, W. (1999) The EU and structural adjustment: the case of Lome IV and Zimbabwe. Review of African political economy. 26 (79): 75-92

Chabal, P. and Daloz (1999) Africa works : disorder as political instrument (chapter on SAPs)

Chabal, P (2010) 'The State of Governance in Africa' SAIIA Occasional Paper No 26: http://dspace.cigilibrary.org/jspui/bitstream/123456789/29713/1/SAIIA%20Occasional%20Paper%20no%2026.pdf? 1

Clapham, C (1996) “The International Politics of Economic Failure” Chapter 7 in Christopher Clapham Africa and the international system : the politics of state survival

Clapham, C ( 1996) “The Externalization of Political Accountability” Chapter 8 in Christopher Clapham Africa and the international system : the politics of state survival

Cornia, G. A., R. Jolly & F. Stewart (eds) (1987) Adjustment with a human face. Vol.1, Protecting the vulnerable and promoting growth Oxford: Clarendon

Cornia, G. A., R. Jolly & F. Stewart (eds) (1988) Adjustment with a human face. Vol.2, Country case studies Oxford: Clarendon

Geisler. G. (1992) Who is losing out? Structural adjustment, gender and the agricultural sector in Zambia. Journal of modern African studies. 30 (1): 113-139

Gibbon, P., Y. Bangura & A. Ofstad (eds) (1992) Authoritarianism, democracy, and adjustment : the politics of economic reform in Africa Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Esp. chapter by Beckman

Harrison, G (2005) The World Bank and Africa : the construction of governance states

Harrison (2005) ‘Economic Faith, Social Project and a Misreading of African Society: The Travails of Neoliberalism in Africa’, Third world quarterly. 26 (8)

*Harrison, G (2010) Neoliberal Africa : the impact of global social engineering London: Zed Books

Herbst, J. (1990) The Structural Adjustment of Politics in Africa. World development. 18 (7): 949-958

*Hibou, Beatrice “The social capital of the state as an agent of deception” in Bayart, JF The criminalization of the state in Africa (1999)

Hutchful, E. (1995) Adjustment, regimes and politics in Africa. In T. Mkandawire & A. Olukoshi (eds) Between liberalisation and oppression : the politics of structural adjustment in Africa Dakar: Codesria

Jerven, M. (2015).  Africa : why economists get it wrong. London: Zed Books.

Kanji, N., & Jazdowska, N. (1993). Structural adjustment and women in Zimbabwe.  Review of African political economy., 20 (56), 11-26.

Kindiki, M. M. (2014). Dependency in international regimes: the case of the apparel industry in sub-Saharan Africa.  Review of African political economy., 41 (142), 594-608.

Konadu‐Agyemang, K. (2000). The best of times and the worst of times: structural adjustment programs and uneven development in Africa: the case of Ghana.  The professional geographer. , 52 (3), 469-483.

Leys, C “The state and the crisis of simple commodity production in Africa” in The rise & fall of development theory (1996) pp. 135-142

Lugalla, J. L. (1995). The impact of structural adjustment policies on women's and children's health in Tanzania.  Review of African political economy., 22 (63), 43-53.

Makhaya, G., Mkwananzi, W., & Roberts, S. (2012). How should young institutions approach competition enforcement? Reflections on South Africa's experience.  South African journal of international affairs, 19 (1), 43-64.

Manji, A. (2003). Capital, labour and land relations in Africa: a gender analysis of the World Bank's Policy Research Report on Land Institutions and Land Policy. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3993632?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Manji, A. (2001). Land reform in the shadow of the state: the implementation of new land laws in Sub-Saharan Africa.  Third world quarterly., 22 (3), 327-342.

Mbaku, J. M. (2015). NEPAD and prospects for development in Africa.  International Studies., 41 (4), 387-409.

Mbilinyi, M. (1993). Struggles over patriarchal structural adjustment in Tanzania.  Gender and development., 1 (3), 26-29.

Mensah, J. (2016).  Neoliberalism and globalization in Africa : contestations from the embattled continent . Springer.

Mkandawire, T. (2001). Thinking about developmental states in Africa. Cambridge journal of economics., 25(3), 289-314.

Mkandawire, T., & Olukoshi, A. (1995).  Between liberalisation and oppression : the politics of structural adjustment in Africa. Codesria.

Mosley, P. & J. Weeks (1993) Has Recovery Begun? - Africa Adjustment in the 1980s Revisited. World development. 21 (10): 1583-606

Mosley, P., T. Subasat & J. Weeks (1995) Assessing Adjustment in Africa. World development. 23 (9): 1459-73

Moyo, S. (2000).  Land reform under structural adjustment in Zimbabwe : land use change in the Machonaland provinces . Nordic Africa Institute.

Moyo, S., & Yeros, P. (2007). The radicalised state: Zimbabwe's interrupted revolution.  Review of African political economy. , 34 (111), 103-121.

Nyang'oro, J. E., & Shaw, T. M. (Eds.). (1992).  Beyond structural adjustment in Africa : the political economy of sustainable and democratic development . Praeger Publishers.

Olukoshi, A. O. (1993) The politics of structural adjustment in Nigeria. London: James Currey

Olukoshi, A. O. (1998).  The Elusive Prince of Denmark: Structural adjustment and the crisis of governance in Africa (No. 104). Nordic Africa Institute. - Available online: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:276846/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Riddell, JB (1992) "Things fall apart again: structural adjustment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa"  Journal of modern African studies. 30, 1

Sachikonye, L. M. (2002). Whither Zimbabwe? crisis & democratisation.  Review of African political economy. , 29 (91), 13-20.

Sachikonye, L. M. (2011).  Zimbabwe's lost decade : politics, development & society. African Books Collective.

Storey, A. (2001) Structural adjustment, state power and the World Bank & Rwanda Review of African political economy. 28, 89 pp. 365-385

Taylor, I. (2016). Dependency redux: why Africa is not rising.  Review of African political economy., 43 (147), 8-25.

* van de Walle, N. (2001) African economies and the politics of permanent crisis, 1979-1999 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Esp Ch. 1, 2 & 7

Wiegratz, J. (2010) Fake capitalism? The dynamics of neoliberal moral restructuring and pseudo-development: the case of Uganda, Review of African political economy., 37 (124)

* World Bank (1981) Accelerated development in sub-Saharan Africa : an agenda for action. Washington: World Bank

World Bank (1989) Sub-Saharan Africa : from crisis to sustainable growth : a long-term perspective study. Washington: World Bank

World Bank (1994) Adjustment in Africa : reforms, results, and the road ahead. Washington: World Bank

Williams, P. Making a liberal state: ‘good governance’ in Ghana  Review of African political economy. 37, 126  pp. 403-419

NEPAD

Bond, Patrick ' Thabo Mbeki and Nepad : Breaking or Shining the Chains of Global Apartheid'

Taylor, I (2005) NEPAD : towards Africa's development or another false start? London: Lynee Rienner

Zack-Williams, A. (2013). Neo-imperialism and African development. Review of African political economy., 40 (136), 179-184.

Country Case studies

Ghana:

Amponsah, N (2000) “Ghana’s Mixed Structural Adjustment Results: Explaining the Poor Private Sector Response” Africa today. vol.47, no.2, pp.9-32

Aryeetey, E., J. Harrigan and M. Nissanke (2000) Economic reforms in Ghana : the miracle and the mirage. Oxford: James Currey. Esp Chs 2, 10, 14, 18

Callaghy, T. (1990) Lost between state and market: the politics of economic adjustment in Ghana, Zambia and Nigeria. In J Nelson (ed) Economic crisis and policy choice : the politics of adjustment in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Gibbon, P. (1992) A failed agenda? African agriculture under structural adjustment, with special reference to Kenya and Ghana. Journal of peasant studies. 20 (1): 50-96

Herbst, J. (1993) The politics of reform in Ghana, 1982-1991 Berkeley: University of California Press

Hilson, G. M. (2005) 'Structural Adjustment in Ghana: Assessing the Impacts of Mining-Sector Reform', Africa today., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 53-77.

Hilson, G and Clive Potter (2005) “Structural Adjustment and Subsistence Industry: Artisanal Gold Mining in Ghana” Development and change. vo.36, no.1 pp 103-131

Hutchful, E. (2001) Ghana's adjustment experience : the paradox of reform. Oxford: James Currey

Konadu-Agyemang, K (2000) “The Best of Times and the Worst of Times: Structural Adjustment Programs and Uneven Development in Africa: The Case Of Ghana” The professional geographer. vol.52, no.3, pp.469-483

Uganda:

Belshaw, D., P. Lawrence & M. Hubbard (1999) Agricultural tradables and economic recovery in Uganda: the limitations of structural adjustment in practice. World development. 27 (4): 673-690.

Brett, E. A. (1996) Uganda. In P. Endberg Pedersen (ed.) Limits of adjustment in Africa : the effects of economic liberalization, 1986-94. London: James Currey

Mamdani, M. (1990) Uganda - contradictions of the IMF programme and perspective. Development and change. 21 (3): 427-467

Mozambique:

Hanlon, J (2000) "Power without responsibility: the World Bank and Mozambican cashew nuts" Review of African political economy. 83, 29-45.

