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HIST1300
Britain and the French Revolution - Dr Kevin Linch

Primary Sources for the Historian: An Introduction to Documentary study, 2019/20, Semester 2
Professor Stephen Alford
S.Alford@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Week 2: Britain in the late eighteenth century

British politics c. 1790

Parliaments, 1790-1820: Parliament in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars , The History of Parliament < http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/research/parliaments/parliaments-1790-1820 > [accessed 13 November 2015]

Brooke, John, The House of Commons , The History of Parliament, < http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1754-1790/survey/iv-house-commons > [accessed 13 November 2015]
Derry, John W., Politics in the age of Fox, Pitt and Liverpool : continuity and transformation (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1990), chapters 1 and 2 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Turner, Michael J., The age of unease : government and reform in Britain, 1782-1832 (Stroud: Sutton, 2000), chapter 2 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Williams, Glyn and John Ramsden, Ruling Britannia : a political history of Britain, 1688-1988 (London: Longman, 1990), chapter 8 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

British society c .1790

Black, Jeremy, Eighteenth-Century Britain, 1688-1783 , 2nd edition (Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), chapter 6

Rule, John, Albion's people : English society, 1714-1815 (London: Longman, 1992), chapter 5

O'Gorman, Frank, The long eighteenth century : British political and social history, 1688-1832 (London: Arnold, 1997), chapter 11 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Porter, Roy, English Society in the Eighteenth Century (London: Allen Lane, 1982), chapter 3 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Wright, D. G., Popular radicalism : the working class experience, 1780-1880 (London: Longman, 1988), chapter 2

The response to the Revolution

Emsley, Clive, Britain and the French Revolution (Harlow: Longman, 2000)

Evans, Chris, Debating the revolution : Britain in the 1790s (London: Tauris, 2006), chapter 2 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Hampsher-Monk, Iain, ed., The impact of the French Revolution : texts from Britain in the 1790s (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), introduction Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Macleod, Emma Vincent, 'The Crisis of the French Revolution', in A companion to eighteenth-century Britain , ed. by Harry Thomas Dickinson (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 112-24

Mori, Jennifer, Britain in the age of the French Revolution, 1785-1820 (Harlow: Longman, 2000), chapter 2

Royle, Edward, Revolutionary Britannia : reflections on the threat of revolution in Britain, 1789-1848 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001), chapter 1 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Turner, Michael J., The age of unease : government and reform in Britain, 1782-1832 (Stroud: Sutton, 2000), chapter 3

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Week 3: Using primary sources

Required reading

Chapter 4 of Donnelly, Mark and Claire Norton, Doing History (Abingdon, Oxon., UK; New York: Routledge, 2011)

or

Chapter 4 of Tosh, John, The Pursuit of History: Aims, Methods and New Directions in the Study of Modern History (Harlow : Longman, 2010)

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Week 4: The political debate and the outbreak of the war

Required reading

Chapter 6 of Black, Jeremy, Parliament and foreign policy in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)

Primary source

'1792, May 25, Debate in the Commons on the King's Proclamation against Seditious Writings', in Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England , 36 vols (London: Published by R. Bagshaw, 1806-20), 29; King's Declaration, cc. 1476-1477 & speech of the Richard Arden, Master of the Rolls , cc.1477-1480; speech of Henry Dundas , cc.1503-1506; speech of Charles James Fox , cc. 1509-1512.

Detailed reading

Claeys, Gregory, 'The French Revolution Debate and British Political Thought', History of political thought. , 11 (1990), 59-90

Green, Georgina Laura, The majesty of the people : popular sovereignty and the role of the writer in the 1790s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)

Macleod, Emma Vincent, A war of ideas : British attitudes to the wars against revolutionary France, 1792-1802 (Aldershot, Hampshire, UK;Brookfield, Vt., USA;: Ashgate, 1998)

Mori, Jennifer, William Pitt and the French Revolution, 1785-1795 , Book, Whole (Edinburgh: Keele University Press, 1997)

Peacey, Jason, 'The Print Culture of Parliament, 1600–1800', Parliamentary history. , 26.1 (2007), 1-16 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-0206.2007.tb00625.x

On the war

Blanning, T. C. W., The origins of the French Revolutionary wars (London: Longman, 1986)

Connelly, Owen, The wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon, 1792-1815 (London; New York, NY: Routledge, 2006)

