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HIST5540M Reading List

Defending the Nation: Britain during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1793 to 1815, 2019/20, Semester 2
Dr Kevin Linch
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

This reading list is by no means exhaustive, and is only intended as a primer to the key material to get you started on the topic. You should aim to follow up your reading from this list with your own bibliographic research in response to the tasks outlined for each topic.


Macleod, Emma Vincent, 'British Attitudes to the French Revolution', The historical journal. 50.03 (2007), 689-709; jstor link  

Preliminary Reading

If this is new topic to you, the following are good texts to read before the module starts:

Cookson, J. E., The British Armed Nation, 1793-1815 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1997) Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992)

General Texts and Reference

Clode, Charles Mathew,The military forces of the crown: their administration and government (London: J. Murray, 1869); available online: volume 1, volume 2

Dickinson, H. T. (ed.) A companion to eighteenth-century Britain, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002)

Hilton, Boyd, A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People? : England, 1783-1846, The New Oxford History of England (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Langford, Paul, The Eighteenth Century, 1688-1815, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Also browse Modern History P-8 and P-9.

Theoretical material

This material will give you some different approaches to studying war, society, and culture,although not necessarily directly related to the period.

Van Creveld, Martin, The culture of war ISBN: 9780752452722; 075245272X (hbk.) (New York: Presidio Press/Ballantine Books, 2008)

Gill, Diana C., How we are changed by war : a study of letters and diaries from colonial conflicts to Operation Iraqi Freedom (New York: Routledge, 2010)

Kirke, Charles, Red coat, green machine : continuity in change in the British Army 1700 to 2000 (London: Continuum, 2009)

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The War


Taylor, Brian, The empire of the French : a chronology of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars 1792-1815 (Stroud, UK: Spellmount, 2006) - useful if you need to check what was happening where!


Black, Jeremy, 'British Strategy and the Struggle with France 1793-1815', The journal of strategic studies. 31.4 (2008), 553-69

Esdaile, Charles J., 'Britain and the Napoleonic Wars', in The practice of strategy [electronic resource] : from Alexander the Great to the present, ed. by John Andreas Olsen and Colin S. Gray (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 176-98.

Fortescue, J. W., A history of the British Army, 20 vols (London; New York: Macmillan and Co.; Macmillan Co., 1899-1930)

Hall, Christopher D., British strategy in the Napoleonic War, 1803-15 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992)

Knight, Roger, Britain against Napoleon : the organisation of victory, 1793-1815 ISBN: 9780141038940 (pbk.) : ℗Đ10.99 (London: Allen Lane an imprint of Penguin Books, 2013)

Mackesy, Piers, 'Strategic Problems of the British War Effort', in Britain and the French Revolution, 1789-1815, ed. by Harry Thomas Dickinson (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989), pp. 147-64

Morriss, Roger, The foundations of British maritime ascendancy : resources, logistics and the State, 1755-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Muir, Rory, Britain and the defeat of Napoleon, 1807-1815 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996)

Nester, William R., Titan : the art of British power in the age of revolution and Napoleon (Norman (OK): University of Oklahoma Press, 2016).

O'Brien, Patrick Karl, 'Public Finance in the Wars with France, 1793-1815', in Britain and the French Revolution, 1789-1815, ed. by Harry Thomas Dickinson (Basingstoke and New York: Macmillan, 1989), pp. 165-87

O'Connolly, Owen, The wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon, 1792-1815 (Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2012)

Ross, Steve, 'Caging the Eagle : Napoleonic War Coalitions', in  Naval coalition warfare : from the Napoleonic War to Operation Iraqi Freedom, ed. by Bruce A. Elleman and Sarah C. M. Paine (London; New York: Routledge, 2007), pp. 25-32

Sherwig, John M., Guineas and gunpowder : British foreign aid in the wars with France, 1793-1815 (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1969)

Sinnreich, Richard Hart, 'Victory by Trial and Error : Britain’s Struggle against Napoleon ', in Successful strategies : triumphing in war and peace from antiquity to the present ed. by Williamson Murray and Richard Hart Sinnreich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 155-88 

Naval Campaigns

Adkins, Roy and Lesley Adkins, The war for all the oceans : from Nelson at the Nile to Napoleon at Waterloo (New York: Viking, 2007)

Bjerg, Hans Christian '"To Copenhagen a Fleet" : The British Pre-Emptive Seizure of the Danish-Norwegian Navy, 1807 ', International journal of naval history [electronic resource]. 7.2 (2008)   

Corbett, Julian Stafford, The campaign of Trafalgar (London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1910)

Davey, James, The transformation of British naval strategy : seapower and supply in Northern Europe, 1808-1812 (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2012)

Brian M. De Toy, 'Defeating Napoleon's Designs : Littoral Operations in Galicia, 1809', International journal of naval history [electronic resource]. 7(2008).