Hanlon, J (2004) "Do Donors Promote Corruption? The Case of Mozambique" Third world quarterly. (25:4)

Plank, D (1993) ‘Aid, debt and the end of sovereignty: Mozambique and its donors’ in Journal of modern African studies. (31:3) pp.407-430

Rwanda

Storey, A (1999) “Economic and Ethnic Conflict: Structural Adjustment in Rwanda” Development policy review. 17 43-63 [ONLINE]

Storey, A (2001) “Structural Adjustment, State Power & Genocide: the World Bank & Rwanda ” Review of African political economy. Vol.28 No.89

Uvin, P “Development Aid and Structural Violence: the case of Rwanda” Development. 42:3 (1999) [ONLINE]

Uvin, P (1998) Aiding violence : the development enterprise in Rwanda

Uvin, P (2001) ‘ Difficult choices in the new post-conflict agenda: the international community in Rwanda after the genocide’ in Third world quarterly. Vol 22, No 2, pp 177-189

Tanzania:

Campbell, H. & H. Stein (1992) Tanzania and the IMF : the dynamics of liberalization Boulder: Westview. Esp Chs 1 & 2

Havnevik, K. J. (1993) Tanzania : the limits to development from above Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Chapter 9

Karlstrom, B. (1993) Structural adjustment as a policy process - the case of Tanzania. World development. 21 (9): 1395-1404

Lugalla, J. (1995) The impact of SAPs on women’s and children’s health in Tanzania. Review of African political economy. 22 (63): 43-53

Ponte, S. (1999) Trading Images; Discourse and Statistical Evidence on Agricultural Adjustment in Tanzania (1986-95). In P. Forster and S. Maghimbi (eds) Agrarian economy, state, and society in contemporary Tanzania. Aldershot: Ashgate

PRSP’s:

* Abrahamsen, R. (2004) Review essay: poverty reduction or adjustment by another name? Review of African political economy. 99: 184-7

Baylies, C. (1995) “Political Conditionality” and democratisation. Review of African political economy. 65: 321-7

Collier, P. & D. Dollar (2001) Can the world cut poverty in half? How policy reform and effective aid can meet international development goals. World development. 29(11): 1787-1802.

* Craig, D., & D. Porter (2003) Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: A New Convergence. World development. 31 (1): 53-69.

Crawford, G. (1996) Whither Lome? The mid-term review and the decline of partnership. Journal of modern African studies. 34 (3): 503-518

Crawford, G. (2001) Eliminating World Poverty: Is Neo-Liberal Globalisation the Answer? A Challenge to the UK Government's White Paper. Review of African political economy. 28 (88): 261-266

Crawford, G. (2008) Decentralisation and the limits to poverty reduction: findings from Ghana. Oxford Development Studies 36 (2): 235-258

Fraser, A. & L. Whitfield (2009) Understanding Contemporary Aid Relationships. In L. Whitfield (ed.) The politics of aid : African strategies for dealing with donors Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hickey, S. & S. Bracking (2005) Exploring the Politics of Chronic Poverty: From Representation to a Politics of Justice? World development. 33 (6): 851-865

Swallow, B. (2005) Potential for poverty reduction strategy papers to address community priorities: case study of Kenya. World development. 33 (2): 301-21

* Whitfield, L. (2005) Trustees of development from conditionality to governance: poverty reduction strategy papers in Ghana. Journal of modern African studies. 43 (4): 641-664

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Additional readings on 'Africa Rising'

Adams, P. (2015).  Africa Debt Rising. Africa Research Institute. Available at: http://www.africaresearchinstitute.org/newsite/publications/africa-debt-rising-2/

Amaizo, Y. E. 2012. “An Alternative African Developmentalism: A Critique of Zero-sum Games and Palliative Economics.” Africa Development 37 (4): 117 –140. Available at: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ad/article/viewFile/87487/77169

Beegle, K., Christiaensen, L., Dabalen, A., & Gaddis, I. (2016).  Poverty in a rising Africa. World Bank Publications. Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/22575

Beresford, A. (2016). Africa rising? .  Review of African political economy., 43 (147), 1-7. 

Bush, Ray. 2013. “Making the Twenty First Century its Own: Janus Faced African (Under) Development.” Afrika Focus 26 (1): 51 –65

Chimhanzi, J. (2012). Whither Africa? . Development., 55 (4), 503-508.

da Costa, P. (2015). From ‘Hopeless Continent’to ‘Africa Rising’: emerging discourses, opportunities and challenges for development communication.  Glocal Times, (22/23). http://ojs.ub.gu.se/ojs/index.php/gt/article/view/3277

Drummond, P., Thakoor, V. J., & Yu, S. (2014). Africa rising: harnessing the demographic dividend. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2014/wp14143.pdf

Mahajan, V. (2011).  Africa rising : how 900 million African consumers offer more than you think. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Perry, A. (2012). Africa rising.  Time magazine., 3

Mkandawire, T. 2014. “Can Africa Turn from Recovery to Development? ” Current history. 113 (793): 171– 177.

Munang, R., & Mgendi, R. (2015). Is the Africa Rising Cliché Sustainable? Toward Environmentally Sustainable and Socially Inclusive Growth in Africa.  Environment : science and policy for sustainable development., 57 (3), 4-18.

Obeng-Odoom, F. (2015, September). Africa: On the rise, but to where? . In  Forum for social economics (Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 234-250). Routledge.

Severino, J. M., & Ray, O. (2011). Africa's moment. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Sylla, N. S. (2014). From a marginalised to an emerging Africa? A critical analysis. Review of African political economy., 41 (sup1), S7-S25. 

Taylor, I. (2014).  Africa rising? : BRICS - diversifying dependency. Boydell & Brewer Ltd.

Taylor, I. (2016). Dependency redux: why Africa is not rising.  Review of African political economy., 43 (147), 8-25.

 

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Week 5: Democratisation and elections

Lecture: Democratisation and elections

The return to plural politics in the 1990s is termed Africa’s ‘transition’. Yet many states have not actually changed that much; power remains centralised in the executive, the press and the judiciary are not fully independent, and respect for human rights remains patchy at best. Does this lack of change suggest that elections are not a good measure of democratic progress? What kind of democracy is it that Africa has now embraced, and how sustainable might it be? Are these states best understood as ‘quasi-democratic’, ‘electoral-authoritarian’, or ‘hybrid-states’? Are they likely to consolidate or to revert back to authoritarian rule? To what extent have existing forms of government shaped the fate of Africa’s democratic experiments? The relationship between economic and political change is both complex and of great importance. Many countries were forced to liberalize their economies and their politics at the same time. To what extent have such reforms been forced upon Africa, and how far have they emerged from within the continent itself? Have international actors consistently supported democratization? Is economic success a precondition for political stability? This lecture introduces these debates, with a particular focus on pressures for reform and debate over conditions.

Seminar: How democratic are African states?

The aim of this seminar is to discuss the shift from one-party states and military regimes to multi-party systems, and to consider whether democratic transitions have occurred or not.

Questions and Readings for Seminar Discussion:

See VLE

Readings

Abrahamsen, R. (2001) Disciplining democracy : development discourse and good governance in Africa. New York: Zed Book's

Anyang'Nyong'o, P. (1992). Africa: the failure of one-party rule. Journal of democracy., 3(1), 90-96.

Ake, C. (1995) The democratisation of disempowerment in Africa. In J Hippler (ed.) The democratisation of disempowerment : the problem of democracy in the Third World London: Pluto

Ake, C. (1996) The feasibility of democracy in Africa Dakar: Codesria

Ake, C. 2001.  Democracy and development in Africa . Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Allen, C., C. Baylies & M. Szeftel (1992) Surviving democracy? Review of African political economy. 52: 3-10

Almond, G. & S. Verba (1963) The civic culture : political attitudes and democracy in five nations Princeton: Princeton University Press

Baldwin, K., & Mvukiyehe, E. (2015). Elections and collective action: evidence from changes in traditional institutions in Liberia. World politics., 67(04), 690-725.

Bratton, M. & N. van de Walle (1992) Popular Protest and Political Reform in Africa. Comparative politics. 24 (4): 419-442

* Bratton, M. and N. van de Walle (1994) Neo-patrimonial regimes and political transitions in Africa. World politics. 46 (4): 453-489

Bratton, M. & N. van de Walle (1997) Democratic experiments in Africa : regime transitions in comparative perspective Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 7

Brown, S. (2004) Theorising Kenya’s Protracted Transition to Democracy. Journal of contemporary African studies. 22 (3): 325-42

Bunce, V. (2000) Comparative Democratization: Big and Bounded Generalizations. Comparative political studies., 33 (6/7): 703-34

Campbell, B. (2001) Governance, institutional reform and the state: IFIs & political transition in Africa. Review of African political economy. 28 (88): 155-76

* Carothers, T. (2002) The End of the Transition Paradigm. Journal of democracy. 13 (1): 5-21

Carothers, T. (2007) How Democracies Emerge: The Sequencing Fallacy. Journal of democracy. 18: (1): 12-27.

* Cheeseman, N. (2015) Democracy in Africa : successes, failures, and the struggle for political reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Dahl, R. (1989) Democracy and its critics. New Haven: Yale University Press

Diamond, L. (1999) Developing democracy : toward consolidation Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

Diamond, L. (1996) Is the Third Wave Over? Journal of democracy. 7 (3): 20-37

Diamond, L. (2002) Elections without Democracy: Thinking about Hybrid Regimes. Journal of democracy. 13 (2): 21-35

Diamond, L. (2008) The Democratic Roll-back: The Resurgence of the Predatory State. Foreign affairs.

