Skip to main content

HIST1060
HIST1060 Reading List

Faith, Knowledge and Power, 1500-1750, 2019/20, Semester 1
Dr Alex Bamji
A.Bamji@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Reading list   

Required text: Kümin, Beat A., The European World, 1500-1800: an introduction to early modern history (3rd edn., 2017; previous editions are fine).      

You are not expected to read all items on a reading list when preparing presentations and essays! Kümin is often the best place to start to get a general sense of a topic; general texts listed in '1. Introduction' may also be useful for an overview. For each topic, we have provided some guidance on how to approach the reading list which highlights introductory/survey texts as well as books and articles which have been particularly influential. You don't need to read all of these suggestions - they are meant to give you a sense of options, alternatives, and ideas about how to start your research. What is important is that you read a range of things - and try to find a balance between overviews and specific studies in your reading.

1. Introduction: Contexts, themes and debates in early modern history

You may find a relevant chapter in these general texts when you are preparing presentations and essays - this can be a good starting point as it will provide an overview of the topic.

**Mackenney, Richard, Sixteenth century Europe : expansion and conflict (1993)

**Munck, Thomas, Seventeenth-century Europe : state, conflict and social order in Europe, 1598-1700 (2nd edn., 2005)

**Wiesner-Hanks, M. E., Early modern Europe, 1450-1789 (2006)

Brady, T., H. Oberman, J. Tracy (eds.), Handbook of European history 1400-1600 : Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation, 2 vols. (1994)

Cameron, E. (ed.), Early modern Europe : an Oxford history (1999/2001), esp. chs. 2, 4, 5, 7, 9. Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Cook, C., Broadhead, P., The Routledge companion to early modern Europe, 1453-1763 (2006) esp. chaps 1, 3, 6, 8.

Kamen, H., Early modern European society (2000)

Merriman, J., A history of modern Europe : from the Renaissance to the present (2nd edn, 2004)

Pettegree, A., Europe in the sixteenth-century (2002)

Rice, E., and A. Grafton, The foundations of early modern Europe, 1460-1559 (rev. ed. 1994) 

Top of page

Block 1: Religious Conflict and Controversy

Top of page

2. Protestantism, protest and religious reform in C16th Europe

The four ** items are all very useful when you're studying this topic. Rublack is a short, up-to-date and interesting textbook which might be the first place to start. Cameron is also an overview, but with a lot more detail. MacCulloch's book has made an important contribution to scholarly debates about the Reformation, recently, so worth looking out for when thinking about 'historiography'. It's very comprehensive, so it's fine just to dip in! The rest of the list contains further overviews, works which focus on particular parts of Europe, and works which highlight a particular aspect of the Reformation. Two important examples from this last group are Scribner's For The Sake of Simple Folk, which emphasises the role of pamphlets and images and Pettegree's Culture of persuasion, which emphasises the importance of preaching. But there are lots of options available to you, and the most important thing is to organise your reading so you both get a sense of the overall picture, and look at more detailed studies to find useful examples.

Key readings

*Cameron, E., The European Reformation (1991), esp. chs. 1, 7, 16, 20. Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

*MacCulloch, D., Reformation: Europe's house divided 1490-1700 (2004), esp. chs. 5, 7, 16. Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

**Pettegree, Andrew, Reformation and the culture of persuasion (2005), chs. 1, 2, 5.

*Roper, Lyndal, Martin Luther : renegade and prophet (Bodley Head, 2016)

**Rublack, U., Reformation Europe 2nd edition (2017)     

*Rublack, U., Reformation Europe 1st edition (2005) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

**Scribner, R., For the Sake of Simple Folk (1981, 1994), chs. 1, 6, 8.  Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Additional readings

Appold, Kenneth G., The Reformation : a brief history (2011)

*Benedict, P., Christ's churches purely reformed : a social history of Calvinism (2002), chs. 3, 14, 15 [and the conclusion to each Part] Extract available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Bossy, J., Christianity in the West 1400-1700 (1985) Chapter 8 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Collinson, P., The religion of Protestants : the Church in English society 1559-1625 (1982), esp chs. 5-6. Chapter 5 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Greengrass, M. (ed.), The Longman companion to the European Reformation, c. 1500-1618 (1998)

Grell, O. P., and R. W. Scribner (eds.), Tolerance and intolerance in the European reformation (Cambridge, 1996), esp. chs. 7 and 12. Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Haigh, Christopher (ed.), The English Reformation revised (1987), esp. intro., chs. 1,3,5,9. Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Haigh, Christopher, 'The clergy and parish discipline in England, 1570-1640', in Bridget Heal and Ole Peter Grell (eds.), The impact of the European Reformation : princes, clergy, and people (2008), pp. 125-141. Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Hsia, R. Po-chia (ed.), A companion to the Reformation world (2004), chs. 3, 7, 9, 10.

Karant-Nunn, Susan and Merry Wiesner-Hanks (eds), Luther on Women: A Sourcebook (2003)

Lindberg, C. The European Reformations (2nd edition, 2010), chs. 1, 3, 10, 15. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Marshall, P., Reformation England, 1480-1642 (2003), chs. 2,5,6 [clear overview of the Reformation in the English context] Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Marshall, Peter, The Oxford Illustrated History of the Reformation (2015)  

Parker, G., ‘Success and Failure during the First Century of the Reformation’, Past & present. 136 (1992), 43-82 [reprinted in G. Parker, Empire, war and faith in early modern Europe (2002), pp. 222-252.]

Pettegree, Andrew, Brand Luther ISBN: 0399563237; 9780399563232 : how an unheralded monk turned his small town into a centre of publishing, made himself the most famous man in Europe... (Penguin, 2015)

Pettegree, Andrew (ed.), The Reformation 4 vols. (London, 2004) [Vol. 1, ch. 1, 9, 10; Vol. 2, chs. 28, 29; Vol. 3, chs. 39, 42] [useful collection of important articles on the Reformation] Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Reinburg, V., ‘Hearing lay people’s prayer’, in B.V. Diefendorf and Carla Hesse (eds.), Culture and identity in early modern Europe (1500-1800) : essays in honor of Natalie Zemon Davis (1993)

Rublack, Ulinka, 'Grapho-Relics: Lutheranism and the materialization of the word', Past and Present 206 (2010): 144-66.

Rublack, Ulinka (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Protestant Reformations (Oxford, 2019)

Ryrie, Alec, Moderate voices in the European Reformation (2006), chs. 2-5, 10-12. Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Schilling, Heinz, ‘Confessionalization: historical and scholarly perspectives of a comparative and interdisciplinary paradigm’, in J. Headley (ed.), Confessionalization in Europe, 1555-1700 : essays in honor and memory of Bodo Nischan (2004), pp. 21-35. Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Scott Dixon, C., Protestants : a history from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania, 1517-1740 (2010)

Scott Dixon, C., Contesting the Reformation (2012)

Scribner, R. W., ‘Incombustible Luther: The Image of the Reformer in Early Modern Germany’, Past & present. (1986)

*Scribner, R. W., Popular culture and popular movements in Reformation Germany (1987), esp. chs. 3 and 4 [this is a good collection of articles by an important historian of the Reformation]

Scribner, R. W., The German Reformation (Basingstoke, 1986); 2nd edn. with C. D. Scott (2003) [e-book]

Scribner, R. W., Varieties of Reformation (London, 1993) [short pamphlet]

Strauss, G., 'Lutheranism and literacy: a reassessment' in K. Von Greyerz (ed.), Religion and society in early modern Europe 1500-1800 (1984), 102-123. Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Trocmé-Latter, D., The Singing of the Strasbourg Protestants, 1523-1541 (2015)

Spufford, M., ‘Puritanism and social control? ’ in A. Fletcher and J. Stevenson (eds.), Order and disorder in early modern England (1985) Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Tracy, J. D., Europe's reformations, 1450-1650 : doctrine, politics, and community 1450-1650 (1999)

von Greyerz, K., Religion and culture in early modern Europe, 1500-1800, 1500-1800 (Oxford, 2008)

Wallace, P.G. The long European Reformation : religion, political conflict, and the search for conformity, 1350-1750 (2003/4) chs. 2-3, 5-6.