Duffy, Michael, 'British Diplomacy and the French Wars, 1789-1815', in Britain and the French Revolution, 1789-1815 , ed. by Harry Thomas Dickinson (Basingstoke and New York, 1989), pp. 127-45

Schroeder, Paul W., The transformation of European politics 1763-1848 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1994), chapter 2 and 3. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Source used in class

'1793. Feb. 12. Debate in the Commons on the King's Message Respecting the Declaration of War with France', in Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England , 36 vols (London: Published by R. Bagshaw, 1806-20), 30: the address and Pitt’s speech pp. 344-351 (to ‘He should now proceed to the declaration itself.’); Fox’s reply pp.363-369 (to Mr. Fox said, that non of the alleged grounds in the French declaration ...’

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Week 5: The public debate: Radicals

Required reading

Introduction of Claeys, Gregory, The French Revolution debate in Britain : the origins of modern politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)

Primary sources

Richard Price, A Discourse on the Love of Our Country, Delivered on Nov. 4, 1789, at the Meeting-House in the Old Jewry, to the Society for Commemorating The ... (London: printed by George Stafford, for T. Cadell, in the Strand, M.DCC.LXXXIX. [1789]), pp. 19-28, & appendix

Paine, Thomas, Rights of man: being an answer to Mr. Burke's attack on the French revolution. By Thomas Paine, Secretary for Foreign affairs to Congress in the ... (London, MDCCXCI. [1791]), pp. 14-21

Wollstonecraft, Mary, A vindication of the rights of woman: with strictures on political and moral subjects. By Mary Wollstonecraft (London, 1792), pp. 444-452

Details about authors

Philp, Mark, 'Paine, Thomas (1737–1809)', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography : From the Earliest Times to the Year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, New ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2005) < http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/view/article/21133 > [accessed 19 Oct 2015]

Taylor, Barbara, 'Wollstonecraft , Mary (1759–1797)', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography : From the Earliest Times to the Year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, New ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2005) < http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/view/article/10893 > [accessed 19 Oct 2015]

Thomas, D. O., 'Price, Richard (1723–1791)', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography : From the Earliest Times to the Year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, New ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, online edn, May 2005) < http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/view/article/22761  > [accessed 19 Oct 2015]

Detailed reading

Claeys, Gregory, The French Revolution debate in Britain : the origins of modern politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), chapters 2 and 3

Dickinson, Harry Thomas, 'Richard Price on Reason and Revolution', in Religious identities in Britain, 1660-1832 , ed. by William T. Gibson and Robert G. Ingram (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), pp. 231-54 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Dickinson, H. T., British radicalism and the French Revolution 1789-1815 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993)

Frame, Paul and Geoffrey W. Powell, '"Our First Concern as Lovers of Our Country Must Be to Enlighten It" : Richard Price's Response to the French Revolution', in "Footsteps of liberty and revolt" : essays on Wales and the French Revolution , ed. by Mary-Ann Constantine and Dafydd Johnston (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2013), pp. 53-68

Goodrich, Amanda, Debating England's aristocracy in the 1790s : pamphlets, polemics and political ideas (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2005)

Goodwin, Albert, The friends of liberty : the English democratic movement in the age of the French Revolution (London: Hutchinson, 1979)

Hicks, Philip, 'Women Worthies and Feminist Argument in Eighteenth-Century Britain', Women's history review. , 24.2 (2015), 174-90 doi: 10.1080/09612025.2014.945795

Hodson, Jane, Language and revolution in Burke, Wollstonecraft, Paine, and Godwin (Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007)

Offen, Karen M., 'Was Mary Wollstonecraft a Feminist? A Comparative Re-Reading of a Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792-1992', in Globalizing feminisms, 1789-1945 , ed. by Karen M. Offen (London: Routledge, 2010), pp. 5-17 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Pendleton, G. T., 'Towards a Bibliography of the Reflections and Rights of Man Controversy', Bulletin of research in the humanities. , 85.1 (1982), 65-103

Philp, Mark, 'Paine, Rights of Man ', in The Cambridge Companion to British Literature of the French Revolution in the 1790s , ed. by Pamela Clemit (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 31-46

Rendall, Jane, 'Wollstonecraft, Vindications and Historical and Moral View of the French Revolution ', in The Cambridge Companion to British Literature of the French Revolution in the 1790s , ed. by Pamela Clemit (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 71-85