Feldbaek, Ole, The battle of Copenhagen 1801 : Nelson and the Danes (Barnsley: Cooper, 2002)

Hall, Christopher D., Wellington's navy : sea power and the Peninsular War, 1807-1814 (London: Chatham, 2004)

Harding, Richard, A great and glorious victory : new perspectives on the Battle of Trafalgar (Barnsley: Seaforth Pub., 2008)

Hardy, Malcolm Scott, The British and Vis : war in the Adriatic 1805-15 (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2009)

Jenkins, H. J. K., 'British Naval Response to Unorthodox Warfare in the Eastern Caribbean, 1795-96 ', in New interpretations in naval history : selected papers from the eleventh Naval History Symposium, held at the United States Naval Academy, 21-23 October 1993 ed. by Robert William Love (Annapolis (MD): Naval Institute Press, 2001), pp. 73-82

Knight, Jane, 'Nelson and the Eastern Mediterranean 1803-5', Mariner's mirror., 91.2 (2005), 195-215

Knight, Roger J. B. and Martin Howard Wilcox, Sustaining the fleet, 1793-1815 : war, the British Navy and the contractor state Roger Knight and Martin Wilcox (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2010) 

McCranie, Kevin D., 'Britain's Royal Navy and the Defeat of Napoleon', in Napoleon and the operational art of war : essays in honor of Donald D. Horward  ed. by Michael V. Leggiere (Leiden: Brill, 2016), pp. 476-99.

McCranie, Kevin D., Admiral Lord Keith and the naval war against Napoleon (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006) 

Robson, Martin, Britain, Portugal and South America in the Napoleonic Wars : alliances and diplomacy in economic maritime conflict (London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2014)

Robson, Martin, ''A Considerable Portion of the Defence of the Empire' : Lisbon and Victualling the Royal Navy During the French Revolutionary War, 1793–1802 ', Historical research., 87.237 (2014), 466-90

Saxby, Richard, 'The Blockade of Brest in the French Revolutionary War ', Mariner's mirror., 78 (1992), 25-35

Tracy, Nicholas, Nelson's battles : the triumph of British seapower (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2008)

Voelcker, Tim, Admiral Saumarez versus Napoleon : the Baltic, 1807-12 (Woodbridge; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2008)

Ward, Peter A., British naval power in the East, 1794-1805 : the command of Admiral Peter Rainier (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Ware, Christopher, 'The Glorious First of June : The British Strategic Perspective', in The Glorious First of June 1794 : a naval battle and its aftermath, ed. by Michael Duffy and Roger Morriss (Exeter: University of Exeter Press in cooperation with the National Maritime Museum, 2001), pp. 25-45

French Revolutionary Wars

Blanning, T. C. W., The French Revolutionary Wars, 1787-1802 (London; New York: Arnold, 1996)

Duffy, Michael, '"A Particular Service": The British Government and the Dunkirk Expedition of 1793', English historical review., 91.360 (1976), 529-54

Grainger, John D., The Amiens truce : Britain and Bonaparte, 1801-1803 (Woodbridge, Suffolk; Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer, 2004)

Ingram, Edward, 'The Geopolitics of the First British Expedition to Egypt - I : The Cabinet Crisis of September 1800', Middle Eastern studies., 30.3 (1994), 435-60

Ingram, Edward, 'The Geopolitics of the First British Expedition to Egypt. Pt. 2 : The Mediterranean Campaign 1800-1; Pt. 3 : The Red Sea Campaign, 1800-1; Pt. 4 : Occupation and Withdrawal, 1801-3', Middle Eastern studies., 31.2 (1995), 317-46

Ireland, Bernard, The fall of Toulon : the last opportunity to defeat the French Revolution (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005)

Jarrett, Nathaniel W., 'False Start: Britain and Coalition Warfare in 1794', War in history. ISSN: 0968-3445, 24 (2017), 134-53; doi: 10.1177/0968344515624459

Limm, Andrew, Walcheren to Waterloo: The British Army in the Low Countries during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars 1793-1815 (Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military, 2018)

Mackesy, Piers, Statesmen at war : the strategy of overthrow, 1798-1799 (London; New York: Longman, 1974)

Mackesy, Piers, War without victory : the downfall of Pitt 1799-1802 (Oxford; New York: Clardendon Press ; Oxford University Press, 1984)

Mackesy, Piers, British victory in Egypt, 1801 : the end of Napoleon's conquest (London: Routledge, 1995)

Meeks, Joshua, France, britain, and the struggle for the revolutionary western mediterranean ISBN: 9783319440781 (e-book) (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017).