Sources

Baylor, Michael (ed.), The radical Reformation (1991) [To the Assembly of the Common Peasantry] Chapter 8 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Duke, A., et al. (ed.), Calvinism in Europe, 1540-1610 : a collection of documents (1992), 15-24, 30-33.

Hillerbrand, H. (ed.), The Protestant Reformation (1968)

Johnson, P. and R. W. Scribner (eds.), The Reformation in Germany and Switzerland (1993) [95 thesis abstract, reports on the Wittenberg disturbances]

Top of page

3. Catholicism: reformation and renewal

You might want to start your reading for this topic by looking at either Davidson or Hsia: the first is a short, accessible introduction to the issues, and the second is a clear, intelligent and concise textbook. You might look at an additional overview - Lindberg, Mullett, O'Malley or Wright. Bamji is a useful collection of themed essays about different aspects of Catholicism. Many of the other books are studies of Catholicism in a particular country - dip into these for examples, and try to read about several different parts of Europe. Although written a long time ago, Bossy's 1970 Past and Present article made a very important contribution to scholarship about this topic.

**Bamji, Alexandra et al. (eds), The Ashgate research companion to the Counter-Reformation (Ashgate, 2013)

**Davidson, N. S., The Counter-Reformation (1987)

**Hsia, R. Po-chia, The world of Catholic renewal, 1540-1770 (1998), esp. chs 1-3, 5, 8.
Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

*Bossy, J., ‘The Counter-Reformation and the People of Catholic Europe’, Past & present. 47 (1970): 51-70.

Bossy, J., Christianity in the West 1400-1700 (1985)

Briggs, R., Communities of belief : cultural and social tension in early modern France (1989), chs. 6 and 7

Christian, W., Local Religion in Sixteenth-Century Spain (1981), chs. 5, 6. Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

de Boer, W, The conquest of the soul : confessions, discipline, and public order in Counter-Reformation Milan (2001), chs. 2, 4, 6.

*Forster, M. R., Catholic revival in the age of the baroque : religious identity in southwest Germany, 1550-1750 (2000), chs. 1, 3, 6.

Forster, M. R., The Counter-Reformation in the villages : religion and reform in the bishopric of Speyer, 1560-1720 (1992), intro, chs. 1, 3, 4, 7

*Gentilcore, D., From Bishop to witch : the system of the sacred in early modern Terra d'Otranto (1992), intro, chs. 2, 3, 4, 6 [excellent discussion of various aspects of Catholic reform in southern Italy]. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Heal, Bridget, The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany (2007)

Ingram, M., ‘From reformation to toleration: popular religious cultures in England, 1540-1690’, in T. Harries (ed.), Popular culture in England, c.1500-1850 (1995)
Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Johnson, T., ‘Blood, Tears, and Xavier Water’, in R. W. Scribner and T. Johnson (eds.), Popular religion in Germany and central Europe, 1400-1800 (1996) Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Laven, Mary, Mission to China: Matteo Ricci and the Jesuit Encounter with the East (2011) 

Lindberg, C. The European Reformations (2nd edition, 2010), ch. 14. [useful introduction to the topic] Chapter 14 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Kagan, R. L., Lucrecia's dreams : politics and prophecy in sixteenth-century Spain (1995)

Kamen, H., The phoenix and the flame : Catalonia and the Counter Reformation (1993), esp. chs. 3 and 6-9. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Mullett, M., The Counter-Reformation and the Catholic Reformation in early modern Europe (1984)

O’Malley, John, Trent and all that : renaming Catholicism in the early modern era (2000) Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

O'Malley, John, Trent : what happened at the council (2013)

Pollmann, Judith, Catholic identity and the revolt of the Netherlands, 1520-1635 (2011) 

Rawlings, H., Church, religion and society in early modern Spain (2002) Chapter 5 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Selwyn, J. D., A paradise inhabited by devils : the Jesuits' civilizing mission in early modern Naples (2004) Chapter 4 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Sluhovsky, Moshe, Becoming a New Self: Practices of Belief in Early Modern Catholicism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017)

Soergel, P., Wondrous in his saints : Counter-Reformation propaganda in Bavaria (1993), intro and ch. 3.

Strasser, Ulrike, State of virginity : gender, religion, and politics in an early modern Catholic state (2004), 1-26, 89-118, 173-178

Vélez, Karin, The Miraculous Flying House of Loreto: Spreading Catholicism in the Early Modern World (Princeton University Press, 2019) 

Walsham, Alexandra, 'Miracles and the Counter-Reformation mission to England', The Historical Journal 46:4 (2003): 779-815.

Walsham, Alexandra, 'Translating Trent? English Catholicism and the Counter-Reformation', Historical Research 78 (2005): 288-310.

Wright, A. D., The early modern papacy : from the Council of Trent to the French Revolution, 1564-1789 (1999) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Wright, A. D., The Counter-Reformation. Catholic Europe and the Non-Christian World (2005)

Sources

Luebke, D.M. (ed.), The Counter-Reformation : the essential readings (1999)

Miola, Robert S., Early modern Catholicism : an anthology of primary sources (Oxford, 2007)

Englander, D., et al. (eds.), Culture and belief in Europe, 1450-1600 : an anthology of sources (1990), III, doc 3 [Council of Trent]

Top of page

4. Christian encounters with Judaism and Islam

The scholarship on Judaism has lots of specific studies about the Jewish experience in particular parts of Europe. Jewish autobiographical writing has been very useful for historians - and you can read the published autobiographies of Leon Modena and Gluckel of Hameln. Davis' book contains a wonderful, very readable analysis of the latter. On Islam, Goffmann is a good textbook and starting point.

Judaism

Bell, Dean, Jews in the Early Modern World (Lanham, 2008)

Bodian, Miriam, Hebrews of the Portuguese nation : conversos and community in early modern Amsterdam (1999) Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

*Bonfil, R., 'Aliens Within: The Jews and Antijudaism' in Thomas A. Brady, Heiko Oberman, and James D. Tracy (eds.), Handbook of European history 1400-1600 : Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation (Leiden, 1994), pp. 263-302. Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Calabi, Donatella, Dorothea Nolde and Roni Weinstein, ‘The city of Jews in Europe: the conservation and transmission of Jewish culture’, in Donatella Calabi and Stephen Turk Christensen (eds.), Cultural exchange in early modern Europe (2007) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Cohen-Sherbock, D., The crucified Jew : twenty centuries of Christian anti-semitism (Fount, 1993)

*Davis, N. Z., Women on the margins : three seventeenth-century lives (1994/5)

Davis, R. C. and B. Ravid (eds.), The Jews of early modern Venice (2001) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Dixon, C. Scott (ed.), Living with religious diversity in early modern Europe -Modern Europe (2009) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

García-Arenal, Mercedes and Gerard Wiegers, A man of three worlds: Samuel Pallache, a Moroccan Jew in Catholic and Protestant Europe (2003) 

Goldberg, Edward L., Jews and magic in Medici Florence : the secret world of Benedetto Blanis (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011) [esp. ch. 3]

Haliczer, S., Inquisition and society in the kingdom of Valencia (1990), ch. 5.

Hsia, R. Po-Chia, The myth of ritual murder : Jews and magic in Reformation Germany (1988) Chapter 9 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Hsia, R. Po-Chia (ed.), In and out of the ghetto : Jewish-Gentile relations in late medieval and early modern Germany (1995), chs. 5, 10, 17, 20. Chapter 5 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Israel, J., European Jewry in the Age of Mercantilism, 1550-1750 (1989)

Kaplan, Debra, Beyond expulsion : Jews, Christians, and Reformation Strasbourg (2011)

Kaplan, Debra, ‘Jews in Early Modern Europe: The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries’, History compass. 10 (2012): 191-206.

Lewis, Bernard, Cultures in conflict: Christians, Muslims and Jews in the Age of Discovery (1995)

Oberman, H., The impact of the Reformation : essays (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1994), Part III: The Growth of Antisemitism, pp. 81-170. Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Pullan, B., The Jews of Europe and the Inquisition of Venice 1550-1670 (1983), chs 1, 9, 10. Chapter 9 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

*Ruderman, David B., Early modern Jewry : a new cultural history (2010)

Siegmund, S., The Medici state and the ghetto of Florence : the construction of an early modern Jewish community (2006), chs 1, 6, 8.