Speck, William Arthur, A political biography of Thomas Paine (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2013)

Thompson, E. P., The Making of the English Working Class (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1991); chapter 5

Wright, D.G., Popular radicalism : the working class experience, 1780-1880 (London: Longman, 1998)

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Week 6: The public debate: Conservatives

Required reading

Goodrich, Amanda, 'Surveying the Ebb and Flow of Pamphlet Warfare: 500 Rival Tracts from Radicals and Loyalists in Britain, 1790-1796', Journal for eighteenth-century studies. , 30 (2008), 1-12 DOI: 10.1111/j.1754-0208.2007.tb00322.x

Primary sources

Burke, Edmund, Reflections on the Revolution in France, and on the proceedings in certain societies in London relative to that event. In a letter intended to have been sent to a gentleman in Paris (London : printed for J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall, M.DCC.XC. [1790]), pp. 55-61.

More, Hannah, Village politics. Addressed to all the mechanics, journeymen, and day labourers, in Great Britain. By Will Chip, a country carpenter (London : printed for and sold by F. and C. Rivington, No. 62, St. Paul's Church-Yard, [1792].)

Association for Preserving Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers. At a meeting of gentlemen at the Crown and Anchor tavern, November 20, 1792, John Reeves, Esq. in the chair, the following considerations and resolutions were entered into and agreed upon ([London, 1792])

Details about authors / their works

Langford, Paul, ‘Burke, Edmund (1729/30-1797)’, in Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/view/article/4019 [accessed October 22, 2015]

Skedd, S. J., 'More, Hannah (1745–1833).' in Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/view/article/19179 [accessed October 22, 2015]

Philp, Mark, 'Association for the Preservation of Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers', in An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age , ed. by Iain McCalman, Jon Mee, Gillian Russell, Clara Tuite, Kate Fullagar and Patsy Hardy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) [accessed 14 October 2015 ]

Detailed reading

Black, Eugene Charlton, The association : British extraparliamentary political organization, 1769-1793. (London: Harvard University Press, 1963)

Blakemore, Steven, Intertextual war : Edmund Burke and the French Revolution in the writings of Mary Wollstonecraft, Thomas Paine, and James Mackintosh (Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, c1997), chapter 4 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Dickinson, Harry Thomas, 'Popular Conservatism and Militant Loyalism 1789-1815', in Britain and the French Revolution, 1789-1815 , ed. by Harry Thomas Dickinson (Basingstoke and New York: Macmillan, 1989), pp. 103-25 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Duffy, Michael, 'William Pitt and the Origins of the Loyalist Association Movement of 1792', The historical journal. , 39.04 (1996), 943-62

Eastwood, David, 'John Reeves and the Contested Idea of the Constitution', British journal for eighteenth-century studies. , 16 (1993), 197-212

Gilmartin, Kevin, Writing against revolution : literary conservatism in Britain, 1790-1832 (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Ginter, Donald E., 'The Loyalist Association Movement of 1792-93 and British Public Opinion', The historical journal. , 9 (1966), 179-90

Goodrich, Amanda, Debating England's aristocracy in the 1790s : pamphlets, polemics and political ideas (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2005)

Morris, Marilyn, 'Royalism, Republicanism and Avoiding Revolution in Great Britain : The Impact of the French Revolution on Debate About the British Monarchy', Proceedings of the Consortium on Revolutionary Europe, 1750 to 1850, 23 (1993), 526-37

Pendleton, G. T., 'Towards a Bibliography of the Reflections and Rights of Man Controversy', Bulletin of research in the humanities. , 85.1 (1982), 65-103

Scheuermann, Mona, In praise of poverty : Hannah More counters Thomas Paine and the radical threat (Lexington (KY): University Press of Kentucky, 2002)

Schofield, Thomas Philip, 'Conservative Political Thought in Britain in Response to the French Revolution', The historical journal. , 29.3 (1986), 601-22 DOI: 10.1017/S0018246X00018938

Sedlmayr, Gerold, 'The Fatal Contagiousness of French Republicanism : Edmund Burke and the Body Politic', in Perspectives on English revolutionary republicanism , ed. by Gaby Mahlberg and Dirk Wiemann (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 103-18

