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Module Reading List

Approaches to Race, 2019/20, Semester 1
Dr Kate Dossett
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Week 1: Introduction to Race 

Questions to Consider:

 • How, according to Fanon, is blackness constructed and produced?

• What are Kenan Malik’s main arguments about the social meanings of ‘race’? How does he examine and explain the relationship between ‘class’ and ‘race’? What are the strengths and weaknesses of his argument?

• What does Stephen Jay Gould pick out as being essential in the development of 18th and 19th Century views of ‘race’?

Required Readings

Frantz Fanon, “The Fact of Blackness”, trans., Charles Lam Markmann, in Theories of Race and Racism (New York and London, 1999), pp. 257-265. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 11/10/2019) 

Gould, Stephen Jay, The Mismeasure of Man (New York, 1981).

Malik, Kenan, The meaning of race: race, history and culture in western society (Basingstoke, 1996)

Ian Haney Lopez, White By Law: The Legal Construction of Race

Additional Readings:

Adas, M. Machines as the measure of men: science, technology and ideologies of Western dominance (Ithaca, 1989).

Beteille, Andre, ‘Race, Caste and Gender’, Man, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Sept. 1990), pp. 489-504.

Cherniavsky, Eva. Incorporations: Race, Nation, and the Body Politics of Capital (U Minnesota Press, 2006).

Clarke, Kamari Maxine and Deboprah A. Thomas (Eds.).Globalization and Race: Transformations in the Cultural Production of Blackness (Duke UP, 2006).

Dyer, Richard. White (Routledge, 1997).

Galton, David, In our own image: eugenics and the genetic modification of people (London, 2001) – the author is no relation to Francis Galton.

Hill, Mike (Ed.). Whiteness: A Critical Reader (New York UP, 1997.

Hutchinson, John and Smith, Anthony D. eds, Ethnicity (Oxford, 1986).

Ignatiev, Noel. How the Irish Became White (Routledge, 1995).

Jenkins, Laura Dudley ‘Race, Caste and Justice: Social Science Categories and Antidiscrimination Policies in India and the United States’, Connecticut Law Review, (2004), available at

Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics (Temple UP, 1998).

Mangan, J.A. ed., The Imperial curriculum: racial images and education in British colonial experience (London, 1993).
· Oommen, T.K. ‘Race, Religion, and Caste: Anthropological and Sociological Perspectives’ Comparative Sociology, Vol. 1, No. 2. (2002).

Rich, Paul B., Race and Empire in British politics (Cambridge, 1986).

Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (Revised Edition. Verso, 1999).

Said, Edward, Orientalism (1978) and Culture and Imperialism (1993).

Searle, G.R., Eugenics and politics in Britain, 1900-1914 (Leyden, 1976).

Stoler, Laura Ann, ‘Making empire respectable: the politics of race and sexual morality in 20th Century colonial cultures’ in American Ethnologist (1989).

Weinbaum, Alys Eve. Wayward Reproductions: Genealogies of Race and Nation in Transatlantic Modern Thought (Duke UP, 2004).

Wiegman, Robyn. American Anatomies: Theorizing Race and Gender (Duke UP, 1995).
Young, Robert J.C., Colonial Desire: hybridity in theory, culture and race (1995).

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Week 2: Disease, Race and Resistance 

 Questions to Consider:
• How have evolving ideas around race shaped external understandings of disease in Africa?
• In what ways have Africans sought to resist attempts at social control using western biomedicine?  

Required Reading:

 Randall Packard, ‘The invention of the “tropical worker”: Medical research and the quest for Central African labor on the South African gold mines, 1903-36,’ The journal of African history. ISSN: 0021-8537, 34 (1993), 271-92  

Farmer, Paul. “The Largest Ever Epidemic of Ebola: 1 October 2014.” Reproductive health matters. ISSN: 0968-8080 22.44 (2014): 157–162. [doi:]  

Luise White. ""They Could Make Their Victims Dull": Genders and Genres, Fantasies and Cures in Colonial Southern Uganda." The American historical review. ISSN: 0002-8762 100, no. 5 (1995): 1379-402. doi:10.2307/2169863  

Feierman, Steven. “Explanation and Uncertainty in the Medical World of Ghaambo.” Bulletin of the history of medicine. ISSN: 0007-5140 74 (2000): 317–344. [10.1353/bhm.2000.0070]  

