Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue
- Course text
- Patterns of change and their implications for change agents
- Process models and critical issues that affect the outcome of change projects
- Developing models for organisational diagnosis
- Power, leadership and stakeholder management
- Shaping strategies for change
- Different kinds of interventions and factors to be considered when selecting interventions
- The design of interventions
- Motivating others to change and the management of personal transitions
- Consulting and change management skills
Hayes J. The theory and practice of change management 2nd Ed., Palgrave, 2007
Patterns of change and their implications for change agents
This first session will explore the punctuated equilibrium model (which presents organisations evolving through periods of relative stability punctuated by episodes of revolutionary change) and the continuous change model (which presents change as evolving and incremental). The implications of these models for the practice of change management will be considered, with particular reference to the locus for change, the purpose and sequence of steps in the change process and the role of the change agent.
The theory and practice of change management (2nd edition, 2007) Chapter 1 “The nature of change.”
Weick, K. E. and Quinn, R. (1999) Organisational change and development, Annual review of psychology. , 50, 361-386.
Romanalli, E. and Tushman, M. L. (1994) Organizational transformation as punctuated equilibrium: An empirical test, Academy of Management journal. , 37, 5, 1141-
Brown and Eisenhardt (1997) The art of continuous change: Linking complexity theory and time-paced evolution in relentlessly shifting organisations. Administrative science quarterly. , 42, 1, 1-34.
Process models and critical issues that affect the outcome of change projects
In this session you will be invited to reflect on your own direct experience (and/or other peoples’ experience) of organisational change and identify issues that have either facilitated or blocked change. These issues will be mapped onto a process model of change management and will inform the discussion of change strategies and the design of interventions.
Burns, B. (2004) Kurt Lewin and the planned approach to change: A re-appraisal, Journal of Management Studies. 41, 6, 978-1001 See pages 985-6.
The theory and practice of change management chapter 5 “Process models of change”.
The theory and practice of change management , all chapters that relate to different steps in the change process, as indicated in Figure 5.2 (page 88 in 2nd edition).
Developing models for organisational diagnosis
This session is divided into three parts. The first will examine the role of models in organisational diagnosis and introduce an exercise designed to help raise your awareness of the implicit models you use when thinking about organisations and assessing the need for change.
The second part will critically review a range of diagnostic models that are commonly used by consultants and managers.
The final part invites you to compare your implicit model with some of the explicit models that are widely used by others. It will provide an opportunity for you to reassess the utility of your own model and, if shortcomings are identified, to revise it.
The theory and practice of change management , chapter 7 “Diagnostic models” and chapter 8 “Gathering and interpreting information for diagnosis”
Burke, W.W. and Litwin, G.H. (1992) A causal model of organisational performance and change, Journal of management. , 18, 3, pp. 523-545.
Power, leadership and stakeholder management
This session is in two parts. The first will explore the politics of organisational change and the need to enlist the support of key stakeholders. Consideration will be given to how normative and instrumental theories of stakeholder management can be used to identify which stakeholders need to be attended to and how relationships between change agents and stakeholders can be managed in order to facilitate change. You will be invited to complete a three part exercise on stakeholder management that involves the merger of two hospitals.
The second part will examine the role of leadership in change management. Special attention will be given to leadership as a collective process and some of the issues associated with maintaining coherence in the leadership group and between this group and internal and external stakeholders will be reviewed.
The theory and practice of change management (2nd edition, 2007) Chapter 9 “Power, politics and stakeholder management.
Jawahare and McLaughlin (2001) Toward a descriptive stakeholder theory: An organisational life cycle approach, The Academy of Management review. , 26, 3, 397-415.
Kottter, J.P. (1995) Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail, Harvard business review. , March-April,
An additional reading you might want to consult later is:
Denis, J-L., Lamothe, L. and Langley, A. (2001) The dynamics of collective leadership and strategic change in pluralistic organizations, Academy of Management journal. 44, 4, 809-837.
Shaping strategies for change
This session begins with a case study. Working in groups, you will be presented with the case of an organisation that used to be very successful but has underperformed over the last two or three years. You will be asked to consider how you would intervene to improve shareholder value. Groups will be asked to explain their overall change strategy and provide examples of the kinds of intervention they would use to support it.
The strengths and weaknesses of three different types of change strategy will be considered and this framework will be used to critique the group presentations. The session will end with an account of the strategy that was used to manage the original case, together with some illustrations of how different strategies have been applied in other organisations.
The theory and practice of change management (2nd ed., 2007), Chapter 15 “Shaping implementation strategies”.
Beer, M. (2001) How to develop an organization capable of sustained high performance: Embrace the drive for results-capability development paradox. Organizational dynamics. 29, 4, 233-247
Different kinds of interventions and factors to be considered when selecting interventions
This session is in two parts. The first will consider how the development of interventions over the last 100 years has been influenced by changing theoretical perspectives on who should do what to improve organisational performance. It will also review and critique a typology that classifies interventions according to the focal issues they are designed to address.
The second part will review the factors that need to be taken into account when selecting interventions and will lead on to a consideration of how the effectiveness of interventions can be monitored.
The theory and practice of change management , Chapter 17 “Types of intervention”.
The theory and practice of change management Chapter 17 “Selecting interventions”.
Fernando, M. (2001) Are popular management techniques a waste of time? The Academy of Management executive. , 15, 3, 138-140.
The design of interventions
This session is in two parts. In the first part the class will be divided into groups, presented with different situations and targets for change and tasked to design an intervention that will facilitate the achievement of the change objective.
The second part will involve groups acting as prospective consultants presenting their proposals to the management team of a client company (the rest of the class). After each presentation a range of theories and principles that could provide the basis for an effective intervention that would address the change objectives will be explored. This process will be repeated for each of four cases.
Readings: (To be distributed after the case presentations)
Motivating others to change and the management of personal transitions
This session is in two parts. The first part will consider how the general level of commitment in an organisation can affect the level of support for change. Attention will also be given to some of the most common sources of resistance to change. The utility of expectancy theory for diagnosing and managing resistance to change will be explored.
The second part will address the way organisational members experience change. It will examine the response to change (irrespective of whether the change is viewed as an opportunity or a threat) as a progression through a number of stages of psychological reaction. Consideration will also be given to how an understanding of the way individuals' react to change can help managers plan and implement organisational change in ways that will maximize benefit and minimize cost for both the organisation and those affected by the change.
The theory and practice of change management , Chapter 13 ‘Motivating others to change’
The theory and practice of change management , Chapter 14 ‘Managing personal transitions’
Consulting and change management skills
This session will explore issues relating to the development and maintenance of helping relationships. The first part will explore the helping skills required by consultants and change managers. Attention will be focused on intervention styles - high level approaches to facilitating change. The Intervention Style Inventory will provide you with the opportunity to asses your own style of intervening.
The second part of this session will introduce a six stage model of helping and facilitating designed to provide a cognitive map that will help you understand your relationship with those you are trying to help and give you a sense of direction when thinking about ways of facilitating change. A video case study will provide an opportunity to use the model to critique the approach adopted by an experienced consultant trying to help a business improve its performance.
The theory and practice of change management , Chapter 24,‘Modes of Intervening’
The theory and practice of change management , Chapter 25 Effective helping and the stages of the helping relationship’
This list was last updated on 08/01/2010