Leeds University Library

IDEA5306M
Module Reading List

Distributive Justice and Scarce Medical Resources, 2017/18, Semester 2
Dr Joe Saunders
J.Saunders@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

M6.1a Introduction to Justice and Health

Required Reading

Parfit, Derek, 1997, “Equality and Priority,”  Ratio 10: 202-221.

Williams, Bernard, 1973, “The Idea of Equality,” in: B. Williams, Problems of the self : philosophical papers, 1956-1972 , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 230-249, reprinted in L. Pojman & R. Westmoreland (eds.), Equality : selected readings , Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997, pp. 91-102.

Further Reading

Equality

Frankfurt, Harry, 1987, “Equality as a Moral Ideal,” Ethics., 98: 21-42; reprinted in: H. Frankfurt, The importance of what we care about : philosophical essays , Cambridge University Press 1988; reprinted in: L. Pojman & R. Westmoreland (eds.), Equality : selected readings , Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997, pp. 261-273.

Daniels, Norman, 1981, “Health care needs and distributive justice”,  Philosophy & public affairs.  , 10(2): 146–79, SECTIONS III and IV (pp. 149-160) ONLY.

Gosepath, Stefan, "Equality", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),

Dworkin, Ronald, 1981, “What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare,” Philosophy & public affairs. 10, pp. 185-246, reprinted in: R. Dworkin, Sovereign virtue : the theory and practice of equality , Cambridge: Harvard University Press 2000, pp.11-64

Dworkin, Ronald, 1981, “What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources,” Philosophy & public affairs. 10, pp. 283-345, reprinted in: R. Dworkin, Sovereign virtue : the theory and practice of equality , Cambridge: Harvard University Press 2000, pp.65-119.

Anderson, Elizabeth, 1999, “What Is the Point of Equality? ” Ethics. , 109: 287-337.

Temkin, L. (2003) Equality, Priority or What? Economics and philosophy. 19: 61-87. 

Justice and Health

Daniel Wikler and Sarah Marchand, ‘Macro-allocation: dividing up the health care budget’ in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 306-315.

Daniels, Norman, "Justice and Access to Health Care", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

Sreenivasan, Gopal, "Justice, Inequality, and Health", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =

Anand, S., Peter, F., and Sen, A. (eds.) (2004). Public health, ethics and equity . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Buchanan, B., (2009), Justice and health care : selected essays . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Daniels, N. (2008). Just Health: Meeting Health Needs Fairly . New York: Cambridge University Press.

Daniels, N. (1985). Just Health Care . New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jennifer Jackson. (2006). Ethics in medicine . Cambridge: Polity. Chapter 9, 'Distributive Justice in Health Care'.

S Gorovitz et al (eds.), Moral problems in medicine Second Edition, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall,1983), Ch. IV, esp. Right to Health Care, Medical Resources as Commodities and Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources.

John Arras and Robert Hunt (eds.), Ethical issues in modern medicine , Second Edition. (Palo Alto, California: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1983) esp. part VI, Social Justice and Health Policy.

Tom L Beauchamp and Leroy Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics , 3rd edition (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1994), Part VI.

Theories of Justice

Will Kymlicka, Contemporary Political Philosophy, An Introduction , Second Edition. Will Kymlicka, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Jonathan Wolff, An introduction to political philosophy , (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice , (New York: Basic Books, 1984). esp. Ch.3 (pp.64-94).

Thomas Nagel, Equality and partiality , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Lamont, Julian and Favor, Christi, "Distributive Justice", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

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M6.1b Right to Health

Required Reading

Daniels, N. (1981). Health care needs and distributive justice.  Philosophy & public affairs.  10(2): 146-179. 

Jonathan Wolff, 'The Demands of the Human Right to Health',  Aristotelian Society. Supplementary volume.  . (2012) Vol. 86, 217-237.

Further Reading

Fried, D., 1976, “Equality and rights in medical care”,  Hastings Center report.  , 6: 29–34.

Buchanan, A., 1984, “The right to a decent minimum of health care”, Philosophy & public affairs. , 13(1): 55–78.

Gopal Sreenivasan, 'A Human Right to Health? Some Inconclusive Scepticism', Aristotelian Society. Supplementary volume. . (2012) Vol. 86, 239-265.

Norman Daniels, ‘Is there a right to health care and, if so, what does it encompass? ’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 316-325.

Journal of medicine and philosophy. Vol 4. Issue 2. (1979). Special Issue on the Right to Health Care.

C Nedwick, Who should we treat? : rights, rationing, and resources in the NHS Second Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

International Documents

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Available online at: https://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1976). Available online at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx

Substantive Issues Arising in the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 14: The right to the highest available standard of health care. (2000) Available online at: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G00/439/34/PDF/G0043934.pdf? OpenElement

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M6.2a Nozick and Libertarianism

Required Reading

Will Kymlicka, Contemporary political philosophy : an introduction Second Edition (Oxford: Oxford University press, 2002), pp.103-110 (pp.96-101, 103-106 in First Edition).

