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HIST2442
Module Reading List

Black Politics from Emancipation to Obama, 2019/20, Semester 1
Dr Kate Dossett
k.dossett@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General Reading and Edited Collections

Manning Marable, “ Marxism, Memory, and the Black Radical Tradition: Introduction to Volume 13,” Souls ISSN: 1099-9949, 13:1, Jan-Mar2011, pp 1-16: Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Nell Irvin Painter, Creating Black Americans : African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present (New York, 2006)

Elsa Barclay Brown, ed., Major Problems in African American History Vol. 2 (2000)

Adam Fairclough, Better day coming : Blacks and equality, 1890-2000, (New York, London, Penguin, 2000).

John Hope Franklin, From slavery to freedom (various editions. 9th updated by Evelyn Higginbotham to the present) ( New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010) **

Harold Cruse, The crisis of the Negro intellectual. (1967; New York: New York Review Books, 2005).

Manning Marable, Black leadership- four great American leaders and the struggle for civil rights (1999).

Cary D.Wintz ed., African American Political Thought, 1890-1930 - Washington, Du Bois, Garvey and Randolph (1996)

Christopher Alan Bracey, Saviors or sellouts : the promise and peril of Black Conservatism, from Booker T. Washington to Condoleezza Rice, (Beacon Press, 2008).

Theodore G. Vincent ed., Voices of A Black Nation- Political Journalism in the Harlem Renaissance (1973)

Anna Hartnell, Rewriting Exodus : American futures from Du Bois to Obama (Pluto Press) 2011

Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic- Modernity and Double Consciousness (1993)

Lawrence Levine Black Culture and Black Consciousness- Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (1977)

Kevin Gaines Uplifting the Race- Black Leadership, Politics and Culture in the Twentieth Century (1996)

Greta de Jong, Invisible enemy : the African American freedom struggle after 1965 (Chichester, U.K.; Malden, MA : Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).

Darlene Clark Hine and Kathleen Thompson A Shining Thread of Hope- the History of Black Women in America (1998)

William L. Van Deburg, Modern black nationalism : from Marcus Garvey to Louis Farrakhan (New York: New York University Press, 1997)

Roderick Bush, We are not what we seem : Black nationalism and class struggle in the American century [Paperback]

Robert Cook Sweet Land of Liberty? The African American Struggle for Civil Rights in the Twentieth Century (1998)

Michael C. Dawson, Black Visions- the roots of contemporary African-American political ideologies. (2001)

Bruce A. Glasrud and Cary D. Wintz eds, African Americans and the presidency : the road to the White House (New York, Routledge, 2010)

Leon Litwack and August Meier eds., Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century (1988)

John Hope Franklin and August Meier eds., Black Leaders of the twentieth century (1982)

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Black Studies and the Academy

James B. Stewart, "Black/Africana Studies, Then and Now: Reconstructing a Century of Intellectual Inquiry and Political Engagement, 1915-2015." Journal of African American History ISSN: 1548-1867, vol. 100, no. 1, Winter 2015, pp. 87-118

 Mark Christian “ Notes on Black Studies: Its Continuing Necessity in the Academy and Beyond,” Journal of black studies. January 2007, 37: 348-364.

F Rojas & D Shaffer, 'What Should We Learn from the Black Studies Experience? ', Souls ISSN: 1099-9949: A Critical Journal Of Black Politics, Culture & Society, 11:4:(2009), 442-447 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Lisa Amander Palmer, “The Absence of Black Studies in Britain,” in Kehinde Andrews and Lisa Palmer eds., Blackness in Britain (London, New York: 2016), pp9-23. (e-book)

Dwight A McBride, "Toward the New Black Studies,” Journal of black studies. ISSN: 0021-9347 37, no. 3 (January 2007): 428-444

Mary Phillips 'Black Studies: Challenges and Critical Debates', Western journal of black studies., 34, 2, (2010) pp. 273-277.

“States of Black Studies,” Special Issue of The Black Scholar :Journal of Black Studies and Research Volume 44:2 2014 – esp. Darlene Clark Hine “A Black Studies Manifesto,” pp 11-15.

 “ Brown, black and beyond [special issue]. African American studies in the 21st century” Special Issue,Black scholar. ISSN: 0006-4246, 35(2): 2005 Available online

 J.T. Roanne, Pedagogy for the World: Black Studies in the Classroom and Beyond 8 Jan. 2017, African American Intellectual History Society Blogpost.

“Expanding the History of the Black Studies Movement” Special Issue of the Journal of African American Studies Edited by Jonathan Fenderson, James Stewart and Kabria Baumgartner Volume 16, No. 1 (March 2012) - Available online: http://openworks.wooster.edu/facpub/75/

Asante, M. K., & Karenga, M. (2006). The handbook of black studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

M. Christian, African centered knowledge: A British perspective. Western journal of black studies. 25 ( 1 ), (2001): pp 12 - 20

V.P. Franklin, "Introduction: Symposium on African American Historiography," Journal of African American History ISSN: 1548-1867 Vol. 92, No. 2 (Spring, 2007), pp. 214-217

 M. Karenga, “Black studies: A critical reassessment,” In M. Marable ed., Dispatches from the Ebony Tower: Intellectuals confront the African American experience (New York, 2000): pp162-170.