Mori, Jennifer, 'The British Government and the Bourbon Restoration: The Occupation of Toulon, 1793', The historical journal. 40.3 (1997), 699-719

Phillipson, Andy, 'The Raid on Ostend 1798 : Combined Operations against Revolutionary France', Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research., 81.325 (2003), 31-46

Robson, Martin, 'British Intervention in Portugal, 1793-1808', Historical research., 76.191 (2003), 93-107

Rodger, A. B., The War of the Second Coalition : 1798 to 1801, a strategic commentary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964)

Schroeder, Paul W., 'The Collapse of the Second Coalition', The journal of modern history., 59 (1897), 244-90

Napoleonic Wars

Early Campaigns

Flayhart, William H., Counterpoint to Trafalgar : the Anglo-Russian invasion of Naples, 1805-1806 (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1992)

Grainger, John D., British Campaigns in the South Atlantic 1805-1807  (Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military, 2014)

Hughes, Ben, The British Invasion of the River Plate 1806-1807 : How the Redcoats Were Humbled and a Nation Was Born (Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military, 2013)

Simms, Brendan, '‘An Odd Question Enough’. Charles James Fox, the Crown and British Policy During the Hanoverian Crisis of 1806', The historical journal., 38.03 (1995), 567-96

The Mediterranean

Gregory, Desmond, Sicily : the insecure base : a history of the British occupation of Sicily, 1806-1815 (London: Associated University Press, 1988)

Mackesy, Piers, The war in the Mediterranean, 1803-1810. (London: Longmans, 1957)

Pocock, Tom, Stopping Napoleon : war and intrigue in the Mediterranean (London: John Murray, 2004)

Walcheren Expedition

Bond, Gordon C., The grand expedition : the British invasion of Holland in 1809 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1979)

Goulding, Christopher T., 'Amphibians at Heart : The Battle of Copenhagen (1807), the Walcheren Expedition, and the War against Napoleon', Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research., 90.363 (2012), 167-88

Regan, Geoffrey, Great military blunders (London, [England]: Andre Deutsch, 2012)

Peninsular War

Collins, Bruce, 'Siege Warfare in the Age of Wellington ', in Wellington studies. 4, ed. by Christopher Michael Woolgar (Southampton: Hartley Institute, University of Southampton, 2008), pp. 22-53

Davies, Huw J., Wellington's wars : the making of a military genius (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012)

Davies, Huw, 'Wellington's Use of Deception Tactics in the Peninsular War', The journal of strategic studies., 29.4 (2006), 723-50

Duffy, Michael, 'Festering the Spanish Ulcer : The Royal Navy and the Peninsular War, 1808-1814', in Naval power and expeditionary warfare : peripheral campaigns and new theatres of naval warfare ed. by Bruce A. Elleman and Sarah C. M. Paine (2011), pp. 15-28.

Muir, Rory, Wellington : the path to victory, 1769-1814 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013)

Moon, Joshua Lee, Wellington's two-front war : the Peninsular Campaigns, at home and abroad, 1808-1814 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2011)

Robertson, Ian, A commanding presence : Wellington in the Peninsula, 1808-1814 : logistics, strategy, survival (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Spellmount, 2008)

Thompson, Mark, Wellington's engineers ISBN: 9781473858428 (e-book) : Military Engineering in the Peninsular War,1808-1814 (Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military, 2015).

War of 1812

Black, Jeremy, The War of 1812 in the age of Napoleon (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009)

Grodzinski, John R., Defender of Canada: Sir George Prevost and the War of 1812 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013)

Corrigan, Terrence, ‘Rethinking the History of Ireland and the French Revolution’, in Historicising the French Revolution, ed. by Carolina Armenteros, Tim Blanning, Isabel DiVanna, and Dawn Dodds (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2008), pp. 206–24

Hickey, Donald R., and Connie D. Clark, The Routledge Handbook of the War of 1812 (London: Routledge, 2016)

Lambert, Andrew D., The Challenge : America, Britain and the War of 1812 (London: Faber, 2012

Maass, Richard W., '"Difficult to Relinquish Territory Which Had Been Conquered" : Expansionism and the War of 1812 ', Diplomatic history., 39.1 (2015), 70-97

McCranie, Kevin D., 'The War of 1812 in the Ongoing Napoleonic Wars : The Response of Britain's Royal Navy', The journal of military history. 76.4 (2012), 1067-94

Sheppard, George, Plunder, profit, and paroles : a social history of the War of 1812 in Upper Canada (Montreal; Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994)


Black, Jeremy, The Battle of Waterloo : a new history (London: Icon Books, 2010)

Corrigan, Gordon, Waterloo : a new history of the battle and its armies, 2014)

Muir, Rory, Wellington : Waterloo and the fortunes of peace, 1814-1852, 2015)

Colonial Campaigns / the Empire

Buckley, Roger Norman, The British Army in the West Indies : society and the military in the revolutionary age (Gainesville, Fla.: University Press of Florida, 1998)

Buckley, Roger Norman, Slaves in red coats : the British West India regiments, 1795-1815 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979)

Collins, Bruce, War and empire : the expansion of Britain, 1790-1830 (Harlow: Longman, 2009)

Duffy, Michael, 'War, Revolution and the Crisis of the British Empire', in The French Revolution and British Popular Politics, ed. by M. Philp (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 118-45

Duffy, Michael, 'World-Wide War and British Expansion, 1793-1815', in The Oxford History of the British Empire, ed. by Peter James Marshall (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 2, pp. 184-207

Duffy, Michael, Soldiers, sugar, and seapower : the British expeditions to the West Indies and the war against revolutionary France (Oxford [Oxfordshire]; New York: Clarendon Press ; Oxford University Press, 1987)