Robert Nozick, Anarchy, state and utopia (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998 – Reprint), selections pp. 150-1, 160-4, 168-72, 198, 228.

VIDEO - Michael Sandel on Nozick, http://www.justiceharvard.org/index.php? Itemid=5&id=9&layout=blog&option=com_content&view=category , episode 3 Also available online. http://www.justiceharvard.org/

Further Reading

G.A. Cohen. Self-ownership, freedom, and equality , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), Chapater 10, 'Self-ownership: assessing the thesis

Adam Swift, Political philosophy : a beginners' guide for students and politicians (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001), pp. 30-47 on Nozick and on justice as desert.

Robert Nozick, Anarchy, state and utopia , (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998 – Reprint), Preface p. ix, 'Why side constraints? ', pp. 30-33, 'The Entitlement Theory', pp. 149-153, 'Redistribution and property rights' starting p. 167, and all subsequent sections as far as the end of 'The original position and end-result principles' on p. 204, 'Natural assets and arbitrariness' starting p. 213 and all subsequent sections to the end of the chapter on p. 231.

Jonathan Wolff, Robert Nozick : property, justice and the minimal state , (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991), Ch. 1, section on self-ownership (pp.7-9), Ch. 2 (in its entirety), Ch. 4, pp. 73-100.

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M6.2b Rawls and Welfare Liberalism

Required Reading

Will Kymlicka, Contemporary political philosophy : an introduction Second Edition (Oxford: Oxford University press, 2002), pp.55-70, (pp.52-68 in First Edition).

John Rawls,  A Theory of Justice (1971), sections 1-4, 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24-26, 29 and 82.

VIDEO - Lectures by Michael Sandel on Rawls, http://www.justiceharvard.org/index.php? Itemid=5&id=9&layout=blog&option=com_content&view=category , episode 7 part 2 and episode 8 (45 minutes max) Also freely available online. http://www.justiceharvard.org/

Further Reading

Daniels, N., 1981, “Health care needs and distributive justice”,  Philosophy & public affairs.  , 10(2): 146–79.

Thomas Pogge, John Rawls : his life and theory of justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), Chs. 4 & 6.

John Rawls, ‘Justice as Fairness’, Philosophical review. , 67.2 (1958), pp.164-194.

K Kukathas and P Pettit , Rawls : a theory of justice and its critics , (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990).

Norman Daniels - Applying Rawls to Health

Daniels, N., 1985, Just Health Care , New York: Cambridge University Press.

Daniels, N., 2008, Just Health: Meeting Health Needs Fairly , New York: Cambridge University Press.

Feminist Critique of Rawls / Disability and Justice

Martha Nussbaum, Frontiers of Justice, (Belknap, 2007).

Susan Moller Okan, Justice, gender, and the family , (Basic Books, 2008).

Wasserman, David, Asch, Adrienne, Blustein, Jeffrey and Putnam, Daniel, "Disability and Justice", Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource]. (Summer 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

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M6.3a QALYS and Needs

Required Reading

Michael Lockwood ‘Quality of life and resource allocation’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 48, pp.451-464. Also available online: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext? type=1&fid=6270140&jid=PHS&volumeId=23&issueId=-1&aid=6270132

John Broome, ' Good, fairness and QALYs', Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series 23 'Philosophy and Medical Welfare' (1988), pp.57-73. in: Philosophy and medical welfare , eds. J M Bell and Susan Mendus, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Further Reading

Paul T. Menzel, ‘Rescuing Lives: Can’t We Count? ’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 43, pp.407-409.

Alan Williams, ‘Economics of coronary artery bypass grafting’, British medical journal. . v.291(6497), (1985), pp.736-737. Available here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1416676/

David Braybrooke, Meeting needs , (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987).

David Wiggins, “The Claims of Need”, in his Needs, Values, Truth , (Oxford: Blackwell: 1987).

Garrett Thompson, Needs , (London: Routledge 1987).

Chris Megone, “What is Need? ”, in Anne Corden, Eileen Robertson and Keith Tolley (eds.) Meeting needs in an affluent society : a multi-disciplinary perspective , (Aldershot: Avebury, 1992), pp.1230.

Eileen Robertson and Keith Tolley (eds.) Meeting needs in an affluent society : a multi-disciplinary perspective , (Aldershot: Avebury, 1992), esp. Chs. 1, 4, 9, 14.

Chris Megone , “The Quality of Life: Starting from Aristotle”, in S. Baldwin, C. Godfrey, C. Propper (eds.) Quality of life : perspectives and policies (London: Routledge, 1990), pp.2839.

S. Baldwin, C. Godfrey, C. Propper (eds.) Quality of life : perspectives and policies (London: Routledge, 1990)

Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen (eds.) The quality of life , (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).

Philosophy and medical welfare eds. J M Bell and Susan Mendus, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), (esp. essays by Lockwood, Harris and Broome).

John Brome, “Selecting People Randomly”, Ethics. . 95 (1984), pp.38-55.