M. Karenga, Introduction to black studies (3rd ed.). (Los Angeles,2002)

M. Marable, “ Beyond brown: The revolutions in Black studies,” Black scholar., 35 ( 2 ), 2005: pp 11 - 21.

Jonathan Scott Holloway, “The Black Intellectual and the Crisis Canon,” Black scholar., (Summer, 2001).

R. Wilson, “ Can Black studies be saved ? ” The chronicle of higher education. 5 ( 33 ) : 2005 pp A9 - A11

D. Aldridge, “Womanist issues in Black studies: Towards integrating Africana women into Africana studies,” Journal of the National Council for Black Studies: 1(1):1992. pp167-182.

Fabio Rojas, From Black Power to Black studies : how a radical social movement became an academic discipline (Baltimore: 2007)

Jonathan Scott Holloway Confronting the veil : Abram Harris, Jr., E. Franklin Frazier, and Ralph Bunche, 1919-1941, (Chapel Hill, 2002)

Pero Gaglo Dagbovie, What is African American history? ISBN: 9780745695907 (e-book) (2015)

Pero Gaglo Dagbovie, African American history reconsidered ISBN: 9780252077012 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0252077016 (pbk. : alk. paper) (2010)

Deborah Gray White ed., Telling histories : Black women historians in the ivory tower ISBN: 9780807832011; 0807832014; 9780807858813 (pbk) (2009)

John Hope Franklin, "The New Negro History," Journal of Negro history. ISSN: 0022-2992 42 (April 1957): 89-97.

Kevin Gaines, African American History: in Eric Foner and Lisa McGirr American history now ISBN: 9781439902448 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9781439902431 (cloth : alk. paper); 1439902437 (cloth : alk. paper); 1439902445 (pbk. : alk. paper) (2012)

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African American Politics from Emancipation to 1900

Eric Foner, Reconstruction- America's Unfinished Revolution (2002)

Edward L. Ayers, The Promise of the New South- Life After Reconstruction (1992)

Glenda Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow (1996)

James M. Campbell and Rebecca J. Fraser eds., Reconstruction : people and perspectives, (ABC-CLIO, 2008)

John W. Cell, The Highest Stage of White Supremacy- The Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South (1982)

Claudia Tate, Domestic allegories of political desire : the black heroine's text at the turn of the century (1992)

Joel Williamson ed., The Origins of Segregation (1968)

Leon F. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long- The Aftermath of Slavery (1979)

Joel Williamson, New People- Miscegenation and Mulattoes in the United States (1995)

A Rage for Order- Black-White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation (1986)

C. Van Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1955. repr. 2002)

C. Van Woodward, ‘The Strange Career of a Historical Controversy’ in American Counterpoint- Slavery and Racism in the North-South Dialogue (1964)- 234-260 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Charles T David & Daniel Walden eds., On being black : writings by Afro-Americans from Frederick Douglass to the present (New York, 1970)

Sterling Stuckey, Slave culture : nationalist theory and the foundations of black America (1987) **

Articles

H. Rabinowitz, "More than the Woodward Thesis- Assessing the Strange Career of Jim Crow", Journal of American History 75 (1988)- 841-68.

"From Exclusion to Segregation- Southern Race Relations, 1865-1890", Journal of American History 63 (1976)- 325-350

Elsa Barclay Brown, ‘To Catch the Vision of Freedom- Reconstructing Southern Black Women’s Political History 1865-1880’ in Vicki L. Ruiz and Ellen Carol DuBois eds. Unequal Sisters: a multicultural reader in U.S. women's history 3 rd. ed (2000)- 124-146. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE. Also available in Ann D. Gordon and Bettye Collier-Thomas eds., African American women and the vote, 1837-1965 - 66-99

Elsa Barclay Brown ‘ Negotiating and Transforming the Public Sphere- African American Political Life in the Transition from Slavery to Freedom,” Public Culture 7 (fall 1994)- 107-46 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Barbara Welke “When All the Women Were White, and All the Blacks Were Men- Gender, Class, Race, and the Road to Plessy, 1855-1914.” 1995 Law and history review. 13 - 261-316

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Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee

Booker T. Washington Up From Slavery (1901) Ch.s 1, 2, 3 and XIV either in Henry Louis Gates Jr. ed. Norton Anthology of African American Literature OR Available online at http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/washington/menu.html Also see the useful introduction by William T. Andrews for background on the slave narrative.

Adam Fairclough Ch. 3 ‘Booker T. Washington and the Strategy of Accommodation’ Better Day Coming - 41-65 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Kenneth M. Hamilton, Booker T. Washington in American Memory ISBN: 9780252082283 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780252040771 (cloth : alk. paper); 9780252099229 (e-book) (2017)

Robert J. Norrell, Up from history : the life of Booker T. Washington. Washington. (Cambridge: Belknap, 2009 )

Jacqueline Moore, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, and the struggle for racial uplift, (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2003).

