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IDEA3306
Module Reading List

Distributive Justice and Scarce Medical Resources, 2017/18, Semester 2
Dr Carl Fox
ca.fox@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

M6.1a Introduction to Justice and Health

Required Reading

Parfit, Derek, 1997, “Equality and Priority,”  Ratio 10: 202-221.

Williams, Bernard, 1973, “The Idea of Equality,” in: B. Williams, Problems of the self : philosophical papers, 1956-1972, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 230-249, reprinted in L. Pojman & R. Westmoreland (eds.), Equality : selected readings, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997, pp. 91-102.

Further Reading

Equality

Frankfurt, Harry, 1987, “Equality as a Moral Ideal,” Ethics., 98: 21-42; reprinted in: H. Frankfurt, The importance of what we care about : philosophical essays, Cambridge University Press 1988; reprinted in: L. Pojman & R. Westmoreland (eds.), Equality : selected readings, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997, pp. 261-273.

Daniels, Norman, 1981, “Health care needs and distributive justice”, Philosophy & public affairs. , 10(2): 146–79, SECTIONS III and IV (pp. 149-160) ONLY.

Gosepath, Stefan, "Equality", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),

Dworkin, Ronald, 1981, “What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare,” Philosophy & public affairs. 10, pp. 185-246, reprinted in: R. Dworkin, Sovereign virtue : the theory and practice of equality, Cambridge: Harvard University Press 2000, pp.11-64

Dworkin, Ronald, 1981, “What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources,” Philosophy & public affairs. 10, pp. 283-345, reprinted in: R. Dworkin, Sovereign virtue : the theory and practice of equality, Cambridge: Harvard University Press 2000, pp.65-119.

Anderson, Elizabeth, 1999, “What Is the Point of Equality? ” Ethics., 109: 287-337.

Temkin, L. (2003) Equality, Priority or What? Economics and philosophy. 19: 61-87. 

Justice and Health

Daniel Wikler and Sarah Marchand, ‘Macro-allocation: dividing up the health care budget’ in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 306-315.

Daniels, Norman, "Justice and Access to Health Care", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

Sreenivasan, Gopal, "Justice, Inequality, and Health", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

Anand, S., Peter, F., and Sen, A. (eds.) (2004). Public health, ethics and equity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Buchanan, B., (2009), Justice and health care : selected essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Daniels, N. (2008). Just Health: Meeting Health Needs Fairly. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Daniels, N. (1985). Just Health Care. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jennifer Jackson. (2006). Ethics in medicine. Cambridge: Polity. Chapter 9, 'Distributive Justice in Health Care'.

S Gorovitz et al (eds.), Moral problems in medicine Second Edition, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall,1983), Ch. IV, esp. Right to Health Care, Medical Resources as Commodities and Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources.

John Arras and Robert Hunt (eds.), Ethical issues in modern medicine, Second Edition. (Palo Alto, California: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1983) esp. part VI, Social Justice and Health Policy.

Tom L Beauchamp and Leroy Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 3rd edition (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1994), Part VI.

Theories of Justice

Will Kymlicka, Contemporary Political Philosophy, An Introduction, Second Edition. Will Kymlicka, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Jonathan Wolff, An introduction to political philosophy, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice, (New York: Basic Books, 1984). esp. Ch.3 (pp.64-94).

Thomas Nagel, Equality and partiality, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Lamont, Julian and Favor, Christi, "Distributive Justice", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

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M6.1b Right to Health

Required Reading

Daniels, N. (1981). Health care needs and distributive justice. Philosophy & public affairs.  10(2): 146-179. 

Jonathan Wolff, 'The Demands of the Human Right to Health', Aristotelian Society. Supplementary volume. . (2012) Vol. 86, 217-237.

Further Reading

Fried, D., 1976, “Equality and rights in medical care”, Hastings Center report. , 6: 29–34.

Buchanan, A., 1984, “The right to a decent minimum of health care”, Philosophy & public affairs., 13(1): 55–78.

Gopal Sreenivasan, 'A Human Right to Health? Some Inconclusive Scepticism', Aristotelian Society. Supplementary volume.. (2012) Vol. 86, 239-265.

Norman Daniels, ‘Is there a right to health care and, if so, what does it encompass? ’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 316-325.

Journal of medicine and philosophy. Vol 4. Issue 2. (1979). Special Issue on the Right to Health Care.

C Nedwick, Who should we treat? : rights, rationing, and resources in the NHS Second Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

International Documents

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Available online at: https://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1976). Available online at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx

Substantive Issues Arising in the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 14: The right to the highest available standard of health care. (2000) Available online at: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G00/439/34/PDF/G0043934.pdf? OpenElement

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M6.2a Nozick and Libertarianism

Required Reading

Will Kymlicka, Contemporary political philosophy : an introduction Second Edition (Oxford: Oxford University press, 2002), pp.103-110 (pp.96-101, 103-106 in First Edition).