Further Reading:

Race Philip Curtin,“‘The White Man’s Grave’: Image and Reality, 1780-1850,” The journal of British studies. ISSN: 0021-9371 (November 1961), 94-110
Heald, Suzette. “The Power of Sex: Some Reflections on the Caldwells' 'African Sexuality' Thesis”. Africa : journal of the International African Institute. ISSN: 0001-9720 65.4 (1995): 489–505
Summers, Carol 1991. ‘Intimate colonialism: the imperial production of reproduction in Uganda, 1907-1925’ Signs. ISSN: 0097-9740 16(4): 787-807
Hunt, Nancy Rose, 1988 ‘Le bebe en brousse’: European women, African birth spacing and colonial intervention in breast feeding in the Belgian Congo, The international journal of African historical studies. ISSN: 0361-7882 21(3): 401-432
Claire Wendland, “Research, therapy, and bioethical hegemony: the controversy over perinatal HIV research in Africa,” African studies review. ISSN: 0002-0206; 1555-2462 51:3 (2008): 1‐23
Lakoff, Andrew. “Two Regimes of Global Health.” Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development 1.1 (2010): 59–79. [doi:10.1353/hum.2010.0001] Resistance Available online
Bledsoe, Caroline, Fatoumatta Banja, and Allan G. Hill. "Reproductive Mishaps and Western Contraception: An African Challenge to Fertility Theory." Population and development review. ISSN: 0098-7921 24, no. 1 (1998): 15-57. doi:10.2307/2808121.
Nguyen, Vinh-Kim. "Trial communities: HIV and therapeutic citizenship in West Africa." In P. Geissler (ed), Evidence, ethos and experiment : the anthropology and history of medical research in Africa ISBN: 9780857450937 (e-book) (2011): 429-44.

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Week 3: Approaches to Domination and Resistance

Questions to Consider

• What is everyday resistance?

• How can historians identify it and analyse it?

• How might the concept of everyday resistance be re-worked by considerations of gender?

Required Readings:

James C. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcript (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991)

Manuel Barcia, Seeds of insurrection : domination and slave resistance on western Cuban plantations, 1808-1848 ISBN: 9780807133651 (cloth : alk. paper) (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008)

Raymond and Alice Bauer, "Day to Day Resistance to Slavery," Journal of Negro history. ISSN: 0022-2992 27, no. 4 (1942): 388-419.

Bruce Mouser, "Rebellion, Marronage and Jihad: Strategies of Resistance to Slavery on the Sierra Leone Coast, c. 1783-1796," The journal of African history. ISSN: 0021-8537 48, no. 1 (2007): 27-44.

Robert Paquette, "Social History Update: Slave Resistance and Social History," Journal of Social History. ISSN: 0022-4529 24, no. 3 (1991): 681-685.

Doudo Diene, "The Notion of Cultural Resistance," History News 69, no. 1 (2014): 11-14. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 11/10/2019) 

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Week 4: Race and Religion

Questions to Consider

What role did the religious have in early modern constructions of difference?
What is the relationship between conversion and colonialism and slavery? 
To what extent are Black religions political?
Why have Caribbean postcolonial states continued to criminalize African-descended religions?
How useful is studying the intersection of race and religion across the boundaries of language, empire, denomination, and nation?


Papal Bulls “Dum Diversas” (1452) and “Romanus Pontifex” (1454)   

Médéric Louis-Élie Moreau de Saint-Méry, excerpt from Description...of the French Part of the Island of Saint Domingue, in Laurent Dubois and John D. Garrigus (eds.), Slave Revolution in the Caribbean: (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2006), 57-62.

The Code Noir (1685), full text in Dubois and Garrigus (eds.), Slave Revolution, 49-54.  

Required Readings

María Elena Martínez, “The Black Blood of New Spain: Limpieza de Sangre, Racial Violence, and Gendered Power in Early Colonial Mexico,” William and Mary quarterly. ISSN: 0043-5597, Vol. 61, No. 3 (Jul., 2004): 479-520.

Pablo Gomez, “Incommensurable Epistemologies? The Atlantic Geography of Healing in the Early Modern Black Spanish Caribbean,” in Small axe. (2014) 44: 95-107.