Whale, John C., ‘Literal and symbolic representations: Burke, Paine and the French Revolution’, History of European ideas. , 16 (1993), 343-9

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Week 7: The press

Required reading

Barker, Hannah, 'England, 1760-1815', in Press, politics and the public sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820 , ed. by Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 93-112

Primary sources

'France - States General', The Times , 29 June 1789, p. 3

'Commotions in France', The Oracle , 1 July 1789

'Paris, September 4', The Star , 8 September 1792

'London: Saturday, September 8', The morning chronicle. , 8 September 1792

Details about the sources

For details about newspapers, please consult North, John S., ed., The Waterloo directory of English newspapers and periodicals, 1800-1900 (Waterloo, Ontario: North Waterloo Academic Press, 1997-).

Detailed reading

Black, Jeremy, 'The Press and Politics in the Eighteenth Century', Media history. , 8.2 (2002), 175-82 doi: 10.1080/1368880022000030531

Heyd, Uriel, Reading newspapers : press and public in eighteenth-century Britain and America (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2012)

Schürer, Norbert, 'The Storming of the Bastille in English Newspapers', Eighteenth-century life. , 29.1 (2005), 50-81

Schweizer, Karl W., 'Newspapers, Politics and Public Opinion in the Later Hanoverian Era', Parliamentary history. , 25.1 (2006), 32-48

Resources about the events of the French Revolution

Use these items for background and details about the events reported in the newspapers.

Doyle, William, The Oxford history of the French Revolution (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Forrest, Alan, The French Revolution (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995)

McPhee, Peter, The French Revolution, 1789-1799 (Oxford [England]; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Popkin,Jeremy D., A short history of the French Revolution (Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, c2010)

Rudé, George, The French Revolution (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988)

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Week 8: Cultural impact

Required reading

Chapter 1 of Hunt, Tamara L., Defining John Bull : political caricature and national identity in late Georgian England (Burlington, VT;Aldershot, Hants, England;: Ashgate, 2003) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Primary sources

Gillray, James, 'France. Britain. Freedom. Slavery', (London: James Aitken, 1789), British Museum 1851,0901.468, <  http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx? objectId=1477186&partId=1 > [accessed 10 December 2015]

Cruikshank, Isaac, 'Sedition, Levelling and Plundering; or, the Pretended Friends of the People in Council', (London: S. W. Fores, 1792), British Musuem 1868,0808.6238, < http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx? objectId=1642785&partId=1  > [accessed 10 December 2015]

Details about the artists

McConnell, Anita and Simon Heneage, 'Gillray, James (1756–1815)', in Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, New ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2005) < http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/view/article/10754  > [accessed 19 Oct 2015]

Patten, Robert L., 'Cruikshank , Isaac (1764–1811)', in Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000 , ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, New ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2005) < http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/view/article/6844  > [accessed 19 Oct 2015]

Detailed reading

Bainbridge, Simon, 'Politics and Poetry', in The Cambridge Companion to British Literature of the French Revolution in the 1790s , ed. by Pamela Clemit (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 190-205

Bensimon, Fabrice, 'English Caricature and the French Revolutions', in Interkulturelle Kommunikation in der europäischen Druckgraphik im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert = The European print and cultural transfer in the 18th and 19th centuries = Gravure et communication interculturelle en Europe aux 18e et 19e siècles , ed. by Philippe Kaenel and Rolf Reichardt (Hildesheim: Olms, 2007), pp. 437-62

Bindman, David, 'Prints', in An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age , ed. by Iain McCalman, Jon Mee, Gillian Russell, Clara Tuite, Kate Fullagar and Patsy Hardy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) < http://0-www.oxfordreference.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/view/10.1093/acref/9780199245437.001.0001/acref-9780199245437-e-566 > [accessed 14 October 2015]

Bindman, David, 'The War of Images : British Caricatures of the French Revolution', Franco-British Studies, 6.55-60 (1988)

Bryant, Mark and Simon Heneage, Dictionary of British cartoonists and caricaturists 1730-1980 (Aldershot: Scolar, 1994)

Crafton, Lisa Plummer, The French Revolution debate in English literature and culture (Westport, Conn;London;: Greenwood Press, 1997), no. 87

Donald, Diana, The age of caricature : satirical prints in the reign of George III (New Haven: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 1996)