W. Fitzhugh Brundage ed, Booker T. Washington and black progress : up from slavery 100 years later (Gainesville: U. Pr. of Florida, 2003).

James D. Anderson The education of blacks in the South, 1860-1935, (1988)

Rebecca Carroll eds., Uncle Tom or new Negro? : African Americans reflect on Booker T. Washington and Up from slavery one hundred years later (2006).

Michael Bieze, Booker T. Washington and the art of self-representation, (New York: Peter Lang, 2008)

David H. Jackson Jr, Booker T. Washington and the struggle against white supremacy : the Southern Educational Tours, 1908-1912 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

Charles T. Davis and Daniel Walden eds. On Being Black- Writings by Afro-Americans from Frederick Douglass to the Present (1970)

Louis Harlan Booker T. Washington- the making of a black leader, 1856-1901 (1972)

Booker T. Washington- the wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915 (1983)

Michael Rudolph West, The education of Booker T. Washington : American democracy and the idea of race relations

Hugh Hawkins ed. Booker T. Washington and his critics- Black leadership in crisis (1974 2 nd ed.)

Kevern Verney, The Art of the Possible- Booker T. Washington and Black Leadership in the United States, 1881-1925 (2001).

Cary D. Wintz African American Political Thought, 1890-1930 - Washington, Du Bois, Garvey and Randolph (1996)

John White Black Leadership in America 1895-1968- from Booker T. Washington to Jesse Jackson (1990)

Cary D. Wintz, Booker T. Washington and his World, 1856-1915 in Encyclopedia of African American history, 1619-1895 : from the colonial period to the age of Frederick Douglass  

August Meier Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915- racial ideologies in the age of Booker T. Washington- with a new introduction-by August Meier (1988).

Articles

Jeremy C. Young, "Booker T. Washington and the White Fear of Black Charisma" Black Perspective Blog post 2 Mar. 2017 https://www.aaihs.org/booker-t-washington-and-the-white-fear-of-black-charisma/

Louis R. Harlan, "The Secret Life of Booker T. Washington," The journal of southern history. , Aug. 1971, Vol. 37 Issue 3, pp393-416

Raymond Hedin, ‘Paternal At Last- Booker T. Washington and the Slave Narrative Tradition’ Callaloo., No. 7 (Oct., 1979)- 95-102

August Meier and Elliot Rudwick, ‘The Boycott Movement against Jim Crow Streetcars in the South, 1900-1906’ Journal of American History 55 (1969)- 756-763.

August Meier, 'Toward a Reinterpretation of Booker T. Washington,' in August Meier & Elliott Rudwick, eds., The making of black America : essays in Negro life & history, Volume II, The Black Community in Modern America, 125-130

Richard Powers, " An American Tragedy- the Transformation of Booker T. Washington from Hero to Whipping Boy," Lincoln Review 11-1 (Winter-Spring 1993).

Pero Gaglo Dagbovie "Exploring a Century of Historical Scholarship on Booker T. Washington" Journal of African American History Vol. 92, No. 2 (Spring, 2007), pp. 239-264

Brian Kelly, “Sentinels for New South Industry: Booker T. Washington, Industrial Accommodation and Black Workers in the Jim Crow South,” Labor history., 2003 44(3): 337-357.

Trellie L. Jeffers, "Booker T. Washington- the Mistaken Giant" in Tunde Adeleke ed. Booker T. Washington- Interpretive Essays (1998).

Ramón G. Vela ‘ The Washington- Du Bois controversy and African- American protest : ideological conflict and its consequences ’ in Studies in American Political Development, 16- 1 (2002)- 88-109.

Christopher Alan Bracey, "The Origins of Black Conservative Thought: Evangelicals, Entrepreneurs, and Booker T. Washington," and "The Dawn of the Twentieth Century: Black Conservatism’s Peak and W.E.B. Du Bois’s Dramatic Assault against It," in Saviors or sellouts : the promise and peril of Black Conservatism, from Booker T. Washington to Condoleezza Rice, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2008)

Martin Kilson, ‘The Washington and Du Bois Leadership Paradigms Reconsidered’ Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science., Vol. 568, The Study of African American Problems: W. E. B. Du Bois's Agenda, Then and Now. (Mar., 2000): 298-313.

Jan Miller, 'Annotated Bibliography of the Washington-Du Bois Controversy,' Journal of black studies. 1994 25(2): 250-272.

Leo J. Alilunas ‘What Our Schools Teach About Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois’ Journal of Negro education. ISSN: 0022-2984, Vol. 42, No. 2. (Spring, 1973)- 176-186. (good historiographical overview).

Houston A. Baker ‘Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance’ American Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Spring 1987)- 84-97.

Frances Richardson Keller, “An Educational Controversy: Anna Julia Cooper's Vision of Resolution,” NWSA journal : a publication of the National Women's Studies Association. 11.3, Fall 1999.