*Stow, Kenneth, Jewish life in early modern Rome : challenge, conversion, and private life (2007)

Swetschinski, Daniel M., Reluctant cosmopolitans : the Portugese Jews of seventeenth-century Amsterdam (2004)

Teter, Magda, Jews and heretics in Catholic Poland : a beleaguered church in the post-Reformation era (2009), ch. 4.

Islam

Aksan, Virginia, and Daniel Goffman, The early modern Ottomans : remapping the Empire ISBN: 0521520851 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780521817646 (hbk. : alk. paper); 0521817641 (hbk. : alk. paper); 9780521520850 (pbk. : alk. paper) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Bethencourt, Francisco, The Inquisition : a global history, 1478-1834 (2009) Chapter 9 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Davis, Natalie Zemon, Trickster Travels: A sixteenth-century Muslim between worlds (2007)

Dimmock, M., and Hadfield A. (eds.), The religions of the book : Christian perceptions, 1400-1660 (2008)

Dimmock, M., New Turkes : dramatizing Islam and the Ottomans in early modern England (2005) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Dursteler, Eric, ‘Speaking in Tongues: Multilingualism and Multicultural Communication in the Early Modern Mediterranean’, Past and Present 217 (2012): 47-77.

Dursteler, Eric, Venetians in Constantinople: Nation, identity and coexistence in the early modern Mediterranean (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006). 

Dursteler, Eric, ‘On bazaars and battlefields: Recent scholarship on Mediterranean cultural contacts’, Journal of early modern history ISSN: 1385-3783 15 (2011): 413-34.

*Goffman, D., The Ottoman Empire and early modern Europe (2002), chs. 5-7.

Inalcik, H. and D. Quataert (eds.), An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914 (1994)

Haliczer, S., Inquisition and society in the kingdom of Valencia (1990), ch. 6.

Howard, Deborah, ‘Cultural transfer between Venice and the Ottomans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries’, in Herman Roodenburg (ed.), Cultural exchange in early modern Europe (2007) Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Kunt, M. and C. Woodhead, Süleyman the Magnificent and his age : the Ottoman Empire in the early modern world (1995)

Lewis, Bernard, Cultures in conflict: Christians, Muslims and Jews in the Age of Discovery (1995)

McGowan, B., Economic life in Ottoman Europe : taxation, trade, and the struggle for land, 1600-1800 (1981)

Ortega, Stephen, Negotiating transcultural relations in the early modern Mediterranean : Ottoman-Venetian encounters (Ashgate, 2014)

Perry, M. E., The handless maiden : Moriscos and the politics of religion in early modern Spain (2005) Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Roider, K., Austria's eastern question, 1700-1790 (1982), chs 1 and 2. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Sugar, P. and D. Treadgold, Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354–1804 (1977)

Surtz, Ronald, ‘Morisco women, written texts and the Valencia Inquisition’, The Sixteenth Century Journal 32 (2001): 421-433.

van Gelder, Maartje and Tijana Krstic, ‘Cross-confessional diplomacy and diplomatic intermediaries in the early modern Mediterranean’, Journal of early modern history ISSN: 1385-3783 19:2-3 (2015), pp. 93-105.

Sources

Forster, E.S., (ed.), The Turkish letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1927)

Hameln, Gluckel of, The memoirs of Glückel of Hameln, ed. and trans. M. Lowenthal (1989)

Cohen, M., The autobiography of a seventeenth-century Venetian rabbi : Leon Modena's Life of Judah (1988)

Schreckenberg, H., The Jews in Christian art : an illustrated history (London, 1996)

Top of page

Block 2: Order and Disorder in Early Modern Society

Top of page

5. Households, families and gender

Even if you're focusing on Households and families, you'll find Wiesner-Hanks' Women and Gender textbook a useful place to start. Houlbrooke is a good overview of early modern families. Roper's Holy Household is a sophisticated and provocative case study. Discussions of specific families can be found in Macfarlane and Ozment. For Gender, after Wiesner-Hanks, try one of the overviews of gender in a particular European country e.g. Mendelson and Crawford, Davis, Rublack, or Shoemaker. Then add some specific case studies.

Households and families

**Roper, L., The holy household : women and morals in Reformation Augsburg (1988), esp. chs. 1 and 3. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Amussen, S., ‘Gender, Family and the Social Order, 1560-1725’, in A. Fletcher and J. Stevenson (eds.), Order and disorder in early modern England (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 196-217.

Black, C. F., Early modern Italy : a social history (2001), ch. 7: 'The family and household'

Capp, B., ‘Separate Domains? Women and Authority in Early Modern England’, Paul Griffiths, Adam Fox and Steve Hindle (eds.), The experience of authority in early modern England (Basingstoke, 1996), pp.117-45.

Capp, B., When gossips meet : women, family, and neighbourhood in early modern England (2003)

Casey, J., Early modern Spain : a social history (1999), ch. 9: 'The policing of the family'

Fletcher, A., Gender, sex and subordination in England 1500-1800 (New Haven, 1995) Chapter 8 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Froide, A., Never married : singlewomen in early modern England (Oxford, 2005)

Gowing, L., Domestic dangers : women, words, and sex in early modern Europe (Oxford, 1996), ch. 3, 4. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Hanley, S., ‘Engendering the State: Family Formation and State Building in Early Modern France’, French historical studies. 16 (1980)

Houlbrooke, R., The English family, 1450-1700 (London, 1984), chs. 2, 3. Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ingram, M., Church courts, sex and marriage in England, 1570-1640 (Cambridge, 1987), ch. 3. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Klapisch-Zuber, C., Women, family, and ritual in Renaissance Italy (1985), esp. chs. 2, 6, 7, 9, 11.

Lynch, K., Individuals, families, and communities in Europe, 1200-1800 : the urban foundations of western society (2003), chs. 1, 3, 4. Extract available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Macfarlane, A., The family life of Ralph Josselin : a seventeenth century clergyman : an essay in historical anthropology. (1970), ch. 7. Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Mendelson, S. and P. Crawford, Women in early modern England, 1550-1720 England (Oxford, 1998)

O’Hara, D., Courtship and constraint : rethinking the making of marriage in Tudor England England (Manchester, 2000)

Ogilvie, S. C., A bitter living : women, markets, and social capital in early modern Germany (2003), chs. 2, 7. Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Outhwaite, R. B. (ed.). Marriage and society : studies in the social history of marriage (London, 1981)

Ozment, S. (ed.), Magdalena and Balthasar : an intimate portrait of life in 16th-century Europe (1989)

Ozment, S. (ed.), Three Behaim boys : growing up in early modern Germany : a chronicle of their lives (1990)

Ozment, S., When fathers ruled : family life in Reformation Europe (1983), chs. 2 and 4. Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Phillips, R., Putting asunder : a history of divorce in western society (1988)

Tadmor, N., ‘The concept of the household family’, Past and present. 151 (1996)

Wood, A., ‘Fear, hatred and the hidden injuries of class in early modern England’, Journal of Social History. 39:3 (2006)

Wrightson, K., English society, 1580-1680 (2nd edn., 1993), chs 3 and 4.

Wrightson, K., ‘Mutualities and obligations: changing social relationships in early modern England’, Proceedings of the British Academy. (2006)

Wrightson, K., ‘The family in early modern England: continuity and change’, in S. Taylor et al. (eds.), Hanoverian Britain and empire : essays in memory of Philip Lawson (1998) Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Wrightson, K., ‘The social order of early modern England’, in L. Bonfield et al (eds), The World we have gained : histories of population and social structure (1986) Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Wunder, H., He is the sun, she is the moon : women in early modern Germany (1998), chs. 3, 4. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Gender

**Wiesner, M. E., Women and gender in early modern Europe (1993, 2000, 2009)

Brown, J., Immodest acts : the life of a lesbian nun in Renaissance Italy (1986)

Cohen, E., ‘Honor and Gender in Early Modern Rome’, The journal of interdisciplinary history. 4 (1992): 597-626.