Gapps, Stephen, The Sydney Wars: Conflict in the Early Colony, 1788-1817 (Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press, 2018)

Mendis, Vernon L. B, The Advent of the British to Ceylon, 1762-1803 (Dehiwala: Tisara Prakasakayo, 2012)

Pemble, John, 'Resources and Techniques in the Second Maratha War', The historical journal., 19.2 (1976), 375-404

Powell, Geoffrey, The Kandyan Wars: The British Army in Ceylon, 1803-1818 (New Delhi: Navrang, 1984)

Robson, Martin, Britain, Portugal and South America in the Napoleonic Wars : alliances and diplomacy in economic maritime conflict (London: I.B. Tauris, 2011)

Sargent, Clem, The Colonial Garrison, 1817-1824: The 48th Foot, the Northamptonshire Regiment, in the Colony of New South Wales (Mawson, Australia: TCS Publications, 1996)

Stanley, Peter, The Remote Garrison: The British Army in Australia, 1788-1870 (Kenthurst, NSW: Kangaroo Press, 1986)

Wilcox, Craig, Red Coat Dreaming: How Colonial Australia Embraced the British Army (Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Wilson, Jon E, India Conquered: Britain’s Raj and the Chaos of Empire, 2017

Vartavarian, Mesrob, 'Pacification and Patronage in the Maratha Deccan, 1803–1818', Modern Asian studies. ISSN: 0026-749x, 50 (2016), 1749-91. doi: 10.1017/S0026749X16000044 

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The Political Response to the War

Blackstock, Allan, and Frank O'Gorman, Loyalism and the formation of the british world 1775-1914 ISBN: 9781782042785 (e-book), 1775-1914 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2014).

Broich, Ulrich, Reactions to revolutions : the 1790s and their aftermath, Kulturgeschichtliche Perspektiven, Bd. 2 (Münster; London: Lit ; Global Book Marketing [distributor], 2007)

Brown, David J., 'The Government Response to Scottish Radicalism, 1792-1802', in Scotland in the age of the French Revolution, ed. by Bob Harris (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2005), pp. 99-124

Constantine, Mary-Ann and Dafydd Johnston, eds, "Footsteps of liberty and revolt" : essays on Wales and the French Revolution (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2013)

Duffy, Michael, 'William Pitt and the Origins of the Loyalist Association Movement of 1792', The historical journal., 39.04 (1996), 943-62

Emsley, Clive, Britain and the French Revolution, Seminar Studies in History (Harlow, England; New York: Longman, 2000)

Emsley, Clive, 'Repression, 'Terror' and the Rule of Law in England During the Decade of the French Revolution', English historical review, 100.397 (1985), 801-25

Harling, Philip, 'The Law of Libel and the Limits of Repression, 1790-1832', The historical journal., 44 (2001), 107-34

Harris, Bob, The Scottish people and the French Revolution (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2008)

Mori, Jennifer, 'Languages of Loyalism: Patriotism, Nationhood and the State in the 1790s', English historical review., 118.475 (2003), 33-58

Mori, Jennifer, William Pitt and the French Revolution, 1785-1795 (Edinburgh: Keele University Press, 1997)

Philp, Mark, Resisting Napoleon : the British response to the threat of invasion, 1797-1815 (Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006)

Plassart, A., 'Scottish Perspectives on War and Patriotism in the 1790s', The historical journal., 57.1 (2014), 107-29 DOI: 10.1017/S0018246X13000265

Poole, S., 'Pitt's Terror Reconsidered: Jacobinism and the Law in Two South-Western Counties, 1791-1803', Southern history., 17 (1995), 65-87

Wilkinson, David, 'The Pitt-Portland Coalition of 1794 and the Origins of The "Tory" Party', History., 83 (1998), 249-64

Wold, Atle L., Scotland and the French Revolutionary War 1792-1802  (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2015).


Emmers, Ralf, 'Securitization', in Contemporary Security Studies, ed. by Alan Collins (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 109-25 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (GW 08/08/2017) .

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Defence Planning

Bartlett, Thomas, 'Defence, Counter-Insurgency and Rebellion : Ireland, 1793-1803', in A military history of Ireland, ed. by Thomas Bartlett and Jeffery Keith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 247-93

Cookson, J. E., The British Armed Nation, 1793-1815 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1997)

Cruickshank, Dan, Invasion : defending Britain from attack (London: Boxtree, 2001)

Fedorak, Charles John, 'In Defence of Great Britain : Henry Addington, the Duke of York and Military Preparations against Invasion by Napoleonic France, 1803–1804', in Resisting Napoleon : the British response to the threat of invasion, 1797-1815 ed. by Mark Philp (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), pp. 91-110

Glover, Richard, Britain at bay: defence against Bonaparte, 1803-14 (London: Allen & Unwin, 1973)

Hall, Christopher D., British strategy in the Napoleonic War, 1803-15 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992)

Kleinman, Sylvie, 'Initiating Insurgencies Abroad : French Plans to 'Chouannise' Britain and Ireland, 1793–1798', Small wars and insurgencies. 25.4 (2014), 784-99