Dowden, R. (1993) Reflections on democracy in Africa. African affairs. 92 (369): 607-613

Gyimah-Boadi, E. (2009). Another step forward for Ghana. Journal of democracy., 20(2), 138

Haynes, J. (1999) The possibility of democratic consolidation in Ghana. Democratization. 6 (1):

Hippler, J. (1995) Democratisation of the Third World after the end of the Civil War. In J. Hippler (ed.) The democratisation of disempowerment : the problem of democracy in the Third World. London: Pluto

Huntington, S. P. (1996) Democracy for the Long Haul. Journal of democracy. 7 (2): 3-13

Huntington, S. P. (1991) The third wave : democratization in the late twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press

Kuenzi, M., & Lambright, G. M. (2010). Who votes in Africa? An examination of electoral participation in 10 African countries. Party politics.,

Lawson, L. (1999) External democracy promotion in Africa: another false start? The journal of commonwealth and comparative politics. 37 (1): 1-30

Levitsky, S. & L. Way (2002) The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism’, Journal of democracy. 13 (2): 51-65

Lijphart, A. (1977) Democracy in plural societies : a comparative exploration New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Lindberg, S. (2006) Democracy and elections in Africa. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

Lindberg, S. (2004) The Democratic Quality of Multi-Party Elections: Participation, Competition and Legitimacy in Africa. The journal of commonwealth and comparative politics. 42 (1): 61-104.

Lindberg, S. (2006) The Surprising Significance of African Elections. Journal of democracy. 17 (1): 121.

Lipset, Seymour Martin (1959) Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy. The American political science review. 53 (1): 69-105

Mwangi, O. G. (2015). Don't be vague bash the Hague: votes and legitimacy in Kenya's 2013 elections. Commonwealth & comparative politics. , 53(4), 381-400.

Mwenda, A. M. 2007. Personalizing Power in Uganda.  Journal of democracy..18(3): 23-37.

Mpaisha, C. J. (1996) Retreat from democracy in post one party state Zambia. The journal of commonwealth and comparative politics. 34 (2): 65-84

Ncube, C. (2013). The 2013 elections in Zimbabwe: end of an era for human rights discourse? . Africa Spectrum, 48(3), 99-110. - Available online: http://journals.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/afsp/article/view/678

N'Diaye, B. (2006). “Mauritania, August 2005: Justice and Democracy, or Just Another Coup? .”  African affairs. .105(420): 42

Ndegwa, Stephen N. (2003). “Kenya: Third Time Lucky? .”  Journal of democracy. . 14(3): 145-158.

Obadare, E. (2015). Sex, citizenship and the state in Nigeria: Islam, Christianity and emergent struggles over intimacy.  Review of African political economy., 42 (143), 62-76.

Obi, C. (2011). Taking back our democracy? The trials and travails of Nigerian elections since 1999.  Democratization., 18 (2), 366-387.

Ochieng'Opalo, K. (2012). African elections: Two divergent trends. Journal of democracy. , 23(3), 80-93.

Omotola, J. S. (2010). Elections and democratic transition in Nigeria under the Fourth Republic.  African affairs., afq040.

Orji, N. (2016). Preventive action and conflict mitigation in Nigeria’s 2015 elections. Democratization. 

O’Donnell, G. & P. C. Schmitter & L. Whitehead (1986) Transitions from authoritarian rule. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

Owusu, M. 1992. ‘Democracy and Africa: A View from the Village’, Journal of modern African studies. . 30(3).369-396

Przeworski, A., M.  Alvarez, J. A. Cheibub & F. Limongi (1996) What makes democracies endure? Journal of democracy. 7 (1): 39-55

Przeworski, A. et al. (2000) Democracy and development : political institutions and well-being in the world, 1950-1990 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Putnam, R., R. Leonardi & R. Nanetti (1994) Making democracy work : civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Rustow, D. (1970) Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model. Comparative politics. 2 (3): 337-65

Schedler, A. (1998) What is democratic consolidation? Journal of democracy. 9 (2): 91-107

Schedler, A. (2002) Elections without Democracy: The Menu of Manipulation. Journal of democracy. 13: (2): 36-50.

Schmitter, P. C. & T. L. Karl (1991) What Democracy Is… and Is Not. Journal of democracy. 2 (3): 78-88

Tendi, B.M. (2014). “The Origins and Functions of Demonisation Discourses in Britain–Zimbabwe Relations (2000–).”  Journal of Southern African studies.. 1–19

Thomson, A. (2000; 2004) An Introduction to African Politics. London: Routledge. Ch. 9

Tordoff, W. (1984; 2002) Government & Politics in Africa. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Ch. 8, 10

Ugochukwu, Nwosu B. (2012). ‘Tracks of the Third Wave: Democracy Theory, Democratisation and the Dilemma of Political Succession in Africa’.  Review of African political economy.. 39(131): 11-25.

Usman, Z. and Owen, O., 2015. Why Goodluck Jonathan Lost the Nigerian Presidential Election of 2015.  African affairs., p.adv037.

van de Walle, N. (2001) African economies and the politics of permanent crisis, 1979-1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

van Donge, J. K. (1995) Zambia: Kaunda and Chiluba – enduring patterns of political culture. In J. A. Wiseman (ed.) Democracy and political change in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Routledge. Available as an online course reading in the VLE

Whitehead, L. (2002) Democratization: theory and experience. Oxford: Oxford University Press

World Bank (1989) Sub-Saharan Africa : from crisis to sustainable growth : a long-term perspective study.. Washington DC: World Bank

Zakaria, F. (1997) The Rise of Illiberal Democracy’, Foreign affairs. 76 (6): 22-44

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Week 6: The politics of ethnicity and race

Lecture: The politics of ethnicity and race

Journalistic accounts tend to portray instances of conflict and crisis in Africa as the result of ‘tribalism’. They also imply that African ‘tribes’ are clear-cut and have long histories of antagonism. In contrast, academics often dismiss the term ‘tribe’ in preference for ethnicity and emphasise the modern and rational nature of ethnic divisions and tensions. This lecture will introduce students to these debates, and analyse whether African ‘tribes’ or ethnic groups are a product of the colonial period, and of European ‘invention’ and/or African ‘imagining’.

Seminar: The politicisation of ethnicity

The purpose of this seminar is to consider the nature of communal divisions in Africa (and role of European ‘invention’ and/or African ‘imagining’), and to begin to consider what role they play in contemporary African politics.

Questions and readings for Seminar Discussion :

See VLE

Further reading

Appiah, K.A., (2010)  The ethics of identity . Princeton University Press

Bates, R. H. (1983) Modernization, Ethnic Cooperation, and the Rationality of Politics in Contemporary Africa. In D. Rothchild & V. Olunsorola (eds) State versus ethnic claims : African policy dilemmas: Boulder Colorado, CO: Westview Press.

Bates (1986) Modernisation, ethnic competition & the rationality of politics in Africa. In M Doro & N Stultz, eds, Governing in Black Africa. London: Africana Publishing C

Bezabeh, S. A. 2011. Citizenship and the Logic of Sovereignty in Djibouti. African affairs. . 587-606.

Doornbos, M. (1991) Linking the future to the past: ethnicity and pluralism. Review of African political economy. 52: 53-65

Iliffe, J. (1979) A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 10

Kasfir, N. (1976) The shrinking political arena : participation and ethnicity in African politics with a case study of Uganda. Berkeley: University of California Press. Chapter 2 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Kasfir, N. (1986) Explaining ethnic political participation. In M. Doro & N. Stultz (eds) Governing in Black Africa, London: Africana Publishing Co.

Lentz, C. & P. Nugent (eds) (2000) Ethnicity in Ghana : the limits of invention. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Introduction

Lentz, C. (2002) Colonial construction and African initiatives: the history of ethnicity in northwestern Ghana. Ethnos.  65 (): 107-137

* Lonsdale, J. (2004) Moral and Political Argument in Kenya. In B. Berman, D. Eyoh & W. Kymlicka (eds) Ethnicity & democracy in Africa. Oxford: James Currey

Lynch, G. (2006) Negotiating Ethnicity: Identity Politics in Contemporary Kenya. Review of African political economy. 33 (107): 385-410

Mafeje, A. (1971) The Ideology of ‘Tribalism. Journal of modern African studies. 9 (2): 253-261

Mamdani, M. (1996) Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. London: James Currey. Conclusions

Melson, R. & H. Wolpe (1970) Modernization and the Politics of Communalism: A Theoretical Perspective. The American political science review., 64: 4

Melson, R. & H. Wolpe (eds) (1971) Nigeria : modernization and the politics of communalism. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. Chapter 

Ndegwa, S. N. 1997. “Citizenship and Ethnicity: An Examination of Two Transition Moments in Kenyan Politics.”  The American political science review.. 91(03): 599-616.

Nyamnjoh, F. B. 2006.  Insiders and outsiders : citizenship and xenophobia in contemporary Southern Africa. Zed Books.

Nzongola-Ntalaja, G. 2007. “The Politics of Citizenship in the Democratic Republic of Congo” in  Making nations, creating strangers : states and citizenship in Africa , edited by Sarah Rich Dorman et al, 69-80.