Davis, N. Z. and A. Farge (eds.), A history of women in the West / [Georges Duby and Michelle Perrot, general editors]. 3, Renaissance and Enlightenment paradoxes, vol. 3: Renaissance and enlightenment paradoxes (1993)

Davis, N. Z., Women on the margins : three seventeenth-century lives (1995)

*Davis, N. Z., Society and culture in early modern France (1975), ch. 5 'Women on top'

Farr, J., Authority and sexuality in early modern Burgundy (1550-1730) (1995), chs. 1, 5.

Fletcher, A., ‘Men’s Dilemma: the Future of Patriarchy in England 1560-1660’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th series, 4 (1994): 61-81.

Foyster, E., Manhood in early modern England : honour, sex, and marriage (1999) Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Hacke, D, Women, sex, and marriage in early modern Venice (2004), ch. 7. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Hufton, O., The prospect before her: A history of women in western Europe, vol.1. 1500-1800 (1995), chs. 3, 5, 6, 10. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Jordan, C., Renaissance feminism : literary texts and political models (1990)

King, M., Women of the Renaissance (1991)

Laqua-Donnell, Simone, Women and the Counter-Reformation in early modern Münster (Oxford, 2014)

Laven, M., Virgins of Venice : enclosed lives and broken vows in the Renaissance convent (London, 2002), chs 2, 5, 6. Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Mendelson, S. and P. Crawford, Women in early modern England, 1550-1720 (1998)

Ozment, S., The bürgermeister's daughter : scandal in a sixteenth-century German town (1996)

Perry, M. E., Gender and disorder in early modern Seville (1990), chs.2-4,6

Rocke, M., ‘Gender and Sexual Culture in Renaissance Italy’, in J. Brown and R. Davis (eds.), Gender and society in Renaissance Italy (1998) Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

*Roper, L., Oedipus and the Devil : witchcraft, sexuality, and religion in early modern Europe (1994)

Rublack, U. (ed.), Gender in early modern German history (2002) [esp. Wunder] Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ruggiero, G., ‘Marriage, Love, Sex, and Renaissance Civic Morality’, in J. Turner (ed.), Sexuality and gender in early modern Europe : institutions, texts, images (1993) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Ruiz, T., Spanish society, 1400-1600 (2001), chs. 2-4.

Shepard, A., Meanings of manhood in early modern England (2003), ch. 3. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

*Shepard, A., ‘Manhood, Credit and Patriarchy in Early Modern England, c.1580-1640’, Past and present. 167 (2000): 75-106.

Shoemaker, Robert B., Gender in English society, 1650-1850 : the emergence of separate spheres? (Harlow, 1998)

Sommerville, M., Sex and subjection : attitudes to women in early-modern society (1995)

Underdown, D. ‘The Taming of the Scold: The Enforcement of Patriarchal Authority in Early Modern England’, in A. J. Fletcher and J. Stevenson (eds.), Order and disorder in early modern England (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 116-36.

van der Pol, Lotte, The Burgher and the Whore : prostitution in early modern Amsterdam (Oxford, 2011)

Willen, D., ‘Women in the Public Sphere in Early Modern England: The Case of the Urban Working Poor’, Sixteenth Century Journal 19 (1988): 559-575.

Wiesner, M. E., Gender, church, and state in early modern Germany : essays (1997/8), chs. 4, 6, 9, 11. Chapter 4 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Sources

Alberti, L. B., The family in Renaissance Florence (1969)

d'Aragona, T., Dialogue on the infinity of love (1547), pp. 55-110.

Agrippa, H. C., Declamation on the nobility and preeminence of the female sex (1997)

Fonte, M., The worth of women : wherein is clearly revealed their nobility and their superiority to men (1997)

Marinella, L., The nobility and excellence of women, and the defects and vices of men (1998)

**Crawford, P. and L. Gowing (eds.), Women's worlds in seventeenth-century England (2000)

Top of page

6. Race in the early modern world

**Loomba, Ania and Jonathan Burton (eds.), Race in early modern England : a documentary companion ISBN: 1403961670 (pbk. : alk. paper); 1403961662 (alk. paper) (2007) [e-book] This is a useful collection of primary sources (not solely relating to England).   

Amussen, S. D., Caribbean exchanges : slavery and the transformation of English society, 1640-1700 (2007)

Beidler, P., and G. Taylor (eds.), Writing race across the Atlantic world : medieval to modern. ISBN: 9781403980830 (e-book) (2005)

Bennett, H.L., Colonial blackness : a history of Afro-Mexico ISBN: 9780253353382 (hbk); 0253353386 (hbk) (2009)

Bindman, D., and H.L. Gates Jr. (eds.), The Image of the Black in Western Art ISBN: 9780674052710 (v. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052714 (v. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052587 (v. 2, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052581 (v. 2, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052560 (v. 2, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052567 (v. 2, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052617 (v. 3, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052611 (v. 3, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052625 (v. 3, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052628 (v. 3, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052633 (v. 3, pt. 3 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052635 (v. 3, pt. 3 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052598 (v. 4, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052595 (v. 4, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052604 (v. 4, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052609 (v. 4, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052698 (v. 4, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052673 (v. 5, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052676 (v. 5, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052697 (v. 5, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052692 (v. 5, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper) ISBN: 9780674052710 (v. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052714 (v. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052587 (v. 2, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052581 (v. 2, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052560 (v. 2, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052567 (v. 2, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052617 (v. 3, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052611 (v. 3, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052625 (v. 3, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052628 (v. 3, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052633 (v. 3, pt. 3 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052635 (v. 3, pt. 3 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052598 (v. 4, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052595 (v. 4, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052604 (v. 4, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052609 (v. 4, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052698 (v. 4, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052673 (v. 5, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052676 (v. 5, pt. 1 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 9780674052697 (v. 5, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper); 0674052692 (v. 5, pt. 2 ; cloth ; alk. paper). III, From the "Age of discovery" to the age of abolition. Part 3, The Eighteenth century ISBN: 9780674052635, parts 1-3 (2010-11)

Cressy, David, Gypsies: An English History (Oxford, 2018) 

Cressy, David, ‘Trouble with gypsies in early modern England’, The Historical Journal 59 (2016): 45-70.

Dawson, Mark S., ‘First Impressions: Newspaper Advertisements and Early Modern English Body Imaging, 1651-1750’, Journal of British Studies 50 (2011), pp. 277-306. 

Earle, R., The body of the conquistador : food, race, and the colonial experience in Spanish America, 1492-1700 ISBN: 9781107003422 (hbk.) : No price; 1107003423 (hbk.) : No price (2012)

Earle, Thomas Foster, and K.J.P. Lowe (eds.), Black Africans in Renaissance Europe ISBN: 0521815827 (Cambridge, 2005)

Eltis, D., and S.L. Engerman (eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (2011) [e-book]   

Erickson, P., 'Invisibility Speaks: servants and portraits in early modern visual culture'Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 9:1 (2009), pp. 23-61. 

Erickson, P., 'Picturing Race: Early Modern Constructions of Racial Identity'Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 13:1 (2013), pp. 151-169. 

Greer, M.R., W.D. Mignolo, and M. Quilligan (eds.), Rereading the Black Legend: the discourses of religious and racial difference in the Renaissance empires (2007)  

Groebner, V., Who are you? Identification, deception, and surveillance in early modern Europe  (2007), chs. 4 and 5.   

Habib, I., Black Lives in the English Archives, 1500-1677: Imprints of the Invisible (2008)    

Harris, L.M., In the shadow of slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863 (2003)

Kaufmann, Miranda, Black Tudors: the untold story (London, 2017)

Kaufmann, Miranda, ‘Caspar van Senden, Sir Thomas Sherley and the ‘Blackamoor’ Project’Historical Research, 81:212 (May 2008), pp. 366-371. 

Koslofsky, C., 'Knowing Skin in Early Modern Europe, c. 1450-1750', History Compass 12:10 (2014), pp. 794-806. 

Lamotte, M., 'Colour prejudice in the early modern French Atlantic world', in D. Coffman, A. Leonard and W. O’Reilly (eds.), The Atlantic World (2014), pp. 151-171.       

Lepore, J., New York Burning: liberty, slavery, and conspiracy in eighteenth-century Manhattan (2005).    

Lowe, K., ‘'Representing' Africa: ambassadors and princes from Christian Africa to Renaissance Italy and Portugal, 1402-1608’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 17 (2007), pp. 101-28. 