Jacqueline Anne Rouse, “Out of the Shadow of Tuskegee: Margaret Murray Washington, Social Activism and Race Vindication,” Journal of Negro history. (1996).

Laura R. Fisher, "Head and Hands Together: Booker T. Washington's Vocational Realism." American Literature. ISSN: 0002-9831, vol. 87, no. 4, Dec. 2015, pp. 709-737

Ernest L. Gibson III, "The Envy of Erudition: Booker T. Washington and the Desire for a Du Boisian Intellectuality," Black scholar. ISSN: 0006-4246, (Spring 2013), Vol. 43 Issue 1/2, p52-68. - Available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.5816/blackscholar.43.1-2.0052

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Du Bois, Niagara and the Rise of the NAACP

W.E.B. Du Bois, The souls of Black folk (1903) Ch. I. II. III. V, VIII, IX, X, XII

( In addition, it is also available in Henry Louis Gates ed., Norton Anthology of African American Literature and also online at http://www.bartleby.com/114/index.html

W.E.B Du Bois Papers https://credo.library.umass.edu/view/collection/mums312

Alfreda M. Duster ed., Crusade for Justice- The Autobiography of Ida. B. Wells (1970)

Mary White Ovington, The Walls Came Tumbling Down (1947. repr. 1970)

Herbert Apthecker, The Correspondence of W.E.B Du Bois (1973)

Gerald Horne, Black and red : W.E.B. Du Bois and the Afro-American response to the Cold War, 1944-1963 (1986)

Gerald Horne, W.E.B. Du Bois: A Biography (2010) - Available online: https://rosswolfe.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/gerald-horne-w-e-b-du-bois-a-biography.pdf 

Digital Du Bois https://www.aaihs.org/digital-du-bois/

Adam Fairclough Ch.4, "The Rise of the N.A.A.C.P," in Better day coming : Blacks and equality, 1890-2000.

David Levering Lewis, W.E.B. Du Bois : biography of a race 1868-1919 (New York, 1993). espc. Chs 9-12.

Hazel Carby, Ch. 1 Race Men (1998)

Bill V. Mullen, Un-American : W.E.B. Du Bois and the century of world revolution, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2015)

Raymon Wolteres, Du Bois and His Rivals (2002)

Manning Marable, W.E.B. Du Bois- Black radical democrat, (2005)

Cary D. Wintz, African American Political Thought, 1890-1930- Washington, Du Bois, Garvey and Randolph (1996)

Claudrena N. Harold, New Negro politics in the Jim Crow South ISBN: 9780820335124 (hardcover : alk. paper) (University of Georgia Press, 2016)

Gilbert Jonas, Freedom's sword : the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969, (2004) espc. Chs.1-4.

Manfred Berg, The ticket to freedom : the NAACP and the struggle for Black political integration, (Gainesville, 2005).

Joy James, Transcending the talented tenth : black leaders and American intellectuals, (London, 1997)

Charles Flint Kellogg, NAACP : a history of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (Baltimore, 1967)

Adolph L. Reed, W.E.B. Du Bois and American political thought : Fabianism and the color line. (1997)

Joyce B. Ross, J. E. Spingarn and the rise of the NAACP, 1911-1939,

Jenny Woodley, Art for equality : the NAACP's cultural campaign for civil rights (Lexington, University Press of Kentucky 2014)

Articles

M. Elliott, The Question of Color-Blind Citizenship: Albion Tourgée, W.E.B. Du Bois and the Principles of the Niagara Movement. Afro-Americans in New York Life & History, 32(2), (2008). 23-49.

Farah Jasmine Griffin, “Black Feminists and Du Bois: Respectability, Protection, and Beyond, “ Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. March 2000 Vol. 568, Issue 1: 28-40

Richard Cullen Rath, ‘Echo and Narcissus: The Afrocentric Pragmatism of W.E.B.Du Bois The Journal of American history., Vol. 84, No. 2. (Sep., 1997): 461-495.

Dan S. Green, ‘W.E.B. Du Bois’ Talented Tenth- A Strategy for Racial Advancement’ Journal of Negro Education, Vol 46. No.3 (summer, 1977)- 358-366

Phillip Luke Sinitiere, Comrades in the Struggle for Black Freedom: Gerald Horne and W.E.B. Du Bois AAIHS blogpost 5 June 2017

Lavelle Porter, "W.E.B. Du Bois, the Black Flame, and the Struggle Ahead," AAIHS blogpost 11 Jan. 2017.

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The Black Clubwomen’s Movement and the Politics of Respectability

Primary Sources

Elizabeth Lindsay Davis, Lifting as they climb. (1933. repr 1996.)

What Was the Relationship between Mary Church Terrell's International Experience and Her Work against Racism in the United States?   " in Kathryn Kish Sklar and Thomas Dublin, eds., Women & social movements in the United States 1600-2000 [electronic resource]. 