Posner, D. (2005) Institutions and ethnic politics in Africa Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Esp. the Introduction

Ranger, T. (1983; 1992) The Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa. In E. Hobsbawn & T. Ranger (eds) The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available as an online course reading in the VLE

* Ranger, T. (1993) The Invention of Tradition Revisited. In T. Ranger & O. Vaughan (eds) Legitimacy and the state in twentieth-century Africa : essays in honour of A.H.M. Kirk-Greene. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Southall, A. (1970) The Illusion of Tribe. In P. Gutkind (ed.) The passing of tribal man in Africa. Leiden: Brill

Thomson, A. (2000; 2004) An Introduction to African Politics. Abingdon: Routledge. Chapters 4 & 6

Vail, L. (ed.) (1989) The Creation of tribalism in southern Africa. London: James Currey. Esp. the Introduction

Willis, J. (1992) The Makings of a Tribe: Bondei identities and histories. The journal of African history. 33 (2): 191-208

Wright, D. (1999) “What do you mean there were no tribes in Africa? ”: Thoughts on Boundaries – and related matters – in precolonial Africa. History in Africa. 26: 409-426

Young, C. (1965) Politics in the Congo : decolonization and independence. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chapter 11 available as an online course reading in the VLE

Nigeria

Falola, T. 2003 ‘Ethnicity and Yoruba Politics: The Past in the Yoruba Present’ in Berman, B., Eyoh, D. and Kymlicka, W. 2003 Ethnicity & democracy in Africa,

Mustapha, A. R. 2003 ‘Ethnicity & the Politics of Democratization in Nigeria’ in Berman, B., Eyoh, D. and Kymlicka, W. 2003 Ethnicity & democracy in Africa,

Ukiwo, U. 2003 ‘Politics, ethno-religious conflicts and democratic consolidation in Nigeria’ Journal of modern African studies. 41: 115-138

Kenya

Odhiambo, E.S.A. 2003 ‘Hegemonic Enterprises and Instrumentalities of Survival: Ethnicity and Democracy in Kenya’ in Berman, B., Eyoh, D. and Kymlicka, W. 2003 Ethnicity & democracy in Africa,

Muigai, G. 1995 ‘Ethnicity and the Renewal of Competitive Politics in Kenya’ in H. Glickman (ed.) Ethnic conflict and democratization in Africa.

**Lynch, G. 2006 ‘Negotiating Ethnicity: Identity politics in contemporary Kenya’ Review of African political economy. Volume 33, Number 107 /

Great Lakes

Storey, A (1999) “Economic and Ethnic Conflict: Structural Adjustment in Rwanda” Development policy review. 17 43-63

Storey, A (1999) “Structural Adjustment, State Power & Genocide: the World Bank &Rwanda Review of African political economy. Vol.28 No.89

Lemarchand, R. (1994) ‘Managing Transition Anarchies: Rwanda, Burundi and South Africa in comparative perspective’ Journal of modern African studies. 32(4) [ONLINE]

Hintjens, H. (1999) 'Explaining the 1994 genocide in Rwanda' Journal of modern African studies., 37(2) 241-286

Chretien, J-P. 2003 L'Afrique des Grands Lacs : deux mille ans d'histoire. Chapter 5

Prunier, G. 1997 The Rwanda crisis : history of a genocide. Chapter 4

Doom, R. and J. Gorus. 2000 Politics of identity and economics of conflict in the Great Lakes Region. VUB University Press, Brussels

Côte d’Ivoire

Crook, R. 1995 ‘Côte d’Ivoire: multiparty democracy and political change. Surviving the crisis’ in J.A. Wiseman Democracy and political change in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Crook, R. 1997 ‘Winning Coalitions and Ethno-Regional Politics: The Failure of the Opposition in the 1990 and 1995 Elections in Côte d’Ivoire’ African affairs., 96: 215-242

Daddieh, C.K. 2001 ‘Elections and Ethnic Violence in Côte d’Ivoire: The Unfinished Business of Succession and Democratic Transition’ African Issues, Vol. 29

Collett, M. 2006 Ivoirian identity constructions: ethnicity and nationalism in the prelude to civil war Nations and nationalism. Volume 12, Number 4 pp. 613-629

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Week 7: Corruption 

Lecture: Corruption

Corruption is considered to be one of the primary obstacles to development in Africa. Indeed, corruption is so widespread that some authors have discussed the ‘criminalisation’ of the African state. The lecture will analyse the different types of corruption evident in African states and societies. It will look at the perpetrators of corruption, including Western arms manufacturers and African elites. It will examine the attempts by donors to tackle corruption and will critically evaluate whether these have been successful. As well as exploring the nature of corruption at the highest levels of the African state, the lecture will also examine the dynamics of everyday corruption in African societies and what has been referred to as ‘the moral economy of corruption’.

Seminar: The persistence of corruption

The seminars will explore examples of everyday corruption in Africa at the local level. It will be asked whether corruption should be considered, in normative terms, as a ‘bad’ thing, or whether it should be understood as a vital element of the livelihoods strategies of ordinary Africans.

Questions for and Readings Seminar Discussion:

See VLE

General readings

Agbiboa, D. E. (2013). Corruption and economic crime in Nigeria: Social and economic perspectives.  African security review, 22 (1), 47-66.

Allen, C. (1995). Understanding African politics. Review of African political economy. 22, 65:301-320

Bayart. J-F., S. Ellis & B. Hibou (1999) The criminalization of the state in Africa. London: James Currey

Berman, B. (2004) Ethnicity, Bureaucracy and Democracy: The Politics of Trust. In B. Berman, D. Eyoh & W. Kymlicka (eds) Ethnicity & democracy in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. Available as an online course reading in the VLE

Bierschenk, T. (2003) ‘Powers in the Village: Rural Benin Between Democratisation and Decentralisation’ Africa. 73 pp. 145-173

*Blundo, G and De Sardan, JPO (2006) Everyday corruption and the state : citizens and public officials in Africa London Zed Books

Blundo, G., de Sardan, JPO. (2006) ‘Corruption in Africa and the social sciences: A review of the literature’ in Everyday corruption and the state : citizens and public officials in Africa pp. 15-68. Cape Town/London. David Philip/Zed

Blundo, G. ( 2006) “ Dealing with the Local State: The Informal Privatization of Street-Level Bureaucracies in Senegal” Development and change. 37, 4 pp. 799-819

Brockington, D. (2008) Corruption, Taxation and Natural Resource Management in Tanzania. The journal of development studies., 44 (1). pp.103-26

Chabal, P. and Daloz, J.P. (1999) ‘The (Ab)use of Corruption’ in Chabal, Patrick and Jean-Pascal Daloz Africa works : disorder as political instrument

Chabal, P., Daloz, J.-P. (1999) ‘The Political Instrumentalization of Disorder’in Africa works : disorder as political instrument in Chabal, Patrick and Jean-Pascal Daloz

Deegan, H. (2009). Corruption in Africa today : culture, economics, religion, security pp. 112-28. London: Routledge

De Sardan, JPO (1999) ‘A Moral Economy of Corruption in Africa? Journal of modern African studies. 337 (1) pp. 25-52

Hibou, B. (1999) ‘The “Social Capital” of the State as an Agent of Deception’ in Bayart, J.F, Ellis, Stephen and Hibou, Beatrice (eds) ‘The The criminalization of the state in Africa Oxford. James Currey [On WEB CT]

Hyslop, J. (2005) 'Political Corruption: Before and after apartheid'. Journal of modern African studies.. 31 (4). pp. 773-789

Gray, H. S. (2015). The political economy of grand corruption in Tanzania. African affairs., adv017.

Ifeka, C. (2001). Playing civil society tunes: corruption & misunderstanding Nigeria's ‘real’political institutions.- Available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03056240108704551

Lawson, Letitia ‘The politics of anti-corruption reform in Africa’ Journal of modern African studies. 47 pp. 73-100

LeVine, V. T. (1975) Political corruption : the Ghana case. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution

Leys, C. (1965) What is the problem about corruption? Journal of modern African studies. 3: 215-230.

Lindberg, S. (2004) Its our time to chop: Do elections in Africa feed neo-patrimonalism rather than counter-act it? Democratization. 10 (2): 121-40

Medard, J.F. (2002) 'Corruption in the neo-patrimonial states of Sub-Saharan Africa' in Heidenheimer, A. et al (eds) Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts

Osoba, S. O. (1996). Corruption in Nigeria: historical perspectives.  Review of African political economy., 23 (69), 371-386.

Persson, A., Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2013). Why anticorruption reforms fail—Systemic corruption as a collective action problem. Governance., 26 (3), 449-471.

Medard, J.F. (2002) 'Corruption in the neo-patrimonial states of Sub-Saharan Africa' in Heidenheimer, A. et al (eds) Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts

Mwenda, A. & R. Tangri (2001) Corruption and cronyism in Uganda. African affairs. 100: 117-33

Mwenda, A. M., & Tangri, R. (2005). Patronage politics, donor reforms, and regime consolidation in Uganda.  African affairs., 104 (416), 449-467.