Lowe, K., ‘Black Africans’ religious and cultural assimilation to, or appropriation of, Catholicism in Italy, 1470-1520’Renaissance and Reformation/Renaissance et réforme, 31:2 (2008), pp. 67-86. 

Malcolmson, C., Studies of Skin Color in the Early Royal Society: Boyle, Cavendish, Swift (2013)

Mourão, M., 'Whitewash: nationhood, empire, and the formation of Portuguese racial identity'Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 11:1 (2011), pp. 90-124. 

Morgan, J.L., ‘‘Some Could Suckle Over Their Shoulder’: Male Travelers, Female Bodies, and the Gendering of Racial Ideology, 1500-1770’William and Mary Quarterly, 51:1 (1997), pp. 167-92. 

Poitevin, K., 'Inventing Whiteness: Cosmetics, Race and Women in Early Modern England', Journal For Early Modern Studies 11:1 (2011), pp. 59-89. 

Seth, V., Europe's Indians: Producing Racial Difference, 1500-1900 (2010), chs 1 and 2. 

Spicer, J. (ed.), Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe (Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2012). Available online as a PDF: link

Top of page

7. Crime, deviance and the law

Overviews for this topic tend to be focused on a particular country: Rublack and Sharpe are good on Germany and England, respectively. Try to choose case studies from more than one country. Foucault's argument in Discipline and Punish isn't easy reading but has been extensively debated. Add a unique dimension to your arguments by drawing on examples (from our period) from the online database of trials from the Old Bailey, which is very easy to use.

Crime and the law

**Evans, R. J., Rituals of retribution : capital punishment in Germany, 1600-1987 (1996), ch. 1. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

*Rublack, U., The crimes of women in early modern Germany (1999), chs. 1, 4, 5. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

**Sharpe, J. A., Crime in early modern England 1550-1750 (1984, 2nd edn, 1999), ch. 8. Chapter 8 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Beattie, J. M., Policing and punishment in London 1660-1750 : urban crime and the limits of terror (2001)

Behrend-Martinez, Edward, ‘Spain violated: foreign men in Spain’s heartland’, European Review of History: Revue européenne d’histoire 22:4 (2015): 579-594. [About prosecutions of foreigners]

Brackett, J. K., Criminal justice and crime in late Renaissance Florence, 1537-1609 (1992), intro., ch.5. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Casey, J., Early modern Spain : a social history (1999), ch. 8: 'Obedience to the law'

Dean, Trevor and K.J.P. Lowe (eds), Murder in Renaissance Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017)

Egmond, F., Underworlds : organized crime in the Netherlands 1650-1800 (1993) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Foucault, M., Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (1977), ch.1. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Gaskill, M., Crime and mentalities in early modern England (2000), esp. chs. 1 and 8. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Griffiths, Paul, Lost Londons : change, crime, and control in the capital city, 1550-1660 (Cambridge, 2008) Chapter 4 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Groebner, V., Who are you? : identification, deception, and surveillance in early modern Europe (2007), chs 1, 3, 4

Harrington, Joel F. The faithful executioner : life and death in the sixteenth century (London, 2013)

Kermode, Jenny and Walker, Garthine, Women, crime and the courts in early modern England (London, 1994) Chapter 4 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

King, Peter, Crime and law in England, 1750-1840 : remaking justice from the margins (Cambridge, 2006), chapter 6

Morgan, John, ‘“Counterfeit Egyptians”: The construction and implementation of a criminal identity in early modern England’, Romani Studies 26:2 (2016): 105-128.

Scribner, R. W., ‘Police and the Territorial State in Sixteenth-century Württemberg’, in E. I. Kouri and T. Scott (eds.), Politics and society in Reformation Europe : essays for Sir Geoffrey Elton on his sixty-fifth birthday (1987)

Sharpe, J. A. and L. Stone, ‘The history of violence in England’, Past & present. 108 (1985): 206-24.

Spierenburg, P., The spectacle of suffering : executions and the evolution of repression : from a preindustrial metropolis to the European experience (1980) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Spierenburg, P., The prison experience : disciplinary institutions and their inmates in early modern Europe (1991)

Terpstra, Nicholas, 'Body Politics: The Criminal Body between Public and Private', The journal of medieval and early modern studies. (2015): 7-52.

van der Heijden, Manon, Women and Crime in Early Modern Holland (Leiden: Brill, 2016) 

Walker, Garthine, Crime, gender, and social order in early modern England (Cambridge, 2003)

Deviance

**Jütte, R., Poverty and deviance in early modern Europe (1994), chs. 2, 8, 9. Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Amussen, S. D., ‘Punishment, discipline and power: the social meanings of violence in early modern England’, The journal of British studies. 34 (1995): 1-34.

Beik, W., Urban protest in seventeenth-century France (1997) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Betteridge, T., Sodomy in early modern Europe (Manchester, 2002) Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Cattelona, G., ‘Control and Collaboration: The Role of Women in Regulating Female Sexual Behaviour in Early Modern Marseille’, French historical studies. 18 (1993)

Chaytor, M., ‘Husband(ry): Narratives of Rape in the Seventeenth Century’, Gender and history. 7 (1995)

Davidson, N., ‘Theology, Nature and the Law: Sexual Sin and Sexual Crime in Italy from the Fourteenth to the Seventeenth Century’, in T. Dean and K. Lowe (eds.), Crime, society and the law in Renaissance Italy (Cambridge, 1994) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Farr, J., Authority and sexuality in early modern Burgundy (1550-1730) (1995), chs. 1, 4, 5.

Naphy, W. G. And P. Roberts (eds.), Fear in early modern society (Manchester, 1997)
Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Leboutte, R., ‘Offence Against Family Order: Infanticide in Belgium from the Fifteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries’, in J. C. Fout (ed.), Forbidden history : the state, society, and the regulation of sexuality in modern Europe : essays from the Journal of the history of sexuality (1992) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Muir, E., and G. Ruggiero (eds.), History from crime (1994), ch.3.
Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Perry, M. E., Crime and society in early modern Seville (1980)

Pullan, Brian, Tolerance, regulation and rescue : dishonoured women and abandoned children in Italy, 1300-1800 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016)

Ruff, J.R., Violence in early modern Europe, 1500-1800 (2001), chs. 3-6. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Sources

Cohen, T. and E. Cohen, Words and deeds in Renaissance Rome : trials before the papal magistrates (1993), intro., ch. 4. Chapter 4 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Langbein, J. H., Prosecuting crime in the Renaissance : England, Germany, France (1974) [extracts of Charles Vs' Law Code of 1532 (Carolina)]

The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, London 1674 to 1834 http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/

Top of page

8. Commerce, consumption and cultural exchange

For commerce, Musgrave and Prak are useful starting points, and there are lots of good chapters in the Scribner and Ogilvie collections. For consumption and cultural exchange, you need to be aware of the significant arguments of De Vries and McKendrick. Brewer and Porter is a lengthy but very useful book with lots of different articles on many different areas of consumption. There are many highly enjoyable case studies about this topic, including Schama, Jardine, Roche, Rublack and Sarti. If you're thinking about sources - why not think about objects - one option is to keyword search the Victoria and Albert Museum collections: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/

 

Commerce

Birmingham, David, Trade and empire in the Atlantic 1400-1600 (Routledge, 2000)

Cipolla, Carlo M., Before the Industrial Revolution (3rd edn, 1993)

Clay, C., Economic expansion and social change : England 1500-1700 (1984) vol. I : People, land and towns, chs. 3-5.

Cook, Hal, Matters of exchange : commerce, medicine, and science in the Dutch Golden Age (New Haven: Yale, 2007) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Davis, R., The rise of the Atlantic economies (1973), chs. 1, 4, 6, 9-14. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

De Vries, J. and A. van der Woude, The first modern economy : success, failure, and perseverance of the Dutch economy, 1500-1815 (1997)

De Vries, J., Economy of Europe in an age of crisis, 1600-1750 (1976), pp. 1-29, 176-209, 236-54. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Grassby, R. B., The idea of capitalism before the Industrial Revolution (1999)

Grendi, E., ‘Counterfeit Coins and Monetary Exchange Structures in the Republic of Genoa during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries’ in E. Muir, and G. Ruggiero (eds.), History from crime (1994), pp. 170-205.