Kelisha B Graves ed., Nannie Helen Burroughs: A Documentary Portrait of an Early Civil Rights Pioneer, 1900–1959 by Nannie Helen Burroughs (University of Notre Dame Press, 2019)
 

Secondary Reading

Darlene Clark Hine and Kathleen Thompson, A Shining Thread of Hope- The History of Black Women in America (1998)

Deborah Gray White, Too Heavy A Load- Black Women in Defense of Themselves 1894-1994 (1999)

Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter- The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (1984)

Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race and Class (1983)

Gerda Lerner ed., Black Women in White America- A Documentary History (1972)

Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn eds., The Afro-American Woman- Struggles and Images (1978)

Rebecca Tuuri, Strategic Sisterhood: The National Council of Negro Women in the Black Freedom Struggle, (2018)

Kevin Gaines, Uplifting the Race- Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century, (1996)

Ann D. Gordon and Bettye Collier-Thomas eds., African American Women and the Vote (1997)

Darlene Clark Hine et al eds., Black Women in American History- The Twentieth Century vol. 1 (1990)

Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous discontent : the women's movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920, (1993)

Francesca Morgan, Women and patriotism in Jim Crow America  (2005).

Lisa G. Materson , For The Freedom Of Her Race : Black Women And Electoral Politics In Illinois, 1877-1932. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013).

Jayne Morris-Crowther, The political activities of Detroit clubwomen in the 1920s : a challenge and a promise (2013).

Floris Barnett Cash, African American women and social action : the clubwomen and volunteerism from Jim Crow to the New Deal, 1896-1936. (2001)

Cynthia Neverdon-Morton Afro-American women of the South and the advancement of the race, 1895-1925 1895-1925. (1989)

Kate Dossett, Bridging race divides : black nationalism, feminism, and integration in the United States, 1896-1935 (Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 2008), Chapter 1

Nicki Brown, Private politics and public voices : black women's activism from World War I to the New Deal (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c2006)

Dorothy Salem, To Better Our World- Black Women in Organized Reform, 1890-1920. (1990)

Anne Meis Knupfer, The Chicago Black renaissance and women's activism, (2006) espc. Ch. 5. pp.93-115 (Good on club women’s activities carrying on into late 1920s and 30s). Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Victoria Wolcott, Remaking Respectability- African American Women in Interwar Detroit (Chapel Hill- University of North Carolina Press, 2001)-

Michele Mitchell, Righteous Propagation- African Americans and the Politics of Racial Destiny After Reconstruction. (Chapel Hill- University of North Carolina Press, 2004)

Brittney C. Cooper, Beyond respectability : the intellectual thought of race women ISBN: 9780252040993 hardcover ; alkaline paper; 0252040996 hardcover ; alkaline paper; 9780252082481 paperback ; alkaline paper; 0252082486 paperback ; alkaline paper; 9780252099540 electronic book (2017)

Joan Quigley, Just another southern town : Mary Church Terrell and the struggle for racial justice in the nation's capital ISBN: 9780199371525 (e-book), 2016.

Beverly Guy-Sheftall, Daughters of Sorrow- Attitudes Toward Black Women 1880-1920 (1990)

E. Frances White, Dark continent of our bodies : black feminism and the politics of respectability (2001).

Joyce A. Hanson, Mary McLeod Bethune & black women's political activism (2003)

Francesca Morgan, Women and patriotism in Jim Crow America (2005)

Audrey Thomas McCluskey and Elaine M. Smith eds., Mary McLeod Bethune- Building a Better World- Essays and Selected Documents, (1999)

Joy James, Transcending the talented tenth : black leaders and American intellectuals, (1997)

Articles

Shaw, Stephanie J. 'Black Club Women and the Creation of the National Association of Colored Women," Journal of women's history. 1991 3(2): 10-25. Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Deborah Gray White, “The Cost of Club Work- The Price of Black Feminism,” in Visible Women- New Essays on American Activism, eds. Nancy A. Hewitt and Suzanne Lesbock, (1993) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

 Millington Bergeson-Lockwood “Black Women, History, and the Democratic Party” AAIHS Blog post July 3, 2018 

‘Race and Feminism’ in Thomas Holt and Elsa Barclay Brown eds., Major Problems in African-American History Vol. 11 (2000)-170-177 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Evelyn Brooks Barnett, ‘Religion, Politics and Gender- The Leadership of Nannie Helen Burroughs,’ in Darlene Clark Hine et al eds., Black Women in American History- The Twentieth Century, Vol. 1

Traki Taylor, "Womanhood Glorified: Nannie Helen Burroughs and the National Training School for Women and Girls, Inc., 1909-1961". Journal of African American History vol. 87 (2002) pp.309-402.

Carol Batker, “Love Me Like I Like to Be”- The Sexual Politics of Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God, the Classic Blues, and the Black Women’s Club Movement’ African American Review, Vol 32, Issue 2 (Summer, 1998), 199-213

Hazel Carby, “Policing the Black Woman’s Body in an Urban Context,” Critical Inquiry 18 (1992)- 738-55

Kate Dossett, “I try to live somewhat in keeping with my reputation as a wealthy woman,” A'Lelia Walker and the Madam C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company, Journal of women's history 21.2 Summer 2009.