Longmate, Norman, Island fortress : the defence of Great Britain 1603-1945 (London: Hutchinson, 1991)

Murphy, John A., ed., The French are in the bay : the expedition to Bantry Bay, 1796 (Cork and Dublin: Mercier Press, 1997)

Saunders, Andrew, Fortress Britain : artillery fortification in the British Isles and Ireland (Liphook: Beaufort, 1989)

Ward, S. G. P., 'Defence Works in Britain, 1803-1805', Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research., 27 (1949), 18-37

Wells, Roger, Insurrection : the British experience 1795-1803 (Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1983)

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Mass Mobilisation

Beckett, Ian F. W., The amateur military tradition, 1558-1945 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991)

Brunsman, Denver Alexander, The Evil Necessity : British Naval Impressment in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World (Charlottesville (VA): University of Virginia Press, 2013)

Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992)

Cookson, J. E., The British Armed Nation, 1793-1815 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1997)

———, 'Service without Politics? Army, Militia and Volunteers in Britain During the American and French Revolutionary Wars', War in history., 10 (2003), 381-97.

Dawson, Paul L, Boots and Saddles!: Horses and Riders of Wellington’s Army (Stockton-on-Tees: Black Tent Publications, 2014)

Emsley, Clive, 'Behind the Wooden Walls: The British Defence against Invasion, 1803-1805', in A great and glorious victory : new perspectives on the Battle of Trafalgar, ed. by Richard Harding (Barnsley: Seaforth, 2008), pp. 80-89

Franklin, Alexandra, Mark Philp, Katrina Navickas and others, Napoleon and the invasion of Britain (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2003)

Fortescue, J. W., The county lieutenancies and the Army, 1803-1814 (Uckfield, England: Naval & Military Press, 2002)

Gee, Austin, The British volunteer movement, 1794-1814 (Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press ; Oxford University Press, 2003)

Howell, Colin D. and Richard J. Twomey, eds, Jack Tar in history : essays in the history of maritime life and labour (Fredericton, N.B.: Acadiensis Press, 1991)

Krueger, Christine and Sonja Levsen, eds, War volunteering in modern times : from the French Revolution to the Second World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)

Lavery, Brian, Nelson's navy : the ships, men and organisation 1793-1815 (London: Conway Maritime, 1990)

Linch, Kevin, Britain and Wellington's army : recruitment, society and tradition, 1807-1815 (Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2011)

Macdonald, Janet, Horses in the British Army, 1750 to 1950 (Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military, 2017)

McCranie, Kevin D., 'The Recruitment of Seamen for the British Navy, 1793-1815 : "Why Don't You Raise More Men? "', in Conscription in the Napoleonic era : a revolution in military affairs?, ed. by Harold Blanton and Donald J. Stoker (London: Routledge, 2009), pp. 84-101

Rogers, Nicholas, The press gang : naval impressment and its opponents in Georgian Britain (London: Continuum, 2007 )

Rodger, N. A. M., The Command of the Ocean, A naval history of Britain (London: HarperCollins, 1997), 2

Ross Dancy, J., The myth of the press gang : volunteers, impressment and the naval manpower problem in the late eighteenth century, (2015)

Stevenson, J., 'The London 'Crimp' Riots of 1794', International review of social history., 16.1 (1971), 40-58

Western, John Randle, 'The Volunteer Movement as an Anti-Revolutionary Force, 1793-1801', English historical review., 71.281 (1956), 603-14

Western, John Randle, The English Militia in the Eighteenth Century: The Story of a Political Issue, 1660-1802 (London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1965)

For a useful European comparison, see Broers, Michael, 'The Concept of `Total War' in the Revolutionary--Napoleonic Period', War in history., 15.3 (2008), 247-68


Royal Navy

'An Account of all Bounty Money paid to Seamen, Ordinary Seamen, and Landmen, in the different Ports in this Kingdom, from the 1st January 1793 to the 1st January 1795', 28 February 1795, House of Lords Sessional Papers 1714-1805, 1794-95, vol. 10, pp. 191-192


'Papers, presented to the House of Commons, pursuant to orders of the 9th and 10th instant, by Mr. Secretary Yorke, respecting the volunteer system', House of Commons Parliamentary Papers, 1803-4, vol. XI, p. 117.

'An account of the number of effective volunteers in Great Britain and Ireland respectively, on the 1st of January and 1st of July in the years 1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1807, and on the 1st of January 1808;--distinguishing cavalry, infantry, and artillery', House of Commons Parliamentary Papers, 1808, vol. VII, p.223.


Some of these links go to google books, whilst others will require you to log in.In most cases the link will take you to the right page but you'll need to scroll down to get to the start of the legislation.

Irish Militia Act, 33 Geo. III, cap. 22 (Ireland)

An Act for Augmenting the Militia, 34 Geo. III, cap. 16(28 March 1794)

Volunteer Corps Act, 34 Geo. III,cap. 31 (17 April 1794)

Manning of the Navy Act, 35 Geo. III, cap. 5 (5 March 1795); see also cap. 9, cap. 19, cap. 29, cap. 34, cap. 121.