Nugent, P. (2010). States and Social Contracts in Africa. New left review., 63 (May-June). pp.35-68

Reno, W. (1995) Corruption and state politics in Sierra Leone Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Rimmer, D. (2000) Aid and corruption. African affairs. 94 (394): 121-8

Szeftel, M. (1982) Political graft and the spoils system in Zambia – the state as a resource in itself. Review of African political economy. 9 (24): 4-21

* Szetel, M. (1998) Misunderstanding African politics: corruption and the governance agenda. Review of African political economy. 25 (76): 221-40

* Szeftel, M. (2000) Between governance and underdevelopment: accumulation and Africa’s ‘catastropic’ corruption. Review of African political economy. 27 (84): 287-306

Taylor, S. D. (2006) Divergent politico-legal responses to past presidential corruption in Zambia and Kenya: catching the 'big fish', or letting him off the hook? Third world quarterly. 27 (2) pp. 281-301

Tangri, R., & Mwenda, A. M. (2003). Military corruption & Ugandan politics since the late 1990s.  Review of African political economy. , 30 (98), 539-552.

Willett, S. (2009) Defence expenditures, arms procurement and corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa. Review of African political economy. 36 (121): 335-351

Williams, R. (1987) Political corruption in Africa Aldershot: Gower

Wrong, M. (2009) It's our turn to eat. New York: Harper

Kenya

Bachelard, Jerome 2010 ‘The Anglo-Leasing corruption scandal in Kenya: the politics of international and domestic pressures and counter-pressures’ Review of African political economy. 37 (124) pp. 187-200

Cherotich, L. (unpublished paper) Corruption and Democracy in Kenya – in the VLE

Githongo, John ‘Kenya's Fight against Corruption: An Uneven Path to Political Accountability’ (a development briefing for the CATO Institute). Can be found online http://www.cato.org/pubs/dbp/dbp2.pdf

Githongo, J. 2006. 'Inequality, ethnicity and the fight against corruption in Africa: A Kenyan perspective'. Economic affairs.. 26 (4). pp. 19-23

Jansen, B. 2008. Between vulnerability and assertiveness: Negotiating resettlement in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya. African affairs. 107, 429:569- 587

Lawson, Letitia ‘The politics of anti-corruption reform in Africa’ Journal of modern African studies. 47 pp. 73-100

Steeves, Jeffrey 2006 ‘Presidential succession in Kenya: The transition from Moi to Kibaki’ Commonwealth & comparative politics. 44 (2) 211-233

Mwangi, Oscar Gakuo ‘Political corruption, party financing and democracy in Kenya’ Journal of modern African studies. 46 pp. 267 -285

See also

‘Corruption haunts Kenya's leader’ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4288595.stm

 

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Week 8: The spectrum of violence

Lecture: The spectrum of violence

Warfare and its suffering has been Africa’s most potent image over the past three decades in the popular press. Ending these conflicts is now viewed as the essential step in bringing political stability and economic progress to the continent. But why did the number of Africa’s wars increase since the end of the cold war, and what factors – local, regional and international - contributed to shape these conflicts? How should we conceptualize violence? Are all African wars a matter of indigenous resource competition? Or are they rooted in social, economic and political grievances? What role have global forces, from the cold war to the spread of arms, played in bringing war to Africa?

Seminar: What drives conflict?

Following on from the lecture, this seminar looks at competing viewpoints on the causes of civil war and conflict in Africa. In particular, it will look at the role of natural resources. While natural resources are often assumed to be of benefit to states due to the revenue that they can provide. However, in practice, the presence of natural resources is often associated with high levels of corruption and conflict.

Questions  and Readings for Seminar Discussion :

See VLE

Readings:

Aning, E. K. (1999). Eliciting compliance from Warlords: the ECOWAS experience in Liberia, 1990–1997.  Review of African political economy., 26 (81), 335-348.

Bah, A. B. (2010). Democracy and civil war: Citizenship and peacemaking in Côte d’Ivoire.  African affairs., 109 (437), 597-615.

Deng, L. B. (2010). Social capital and civil war: The Dinka communities in Sudan’s civil war.  African affairs. , 109 (435), 231-250.

Collier, P. & A. Hoeffler (2001) Greed and Grievance in Civil War. Washington: World Bank Available online: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2000/06/17/000094946_00060205420011/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf

** Collier P. & A. Hoeffler (2004) Greed and Grievance in Civil War. Oxford Economic Papers. 56: 563-595

Collier, P. & N. Sambanis (eds) (2005) Understanding civil war : evidence and analysis Washington: World Bank. Papers also available on World Bank website

* Cramer, C. (2003) Homo economicus goes to war: methodological individualism, rational choice and the political economy of war. World development. 30: 1845-64

Cramer, C. (2003) Does inequality cause conflict? Journal of international development. 15: 397-412

Cramer, C. (2006) Civil war is not a stupid thing : accounting for violence in developing countries. Hurst: London

Duffield, M, (2001) Global governance and the new wars : the merging of development and security London: Zed Books

Ellis, S. (1999) The Mask of Anarchy: The destruction of Liberia and the religious dimension of an African civil war. London: Hurst

W. Alade Fawole (2004) A Continent in crisis: internal conflicts and external interventions in Africa  African affairs.  (Lond) 103 (411): 297-303

Fearon, J.D & D. Laitin (2003) Ethnicity, insurgency and civil war. The American political science review. 97 (1): 75-90

Fearon, J.D. (2004) Why do some civil wars last much longer than others? Journal of peace research. 41 (3): 275-301

Fearon, J.D. (2005) Primary commodity exports and civil war. The journal of conflict resolution. 49 (4): 483-507

Huntington, S. P. (1993) The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign affairs. 72 (3): 22-49

Iwilade, Akin (2014) "Networks of violence and becoming: youth and the politics of patronage in Nigeria's oil-rich Delta." Journal of modern African studies. ISSN: 0022-278X 52, no. 4: 571-595.   Iwilade, Akin. (2013)  "Crisis as opportunity: youth, social media and the renegotiation of power in Africa." Journal of Youth Studies ISSN: 1367-6261; 1469-9680 16, no. 8: 1054-1068.

Kalyvas, S. N. (2003) The ontology of political violence: action and identity in civil wars. Perspectives on politics. 1 (3): 475-94

Kandeh, J. D. (1999). Ransoming the state: Elite origins of subaltern terror in Sierra Leone.  Review of African political economy., 26 (81), 349-366.

Kaplan, R. (1994) The coming anarchy: how scarcity, crime, overpopulation and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet. The Atlantic monthly.: 44-74 [ http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1994/02/the-coming-anarchy/304670/ ]

Keen, D. (1997) A rational kind of madness. Oxford Development Studies 25 (1): 67-75.

Keen, D. (1998) The economic functions of violence in civil wars Oxford: Oxford University Press

Keen, D. (2000) War, Crime and Access to Resources. In E. Vayrynen, E. Wayne Nafziger & Frances Stewart (eds) War, Hunger and Displacement: The Origins of Humanitarian Emergencies. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Keen, D. (2005) Conflict & collusion in Sierra Leone Oxford: James Currey. Chapters 3 & 4

Klare, M. (2001) The new geography of conflict. Foreign affairs. http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/natres/generaldebate/2001/0601klar.htm

Laudati, A. (2013). Beyond minerals: broadening ‘economies of violence’in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.  Review of African political economy., 40 (135), 32-50.

Leopold, (2005) Violence in Contemporary Africa Reassessed. African affairs. 104 (417): 685-95

Malaquias, A. (2001). Making war & lots of money: the political economy of protracted conflict in Angola.  Review of African political economy. , 28 (90), 521-536.

Moore, D. (2000). Levelling the playing fields & embedding illusions:‘post‐conflict’discourse & neo‐liberal ‘development’in war‐torn Africa.  Review of African political economy., 27 (83), 11-28.

Mokuwa, E., Voors, M., Bulte, E., & Richards, P. (2011). Peasant grievance and insurgency in Sierra Leone: judicial serfdom as a driver of conflict.  African affairs., 110 (440), 339-366.

Nwajiaku-Dahou, K. (2012). The political economy of oil and ‘rebellion’in Nigeria's Niger Delta.  Review of African political economy. , 39 (132), 295-313.

Peters, K. & P. Richards (2007) Understanding Recent African Wars. Africa. 77 (3): 442-54.

Regan, P. M. & D. Norton (2005) Greed, grievance, and mobilization in Civil Wars. The journal of conflict resolution. 49: 319-36

Reno, W. (1998) Warlord politics and African states. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Esp. the introduction

Richards, P. (ed) (2005) No peace, no war : an anthropology of contemporary armed conflicts Oxford: James Currey. Introduction

Ross, M. (2004) What do we know about natural resources and civil war. Journal of peace research. 41 (3): 337-356

Sambanis, N. (2001) Do ethnic and non-ethnic civil wars have the same causes? A theoretical and empirical enquiry. The journal of conflict resolution. 45 (3): 259-82

Sesay, M. A. (1996). Civil war and collective intervention in Liberia.  Review of African political economy., 23 (67), 35-52.

Zack‐Williams, A. B. (1990). Sierra Leone: crisis and despair.  Review of African political economy., 17 (49), 22-33.

Zack-Williams, T. (2013). War and the crisis of youth in Sierra Leone.  Review of African political economy., 40 (137), 498-500.