A. Lanethea Mathews-Gardner, "The Postwar Black Women's Club Movement: The Intersection Of Gender, Race, And American Political Development, 1940-1960." Journal Of Women, Politics & Policy 31.3 (2010): 260-285 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ta-Nehisi Coates, "Charles Barkley and the Plague of 'Unintelligent' Blacks: A History of Respectability Politics, from the Postbellum Period to Today." The Atlantic, 28 Oct. 2014 https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/10/charles-barkley-and-the-plague-of-unintelligent-blacks/382022/ last

Fredrick C. Harris, "The Rise of Respectability Politics," Dissent Magazine, Winter 2014; https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/the-rise-of-respectability-politics

Michael Eric Dyson, "Where Do We Go After Ferguson?" The New York times. ISSN: 0362-4331, 30 Nov. 2014, SR1

Randall Kennedy, "Lifting As We Climb": A Progressive Defense of Respectability Politics," Harper's Magazine, Oct. 2015, http://harpers.org/archive/2015/10/lifting-as-we-climb/

 Kirsten Delegard, ‘Women’s Movement, 1880s-1920s’ in Nancy Hewitt ed. A companion to American women's history - 328-347 (a good historiographical article tracing developments in women’s history of this period)

Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, ‘Diplomats to the White Community- African American Women in Progressive-Era North Carolina’ in Mary Beth Norton and Ruth Alexander eds., Major Problems in Women’s History (2007)- 319-332. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE. Also available in Gilmore ‘Diplomatic Women’ in Gender and Jim Crow (1996)- 147-175

Elizabeth McHenry, "Toward a History of Access: The Case of Mary Church Terrell." American literary history. ISSN: 0896-7148, vol. 19, no. 2, Summer2007, pp. 381-401

Estelle B. Freedman, ‘Separatism as Strategy- Female Institution Building and American Feminism 1870-1930’, Feminist Studies Fall (1979)- 512-29.

Linda Gordon, “Black and White Visions of Welfare- Women’s Welfare Activism, 1890-1945,” The Journal of American History 79 (1991)

Sharon Harley, “When your Work Is Not Who You Are- The Development of a Working-Class Consciousness among Afro-American Women,” in Gender, Class, Race and Reform in the Progressive Era, eds. Noraleed Frankel and Nancy S. Pye, (1991) also available in Darlene Clark Hine et al, " "We specialize in the wholly impossible" : a reader in Black women's history (1995)- 25-37

“For the Good of Family and Race- Gender, Work and Domestic Roles in the Black Community, 1880-1930,” Signs. 15 (1990)- 336-349

“Nannie Helen Burroughs- ‘The Black Goddess of Liberty,’” Journal of Negro History 81 (1996)

Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, “Club women and Electoral Politics in the 1920s,” in Gordon and Thomas eds., African American Women and the Vote 134-156. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Rhodes, Jane. "Pedagogies of Respectability: Race, Media, and Black Womanhood in the Early 20Th Century." Souls ISSN: 1099-9949: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society, vol. 18, no. 2-4, Apr-Dec. 2016, pp. 201-214

Herman Gray "Introduction: Subject to Respectability", Souls ISSN: 1099-9949: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society. Apr-Dec2016, Vol. 18 Issue 2-4, pp192-200

Cynthia Neverdon-Morton, “The Black Woman’s Struggle for Equality in the South 1895-1925, “ in Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn eds., The Afro-American Woman- Struggles and Images (2007) pp.43-57 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

“Self-Help Programs as Educative Activities of Black Women in the South 1895-1925- Focus on Four Key Areas,” Journal of Negro education. ISSN: 0022-2984 51 (1982)

Jacqueline Anne Rouse, “Out of the Shadow of Tuskegee- Margaret Murray Washington, Social Activism and Race Vindication,” Journal of Negro History 81 (1996)

“National Association of Colored Women,” in Darlene Clark Hine et al eds., Black Women in America- An Historical Encyclopedia Vol.2 (1992)

“National Council of Negro Women,” Black Women in America- An Historical Encyclopedia Vol. 2 (1992)

Elaine M. Smith, “Mary McLeod Bethune’s “Last Will and Testament”- A Legacy for Race Vindication,” Journal of Negro History 81 (1996)

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The Harlem Renaissance

Primary Sources can be found in the following anthologies and internet sites:

Anthologies and Collected Writings

Victor A Kramer ed., Harlem renaissance re-examined (1986)

Cary D Wintz ed., Black writers interpret the Harlem Renaissance (1996)

The politics and aesthetics of "New Negro" literature (1996)

Analysis and assessment, 1980-1994 (1996)

Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (1996)

Henry Louis Gates Jr & Nellie McKay eds., The Norton anthology of African American literature (1997)

Patricia Liggins Hill ed., Call and response : the Riverside anthology of the African American literary tradition (1998)

David Levering Lewis The portable Harlem Renaissance reader (1994)

Lorraine Elena Roses & Ruth Elizabeth Randolph Harlem's glory : Black women writing, 1900-1950, (1996)

Sondra Wilson ed., The Crisis reader : stories, poetry, and essays from the N.A.A.C.P.'s Crisis magazine

Sondra Wilson ed., The Messenger reader : stories, poetry, and essays from The Messenger magazine (2000)

Sondra Wilson ed., The Opportunity reader : stories, poetry, and essays from the Urban League's Opportunity magazine (1999)

Theodore G. Vincent ed., Voices of a black nation : political journalism in the Harlem Renaissance (1973)

Alain Locke The new Negro (1925) first published as ‘ Harlem : Mecca of the new Negro. ’ in Survey Graphic.