Supplementary Militia Act, 37 Geo. III, cap. 3 (11 November 1796); see also cap. 22 (30 December 1796).

Provisional Cavalry Act, 37 Geo. III, cap. 6; plenty of other acts followed to try and explain and enforce this act, see also cap. 23, cap. 139. For its repeal see 39 Geo. III, cap. 23

Scottish Militia Act, 37 Geo. III, cap. 103; later amendments: 39 Geo. III, cap. 62 (21 June 1799),

Defence of the Realm Act, 38 Geo. III, cap.27

An Act for exempting...volunteer corps and associations from militia ballot, 39 Geo. III, cap. 35 (10 May 1799);

Militia Transfer Act, 39 Geo. III, cap. 106 (12 July 1799);

Permanent Additional Force Act, 44 Geo. III, cap. 56 (29 June 1804), cap. 66 (Scotland) (10 July 1804), cap. 74 (Ireland)(14 Juy 1804)

Local Militia Act, 48 Geo. III, cap. 111 (30 June 1808), cap 150 (4 July 1808) for Scotland.

Militia Transfer Act, 50 Geo. III, cap. 20 (11 April 1811)

A good list of all Act of Parliament is availableat wikipedia:,_1780%E2%80%931800 and,_1801%E2%80%931819

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Local Dimensions

Barrow, Tony, Press gangs and privateers (Whitley, Bay, Tyne and Wear [England]: Bewick Press, 1993)

Blackstock, Allan, Loyalism in Ireland 1789-1829 (Woodbridge; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2007)

Blackstock, Alan, 'A Forgotten Army: The Irish Yeomanry', History Ireland 4.4 (1996), 28-33

Cookson, J. E., 'The Rise and Fall of the Sutton Volunteers, 1803-4', Historical research., 64.153 (1991), 46-53 Available as an online Course Reading in the VLE

Durey, Michael J., '"Black Bob" Craufurd and Ireland, 1798-1804', War in history., 16.2 (2009), 133-56

Emsley, Clive, A. M. Hill and M. Y. Ashcroft, North Riding naval recruits : the Quota Acts and the quota men 1795-1797 North Yorkshire County Record Office Publications, No. 18 ([Northallerton]: North Yorkshire County Council, 1978)

Linch, Kevin, '"A Citizen and Not a Soldier" : The British Volunteer Movement and the War against Napoleon', in Soldiers, citizens and civilians : experiences and perceptions of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1790-1820 ed. by A. Forrest, K. Hagemann and J. Rendall (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 205-21

Linch, Kevin, 'A Geography of Loyalism? : The Local Military Forces of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1794-1814', War and society, 19.1 (2001), 1-21 Available as an online Course Reading in the VLE

Mackillop, Andrew, More fruitful than the soil : army, empire and the Scottish Highlands, 1715-1815 (East Linton: Tuckwell, 2000)

Mackillop, Andrew, 'The Outer Hebrides During the Wars of Empire and Revolution, 1750-1815', in Island heroes : the military history of the Hebrides : the proceedings of a three day conference held in Shawbost, Isle of Lewis, 11-13 August, 2008. ed. by ISLANDS BOOK TRUST (SCOTLAND) (South Lochs, Isle of Lewis: Islands Book Trust, 2010)

Navickas, Katrina, Loyalism and radicalism in Lancashire, 1798-1815 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)

Navickas, Katrina, 'The Defence of Manchester and Liverpool in 1803 : Conflicts of Loyalism, Patriotism and the Middle Classes', in Resisting Napoleon : the British response to the threat of invasion, 1797-1815 , ed. by Mark Philp (Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006)

Newman, Jon, ''An Insurrection of Loyalty' : The London Volunteer Regiments' Response to the Invasion Threat', in Resisting Napoleon : the British response to the threat of invasion, 1797-1815 ed. by Mark Philp (Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006)

Plassart, Anna, 'Scottish Perspectives on War and Patriotism in the 1790s', The historical journal., 57.1 (2014), 107-29; doi:10.1017/S0018246X13000265

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Nationalism, Patriotism, and the Individual

Please read this chapter: Forrest, Alan I., Karen Hagemann and Jane Rendall, Soldiers, citizens and civilians : experiences and perceptions of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1790-1820 (Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009) - introduction    


Coker, Christopher, Men at war : what fiction tells us about war, from Achilles to Flashman (London: Hurst, 2013)

Coss, Edward J., All for the king's shilling : the British soldier under Wellington, 1808-1814 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010)

Cookson, John, 'Regimental Worlds : Interpreting the Experience of British Soldiers During the Napoleonic Wars', in Soldiers, citizens and civilians : experiences and perceptions of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1790-1820 ed. by A. Forrest, K. Hagemann and J. Rendall (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 23-42

Daly, Gavin, The British soldier in the Peninsular War : encounters with Spain and Portugal, 1808-1814, (Houndmills, Basingstoke; New York Palgrave Macmillan, 2013)