Israel, J. I., The Dutch Republic : its rise, greatness, and fall 1477-1806 (1995), chs. 6, 13-15, 26, 35, 37. Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Musgrave, P., The early modern European economy (1999) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

North, M., Art and commerce in the Dutch Golden Age (1997)

Ogilvie, S. (ed.), Germany : a new social and economic history. Vol.2, 1630-1800 (1996); chs 1-4, 9.

Ormrod, D., The rise of commercial empires : England and the Netherlands in the age of mercantilism, 1650-1770 (2003) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

*Prak, M. (ed.), Early modern capitalism : economic and social change in Europe, 1400-1800 (2000/1) [see Prak, Epstein, Knotter, Malanima, Schlumbohm, van Zanden]

Prak, M., The Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century (2005)

Reid, A., ‘An Age of Commerce in South-East Asian History’, Modern Asian studies. (1990)

Romaniello, Matthew P., ‘Trade and the global economy’, in Hamish Scott (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern European History, 1350-1750 (Oxford, 2015)

Scribner, R. W. (ed.), Germany : a new social and economic history. Vol.1, 1450-1630 (1996) chs. 4, 6; vol. 2 (1630-1800), ch. 11. Chapter 4 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Subrahmanyam, S., The political economy of commerce : Southern India, 1500-1650 (1990)

van Zanden, J.L., The Long Road to the Industrial Revolution: The European Economy in a Global Perspective, 1000-1800 (Leiden: Brill, 2009)

Consumption and cultural exchange

**Brewer J. and R. Porter (eds.), Consumption and the world of goods (1993), chs. 5, 7, 10.

**Schama, S., The embarrassment of riches: an interpretation of Dutch culture in the golden age (1987), ch. 5. Chapter 5 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ago, Renata, Gusto for things : a history of objects in seventeenth-century Rome (Chicago, 2013)

Avery, Victoria, Melissa Calaresu and Mary Laven, Treasured Possessions from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment (2015) 

Berg, M. and H. Clifford (eds.), Consumers and luxury : consumer culture in Europe 1650-1850 (1999) Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Curtis, Emily Byrne, Glass exchange between Europe and China, 1550-1800 : diplomatic, mercantile and technological interactions 1550-1800 (2009)

Chambers, D., Patrons and artists in the Italian Renaissance (1970), pp. 39-41, 106-111, 124-50, 156-58.

De Vries, J., ‘The industrial revolution and the industrious revolution’, The journal of economic history. 54 (1994)

De Vries, J., The industrious revolution : consumer behavior and the household economy, 1650 to the present (2008)

Findlen, Paula (ed.), Early modern things (Routledge, 2012)

Fusaro, Maria, Colin Heywood and Mohamed-Salah Omri (eds), Trade and cultural exchange in the early modern Mediterranean : Braudel's maritime legacy (2010)

Gerritsen, Anne and Giorgio Riello (eds), The Global Lives of Things: The Material Culture of Connections in the Early Modern World (Routledge, 2015)

Goldthwaite, R., ‘The Empire of things: Consumer Demand in Renaissance Italy’, in F. W. Kent and P. Simons (eds.), Patronage, art, and society in Renaissance Italy (1987) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Hamling, Tara and Catherine Richardson (eds), Everyday objects : medieval and early modern material culture and its meanings (Ashgate, 2010)

Horodowich, Elizabeth and Lia Markey (eds), The New World in Early Modern Italy, 1492-1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018) 

Ilmakunnas, J., and J. Stobart (eds.), A taste for luxury in early modern Europe : display, acquisition and boundaries ISBN: 9781350094871 (pbk.) : £28.99 (2017). 

Jardine, L., Worldly goods (1996), prologue and chs 1, 3, 4. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Lemire, Beverly, Global Trade and the Transformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018)

McKendrick, N. et al., The Birth of a Consumer Society (1982) Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Ogborn, Miles, Global lives : Britain and the world, 1550--1800 (Cambridge, 2008)

Overton, M. et al., Production and consumption in English households, 1600-1750 (2004), esp. intro and ch. 5.

Pennell, Sara, ‘Consumption and consumerism in early modern England’, The Historical Journal 42:2 (1999): 549-64.

Richardson, Catherine (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Material Culture in Early Modern Europe (Routledge, 2016), esp. ch. 1.

Roche, Daniel, A history of everyday things : the birth of consumption in France, 1600-1800 (2000) Chapter 9 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Rublack, Ulinka, Dressing up : cultural identity in Renaissance Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Sarti, R., Europe at home : family and material culture, 1500-1800 (2002), ch. 2, 5, 7.
Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Vries, J. de, ‘The Industrial Revolution and the industrious revolution’, The journal of economic history. (1994)

Weatherill, L., Consumer Behaviour and Material Culture in Britain 1660-1760 (1988) Chapter 8 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Welch, E., Shopping in the Renaissance : consumer cultures in Italy 1400-1600 (2005), part 4.

Wrightson, K. Earthly Necessities: Economic Lives in Early Modern Britain (2000) Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Top of page

Block 3: Cultures of Knowledge

Top of page

9. Communication: manuscript, print and oral cultures

This topic covers a range of themes: memory, humanism, literacy, printing - book/articles titles are a useful guide to focus your research on the appropriate area/s. Particularly significant contributions to scholarship have been made by Eisenstein, Grafton, and Johns - not always easy reading but worth looking at where relevant. On humanism, Kraye or Goodman and Mackay are good ways in to this complex topic.

Manuscripts and the Renaissance

Bradshaw, B., ‘Transalpine Humanism’, in J. H. Burns and M. Goldie (eds.), The Cambridge history of political thought, 1450-1700 (1991)

Burke, P., The European Renaissance : centres and peripheries (1998)

Findlen, P., The Italian Renaissance : the essential readings (2006), chs 1-2, 9-10. Chapter 9 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Goodman, A. and A. Mackay, The impact of Humanism on Western Europe (1990), chs 1, 3, 5, 9. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Grafton, A. (ed.), Rome reborn : the Vatican Library and Renaissance culture (1993) Extract available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Grafton, A., and L. Jardine, From humanism to the humanities : education and the liberal arts in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe (1986), intro., chs 1-2.

Grafton, A., Commerce with the classics : ancient books and Renaissance readers (1997), ch. 5.

Hale, J., The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance (1993), chs 5-6
Chapter 5 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Kraye, J. (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism (1996), chs 5, 7.

Rice, E., and Grafton, A., The foundations of early modern Europe, 1460-1559 (rev. ed. 1994), ch. 3
Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Printing and literacy

Bellingradt, Daniel, ‘The early modern city as a resonating box: Media, public opinion, and the urban space of the Holy Roman Empire, Cologne, and Hamberg c. 1700’, Journal of Early Modern History 16:3 (2012): 201-240.

Bottigheimer, R., 'Bible reading, "bibles" and the bible for children in early modern Germany', Past & present.. 139 (1993)

Chartier, R., 'The practical impact of writing' in R. Chartier (ed.), A history of private life / Philippe Ariès and Georges Duby, general editors. Vol.3, Passions of the Renaissance [vol. iii of A history of private life / Philippe Ariès and Georges Duby, general editors. Vol.3, Passions of the Renaissance ](1989) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Cressy, D., Literacy and the social order : reading and writing in Tudor and Stuart England (1980) Chapter 8 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

*Cressy, D., ‘Literacy in context’, in R. Porter and J. Brewer (eds.), Consumption and the world of goods (1994)
Article available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Darnton, R., ‘The History of Reading’ in P. Burke (ed.), New perspectives on historical writing (1991)
Article available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Davies, M., Aldus Manutius: Printer and Publisher of Renaissance Venice (1995)

Davis, N. Z., Society and culture in early modern France (1975), ch. 7 'Printing and the people'

**Eisenstein, E., The printing revolution in early modern Europe (1984), chs. 1-3.
Chapter 4 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Eisenstein, E., The printing press as an agent of change (1979)

Fox, A., ‘Custom, memory and the authority of writing’, in Griffiths, Fox and Hindle (eds.), The experience of authority in early modern England (1996) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Furet, F., and Ozouf, J., Reading and writing : literacy in France from Calvin to Jules Ferry. (1977; Eng. trans. Cambridge 1982)

Gawthrop, R., 'Protestantism and literacy in early modern Germany' Past and present. 104 (1984)

Grafton, A., Defenders of the text : the traditions of scholarship in an age of science, 1450-1800 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991) Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Grafton, A. and L. Jardine, From humanism to the humanities : education and the liberal arts in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe (London, 1986)

Grafton, Anthony, Elizabeth Eisenstein and Adrian Johns, ‘American Historical Review debate: How revolutionary was the print revolution?’, American Historical Review 107 (2002) [special issue]

Grafton, A. and A. Blair (eds.), The transmission of culture in early modern Europe (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990)

Green, I., ‘For children in years and children in understanding'": the emergence of the English catechism under Elizabeth and the early Stuarts' Journal of ecclesiastical history. (1986)

Grendler, P., Schooling in Renaissance Italy (1989), chs 4, 12-14.