Kate Ramsey, The spirits and the law : vodou and power in Haiti ISBN: 9780226703794; 0226703797; 9780226703800 (alk. paper); 0226703800 (alk. paper) (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2011): 24-53, 118-176.

Diana Paton, “Obeah Acts: Producing and Policing the Boundaries of Religion in the Caribbean,” Small axe. (2009) 13 (1): 1-18.

James H. Sweet, “The Iberian Roots of American Racist Thought,” William and Mary quarterly. ISSN: 0043-5597 Vol. 54, No. 1, Constructing Race (Jan., 1997), pp. 143-166

Suggested Readings:

J. Comaroff, and J. L. Comaroff, Of Revelation and Revolution, Vol. 1: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), v. 1. Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa -- v. 2. The Dialectics of Modernity on a South African frontier.

Pablo F. Gómez. The experiential Caribbean : creating knowledge and healing in the early modern Atlantic ISBN: 9781469630892 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017)

Jerome S. Handler and Kenneth M. Bilby, Enacting power : the criminalization of obeah in the anglophone Caribbean, 1760-2011 ISBN: 9789766403157; 9766403155 (Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2012)

Mudimbe, V. Y., The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988)

María Elena Martínez, Genealogical fictions : limpieza de sangre, religion, and gender in colonial Mexico ISBN: 9780804756488 (cloth : alk. paper) (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008)

Diana Paton, The cultural politics of obeah : religion, colonialism and modernity in the Caribbean world ISBN: 9781107025653 (hbk.) (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

Kate Ramsey, The Spirits and the Law: Vodou and Power in Haiti (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2011)  


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Week 5: Race and Slavery/Anti-slavery 

Questions to Consider:

How do we define slavery?

Is racial difference a necessary component in the construction of slavery and anti-slavery ideologies?

How firmly can we delineate between slavery and other forms of ‘unfree’ labour?

What forms of slavery and abolitionism still exist today?

How useful is the concept of ‘Modern Slavery’ in understanding present day forms of labour coercion?


Slavery Convention, Geneva, 1926.

Thinking Allowed (Radio 4, 13/1/16), on Modern Slavery (from c. 11 minutes in). Podcast can be found here

Required Readings:

Indrani Chatterjee and Richard Maxwell Eaton eds, Slavery & South Asian History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006), Introduction and Ch. 1

Andrea Major, Slavery, abolitionism and empire in India, 1772-1843 ISBN: 9781846317583 (hbk); 9781846317255 (ebook), (Liverpool University Press, 2012), chapter 1  

Madhavi Kale, Fragments of empire : capital, slavery, and Indian indentured labor migration to the British Caribbean ISBN: 0812234677 (alk. paper); 9780812202427 (ebk.), (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998), chapter 5.   

Davidson, J. O. (2010), New slavery, old binaries: human trafficking and the borders of ‘freedom’. Global networks. ISSN: 1470-2266, 10: 244–261.   

Bales, Kevin, ‘Slavery in its Contemporary Manifestations’, in The legal understanding of slavery : from the historical to the contemporary ISBN: 9780199660469 (hbk.); 0199660468 (hbk.), ed. by Jean Allain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)


Quirk, Joel. "Ending Slavery in all its Forms: Legal Abolition and Effective Emancipation in Historical Perspective" International journal of human rights. ISSN: 1364-2987 12.4 (2008).   

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Week 6: Gender and Resistance: The Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962)

Questions to Consider

  What did the veil come to signify during the War of Independence?
 In what ways did women and their bodies become sites of contestation and resistance during the War of Independence?
 To what extent did the War of Independence allow women to re-appropriate and subvert assigned gender roles and assumptions?
 Was the War of Independence a ‘liberating’ experience for Algerian women?
 What does the ‘reconstruction’ of memories of the War of Independence tell us about relationships between race, gender and resistance?  Primary


Sources [see PDF]
Extracts from Frantz Fanon, ‘Algeria Unveiled’, 1965
Images and testimonies regarding the participation of women in the War of Independence
Extract from Zohra Drif, Inside the Battle of Algiers, 2017
French propaganda posters  

Required Readings and Film

The battle of Algiers., dir. Gillo Pontecorvo (1965)

Vince, Natalya, ‘Transgressing Boundaries: Gender, Race, Religion and “Français musulmanes” during the Algerian War of Independence’, French historical studies. ISSN: 0016-1071; 1527-5493, 33.3 (Summer 2010), 445-474