John Harris, “The Survival Lottery”, in Peter Singer (ed.) Applied ethics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).

Baruch Brody, “Ethical Reflections in International Health Care Expenditure”, in E. Matthews and M Marlowe (eds.), Philosophy and health care , (Ashgate: Avebury, 1992).

M H Cooper, Rationing health care , (London: Croom Helm, 1975).

Chris Horn, “Priority Setting in the NHS”, British medical journal. , v. 307, August (1993).

Rudolf Klein, “Dimensions of Rationing – who should do what? ”, British medical journal. , v. 307, (1993).

John Harris, ‘Micro-allocation: deciding between patients’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 293-305.

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M6.3b Personal Responsibility

Required Reading

Anderson, E. (1999) What Is the Point of Equality? Ethics. 109: 287-337.

Alvin H. Moss and Mark Siegler, ‘Should Alcoholics Compete Equally for Liver Transplantation? ’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics: an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 45, pp. 421-427.

Further Reading

Ubel, P. A. (2003) Transplantation in Alcoholics: Separating Prognosis and Responsibility from Social Biases. Liver transplantation. 3 (2): 343-346. 

Fleurbaey, M. (1995) Equal Opportunity or Equal Social Outcome? Economics and philosophy. 11: 25-55. 

Arneson, R. J. (2004) Luck Egalitarianism Interpreted and Defended Philosophical topics. 32: 1-20.

Daniels, N., 2009, “Social and Individual Responsibility for Health”, in Responsibility and distributive justice , C. Knight and Z. Stemplowska (eds.), Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

John Harris, ‘Micro-allocation: deciding between patients’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 293-305.

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M6.4a Ageism

Required Reading

A.B Shaw. 'In defense of Ageism' Journal of medical ethics. . 20 (1994), pp.188-191, 194.

Further Reading

Robert M. Veatch, ‘How Age Should Matter: Justice as a Basis for Limiting Health Care to the Elderly’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics: an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 47, pp. 437-448.

Norman Daniels, ‘A Lifespan Approach to Health Care’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics: an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 49, pp. 465-474.

Michael Rivlin, ‘Protecting elderly people: flaws against ageist arguments’, British medical journal. , 310 (1995). http://www.bmj.com/content/310/6988/1179? tab=full

The journal of law, medicine and ethics. . (Spring 2012). Symposium: The Graying of America. Particularly papers by:

  • Daniel Callahan: Must we ration healthcare for the elderly?
  • David Gruenewald: Can health care rationing ever be rational?
  • Peggye Dilworth-Anderson et al: Social justice, health disparities, and culture in the care of the elderly.

Hugh Lazenby, ‘Is Age Special? Justice, Complete Lives, and the Prudential Lifespan Account’, Journal of applied philosophy. . 28.4 (2011).

Leonard Fleck, ‘Just Caring: In Defense of Limited Age-based Healthcare Rationing’, Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics. . 19 (2010): 27-37.

Dennis McKerlie, ‘Equality between age-groups’, Philosophy & public affairs. 21.3 (1992)

Dennis McKerlie, ‘Justice Between the Young and the Old’, Philosophy & public affairs. . 30.2 (2001)

Norman Daniels, Am I my parents' keeper? : an essay on justice between the young and the old (OUP, 1988).

Norman Daniels, ‘Justice between adjacent generations: Further thoughts’ The journal of political philosophy. . 16. 4 (2008).

John Harris, The value of life (Routledge, 1985).

Daniel Callahan, Setting limits : medical goals in an aging society (Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1987).

John Harris, ‘The Value of Life’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 46, pp.428-436.

J Evans, ‘Age and Equality’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. . , Volume 530 (1988), pp.118-124.

N.G. Levensky, ‘Age as a criterion for rationing health care’. New England journal of medicine. . 332 (1990), pp.1813-5.

M. McKee, E. Mossialos and A. Dixon, ‘Paying for the NHS: are we asking the right question? ’ Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 95 (2002), pp.59-60.

R Klein, ‘Warning signals from Oregon’, British medical journal. . 304 (1992).

J Dixon and HG Welch, ‘Priority setting: lessons from Oregon’, Lancet. ., Volume 337, Issue 8746, (1991), pp.891 – 894.

J M Bell and Susan Mendus (eds.), Philosophy and medical welfare , (Cambridge University Press, 1988), especially the chapters by Broome and Harris.

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M6.4b Rationing at the Bedside

Required Reading

Roger Crisp et al., ‘Rationing in general practice: The Asbury Draft Policy on Ethical Use of Resources’, British medical journal. . 312 (1996).

Sigurd Lauridsen ‘Administrative gatekeeping – a third way between unrestricted patient advocacy and bedside rationing’ Bioethics. . Vol 23:5 (2009), pp 311-320.

Further Reading

Nicholas Rescher, ‘The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy’, in Kuhse and Singer (eds.) Bioethics : an anthology Second Edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), Item 44, pp. 410-420.

This list was last updated on 14/05/2015