Houston, R., Literacy in early modern Europe: culture and education 1500-1800 (1988/9; 2nd edn 2002) Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Johns, A., The Nature of the Book (1998) [ch. 6, ‘The Physiology of Reading’]

Marsh, Christopher, ‘“The Blazing Torch”: New Light on English Balladry as a Multi-Media Matrix’, The seventeenth century. 30:1 (2015): 95-116.

Moss, A, Printed commonplace-books and the structuring of Renaissance thought (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996)

Nalle, S., ‘Literacy and Culture in Early Modern Castille’, Past & present. 125 (1989)

O'Day, R., Education and society, 1500-1800 (1982), chaps 3-10. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Pettegree, A. and M. Hall, ‘The Reformation and the Book: A Reconsideration’, The historical journal. 47 (2004)

Raymond, Joad (ed.), The Oxford History of Popular Print Culture, vol. 1: Cheap Print in Britain and Ireland to 1660 (Oxford, 2011)

Reay, B., Popular cultures in England, 1550-1750 (1998) ch. 2

*Salzberg, Rosa, Ephemeral city : cheap print and urban culture in Renaissance Venice (Manchester, 2014)

Sherman, W., John Dee : the politics of reading and writing in the English Renaissance (1995) [ch. 2, ‘A Living Library’]

Sharpe, K., Reading revolutions : the politics of reading in early modern England (2000). Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Sommerville, C.J., The news revolution in England : cultural dynamics of daily information (1996)

Spufford, M. ‘First Steps in Literacy: The Reading and Writing Experiences of the Humblest Seventeenth-century Autobiographers’, Social history. 4 (1979), 407-35.

Spufford, M. Small books and pleasant histories : popular fiction and its readership in seventeenth-century England (Cambridge, 1985), esp. ch. 2. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Thomas, K., ‘The meaning of literacy in early modern England’, in G. Baumann, (ed.), The Written word : literacy in transition (1986)
Article available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Vincent, D., Literacy and popular culture : England 1750-1914 (Cambridge, 1989)

Vincent, D., The rise of mass literacy : reading and writing in modern Europe (2000) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Wheale, N. Writing and society : literacy, print, and politics in Britain, 1590-1660 (London, 1999)

Wiseman, S., Conspiracy and virtue : women, writing, and politics in seventeenth century England (2006)

 

Top of page

10. From testimony to evidence: the ‘Scientific Revolution’

Try to look at overviews and more specific studies. Oster is very useful as it is a collection of important pieces of work on this topic. Porter's article, 'The Scientific Revolution' is a good starting point. Henry is a textbook which is good on the intellectual tradition. Dear, Revolutionising is a more in-depth overview. Some highlights among the more specific works include: Buisseret on maps, Biagioli on Galileo, and Schaffer and Shapin's Leviathan and the air-pump. Again, feel free to dip into published primary sources for examples to support your argument.

Overviews

**Dear, P., Revolutionizing the Sciences, 1500-1700 (2000) Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

**Henry, J., The scientific revolution and the origins of modern science (1997)

**Oster, M. (ed.), Science in Europe, 1500-1800 : a secondary sources reader (2002) [4, 8.3-8.7, 9, 10]

**Porter, R. and M. Teich (eds.), The scientific revolution in national context (1992)
Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

**Porter, R., ‘The Scientific Revolution: a spoke in the wheel? ’ in R. Porter and M. Teich (eds.), Revolution in history (1986) [good starting point] Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

*Wootton, David, The invention of science: A new history of the Scientific Revolution (New York: Harper, 2015)

Daston, Lorraine and Katherine Park (eds), The Cambridge History of Science. Vol. 3 Early Modern Science (2006)

Henry, John, The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of Modern Science (Houndsmill: Macmillan, 1997)

Osler, M. J. (ed.), Rethinking the scientific revolution (2000) Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Shapin, Steven, The scientific revolution (1996)

‘Science’

Biagioli, M., Galileo, courtier : the practice of science in the culture of absolutism (1993) prologue, chs. 2, 4, 5. Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Bleichnor, Daniela et al., Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empire, 1500-1800 (Stanford University Press, 2008), esp. ch. 11.

Canizares-Esguerra, Jorge, ‘Iberian science in the Renaissance: Ignored how much longer?’, Perspectives on Science 12:1 (2004), pp. 86-124.

Cressy, David, ‘Early modern space travel and the English Man in the Moon’, The American historical review. (2006): 961-982.

Dear, Peter, Narratives, Anecdotes, and Experiments: Turning Experience into Science in the Seventeenth Century’, The literary structure of scientific argument : historical studies ed. by Peter Dear (Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 1991), 135-163. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Evans, R.J.W. and Alexander Marr (eds), Curiosity and Wonder from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment (2006)

Fauvel, et al. (eds.), Let Newton be! (1988), chs. 6, 7, and 8. Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Fitzpatrick, M. (ed.), The Enlightenment world (2007), chs. 1, 15.

Gaukroger, S., The emergence of a scientific culture : science and the shaping of modernity, 1210-1685 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Golinski, Jan, Making natural knowledge : constructivism and the history of science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Grafton, Anthony, April Shelford, and Nancy Siraisi, New worlds, ancient texts : the power of tradition and the shock of discovery (Cambridge, 1992). Chapter 5 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Harkness, Deborah, The Jewel House: Elizabethan London and the Scientific Revolution (Yale University Press, 2008)

Henry, John, Knowledge is Power (Duxford: Icon Books, 2002). Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Hunter, Michael, Science and Society in Restoration England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981) Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Impey, O. and A. MacGregor, (eds.), The Origins of museums : the cabinet of curiosities in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985)

‘Iberian Science: reflections and studies’ [special issue], History of Science 55 (2017)

Jardine, Lisa, Ingenious pursuits : building the scientific revolution (1999)

Jardine, Lisa, The curious life of Robert Hooke : the man who measured London (London: Harper Collins, 2003) Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Lindberg, D. and R. Westman (eds.), Reappraisals of the scientific revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Moran, B. (ed.), Patronage and institutions : science, technology, and medicine at the European court, 1500-1750 (1991), chs. 2, 7, 10.

Navarro Brotóns, Victor and William Eamon (eds), Beyond the Black Legend: Spain and the Scientific Revolution (Valencia, 2007)  

*Pomata, Gianna, ‘Observation Rising. Birth of an Epistemic Genre, 1500-1600’, in Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck (eds), Histories of Scientific Observation (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 45-80.

Pumfrey, S., P. L. Rossi, et al., Science, culture and popular belief in Renaissance Europe (1991), chs. 9, 10.
Chapter 9 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Ravetz, J. R. ‘The Copernican Revolution’, in Companion to the history of modern science, ed. by C. Olby et al. (London: Routledge, 1990), pp. 201-216. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Ravetz. J. R. ‘Francis Bacon and the Reform of Natural Philosophy’, in Science, medicine, and society in the Renaissance : essays to honor Walter Pagel vols. ed. by Allen G. Debus (New York: History Publications, 1972), pp. 97-119.

Rublack, Ulinka, The Astronomer and the Witch (Oxford, 2015)

Shiebinger, Londa L., The mind has no sex?: women in the origins of modern science (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989)

Shapin, S. and S. Schaffer, Leviathan and the air-pump : Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life : including a translation of Thomas Hobbes, Dialogus physicus de natura aeris by Simon Schaffer (1985)
Part of Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Smith, Pamela H., The body of the artisan: art and experience in the scientific revolution (2004)

Smith, Pamela H. and Paula Findlen (eds.), Merchants & marvels : commerce, science, and art in early modern Europe (2002), chs. 3, 7-9, 13

Teich, Mikulas, The Scientific Revolution Revisited (2012). Download here.