Seferdjeli, Ryme, ‘Rethinking the History of the Mujahidat during the Algerian War: Competing Voices, Reconstructed Memories and Contrasting Historiographies’, Interventions. ISSN: 1369-801x, 14.2 (2012), 238-255

MacMaster, Neil, Burning the veil : the Algerian war and the 'emancipation' of Muslim women, 1954-62 ISBN: 9780719074738 (hbk.); 0719074738 (hbk.) (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009) – Ch3 ‘Unveiling: the “revolutionary journées” of 13 May 1958’  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (hew 28/09/2018) 

Suggested Readings:

Baker, Alison, Voices of resistance : oral histories of Moroccan women ISBN: 0791436225; 0791436217 (Albany, NY: State University of New York, 1998) – useful for thinking more generally about how women frame their participation in independence struggles

Bouatta, Chérifa ‘Feminine Militancy: Moudjahidates During and After the Algerian War’, in Gender and national identity : women and politics in muslim societies ISBN: 185649246X (pbk); 1856492451; 019577549X (Pakistan), ed. by Valentine Moghedam (London: Zed Books, 1994), pp. 18-39.

Branche, Raphaëlle, ‘Sexual Violence in the Algerian War’ in Brutality and desire : war and sexuality in Europe's twentieth century ISBN: 9780230542532 (pbk); 9780230285637; 0230285635, ed. by Dagmar Herzog (New York: Palgrave, 2009), pp. 247-260 [eBook]

Clancy-Smith, Julia, ‘Islam, Gender and Identities in the Making of French Algeria, 1830-1962’, in Domesticating the empire : race, gender, and family life in French and Dutch colonialism ISBN: 0813917816; 0813917808; 9780813917801; 9780813917818, ed. by Julia Clancy-Smith and Frances Gouda (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1998)

Goldstein, Joshua S., War and gender : how gender shapes the war system and vice versa ISBN: 0521001803; 0521807166 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Halimi, Gisèle and Simone de Beauvoir, Djamila Boupacha: The Torture of a Young Algerian Girl that Shocked French Liberal Opinion (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1962) [copy from tutor]

Helie-Lucas, M. A., 'Women, Nationalism and Religion in the Algerian Liberation Struggle', in Opening the gates : an anthology of Arab feminist writing ISBN: 0253344417 (cloth ; alk. paper); 9780253344410 (cloth ; alk. paper); 0253217032 (pbk. ; alk. paper); 9780253217035 (pbk. ; alk. paper), ed. by M. Badran and M. Cooke (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990)

Keller, Richard, Colonial Madness: Psychiatry in French North Africa (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2007) – Ch 5: ‘Violence, Resistance and the Poetics of Suffering: Colonial Madness between Frantz Fanon and Kateb Yacine’, pp. 161-189 [Ebook]

Khanna, Ranjanna, Algeria cuts : women and representation, 1830 to the present ISBN: 9780804752626 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780804752619 (cloth : alk. paper); 0804752613 (cloth : alk. paper); 0804752621 (pbk. : alk. paper) (California: Stanford University Press, 2008)

Lazreg, Marina The Eloquence of Silence: Algerian Women in Question (New York: Routledge, 1994) M

cMahon, L., ‘Woman, Man and Nationality in the Writings of the Algerian ’Ulama’, The Journal of North African studies. ISSN: 1362-9387; 1743-9345, 17.1 (2012), 113-124.

MacMaster, Neil, ‘The Role of European Women and the Question of Mixed Couples in the Algerian Nationalist Movement in France, 1918-1962’, French historical studies. ISSN: 0016-1071; 1527-5493, 34.2 (Spring 2011), 357-386.

Minne, Danièle, ‘Women and War: The Representation of Women in the Battle of Algiers’, Interventions. ISSN: 1369-801x, 9.3 (2007), 340-349.

Minne, Danièle, ‘Women in Politics in Algeria’, Research in African literatures. ISSN: 0034-5210, 30.3 (1999), 62-77.

Moore, Lindsey, ‘The Veil of Nationalism: Franz Fanon’s ‘Algeria Unveiled’ and Gillo Pontecorvo’s The Battle of Algiers’, Kunapipi. ISSN: 0106-5734, 25.2 (2003), 56-73.