Internet Resources

The concise Oxford companion to African American literature ’ eds., William L Andrews, Frances Smith Foster, Trudier Harris (OUP, 2001)-see below link-searchable biographies and book summaries http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/BOOK_SEARCH.html? book=t52&subject=s13

Focusing on performance and visual art: https://web.archive.org/web/20070329194105/https://www.fatherryan.org/harlemrenaissance/ Harlem: An African American Community 1900-1940 : The Schomburg On-Line Exhibition http://exhibitions.nypl.org/harlem/

Secondary Reading

Harlem Renaissance 1919-1940: A Cultural Flowering Introduction in the Norton anthology of African American literature. (New York & London, 1997) eds. Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Nellie McKay: 929-936

Houston A Baker Jr., ‘Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance’ American Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, Special Issue: Modernist Culture in America. (Spring, 1987): 84-97.

Chidi Ikonne, From Du Bois to Van Vechten : the early new Negro literature, 1903-1926 (1981)

Arna Bontemps, The Harlem Renaissance remembered : essays (1972)

James L. de Jongh, Vicious modernism : black Harlem and the literary imagination (1990)

Genevieve Fabre & Michel Feith ed., Temples for tomorrow : looking back at the Harlem Renaissance (2001)[Good collection of essays]

Abraham Chapman, ‘The Harlem Renaissance in literary history’ in Cary D Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1980-1994 (1996) also in Comparative Literature Journal 11 (1967)

Nathan Huggins, Harlem Renaissance (1971)

George Hutchinson, The Harlem renaissance in black and white (1995)

David Levering Lewis, When Harlem was in vogue (1981)

Ann Douglas, Terrible honesty : mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s (1995)

Anthony Dawahare, Nationalism, Marxism, and African American literature between the wars : a new Pandora's box, (2003). Espc Chs 1-3.

Hazel V. Carby, Reconstructing womanhood : the emergence of the Afro-American woman novelist (1987)

Kate Dossett, 'Amy Jacques Garvey, Jessie Fauset and Pan-Africanist Feminist Thought' Chapter 4 in Bridging race divides : black nationalism, feminism, and integration in the United States, 1896-1935 (2008)

Marlon B. Ross. Manning the race : reforming black men in the Jim Crow era. (2004).

Gloria T. Hull, Color, sex, & poetry : three women writers of the Harlem Renaissance (1990)

Cheryl A. Wall, Women of the Harlem renaissance (1995)

Ted Vincent, Keep cool : the black activists who built the jazz age (1995)

Daphne Duval Harrison, ‘Black Women in the Blues Tradition’ in The Afro-American woman : struggles and images eds. Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg –Penn (1978)

Daphne Duval Harrison, Black pearls : blues queens of the 1920s (1988)

Angela Davis, Blues legacies and black feminism : Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday (1999)

Sandra Lieb, Mother of the blues : a study of Ma Rainey (1981)

Samuel Floyd, Black music in the Harlem Renaissance : a collection of essays (1990)

Jon Michael Spencer, The new Negroes and their music : the success of the Harlem Renaissance (1997)

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Garveyism, Black Nationalism and Pan-African Thought

Primary Sources

Theodore G. Vincent, Voices of a black nation : political journalism in the Harlem Renaissance (1990)

Robert Hill ed., The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association papers and UNIA Papers (1995)

Tony Martin, African fundamentalism : a literary and cultural anthology of Garvey's Harlem Renaissance (1991)

Keisha Benjamin, "How Did Rank and File Women Construct the "New Negro Woman" within the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the 1920s? " in Kathryn Kish Sklar and Thomas Dublin, eds., Women & social movements in the United States 1600-2000 [electronic resource]..

Amy Jacques Garvey, Philosophy and opinions of Marcus Garvey : or, Africa for the Africans Garvey and Garveyism

Federal surveillance of Afro-Americans, 1917-1925 [microform] : the First World War, the Red Scare, and the Garvey Movement (Frederick, Maryland: UPA, 1986) Theodore Kornweibel ed. Microfilm.