Robert Nozick, Anarchy, state and utopia (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998 – Reprint), selections pp. 150-1, 160-4, 168-72, 198, 228.

VIDEO - Michael Sandel on Nozick, http://www.justiceharvard.org/index.php? Itemid=5&id=9&layout=blog&option=com_content&view=category, episode 3 Also available online. http://www.justiceharvard.org/

Allen E. Buchanan, 'The Right to a Decent Minimum of Healthcare'. Philosophy & public affairs. ISSN: 0048-3915 13.1 (Winter, 1984), 55-78. 

Further Reading

G.A. Cohen. Self-ownership, freedom, and equality, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), Chapater 10, 'Self-ownership: assessing the thesis

Adam Swift, Political philosophy : a beginners' guide for students and politicians (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001), pp. 30-47 on Nozick and on justice as desert.

Robert Nozick, Anarchy, state and utopia, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998 – Reprint), Preface p. ix, 'Why side constraints? ', pp. 30-33, 'The Entitlement Theory', pp. 149-153, 'Redistribution and property rights' starting p. 167, and all subsequent sections as far as the end of 'The original position and end-result principles' on p. 204, 'Natural assets and arbitrariness' starting p. 213 and all subsequent sections to the end of the chapter on p. 231.

Jonathan Wolff, Robert Nozick : property, justice and the minimal state, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991), Ch. 1, section on self-ownership (pp.7-9), Ch. 2 (in its entirety), Ch. 4, pp. 73-100.

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M6.2b Rawls and Welfare Liberalism

Required Reading

Will Kymlicka, Contemporary political philosophy : an introduction Second Edition (Oxford: Oxford University press, 2002), pp.55-70, (pp.52-68 in First Edition).

John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (1971), sections 1-4, 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24-26, 29 and 82.

VIDEO - Lectures by Michael Sandel on Rawls, http://www.justiceharvard.org/index.php? Itemid=5&id=9&layout=blog&option=com_content&view=category, episode 7 part 2 and episode 8 (45 minutes max) Also freely available online. http://www.justiceharvard.org/

Further Reading

Daniels, N., 1981, “Health care needs and distributive justice”, Philosophy & public affairs. , 10(2): 146–79.

Thomas Pogge, John Rawls : his life and theory of justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), Chs. 4 & 6.

John Rawls, ‘Justice as Fairness’, Philosophical review., 67.2 (1958), pp.164-194.

K Kukathas and P Pettit, Rawls : a theory of justice and its critics, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990).

Norman Daniels - Applying Rawls to Health

Daniels, N., 1985, Just Health Care, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Daniels, N., 2008, Just Health: Meeting Health Needs Fairly, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Feminist Critique of Rawls / Disability and Justice

Martha Nussbaum, Frontiers of Justice, (Belknap, 2007).

Susan Moller Okan, Justice, gender, and the family, (Basic Books, 2008).

Wasserman, David, Asch, Adrienne, Blustein, Jeffrey and Putnam, Daniel, "Disability and Justice", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Summer 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

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M6.3a QALYS and Needs

Required Reading

Michael Lockwood ‘Quality of life and resource allocation’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 48, pp.451-464. Also available online: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext? type=1&fid=6270140&jid=PHS&volumeId=23&issueId=-1&aid=6270132

John Broome, ' Good, fairness and QALYs', Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series 23 'Philosophy and Medical Welfare' (1988), pp.57-73. in: Philosophy and medical welfare, eds. J M Bell and Susan Mendus, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Further Reading

Paul T. Menzel, ‘Rescuing Lives: Can’t We Count? ’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 43, pp.407-409.

Alan Williams, ‘Economics of coronary artery bypass grafting’, British medical journal.. v.291(6497), (1985), pp.736-737. Available here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1416676/

David Braybrooke, Meeting needs, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987).

David Wiggins, “The Claims of Need”, in his Needs, Values, Truth, (Oxford: Blackwell: 1987).

Garrett Thompson, Needs, (London: Routledge 1987).

Chris Megone, “What is Need? ”, in Anne Corden, Eileen Robertson and Keith Tolley (eds.) Meeting needs in an affluent society : a multi-disciplinary perspective, (Aldershot: Avebury, 1992), pp.1230.

Eileen Robertson and Keith Tolley (eds.) Meeting needs in an affluent society : a multi-disciplinary perspective, (Aldershot: Avebury, 1992), esp. Chs. 1, 4, 9, 14.

Chris Megone, “The Quality of Life: Starting from Aristotle”, in S. Baldwin, C. Godfrey, C. Propper (eds.) Quality of life : perspectives and policies (London: Routledge, 1990), pp.2839.

S. Baldwin, C. Godfrey, C. Propper (eds.) Quality of life : perspectives and policies (London: Routledge, 1990)

Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen (eds.) The quality of life, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).

Philosophy and medical welfare eds. J M Bell and Susan Mendus, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), (esp. essays by Lockwood, Harris and Broome).