Mortimer, Mildred, 'Tortured Bodies, Resilient Souls: Algeria's Women Combatants Depicted by Danièle Djamila Amrane-Minne, Louisette Ighilahriz, and Assia Djebar', Research in African literatures. ISSN: 0034-5210, 43.1 (Spring 2012), 101-117

Perego, Elizabeth, ‘The veil or a brother's life: French manipulations of Muslim women's images during the Algerian War, 1954–62’, The Journal of North African studies. ISSN: 1362-9387; 1743-9345, 20.3 (2015), 349-373

Roberts, Katherine, ‘Constrained Militants: Algerian Women ‘In-Between’ in Gillo Pontecorvo’s The Battle of Algiers and Bourlem Guerdjou’s Living in Paradise’, The Journal of North African studies. ISSN: 1362-9387; 1743-9345, 12.4 (2007), 381-393.

Seferdjeli, Ryme, ‘The French Army and Muslim Women During the Algerian War, 1954-1962’, Hawwa : journal of women in the Middle East and Islamic world. ISSN: 1569-2078, 3.1 (2005), 40-79. 

Seferdjeli, Ryme, ‘French “Reforms” and Muslim Women’s Emancipation During the Algerian War’, The Journal of North African studies. ISSN: 1362-9387; 1743-9345, 9.4 (2004), 19-62.

Sharpley-Whitting, Tracey, ‘Fanon’s Feminist Consciousness and Algerian Women’s Liberation: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism’, in Rethinking Fanon : the continuing dialogue ISBN: 1573927090 (pbk. : alk. paper); 1573927082, ed. by Nigel C. Gibson (Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 1999).

Stora, Benjamin, ‘Women’s Writing between Two Algerian Wars’, Research in African literatures. ISSN: 0034-5210, 30.3 (1999), 78-94.

Surkis, Judith, ‘Ethics and Violence: Simone de Beauvoir, Djamila Boupacha and the Algerian War’, French politics, culture & society. ISSN: 1537-6370 0882-1267; 1558-5271, 28.2 (Summer 2010), 38-55.

Turshen, Meredith, ‘The Algerian Women in the Liberation Struggle and the Civil War: From Active Participants to Passive Victims’, Social research. ISSN: 0037-783x, 69.3 (2002), 889-911.

Vince, Natalya, Our Fighting Sisters: Nation, Memory and Gender in Algeria, 1954-2012 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015) [eBook]

Vince, Natalya, ‘Colonial and post-colonial identities: women veterans of the “Battle of Algiers”’, French History and Civilisation: Papers from the George Rudé Seminar, 2006 seminar, volume 2 papers (2009) Available at:

Vince, Natalya, ‘Saintly grandmothers: youth reception and reinterpretation of the national past in contemporary Algeria’, The Journal of North African studies. ISSN: 1362-9387; 1743-9345, 18.1 (2013), 32-52.

Whitfield, Lee, ‘The French Military under Female Fire: The Public Opinion Campaign and Justice in the Case of Djamila Boupacha, 1960-2’, Contemporary French civilization. ISSN: 0147-9156 , 20 (1996), 76-90.


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 Week 7: Childhood and Race

Key readings

 Questions to Consider

1. Why has childhood been so important in the making of racial categories?

2. To the extent that childhood and race were especially important for colonial regimes, what similarities and differences do you see across different colonial times and places?

3. What is the significance of emotion for understanding histories of race and childhood?

4. How does a focus on childhood make particular demands of how we understand race, class and gender?

5. What methodological problems and possibilities arise when we try to research and write about histories of childhood and race?
Key readings

Case records from the South African Children’s Welfare Act (1913), supplied

Christine Firpo and Margaret Jacobs, ‘Taking Children, Ruling Colonies: Child Removal and Colonial Subjugation in Australia, Canada, French Indochina and the United States, 1870-1950s’, Journal of World History, 29, 4 (2018), 529-562

Additional reading

Allen, Margaret, ‘The Deluded White Woman and the Expatriation of the White Child’ in Katherine Ellinghaus, Jane Carey and Leigh Boucher, eds., Re-Orientating Whiteness (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Jordanna Bailkin, ‘The Postcolonial Family? West African Children, Private Fostering and the State’, Journal of Modern History, 81, 1 (2009)