Westfall, R. S., ‘Science and Patronage: Galileo and the telescope’, in P. Dear (ed.), The scientific enterprise in early modern Europe : readings from Isis (1997)

Whitker, Katie, ‘The Culture of Curiosity’, in The cultures of natural history ed. by Nicholas Jardine and Emma Spary (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 75-90. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Nature and knowledge

Barrera-Osorio, Antonio, Experiencing Nature: The Spanish American Empire and the Early Scientific Revolution (University of Texas Press, 2006)

Bono, James L., The word of God and the languages of man : interpreting nature in early modern science and medicine (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995)

Brotton, J., Trading territories : mapping the early modern world (1997), ch. 4. Chapter 4 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Buisseret, David, The mapmakers' quest : depicting new worlds in Renaissance Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Buisseret, David (ed.), Monarchs, ministers, and maps : the emergence of cartography as a tool of government in early modern Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).

Burke, Peter, A social history of knowledge : from Gutenberg to Diderot (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Campbell, Mary Baine, Wonder & science : imagining worlds in early modern Europe Europe (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999)

Carlino, Andrea, Books of the body : anatomical ritual and renaissance learning translated by John Tedeschi and Anne C. Tedeschi (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999)

Chandler, James, Davidson, Arnold, and Harootunian, Harry (eds.), Questions of evidence : proof, practice, and persuasion across the disciplines (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1994)

Cook, Harold J., ‘Time’s Bodies: Crafting the Preparations and Preservations of Naturalia’, in Pamela Smith and Paula Findlen (eds.), Merchants & marvels : commerce, science, and art in early modern Europe (New York/London, 2002), pp. 223-247. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Cooter, Roger and Mary Fissell, ‘Exploring Natural Knowledge: Science and the Popular’, in The Cambridge History of Science, vol. 4: Eighteenth-century science, ed. by Roy Porter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 129-158.  Article available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Daston, Lorraine, ‘Marvelous Facts and Miraculous Evidence in Early Modern Europe’, in Wonders, marvels, and monsters in early modern culture, ed. by Peter G. Platt (London: Associated University Press, 1999), pp. 76-104. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Daston, Lorraine, ‘The Nature of Nature in Early Modern Europe’, Configurations : a journal of literature, science and technology. 6, no. 2 (1999): 149-172.

Debus, Allen G./Walton, Michael T. (eds.), Reading the book of nature : the other side of the scientific revolution (Kirksville: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 2001)

Eamon, William, Science and the secrets of nature : books of secrets in medieval and early modern culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994)

Findlen, P., Possessing nature : museums, collecting, and scientific culture in early modern Italy (1994), chs. 1, 7 and 8. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Fields, J.V. and James, Frank A.J.L. (eds.), Renaissance and revolution : humanists, scholars, craftsmen and natural philosophers in early modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.)

Findlen, Paula, ‘Commerce, Art and Science in the Early Modern Cabinet of Curiosities’, in Merchants & marvels : commerce, science, and art in early modern Europe ed. by Pamela Smith and Paula Findlen (New York/London: Routledge, 2001), pp. 297-323

Marroquin Arredondo, Jaime and Ralph Bauer (eds), Translating Nature: Cross-Cultural Histories of Early Modern Science (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019) 

Ogilvie, Brian W., The Science of Describing: Natural History in Renaissance Europe (2006)

Smith, P. and P. Findlen (eds.), Merchants & marvels : commerce, science, and art in early modern Europe (2002), chs. 3, 7-9, 13.

Science and religion

Brooke, John Hedley, Science and religion : some historical perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991)

Cameron, Euan, Enchanted Europe : superstition, reason, and religion 1250-1750 (Oxford, 2010)

Clark, S., Thinking with demons : the idea of witchcraft in early modern Europe (1997), ch. 19 'Witchcraft and the Scientific Revolution'. Chapter 19 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ferngren, Gary B., Science and religion : a historical introduction (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2002)

Webster, C., From Paracelsus to Newton : magic and the making of modern science (1982)

Westfall, R. S Science and religion in seventeenth-century England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985)

Sources

Bacon, F., The advancement of learning and New Atlantis, ed. F. Johnston (1980)

Boyle, R., A free enquiry into the vulgarly received notion of nature (1996)

Galilei, G., Sidereus nuncius, or, The Sidereal messenger, trans. A. van Helden (1989)

Descartes, R., The world and other writings, ed. S. Gaukroger (1998)

Oster, Malcolm, Science in Europe, 1500-1800: A Primary Sources Reader (2002)

Top of page

11. Faith, reason, skepticism: Enlightenment debates

Outram is a good basic textbook; Munck and Porter provide alternative overviews. Israel is interesting and a little more challenging. There are lots of good collections of essays about this topic, which provide an opportunity either to dip in and read one chapter or get a range of different perspectives within one volume: try Fitzpatrick, The Enlightenment World. Darnton's Forbidden Bestsellers is the stand-out specific study. And you'll be entertained if you take the time to find out about Candide and 'the best of all possible worlds'.

Overviews

*Fitzpatrick, M. (ed.), The Enlightenment world (2007), esp. chapters 4, 12, 21.

Israel, J.‚ ‘Enlightenment! Which enlightenment? ’, Journal of the history of ideas. 67:3 (2006): 523-45.

Munck, T., The Enlightenment : a comparative social history 1721-1794 (2000)

Outram, D., The Enlightenment, 2nd edition (2005) 

Outram, D., The Enlightenment (1995) Chapter 7 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Porter, R., and M. Teich (eds.), The Enlightenment in national context (1981) Introduction available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Porter, R., The Enlightenment (1990) Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Robertson, John, The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015) 

Yolton, J.W. et al., The Blackwell companion to the Enlightenment (1995)

Specific studies

Berman, David, A history of atheism in Britain : from Hobbes to Russell (1988) Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

**Darnton, R., The forbidden best-sellers of pre-revolutionary France (1996)

Gilson, D. and M. Smith (eds.), Essays on Montesquieu and on the Enlightenment (1988)

Chartier, R., The cultural origins of the French Revolution (1991), chs. 2-3. Chapter 2 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Clark, W., J. Golinkski, and S. Schaffer (eds.), The sciences in enlightened Europe (1999) Chapter 9 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Doyle, W., Jansenism (2000)

Fitzpatrick, M., ‘Toleration and the Enlightenment Movement’ in Ole Peter Grell and Roy Porter (eds.), Toleration in Enlightenment Europe (Cambridge, 2000) 23-68. Chapter available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

*Goldgar, A., Impolite learning : conduct and community in the Republic of Letters, 1680-1750 (1995)

Goodman, D., The Republic of Letters: A cultural history of the French enlightenment (1994), ch. 1.

Israel, J., Radical enlightenment : philosophy and the making of modernity 1650-1750: Philosophy and the making of modernity, 1650-1750 (2001)

Outram, D., Panorama of the Enlightenment (2006)

Pagden, Anthony, The Enlightenment and why it still matters (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)

Sommerville, C.J., The secularization of early modern England : from religious culture to religious faith (1992)

Van Horn Melton, J., The rise of the public in enlightenment Europe (2001)

Young, Brian, Religion and enlightenment in eighteenth-century England : theological debate from Locke to Burke (Oxford, 1998)

Sources

Bayle, P., ‘Introduction’ to his Dictionary, ‘Spinoza’ and 'Clarifications: On Atheists and On Obscenities' in Pierre Bayle, Political writings edited by Sally L. Jenkinson '(Cambridge, 2000), 311-341

Montesquieu, Persian letters, trans. C. J. Betts (1721 and 1977)

Montesquieu, The spirit of the laws, trans. A. Cohler et al. (1748 and 1989)

Rousseau, J-J., The Profession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar (1757) Profession de foi du vicaire savoyard

Voltaire, Candide (1759)

Hume, D., Enquiries (1777), Section 10: Of Miracles.

This list was last updated on 14/09/2019