Case Studies:

The Nigerian Civil War, 1966-1970:

Ayoade, J. A. A. (1973) Secession threat as a redressive mechanism in Nigerian federalism. Publius: The Journal of Federalism 3 (1): 57-74

Dudley, B. J. (1968) Nigeria’s Civil War. The round table. 229: 28-34

Kirk-Greene , A. H. M. (1971) Crisis and conflict in Nigeria : a documentary sourcebook, 1966-1969. London: Oxford University Press

Kirk-Greene, A. H. M. (1967) The Peoples of Nigeria: The Cultural Background to the Crisis. African affairs. 66 (262): 3-11

Melson, R. & H. Wolpe (eds) (1971) Nigeria : modernization and the politics of communalism. East Lansing: Michigan State University. Chapters 2 & 13

* Nafziger, E. W. (1973) The Political Economy of Disintegration in Nigeria. Journal of modern African studies. 11 (4): 505-536

Osaghae, E. (1998) The Crippled Giant: Nigeria Since Independence. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Chapters 2 & 3

Panter-Brick, S. K. (ed.) (1970) Nigerian politics and military rule : prelude to the Civil War. London: Athlone Press. Esp. Chapters 1 & 2

Oyediran, O. (1979) Nigerian government and politics under military rule, 1966-1979. London: Macmillan. Chapters 1 & 2

Williams, G. (unpublished paper) The Nigerian Civil War – on the VLE

Williams, G. (unpublished paper) Reconsidering the Nigerian civil war. Paper presented at Biafra and Beyond: Identity, Democracy and Citizenship in Africa, Workshop of Oxford Research Network on Government in Africa, 15-16 June 2007 – on the VLE

Sudan’s Civil War, 1955-1972; 1983-2005:

For a chronology, see the appendix in Johnson (2003)

Allen, T. (1998) In search of cool ground : war, flight & homecoming in Northeast Africa. London and New Jersey

Amnesty International (2000) Sudan: The Human Price of Oil – on the VLE

Christian Aid (2001) The Scorched Earth: Oil and War in Sudan – on the VLE

Deng, F. M. (1995) War of visions : conflict of identities in the Sudan. Washington: Brookings Institute

De Waal, A. (1997) Famine crimes : politics and the disaster relief industry in Africa Oxford: James Currey

-------- (1990) War in Sudan : an analysis of conflict London: Peace in Sudan Group

Duffield, M. (1991) Famine, conflict and the internationalisation of public welfare. In M Doornbos et al (eds) Beyond Conflict in the Horn: Prospects for Peace, Recovery and Development in Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea and Sudan. London: Currey

--------- (2001) Global governance and the new wars : the merging of development and security London, Zed Books

Human Rights Watch has produced several studies of the war. All are worth looking at, but Children of Sudan: Slaves, Street Children and Child Soldiers (1995) and Sudan, Oil and Human Rights Abuses (2004) are especially useful and can be downloaded from the Human Rights Watch website http://www.hrw.org/

Hutchison, S. (1998) Death, memory and the politics of legitimation: Nuer experiences of the continuing second Sudanese civil war. In R. Werbner (ed), Memory and the postcolony : African anthropology and the critique of power. London: Zed Books

Hutchison, S. (1996) Nuer dilemmas : coping with money, war, and the state. Berkeley: University of California Press

International Crisis Group, ‘A Strategy for Comprehensive Peace in Sudan’, ICG Report N°130, 26 July 2007. http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/files/A%20Strategy%20for%20Comprehensive%20Peace%20in%20Sudan.pdf

-------- ‘Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement: Beyond the Crisis’, ICG Briefing N°50, 13 March 2008. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/47d923792.pdf

-------- ‘Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long Road Ahead’, ICG Report N°106, 31 March 2006 http://www.icnl.org/research/library/files/Sudan/SummaryCPA.pdf

Johnson, D. H. (1988) The Southern Sudan. London: Minority Rights Group Report

-------- (1998) The Sudan People’s Liberation Army and the problem of factionalism. In C. Clapham (ed) African guerrillas Oxford: James Currey

-------- (2003) The root causes of Sudan's civil wars Oxford: James Currey

-------- (2007) Why Abyei Matters: the Breaking Point of Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement? African affairs. 107 (426): 1-­19.

Jok, M. J. (2003) War and slavery in Sudan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press

-------- (2005) War, changing ethics and the position of youth in southern Sudan. In J. Abbink & I. van Kessel (eds) Vanguard or vandals : youth, politics, and conflict in Africa. Leiden: Brill

Keen, David (1994) The benefits of famine : a political economy of famine and relief in southwestern Sudan, 1983-1989 ,. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Kurimoto, Esie (1994) Civil war and regional conflicts: the Pari and their neighbours in south-eastern Sudan AND James, W.(1994) War and ethnic visibility: the Uduk on the Sudan-Ethiopian border. In K. Fukui & J. Markakis (eds) Ethnicity & conflict in the Horn of Africa. London: James Currey

Large, D. (2008) China and the Contradictions of ‘Non-Interference’ in Sudan. Review of African political economy. 35 (111): 93106

Lesch, A. M. (1999) The Sudan : contested national identities Oxford: James Currey

Macrea, J., M. Bradbury, S. Jaspars, M. Duffield & D. Johnson (1997) Conflict, the continuum and chronic emergencies: a critical analysis of the scope for linking relief, rehabilitation and development planning in Sudan. Disasters., 21 (3)

Mohammed, N. (1997) The Sudan: the cost of the second civil war (1983-1993). In J. Brauer & W.G. Gissy (eds) Economics of conflict and peace. Aldershot: Ashgate

Verney, Peter (2000) Oil and conflict in Sudan : raising the stakes. Hebden Bridge: Sudan Update

The resource curse

Canagarajah, S. & S. Thomas (2001) Poverty in a wealthy economy: the case of Nigeria. Journal of African economies. 10(2): 143-173.

Forrest, T. (1995) Politics and economic development in Nigeria. Boulder: Westview Press

Frynas, J. G. (2004) The oil boom in Equatorial Guinea. African affairs. 103 (413): 527-546

Good, K. (1992) Interpreting the Exceptionality of Botswana. Journal of modern African studies. 30 (1): 69-95

le Billon, P. (2001) Angola’s political economy of war: the role of oil and diamonds, 1975-2000. African affairs. 100 (398): 55-80

Lewis, P. (1996) From Prebendalism to Predation: The Political Economy of Decline in Nigeria. Journal of modern African studies. 34 (1): 79-103

Okolie, A. C. (1995) Oil rents, international loans and agrarian policies in Nigeria, 1970-1992. Review of African political economy. 22(64): 199-212.

Olsson, O. (2006) Diamonds are a Rebel’s Best Friend. The world economy. : 1133-1150

Olsson, O. (2007) Conflict Diamonds. Journal of Development Economics 82 (2): 267-286

Onoh, J. K. (1983) The Nigerian oil economy : from prosperity to glut. London: Croom Helm

Pegg, S. (2006) Can Policy Intervention beat the resource curse? Evidence from the Chad-Cameroon pipeline project. African affairs. 105 (418): 1-25

Richards, P (1995) Fighting for the rain forest : war, youth & resources in Sierra Leone Oxford: James Currey

** Ross, M. (1999) The political economy of the resource curse. World politics. 50(2): 297-322.

** Ross, M. (2001) Does Oil Hinder Democracy? World politics. 53: 325-361

* Sachs, J. & A. Warner (1995) Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth. NBER Working Paper No. W5398 – in the VLE http://www.nber.org/papers/w5398

Snyder, R. & R. Bhavnani (2005) Diamonds, Blood and Taxes: A Revenue Centered Framework for Explaining Political Order. The journal of conflict resolution. 49 (4): 563-597

* Tsie, B. (1996) The Political Context of Botswana’s Development Performance. Journal of Southern African studies. 22 (4): 599-616

VonKemedi, D. (2003) The changing predatory styles of international oil companies in Nigeria. Review of African political economy. 30(95): 134-139.

Review of African political economy. (1996) Special Issue: Nigeria, oil debts and democracy. Vol. 13, No. 37

The Niger Delta:

Agbiboa, D. E. (2013). Have we heard the last? Oil, environmental insecurity, and the impact of the amnesty programme on the Niger Delta resistance movement.  Review of African political economy., 40 (137), 447-465.

Arowosegbe, J. O. (2009) Violence and national development in Nigeria: The political economy of youth restiveness in the Niger Delta. Review of African political economy. 36 (122): 575-594

Ejobowah, J. B. (2000) Who owns the oil? The politics of ethnicity in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Africa today. 47 (1): 29-47

Frynas, J. (2001) Corporate and state responses to anti-oil protests in the Niger Delta. African affairs. 100(398): 27-54.

Gore, C. & D. Pratten (2003) The Politics of Plunder: The Rhetorics of Order and Disorder in Southern Nigeria. African affairs. 102: 211-240

Ifeka, C. (2004) Violence, market forces and militarisation in the Niger Delta. Review of African political economy. 31(99): 144-50.

Ikelegbe, A. (2001) Civil society, oil and conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: ramifications of civil society for a regional resource struggle. Journal of modern African studies. 39(3): 437-469.

Manby, B. (1999) The role and responsibility of oil multinationals in Nigeria. International affairs. 53(1): 281-304.

Naanen, B. (1995) Oil producing communities and the restructuring of Nigerian federation: The case of the Ogoni People. The journal of commonwealth and comparative politics. 33 (1)

Obi, C. (1997) Globalization and local resistance: the case of the Ogoni versus Shell. New political economy. 2 (1): 137-148

Obi, C. (2014). Oil and the Post-Amnesty Programme (PAP): what prospects for sustainable development and peace in the Niger Delta? .  Review of African political economy., 41 (140), 249-263.

Osaghae, E. (1995) The Ogoni uprising: oil politics, minority agitation and the future of the Nigerian state. African affairs., 94: 325-44.