Lucy Bland, Britain’s Brown Babies: The Stories of Children Born to Black GIs and White Women in the Second World War (Manchester, 2019)

Lucy Bland, 'Interracial Relationships and the "Brown Baby Question": Black GIs, White British Women and their Mixed Race Offspring in World War 11', Journal of the History of Sexuality, 26, 3 (2017)

Ellen Boucher, Empire’s Children: Child Emigration, Welfare and the Decline of the British World (Cambridge, 2014)

Laura Briggs, Somebody’s Children: The Politics of Transnational and Transracial Adoption (Duke, 2012)

Linda Chisholm, ‘Class, Colour and Gender in Child Welfare in South Africa, 1902-1918’, South African Historical Journal, 23 (1990)

Antoniette Errante, ‘White Skin, Many Masks: Colonial Schooling, Race and National Consciousness among White Settler Children in Mozambique, 1934-1974’, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 36, 1 (2003)

Christina Firpo, ‘Crises of Whiteness and Empire in Colonial Indochina: The Removal of Eurasian Children from the Vietnamese Milieu, 1890-1956’, Journal of Social History, 43, 3 (2010)

Christina Firpo, The Uprooted: Race, Children and Imperialism in French Indochina, 1890-1980 (2016)

Linda Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Harvard, 1999)

Nancy Rose Hunt, ‘“Le bébé en brousse”: European Women, African Birth Spacing and Colonial Intervention in Breast Feeding in the Belgian Congo’ in Ann Stoler and Fred Cooper, eds., Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World (Berkeley, 1997)

Will Jackson ‘An Unmistakable Trace of Colour: Racializing Children in Segregation-era Cape Town’, Past and Present 238, 1 (2018)

Margaret Jacobs, White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Materialism and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940 (2009)

Daniel Livesey, Children of Uncertain Fortune: Mixed Race Jamaicans in Britain and the Atlantic Family, 1733-1833 (Chapel Hill, 2017)

Susan Pedersen, ‘The Maternalist Moment in British Colonial Policy: The Controversy over ‘Child Slavery’ in Hong Kong,1917-1941’,Past and Present, 171,1 (2001)

Peter Robb, ‘Children, Emotion, Identity and Empire: Views from the Blechynden’s Calcutta Diaries (1790-1822), Modern Asian Studies, 15 (2006)

Sébastien Roux, ‘The Colour of Family Happiness: Adoption and the Racial Distribution of Children in Contemporary France’, Social Anthropology, 25 (4), 2017, 509-524

Emanuelle Saada, Empire’s Children: Race, Filiation and Citizenship in the French Colonies, trans. Arthur Goldhamme (Chicago, 2012,)

Satadru Sen, Colonial Childhoods: The Juvenile Periphery of India, 1850-1945 (2005)

Jerome Teelucksingh, ‘The “Invisible Child” in British West Indian Slavery’, Slavery and Abolition, 27 (2006)

Kathleen Vongsathorn, ‘ “A Real Home”: Children, Family, Mission and the Negotiation of Life at the Kumi Children’s Leper Home in Colonial Uganda, Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, 8, 1 (2015)

Owen White, Children of the French Empire: Miscegenation and Colonial Society in French West Africa, 1895-1960 (Oxford, 1999)



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Week 8: Negotiating Collaboration and Resistance

Questions to Consider:

How did Vietnamese perceptions of race shape encounters of colonialism and interactions with France during early twentieth century Vietnam?
• How did Vietnamese perceptions of Vietnam's history and culture condition responses to colonial rule?
• How do you assess the debates between Hoàng Cao Khai, Phan Bội Châu, and Phan Chu Trinh?
• What is 'Colonial Republicanism'? Why did it ultimately break down in Vietnam, and was its failure inevitable?
• To what extent did the early Vietnamese nationalists' divergent responses to colonial rule form the nucleus for the conflict that followed (ie: the war between North and South Vietnam?)
Primary Sources

Elliott, Dương Văn Mai, The Sacred Willow: Four Generations in the Life of a Vietnamese Family,

(New York: Oxford University Press, 2017): Chapter 1.

Hoàng Cao Khai, ‘On the Wisdom of Our Country to Rely on France’, in

Colonialism Experienced: Vietnamese Writings on Colonialism, 1900-1931

, Trương Bưu Lâm ed. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2000).