Goode, Mike, 'The Public and the Limits of Persuasion in the Age of Caricature', in The efflorescence of caricature, 1759-1838 , ed. by Todd B. Porterfield (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011), pp. 117-36 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Hunt, Tamara L., Defining John Bull : political caricature and national identity in late Georgian England (Burlington, VT;Aldershot, Hants, England;: Ashgate, 2003)

Philp, Mark, Reforming ideas in Britain : politics and language in the shadow of the French Revolution, 1789-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Small, Ian and Ceri Crossley, The French Revolution and British culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989)

Spence, Peter, The birth of romantic radicalism : war, popular politics and English radical reformism, 1800-1815 (Aldershot: Scholar Press, 1996)

Wood, Marcus, Radical satire and print culture, 1790-1822 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1994), especially chapter 2 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Sources used in the seminar

'Female Furies or Extraordinary Revolution',  (William Dent, 1789), British Museum 1948,0214.464 <http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1489616&partId=1

'Don Dismallo Running the Literary Gantlet',  (William Holland, 1790), British Museum 1868,0808.5976 <http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1498656&partId=1>

Gillray, James, 'French Democrats Surprizing the Royal Runaways',  (London: Hannah Humphrey, 1791), British Museum 1851,0901.533 <http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1641577&partId=1>

Gillray, James, 'Petit Souper, a La Parisienne; -or- a Family of Sans-Culotts Refreshing, after the Fatigues of the Day',  (London: 1792), British Museum 1868,0808.6230 <http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1477490&partId=1>

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Required reading

Choose one item from the following:

Conservatism

Dickinson, Harry Thomas, 'Popular Loyalism in Britain in the 1790s', in The Transformation of political culture : England and Germany in the late eighteenth century , ed. by Eckhart Hellmuth (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 503-33 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Herzog, Don, Poisoning the minds of the lower orders (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998)

O'Gorman, Frank, 'The Paine Burnings of 1792-1793', Past & present. , 193 (2006), 111-56

Rogers, Nicholas, 'Burning Tom Paine : Loyalism and Counter-Revolution in Britain, 1792-1793', Histoire sociale / Social History 32 (1999), 139-71 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Smith, Michael S., 'Anti‐Radicalism and Popular Politics in an Age of Revolution', Parliamentary history. , 24 (2005), 71-92 doi: 10.1111/j.1750-0206.2005.tb00463.x

Western, John Randle, 'The Volunteer Movement as an Anti-Revolutionary Force, 1793-1801', English historical review. , 71.281 (1956), 603-14

Radicalism

Benchimol, Alex, Intellectual politics and cultural conflict in the Romantic period : Scottish Whigs, English radicals and the making of the British public sphere (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010)

Davies, Michael T., 'The Mob Club? The London Corresponding Society and the Politics of Civility in the 1790s', in Unrespectable radicals? : popular politics in the age of reform ed. by Michael T. Davies and Paul A. Pickering (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 21-40

Dickinson, H. T., British radicalism and the French Revolution 1789-1815 (Oxford; New York: Blackwell, 1985)

Green, Georgina Laura, The majesty of the people : popular sovereignty and the role of the writer in the 1790s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)

Philp, Mark, 'The Fragmented Ideology of Reform', in The French Revolution and British Popular Politics , ed. by Mark Philp (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 50-77 DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511522765.004

Stevenson, John, ''Paineites to a Man'? : The English Popular Radical Societies in the 1790s', Bulletin of the Society for the Study of Labour History. , 54.3 (1989), 14-25

Thompson, E. P., The Making of the English Working Class (London: Penguin Books, 2013)

Both topics

Barrell, John, The spirit of despotism : invasions of privacy in the 1790s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Evans, Chris, Debating the revolution : Britain in the 1790s (London; New York; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006)

Goodrich, Amanda, Debating England's aristocracy in the 1790s : pamphlets, polemics and political ideas (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2005)

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Reference material

Use these resources to check people, events, and general questions about the period:

Dickinson, Harry Thomas, ed., A companion to eighteenth-century Britain (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002)

Stevenson, John and Jeremy Gregory, The Routledge companion to Britain in the eighteenth century, 1688-1820 (London: Routledge, 2007)

The long / medial s or "ſ"

In most of the primary sources you'll notice that some s characters are printed differently. The rules about these were quite vague. For more information about this see:

This list was last updated on 04/05/2016