John Brome, “Selecting People Randomly”, Ethics.. 95 (1984), pp.38-55.

John Harris, “The Survival Lottery”, in Peter Singer (ed.) Applied ethics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).

Baruch Brody, “Ethical Reflections in International Health Care Expenditure”, in E. Matthews and M Marlowe (eds.), Philosophy and health care, (Ashgate: Avebury, 1992).

M H Cooper, Rationing health care, (London: Croom Helm, 1975).

Chris Horn, “Priority Setting in the NHS”, British medical journal., v. 307, August (1993).

Rudolf Klein, “Dimensions of Rationing – who should do what? ”, British medical journal., v. 307, (1993).

John Harris, ‘Micro-allocation: deciding between patients’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 293-305.

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M6.3b Personal Responsibility

Required Reading

Anderson, E. (1999) What Is the Point of Equality? Ethics. 109: 287-337.

Alvin H. Moss and Mark Siegler, ‘Should Alcoholics Compete Equally for Liver Transplantation? ’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics: an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 45, pp. 421-427.

Further Reading

Ubel, P. A. (2003) Transplantation in Alcoholics: Separating Prognosis and Responsibility from Social Biases. Liver transplantation. 3 (2): 343-346. 

Fleurbaey, M. (1995) Equal Opportunity or Equal Social Outcome? Economics and philosophy. 11: 25-55. 

Arneson, R. J. (2004) Luck Egalitarianism Interpreted and Defended Philosophical topics. 32: 1-20.

Daniels, N., 2009, “Social and Individual Responsibility for Health”, in Responsibility and distributive justice, C. Knight and Z. Stemplowska (eds.), Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

John Harris, ‘Micro-allocation: deciding between patients’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 293-305.

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M6.4a Ageism

Required Reading

A.B Shaw. 'In defense of Ageism' Journal of medical ethics.. 20 (1994), pp.188-191, 194.

Further Reading

Robert M. Veatch, ‘How Age Should Matter: Justice as a Basis for Limiting Health Care to the Elderly’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics: an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 47, pp. 437-448.

Norman Daniels, ‘A Lifespan Approach to Health Care’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics: an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 49, pp. 465-474.

Michael Rivlin, ‘Protecting elderly people: flaws against ageist arguments’, British medical journal., 310 (1995). http://www.bmj.com/content/310/6988/1179? tab=full

The journal of law, medicine and ethics.. (Spring 2012). Symposium: The Graying of America. Particularly papers by:

  • Daniel Callahan: Must we ration healthcare for the elderly?
  • David Gruenewald: Can health care rationing ever be rational?
  • Peggye Dilworth-Anderson et al: Social justice, health disparities, and culture in the care of the elderly.

Hugh Lazenby, ‘Is Age Special? Justice, Complete Lives, and the Prudential Lifespan Account’, Journal of applied philosophy.. 28.4 (2011).

Leonard Fleck, ‘Just Caring: In Defense of Limited Age-based Healthcare Rationing’, Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics.. 19 (2010): 27-37.

Dennis McKerlie, ‘Equality between age-groups’, Philosophy & public affairs. 21.3 (1992)

Dennis McKerlie, ‘Justice Between the Young and the Old’, Philosophy & public affairs.. 30.2 (2001)

Norman Daniels, Am I my parents' keeper? : an essay on justice between the young and the old (OUP, 1988).

Norman Daniels, ‘Justice between adjacent generations: Further thoughts’ The journal of political philosophy.. 16. 4 (2008).

John Harris, The value of life (Routledge, 1985).

Daniel Callahan, Setting limits : medical goals in an aging society (Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1987).

John Harris, ‘The Value of Life’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 46, pp.428-436.

J Evans, ‘Age and Equality’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.., Volume 530 (1988), pp.118-124.

N.G. Levensky, ‘Age as a criterion for rationing health care’. New England journal of medicine.. 332 (1990), pp.1813-5.

M. McKee, E. Mossialos and A. Dixon, ‘Paying for the NHS: are we asking the right question? ’ Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 95 (2002), pp.59-60.

R Klein, ‘Warning signals from Oregon’, British medical journal.. 304 (1992).

J Dixon and HG Welch, ‘Priority setting: lessons from Oregon’, Lancet.., Volume 337, Issue 8746, (1991), pp.891 – 894.

J M Bell and Susan Mendus (eds.), Philosophy and medical welfare, (Cambridge University Press, 1988), especially the chapters by Broome and Harris.

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M6.4b Rationing at the Bedside

Required Reading

Roger Crisp et al., ‘Rationing in general practice: The Asbury Draft Policy on Ethical Use of Resources’, British medical journal.. 312 (1996).

Sigurd Lauridsen ‘Administrative gatekeeping – a third way between unrestricted patient advocacy and bedside rationing’ Bioethics.. Vol 23:5 (2009), pp 311-320.

Further Reading

Nicholas Rescher, ‘The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 44, pp. 410-420.

This list was last updated on 19/04/2018