Daly, Gavin, '‘Barbarity More Suited to Savages’: British Soldiers’ Views of Spanish and Portuguese Violence During the Peninsular War, 1808–1814', War & society. ISSN: 0729-2473, 35 (2016), 242-58. doi: 10.1080/07292473.2016.1244920

Dival, Carole, Napoleonic lives : researching the British soldiers of the Napoleonic wars (Barnsley: Pen & Sword Family History, 2012)

Esdaile, Charles J., Peninsular eyewitnesses : the experience of war in Spain and Portugal 1808-1813 (Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military, 2008)

Harari, Yuval N., The ultimate experience : battlefield revelations and the making of modern war culture, 1450-2000 (Basingstoke [England]; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

Harari, Yuval Noah, ‘Military Memoirs: A Historical Overview of the Genre from the Middle Ages to the Late Modern Era’, War in history., 14 (2007), 289-309

Kelly, Catherine, War and the militarization of British Army medicine, 1793-1830 (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2011)

Kennedy, Catriona, 'John Bull into Battle : Military Masculinity and the British Army Officer During the Napoleonic Wars', in Gender, war and politics : transatlantic perspectives, 1775-1830, ed. by Karen Hagemann, Gisela Mettele and Jane Rendall (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 127-46

Iglesias Rogers, Graciela, British liberators in the age of Napoleon : volunteering under the Spanish flag in the Peninsular War (London; New York: Bloomsbury, 2013)

Neale, Jonathan, The cutlass and the lash : mutiny and discipline in Nelson's navy (London: Pluto, 1985)

Oman, Charles, Wellington's Army, 1809-1814 (London: Francis Edwards Ltd, 1968)

Warwick, Peter, Voices from the Battle of Trafalgar (Newton Abbot [England]: David & Charles, 2005)

Wilson, Evan, 'Social Background and Promotion Prospects in the Royal Navy, 1775–1815 *', English historical review. ISSN: 0013-8266, 131 (2016), 570-95. doi: 10.1093/ehr/cew174

The 'home' front

Barrell, John, The spirit of despotism : invasions of privacy in the 1790s (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Campbell, Stuart 'Defence and Defensibility : The Material Culture of the Volunteer Movement in Scotland, 1794 - 1815', Review of Scottish Culture 23 (2011), 72-93

Corrigan, Terrence, ‘Rethinking the History of Ireland and the French Revolution’, in Historicising the French Revolution, ed. by Carolina Armenteros and others (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2008), pp. 206–24.

Dudnik, Stefan and Karen Hagemann, ‘Masculinity in Politics and War in the Age of Democratic Revolutions, 1750-1850’, in Stefan Dudnik, Karen Hagemann and John Tosh (eds), Masculinities in politics and war : gendering modern history (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 3-21

Favret, Mary A., 'War and everyday life in Britain', in War in an age of revolution, 1775-1815 ed. by Roger Chickering and Stig Förster (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Jensen, Oskar Cox, Napoleon and british song, 1797-1822 ISBN: 9781137555380 (e-book) (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).

Kennedy, Catriona, 'Bayonets across the Hedges : British Civilian Diaries and the War at Home, 1793–1815', in War memories : the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars in modern European culture ed. by Alan Forrest, Étienne François and Karen Hagemann (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp. 77-94

Kennedy, Catriona, Narratives of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars : military and civilian experience in Britain and Ireland (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013)

Linch, Kevin, 'Creating the Amateur Soldier: The Theory and Training of Britain's Volunteers', in Soldiering in Britain and Ireland, 1750-1850 : men of arms ed. by Catriona Kennedy and Matthew McCormack (Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan, 2012)

Maxwell, Alexander, Patriots against fashion : clothing and nationalism in Europe's age of revolutions (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)

Russell, Gillian, The theatres of war : performance, politics, and society, 1793-1815 (Oxford : Clarendon Press ;  New York : Oxford University Press, 1995)

White, Zach, 'From Cintra to Salamanca : Shifting Popular Perceptions of the War in the Iberian Peninsula, 1808-1812', British Journal for Military History, 1 (2015), 42-61. Available at:


Behrendt, Stephen C. , ''A Few Harmless Numbers': British Women Poets and the Climate of War, 1793-1815', in Romantic wars : studies in culture and conflict, 1793-1822 ISBN: 1840142669, ed. by Philip Shaw (Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate, 2000), pp. 13-32.

Clark, Anna, '1798 as the Defeat of Feminism: Women, Patriotism and Politics', in These fissured Isles : Ireland, Scotland and the making of modern Britain, 1798-1848 ISBN: 1904607500, ed. by Terry Brotherstone, Anna Clark and Kevin Whelan (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2006), pp. 155-79.

Craciun, Adriana and Kari E. Lokke, eds, Rebellious hearts : British women writers and the French Revolution (New York: State University of New York Press, 2004)

Guest, Harriet, Small change : women, learning, patriotism, 1750-1810 ISBN: 0226310523 (paper : alk. paper ; cloth : alk. paper) (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000).