Phan Bội Châu, ‘A New Vietnam’, in Colonialism Experienced: Vietnamese Writings on Colonialism,

1900-1931, Trương Bưu Lâm ed. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2000).

Phan Chu Trinh, ‘A New Vietnam Following the Franco-Vietnam Alliance’, in

Phan Châu Trinh and his Political Writings

, Vĩnh Sinh ed. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009). 

Secondary Sources

Goscha, Christopher, Vietnam: A New History (New York: Basic Books, 2016): Chapter 6.

Marr, David, Vietnamese Tradition on Trial 1920-1945 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press,

1984): Chapter 6.

Reilly, Brett, ‘Before the First Indochina War: Redefining the Origin of Vietnam’s Civil War’,

Association of Asian Studies Annual Conference (2017). Available online

Tai, Huê-Tâm Hộ, Radicalism and the Origins of Vietnamese Revolution (Boston: Harvard University

Press, 1996): Chapter 2

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Week 9: Race, Anti-Colonialism and Internationalism

Questions to Consider:

  1. How did race act as a source of political mobilization in the twentieth century?
  2. Activism or ideology - What is ‘solidarity’?
  3. How did activists and political leaders bring together different racialized experiences to promote Afro-Asian solidarity, Tricontinentalism, and non-alignment?
  4. What other social, cultural, ideological, political, or economic factors motivated solidarity?
  5. What aspects of twentieth-century solidarity can we see in contemporary racial politics, such as Black Lives Matter?


  1. Bandung Conference (1955)
    1. Opening address given by Sukarno
    2. Final communique

Required Readings:

  1. Keisha N. Blain, ‘“[F]or the Rights of Dark People in Every Part of the World”: Pearl Sherrod, Black Internationalist Feminism, and Afro-Asian Politics during the 1930s’, Souls 17 (2015): 90-112
  2. Daniel Immerwahr, ‘Indianizing Race in the United States’, Modern Intellectual History 4 (2007): 275-301
  3. Christopher J. Lee, ‘At the Rendezvous of Decolonization’, International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 11 (2009): 81-93
  4. Vijay Prashad, ‘Bruce Lee and the Anti-Imperialism of Kung Fu: A Polycultural Adventure’, Positions 11 (2003): 51-90
  5. Duncan M. Yoon, ‘ “Our Forces Have Redoubled”: World Literature, Postcolonialism, and the Afro-Asian Writers’ Bureau’, Cambridge Journal of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry 2 (2015): 233-52


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Week 10: Race and the Archive 

 Questions to Consider:

What makes an archive? What differentiates it from other repositories or sites of knowledge or knowledge production?

Can an archive act as a site of resistance?

What are the historical connections between gender and race relations and the centrality of the archive to historical practice?

How do archives reproduce racial and gender inequalities? Is it inevitable that they do? Can an archive ever be ‘neutral’ or ‘objective’?


Students are encouraged to explore an archive related to their current module or masters dissertation. Local archives include Feminist Archive North, housed in Special Collections in the University’s Brotherton Library, the Marks & Spencers Company Archive, also located on campus, or the Race Archive at Manchester Central Library. You might also explore a digital archive or collections through archive’s websites such as the Black Cultural Archives or the digital archives of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture  or Digital Women’s Archive North

Required Readings:

Smith, Bonnie G. ‘Gender and the Practices of Scientific History: The Seminar and Archival Research in the Nineteenth Century’ The American historical review. ISSN: 0002-8762 100(4) (October 1995): pp. 1150-1176.

Manoff, Marlene ‘Theories of the Archive from Across the Disciplines’ Libraries and the Academy 4(1) (January 2004): pp. 9-25.
OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (hew 24/08/2017) 

Springer, Kimberly “Radical Archives and the New Cycles of Contention,”  Viewpoints Magazine 31 Oct. 2015 available at

Drake, Jarret M. “#ArchivesForBlackLives: Building a Community Archives of Police Violence in Cleveland,” 22 April, 2016,  available at

de la Peña, Carolyn ‘The History of Technology, the Resistance of Archives and the Whiteness of Race’ Technology and culture. ISSN: 0040-165x 51(4) (October 2010): 919-937.   




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Week 11: Strategies of Resistance: Armed Struggle and Nonviolence

Questions to Consider:

 How would you define nonviolent resistance?