Ukeje, C. (2001) Youths, Violence and the Collapse of Public Order in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Africa Development 26 (1&2): 337-366 - Available online: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/idep/unpan011846.pdf

Ukiwo, U. (2007) From ‘pirates’ to ‘militants’: a historical perspective on anti-state and anti-oil company mobilization among the Ijaw of Warri, Western Niger Delta. African affairs. 106 (425): 587-610

* Watts, M. (2004) Resource curse? Governmentality, oil and power in the Niger Delta. Geopolitics 9(1): 50-80.

Welch, C. (1996) The Ogoni and Self-Determination: Increasing Violence in Nigeria. Journal of modern African studies. 33:4: 635-649

Zalik, A. (2004) The Niger Delta: Petro-Violence to Partnership Development. Review of African political economy. 101 (4): 401-424

UNDP (2006) Niger Delta Human Development Report. Available to download at  http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-report

Niger Delta Economies of Violence Working Papers available at http://geog.berkeley.edu/ProjectsResources/ND%20Website/NigerDelta/pubs.html, Esp. Papers 1, 10 & 11

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Week 10: External influences: the Western powers 

Lecture: External influences: the Western powers

This lecture will assess the changing role and influence of the Western powers in Africa, including France, the UK and the USA. It will interrogate how and why France and the UK’s relationships with their former colonies have changed over time and what influence these countries continue to exert over these countries. The lecture will also introduce how the relationship between the West and Africa has changed following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre on September 11th, 2001.

Seminar: The securitisation of African development

The seminars will explore how the West’s relationship with Africa has altered after September 11th, 2001 and what significance this has had for politics within the continent itself. We will explore the ‘securitisation’ debates and analyse how aid and development policies of western countries have increasingly been linked to concerns over security and new considerations of power projection.

Questions and Readings for Seminar Discussion:

See VLE

General readings

Adebajo, A. (2003). Africa and America in an Age of Terror. Journal of Asian and African studies. , 38(2-3)

Christopher Clapham, (1996.) “The foreign policies of post-colonialism” chpt 4 in Africa and the international system : the politics of state survival

Mark Duffield (2002) Global governance and the new wars : the merging of development and security London: Zed Books

Fisher, J., & Anderson, D. M. (2015). Authoritarianism and the securitization of development in Africa. International affairs., 91 (1), 131-151.

Williams, P. (2007) “From non-intervention to non-indifference: The origins and development of the African Union’s security culture” African affairs., 106/423, 253–279

Wai, Z. (2014). The empire's new clothes: Africa, liberal interventionism and contemporary world order.  Review of African political economy., 41 (142), 483-499.

UK

Abrahamsen, R. (2004) “A breeding ground for terrorists? Africa & Britain's 'war on terrorism'” Review of African political economy. 102 / December, 677 – 684

Abrahamsen, R (2005) 'Blair's Africa: The Politics of Securitization and Fear', Alternatives : global, local, political. 30, 1 pp. 55-80.

Abrahamsen, R and P. Williams (2001) “Ethics and Foreign Policy: The Antimonies of New Labour's 'Third Way' in Sub-Saharan Africa” Political studies. 49, 2 pp. 249-265.

Adebajo, A. (2012). The EU and Africa : from Eurafrique to Afro-Europa. K. Whiteman (Ed.). Columbia University

Cumming, G. “UK African policy in the post-cold war era: from realpolitik to moralpolitik? ” Commonwealth & comparative politics., vol. 42 no 1, (2004)

Dixon, R and P. Williams (2001) 'Tough on Debt, Tough on the Causes of Debt? New Labour's Third Way Foreign Policy', British journal of politics & international relations. 3, 2. pp. 150-172

Gallagher, J (2009) “ Healing The Scar? Idealizing Britain in Africa, 1997–2007” African affairs. 108: 435-451

Melvern, L & P Williams, (2004) “Britannia waived the rules: the Major government and the 1994 Rwandan genocide” African affairs.

Mistry, P. S. (2005) “Reasons for Sub-Saharan Africa's Development Deficit That the Commission for Africa Did Not Consider” African affairs. 104, 417 pp. 665-678

Porteous, T. (2005) ‘British government policy in sub-Saharan Africa under New Labour’ in International affairs.: 81 (2) pp281-297

Porteous , T. Britain in Africa (2008)

Slater, D and M. Bell, (2002) 'Aid and the Geopolitics of the Post-Colonial: Critical Reflections on New Labour's Overseas Development Strategy', Development and change. 33, 2. pp. 335-361

Taylor, I (2005). 'Advice Is Judged by Results, Not by Intentions: Why Gordon Brown Is Wrong About Africa', International affairs. 81, 2 pp. 299-310

Williams, P 'Blair's Commission for Africa: Problems and Prospects for UK Policy', The political quarterly. 76, 4 (2005). pp. 529-539

Williams, P “Britain and Africa after the Cold war: beyond damage limitation? ” in Taylor and Williams Africa in international politics : external involvement on the continent (2004).

Ware, Z 'Reassessing Labour's Relationship with Sub-Saharan Africa', The round table. 95, 383 (2006). pp. 141-152;

France

Adebajo, A “Folie de Grandeur” The world to-day. June 1997 pp 147-150

Bach, D. “France’s involvement in sub-saharan Africa” in Amadu Sesay ed, Africa and Europe : from partition to independence or dependence? (1986).

J Chipman, French power in Africa (1989).

*Berouk Mesfin “ Only a Folie de Grandeur? Understanding French policy in Africa” African security review  17

Brune, S (1994) “Under pressure for reform: French policies south of the Sahara” in S. Brune, J Betz, and W Kuhne Eds., Africa and Europe : relations of two continents in transition.

Chafer, T. (2002) “Franco-african relations: No longer so exceptional? ” African affairs. pp. 343-363

Chafer, T. (2005) "From Confidence to Confusion: Franco-African Relations in the Era of Globalisation" in M. Maclean and J. Szarka (eds) France on the world stage : nation state strategies in the global era

Chafer, T. (2005) “Chirac and la Françafrique: no longer a family affair” Modern & contemporary France., 13, 1, Jan., pp. 7-24.

Chafer, T. (2014). Hollande and Africa Policy. Modern & contemporary France., 22 (4), 513-531.

Cumming, G (2000) “Modernisation without ‘banalisation’: towards a new era in French African aid relations? ” Modern & contemporary France. 8, 3

Cumming, G and R. Langford (2005) 'Introduction', Modern & contemporary France., 13:1,1-5.

Charbonneau, B. (2008) 'Dreams of Empire: France, Europe, and the New Interventionism in Africa', Modern & contemporary France., 16:3, pp. 279-295.

Gardinier, D (1997) “The Historical Origins of Francophone Africa” in Clark and Gardinier eds. Political reform in Francophone Africa

Golan, T. (1981) “A certain mystery: how can France do everything that it does inAfrica – and get away with it? ” African affairs. 80, 318 pp. 3-11

Gregory, S (2000). “French Military in Africa” African affairs. 99

Heilbrunn, J. (2005) ‘Oil and Water? Elite Politicians and Corruption in France’, Comparative politics., vol. 37, no. 3, April, pp. 277-296.

*Huliaris, A (1998) “The anglo-saxon conspiracy: French perceptions of the Great Lakes crisis” Journal of modern African studies. 36, 4

Kroslak, D (2004) “France’s policy towards Africa: continuity or change? ” in Taylor and Williams Africa in international politics : external involvement on the continent

Le Vine, V. T. (2004) Politics in Francophone Africa Boulder: Lynne Rienner

Marchal, R (1998). “France and Africa” International affairs. 74, 2

Martin, G (1995) “Continuity and Change in Franco-African Relations” Journal of modern African studies. 33, 1

Melly, P., & Darracq, V. (2013). A New Way to Engage? French Policy in Africa from Sarkozy to Hollande. Chatham House. Available online: https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/public/Research/Africa/0513pp_franceafrica.pdf

Reed, M. (1987) “Gabon: a neo-colonial enclave of Enduring French Interest” Journal of modern African studies. 25, 2 pp. 283-320

Smith, S. W. (2013). France in Africa: A New Chapter? . Current history., 112 (754), 16

Tramond, O., & Seigneur, P. (2014). Operation Serval: Another Beau Geste of France in Sub-Saharan Africa? . Military review, 94 (6), 76.

Utley, R.I (2005) 'Franco-African Military Relations: Meeting the Challenges of Globalisation? ', Modern & contemporary France. 13:1, pp. 25-40.

Whiteman, K. (1983) “President Mitterand and Africa” African affairs. 82

Yates, D. The rentier state in Africa : oil rent dependency and neocolonialism in the Republic of Gabon (1996). Esp. Chapters 2 & 3.

USA

Alden, C. (2000) "From neglect to 'virtual engagement'" African affairs.  pp.355-371.

Aning, K., Jaye, T., & Atuobi, S. (2008). The role of private military companies in US-Africa policy.  Review of African political economy. , 35 (118), 613-628.

Bachmann, J. (2014). Policing Africa: The US military and visions of crafting ‘good order’. Security dialogue., 45 (2), 119-136.

Carmody, P. R. (2005) “Transforming Globalization and Security: Africa and America Post-9/11” Africa today. vol.52, no.1, pp.97-120

Hills, A. “Trojan Horses? USAID, Counter-Terrorism and Africa’s Police,” Third world quarterly., vol. 27, no. 4 (2006), pp. 629-643.