Hagemann, Karen, Gisela Mettele, and Jane Rendall, eds., Gender, war and politics : transatlantic perspectives, 1775-1830 ISBN: 9780230218000 (hbk.); 0230218008 (hbk.) (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

Kelly, Gary, Women, Writing and Revolution : 1790-1827 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001).

Kennedy, Deborah, 'English Women and Napoleon Bonaparte', in Women against Napoleon : historical and fictional responses to his rise and legacy ISBN: 9783593384146; 3593384140 , ed. by Waltraud Maierhofer, Gertrud M Rösch and Caroline Bland (Frankfurt: Campus, 2008), pp. 39-55.

Macleod, Emma Vincent, '"Thinking Minds of Both Sexes" : Patriotism, British Bluestockings and the Wars against Revolutionary America and France, 1775-1802', in Gender, war and politics : transatlantic perspectives, 1775-1830 ed. by Karen Hagemann, Gisela Mettele and Jane Rendall (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 247-64

Maierhofer, Waltraud, Gertrud M. Rösch and Caroline Bland, eds, Women against Napoleon : historical and fictional responses to his rise and legacy (Frankfurt: Campus, 2008)

Yeo, Eileen Janes, 'The Creation of 'Motherhood' and Women's Responses in Britain and France, 1750-1914', Women's history review. ISSN: 0961-2025, 8 (1999), 201-18.


Gleadle, Kathryn, 'Playing at Soldiers : British Loyalism and Juvenile Identities During the Napoleonic Wars', Journal for eighteenth-century studies. ISSN: 1754-0194, 38 (2015), 335-48. doi: 10.1111/1754-0208.12216

Waite, Kevin, 'Beating Napoleon at Eton : Violence, Sport and Manliness in England's Public Schools, 1783-1815', Cultural and social history., 11.3 (2014), 407-24. doi: 10.2752/147800414X13983595303390 

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The aftermath of the war

Bainbridge, Simon, British poetry and the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars [electronic resource] : visions of conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Bew, John, 'The Challenges of Peace : The High Politics of Post-War Reconstruction in Britain, 1815-1831', in War, demobilization and memory : the legacy of war in the era of Atlantic revolutions , ed. by Alan Forrest, Karen Hagemann and Michael Rowe (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016), pp. 166-81.

Bouwers, Eveline G., Public pantheons in revolutionary Europe : comparing cultures of remembrance, c. 1790-1840 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011)

Cookson, J. E., 'Early Nineteenth-Century Scottish Military Pensioners as Homecoming Soldiers', The historical journal. 52.2 (2009), 319-41

Cookson, J. E., 'The Edinburgh and Glasgow Duke of Wellington Statues: Early Nineteenth-Century Unionist Nationalism as a Tory Project', The Scottish historical review. ISSN: 0036-9241; 1750-0222, 83.215 (2004), 23-40

Favret, Mary A., War at a distance : romanticism and the making of modern wartime (Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press, 2009).

Forrest, Alan, Etienne Francois and Karen Hagemann, eds, War memories : the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars in modern European culture (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012)

Forrest, Alan, Waterloo ISBN: 9780191640292 (e-book) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

Harrington, Peter, 'The Scottish Soldier in Art', in A military history of Scotland, ed. by Edward M. Spiers, Jeremy A. Crang and Matthew Strickland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), pp. 688-705.

Hichberger, J. W. M., Images of the army : the military in British art, 1815-1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988).

Hoock, Holger, The King's artists : the Royal Academy of Arts and the politics of British culture, 1760-1840 (Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press ; Oxford University Press, 2003)

Hofschröer, Peter, Wellington's smallest victory : the Duke, the model maker and the secret of Waterloo (London: Faber and Faber, 2004)

Myerly, Scott Hughes, British military spectacle : from the Napoleonic Wars through the Crimea (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996)

Nielsen, Caroline, 'Continuing to Serve: Representations of the Elderly Veteran Soldier in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries', in Men after war, ed. by Stephen McVeigh and Nicola Cooper (London: Routledge, 2013), pp. 18-35

Pearce, Susan, 'The Matérial of War : Waterloo and Its Culture', in Conflicting visions : war and visual culture in Britain and France, c.1700-1830, ed. by John Bonehill and Geoff Quilley (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), pp. 207-26.

Roberts, Andrew, The art of war : great commanders of the modern world since 1600 (London: Quercus, 2009).

Russell, Gillian, and Neil Ramsey, eds., Tracing war in British Enlightenment and romantic culture  (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015)

Semmel, Stuart, 'Reading the Tangible Past: British Tourism, Collecting, and Memory after Waterloo', Representations. 69 (2000), 9-37

Shaw, Philip, Suffering and sentiment in Romantic military art (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013).

Shaw, Philip, Waterloo and the Romantic imagination (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2002)

White, Kenton, 'On Maps and Manoeuvres: The Challenge of Mapping Waterloo', British Journal for Military History, 2 (2016).

Yarrington, Alison, The commemoration of the hero : 1800-1864 : monuments to the British victors of the Napoleonic Wars (New York : Garland, 1988)   

This list was last updated on 23/08/2019