  • How important was nonviolence to the African American struggle against white supremacy?
  • How and why was armed struggle and/or violent methods used in the freedom struggle?
  • What do you think is the best way to characterize the relationship between nonviolence and violence?

 Required Readings:

 Julian Bond, 'Nonviolence: An Interpretation', Freedomways no.2, 1963 in Esther Cooper Jackson, ed., Freedomways Reader: Prophets in Their Own Country, pp. 72-76 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 14/10/2019) 

 Martin Luther King, 'Nonviolence and Racial Justice' and 'The Power of Nonviolence' in James Melvin Washington, ed., A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King, Jr., pp. 5-9 & 12-15 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 14/10/2019) 

 Marisa Chappell, Jenny Hutchinson, and Brian Ward, ‘ “Dress Modestly, Neatly … as If You Were Going to Church”: Respectability, Class and Gender in the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Early Civil Rights Movement’ in Peter Ling and Sharon Monteith, eds., Gender in the Civil Rights Movement

 Timothy B. Tyson, ‘Robert F. Williams, “Black Power,” and the Roots of the African American Freedom Struggle’ Journal of American History 85 (1998)

 Jenny Walker, ‘The “Gun-Toting” Gloria Richardson: Black Violence in Cambridge, Maryland’, in Ling and Monteith, eds, Gender in the Civil Rights Movement. Available as an e-book through the library website

 Robert F. Williams, ‘Prologue’ to Negroes With Guns (1962) – the entire book is available at

 Further Readings:

 Charles Cobb, This Nonviolent Stuff'll Get You Killed: How Guns Made the Civil Rights Movement Possible

 Emilye J Crosby, ‘“You Got a Right to Defend Yourself”: Self-Defense and the Claiborne County, Mississippi Civil Rights Movement’, International Journal of Africana Studies, 9 (2003), 133-164 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 14/10/2019) 

 George M. Fredrickson, ‘Non-violent Resistance to White Supremacy: A Comparison of the American Civil Rights Movement and the South African Defiance Campaigns of the 1950s’, in Brian Ward & Tony Badger, The Making of Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement

 Lance Hill, The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement

 Richard H. King, Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom

 Joseph Kip Kosek, ‘Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence’, Journal of American History vol. 91 no. 4 (March 2003)

 Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement

Akinyele O. Umoja, ‘“We Will Shoot Back”: The Natchez Model and Paramilitary Organization in the Mississippi Freedom Movement’, Journal of Black Studies, 32 (2002), 271-294

Akinyele O. Umoja, ‘1964: The Beginning of the End of Non-violence in the Mississippi Freedom Movement’, Radical History Review, 85 (2003), 201-226 - Available online:

Simon Wendt, ‘God, Gandhi, and Guns: The African American Freedom Struggle in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1964-1965’, Journal of African American History, 89.1 (2004), 36-56

 Wendt, Simon ‘God, Gandhi, and Guns: The African American Freedom Struggle in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1964-1965’, Journal of African American History 89 no 1 (Winter 2004)

 Simon Wendt, ‘“Urge People Not to Carry Guns”: Armed Self-Defense in the Louisiana Civil Rights Movement and the Radicalization of the Congress of Racial Equality’, Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, 45 (2004), 261-286

 Simon Wendt, ‘Protection Or Path toward Revolution?: Black Power and Self-Defense’, Souls, 9 (2007), 320-332

 Simon Wendt, ‘The Roots of Black Power?: Armed Resistance and the Radicalization of the Civil Rights Movement’, in Peniel E. Joseph, ed. The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights-Black Power Era , pp. 145-166

 Simon Wendt, ‘“They Finally Found Out that We Really Are Men”: Violence, Non-Violence and Black Manhood in the Civil Rights Era’, Gender & History, 19 (2007), 543-564

 Rhonda Y. Williams, ‘Nonviolence and Long Hot Summers: Black Women and Welfare Rights Struggles in the 1960s,’, Borderlands e-journal, 4, no. 3 (2005), 1-38

 Victoria C. Wolcott, ‘Radical Nonviolence, Interracial Utopias, and the Congress of Racial Equality in the Early Civil Rights Movement’, Journal of Civil and Human Rights, vol. 4, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 2018) OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 14/10/2019) 

This list was last updated on 29/10/2019