Martin, W.G. (2004) Beyond Bush: The future of popular movements & US Africa policy” Review of African political economy. 102 / December, 585 – 597

McFate, S. (2007) “Briefing: Us Africa Command: Next Step or Next Stumble? ” African affairs., January

N'Diaye, B., & Africa, S. (2009). AFRICOM and the Interests of Africans: Beyond Perceptions and Strategic Communication.  Contemporary security policy. , 30 (1), 62-66.

Piombo. J. (ed) The US military in Africa : enhancing security and development? London: Lynne Rienner

Rothchild, D (2001) "The US foreign Policy Trajectory on Africa" SAIS Review

Schraeder, P (2003) "Reflections on the study of US foreign policy towards Africa" Journal of modern African studies. 41, 1 pp 139-152

Schraeder, P (2001) “Forget the rhetoric and boost the geo-politics" African affairs. 387-404

Tella, O. (2016). AFRICOM: hard or soft power initiative? .  African security review , 25 (4), 393-406.

Van de Walle, N (2010) ‘US policy towards Africa: the Bush legacy and the Obama administration’ African affairs. 109: pp. 1-21

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Week 11: External influences: China 

Lecture: External influences: China

China has become a major player in the African continent and its quest for resources, markets and allies has profoundly altered the politics of many African states. The lecture will assess the reasons behind China’s ‘return’ to Africa and what implications this has for human rights, development, and democratisation in Africa.

Seminar: China’s return Africa: Curse or blessing?

The seminars will assess the impact of Chinese influence on African states and also the economic impact of Chinese investment and enterprise. In particular, it will be asked whether China is having a positive influence on African states and societies.

Questions for Seminar Discussion:

See VLE

General Readings

Alden, C (2007) China in Africa London: Taylor and Francis

Alden, C, D. Large, R.S. de Oliveira eds (2008) China returns to Africa : a rising power and a continent embrace

Alden, Chris, and Daniel Large. "On Becoming a Norms Maker: Chinese Foreign Policy, Norms Evolution and the Challenges of Security in Africa." The China quarterly. 221 (2015): 123-142.

Anshan, L ‘China and Africa: policy and challenges’ China Security Service

Ayers, Alison J. "Beyond myths, lies and stereotypes: The political economy of a ‘New Scramble for Africa’." New political economy. 18, no. 2 (2013): 227-257.

Asongu, Simplice A., and Gilbert AA Aminkeng. "The economic consequences of China–Africa relations: debunking myths in the debate." Journal of Chinese economic and business studies 11, no. 4 (2013): 261-277.

Asongu, Simplice, and John Ssozi. "Sino-African relations: some solutions and strategies to the policy syndromes." Journal of African business 17, no. 1 (2016): 33-51.

Brautigam, D. (2009) The dragon's gift : the real story of China in Africa Oxford: Oxford University Press

Brautigam, Deborah. Will Africa feed China?. Oxford University Press, 2015.

Campbell, H. China in Africa: Challenging US global hegemony Third world quarterly. 29, 1 pp. 89-105

Carmody, P and Owusu, F.Y. (2007) ‘Competing hegemons? Chinese versus American geo-economic strategies in Africa’ Political geography. 26, 5

Carmody, P, and Ian Taylor. "Flexigemony and force in China's resource diplomacy in Africa: Sudan and Zambia compared." Geopolitics. 15, no. 3 (2010): 496-515

Chakrabarty, M. (2015) Growth of Chinese trade and investment flows in DR Congo – blessing or curse? Review of African political economy..

Cheru, Fantu. "Emerging Southern powers and new forms of South–South cooperation: Ethiopia’s strategic engagement with China and India." Third world quarterly., 37 no. 4 (2016): 592-610.

Cheru, Fantu, and Cyril Obi. "The rise of China and India in Africa: Challenges, opportunities and critical interventions." (2010). http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A285922&dswid=7714

French, H (2007) ‘Commentary: China and Africa’ African affairs. 106 (422): 127-132.

Frynas, Jedrzej George, and Manuel Paulo. "A new scramble for African oil? Historical, political, and business perspectives." African affairs. 106, no. 423 (2007): 229-251.

Gadzala, Aleksandra W. "From formal-to informal-sector employment: examining the Chinese presence in Zambia." Review of African political economy. 37, no. 123 (2010): 41-59.

Gill, B. and J. Reilly The Tenuous Hold of China Inc. in Africa The Washington quarterly. 30, 3 pp. 37-52

Grimm, S. (2014). China–Africa Cooperation: promises, practice and prospects. Journal of contemporary China., 23 (90),

Large, D (2008) “Beyond ‘Dragon in the Bush’: The Study of China–Africa Relations”, African affairs.,107: 426

Lee, M.C. et al (2007) China in Africa 33 Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet

Manji, Firoze, and Stephen Marks. African perspectives on China in Africa. Fahamu/Pambazuka, 2007.

Mason, R. (2016). China’s impact on the landscape of African International Relations: implications for dependency theory.  Third world quarterly., 1-13.

Mawdsley, E (2007 ) ‘China and Africa: Emerging Challenges to the Geographies of Power’ Geography compass. 3: 1 pp. 405–421

Mohan, G. and B. Lampert. (2013) "Negotiating china: reinserting African agency into china–Africa relations." African affairs. 112.446: 92-110.

Naidu, Sanusha, and Daisy Mbazima. "China–African relations: A new impulse in a changing continental landscape." Futures. 40, no. 8 (2008): 748-761.

Obi, Cyril I. "Enter the dragon? Chinese oil companies & resistance in the Niger Delta." Review of African political economy. 35, no. 117 (2008): 417-434.

Ovadia, J.S. (2013) 'Accumulation with or without dispossession? A ‘both/and’ approach to China in Africa with reference to Angola' Review of African political economy.  40 (136): 233-250

Pant, H.V. (2008) “China in Africa: The Push Continues But All's Not Well” Defense and Security Analysis 24, 1 pp. 33-43

Rotberg, W (ed) (2008) China into Africa : trade, aid, and influence Baltimore: Brookings

Schoeman, M (2007) ‘China in Africa: the rise of hegemony? ’ Strategic Review for Southern Africa Available online:  http://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/4019

Spiegel, S. and P. Le Billon (2009) “China's weapons trade: From ships of shame to the ethics of global resistance” International affairs. 85, 2 pp. 323-346

Strauss, J.C. and M. Saavedra (eds) (2009) China and Africa : emerging patterns in globalization and development Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Taylor, I (2006) China and Africa : engagement and compromise  London: Routledge

Taylor, I (2006) China’s Oil Diplomacy in Africa International affairs. 82, 5 pp. 937-959

Taylor, I “Sino-African Relations and the Problem of Human Rights” African affairs. 107, 426 pp. 63-87

*Taylor, I (2007) ‘Governance in Africa and Sino- African Relations: Contradictions or Confluence? ” Politics. 27:3 pp. 139-146

Taylor, I. (2014) ' Emerging powers, state capitalism and the oil sector in Africa' Review of African political economy.  41 (141)

Van de Looy, and de Haan, L (2006) ‘Africa and China: A Strategic Partnership? ’ Strategic analysis, Vol. 30, No. 3

Wu, S. (2015). Development lessons from China: a political-economic perspective on how neopatrimonial states may achieve high economic growth. Canadian journal of development studies = Revue canadienne d'études du développement., (ahead-of-print), 1-13.

Zweig, D and B. Jianhai (2005) ‘China’s Global Hunt for Energy’ Foreign affairs. Vol. 84, No. 5 pp. 25-38

China in Sudan

Anderson ‘China is fuelling war in Darfur’ BBC article - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7503428.stm

Farrow, R and Farrow, M ‘The genocide olypics’ The Wall Street Journal.

Holslag, H (2008) “China's Diplomatic Manoeuvring on the Question of Darfur ” Journal of contemporary China. 17, 54 pp. 71-84

Large, D (2008) “ China & the Contradictions of ‘Non-interference’ in Sudan” Review of African political economy. 35, 115 pp. 93-106

Large, D (2011) “ Sudan’s Foreign Relations with Asia China and the Politics of ‘looking east’” Institute for Security Studies 158 Available online: http://dspace.africaportal.org/jspui/bitstream/123456789/30875/1/PAPER158.pdf? 1

Zoellick, R (2005) ‘Whither China: From Membership to Responsibility’  https://2001-2009.state.gov/s/d/former/zoellick/rem/53682.htm

China in Zambia

Carmody, P (2009) ‘An Asian-driven economic recovery on Africa? ’ The Zambian Case’ World development.

Haglund, Dan (2008) ‘Regulating FDI in weak African states: a case study of Chinesecopper mining in Zambia’ Journal of modern African studies. 46: 547-575

Larmer, M and A Fraser (2008) “Of cabbages and King Cobra: Populist politics and Zambia's 2006 election” African affairs. 106, 425 pp. 611-637

Li, P (2010) “The Myth and Reality of Chinese Investors: A Case Study of Chinese Investment in Zambia's Copper Industry” South African Institute of International Affairs - Available online: http://www.eisourcebook.org/cms/June%202013/Myth%20&%20Reality%20of%20Chinese%20Investors,%20Zambian%20Copper%20Case%20Study.pdf

This list was last updated on 13/09/2017