Secondary Reading

Tony Martin, Literary Garveyism : Garvey, black arts, and the Harlem Renaissance (1983)

Race first : the ideological and organizational struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (1976)

Theodore G. Vincent Keep cool : the black activists who built the jazz age (1995)

------- Black Power and the Garvey movement (1971)

Keisha Blain, Set the world on fire : black nationalist women and the global struggle for freedom ISBN: 9780812249880 (hardcover : alk. paper) (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018)

Adam Ewing, The age of Garvey : how a Jamaican activist created a mass movement and changed global Black politics (Princeton, 2014)

Colin Grant, Negro with a hat : the rise and fall of Marcus Garvey and his dream of Mother Africa, (London: Jonathan Cape, 2008).

Michelle Ann Stephens, Ch 3 ‘Marcus Garvey, Black Emperor’ and Ch.4 ‘The Black Star Line and the Negro Ship of State’ in Black empire : the masculine global imaginary of Caribbean intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962 (2005).

Judith Stein, The world of Marcus Garvey : race and class in modern society (1986)

K. Randall Burkett, Garveyism as a religious movement : the institutionalization of a Black civil religion (1978)

Mary G. Rolinson, Grassroots Garveyism : the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the rural South, 1920-1927 (Chapel Hill, 2007).

Claudrena N. Harold, The rise and fall of the Garvey movement in the urban South, 1918-1942, (New York, 2007).

Claudrena N. Harold, New Negro politics in the Jim Crow South ISBN: 9780820335124 (hardcover : alk. paper) (University of Georgia Press, 2016)

John Henrik Clarke, Marcus Garvey and the vision of Africa (1974)

Michele Mitchell, Righteous propagation : African Americans and the politics of racial destiny after Reconstruction. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004). Espc Ch. 8. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

David Cronon, Black Moses : the story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. (1969)

Kate Dossett, Ch 4: "Amy Jacques Garvey, Jessie Fauset, and Pan-African Feminist Thought," in Bridging race divides : black nationalism, feminism, and integration in the United States, 1896-1935 (2008) Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Ula Y. Taylor, The veiled Garvey : the life & times of Amy Jacques Garvey (2002)

Winston James, Holding aloft the banner of Ethiopia : Caribbean radicalism in early twentieth-century America (1998)

Theodore Kernweibel ed., Federal surveillance of Afro-Americans, 1917-1925 [microform] : the First World War, the Red Scare, and the Garvey Movement

Rupert Lewis & Patrick Bryan eds. Garvey : his work and impact (1988)

J. H Bracey, August Meier & Elliott Rudwick, eds., Black nationalism in America

E. Franklin, Frazier, "The Garvey Movement," in August Meier & Elliott Rudwick, eds., The making of black America : essays in Negro life & history, Volume II, The Black Community in Modern America, 204-208

Alphonso Pinkney, Red, black, and green : black nationalism in the United States (1976)

Paul Gilroy, The black Atlantic : modernity and double consciousness (1993)

Sidney Lemelle and Robin D. G. Kelley. Imagining home : class, culture, and nationalism in the African diaspora (1994)

Darlene Clark Hine and Jacqueline McLeod eds. Crossing boundaries : comparative history of black people in diaspora (1999)

Articles

Mark Christian Thompson, "The Myth of Marcus Garvey : Black Fascism and Nationalism" in Black fascisms : African American literature and culture between the wars, (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007).

Erik S McDuffie, "Chicago, Garveyism, and the History of the Diasporic Midwest,” African and black diaspora : an international journal., Vol. 8, Issue 2 (2015): 1-19.

Erik S. McDuffie, "Garveyism in Cleveland, Ohio and the history of the diasporic Midwest, 1920–1975," African identities ISSN: 1472-5843, Volume 9, Issue 2 (2011): 163-182.

David Krasner, Ch. 8 “In the Whirlwind and the Storm”: Marcus Garvey and the Performance of Black Nationalism,” in A beautiful pageant : African American theatre, drama, and performance in the Harlem Renaissance, 1910-1927. (pp 167-188)

Tamba E. M'Bayo, “W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey and Pan-Africanism in Liberia, 1919-1924,” The historian, Volume 66, Issue 1, pp 19-44.

Daniel Hanglberger,  “Marcus Garvey and His Relation to (Black) Socialism and Communism,” American communist history ISSN: 1474-3892, (2018), 17:2, 200-219

Ramla Bandele, "Understanding African Diaspora Political Activism: The Rise and Fall of the Black Star Line." Journal of black studies. 40, no. 4 (March 2010): 745-761.

Daniel A. Dalrymple, ""Reclaiming the Fallen": The Universal Negro Improvement Association Central Division, New York 1935-1942." Journal of black studies 45, no. 1 (2014), 19-36

Robin Dearmon Jenkins, "Linking Up the Golden Gate: Garveyism in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1919-1925." Journal of black studies 39, no. 2 (November 2008): 266-280.

Lawrence W. Levine, “Marcus Garvey and the Politics of Revitalization” in John Hope Franklin & August Meier, eds., Black leaders of the twentieth century.

John Runcie ‘Marcus Garvey and the Harlem Renaissance’ in Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1980-1994.

Arthur P. Davis ‘Integration and Race Literature’ in Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979

David Hellwig, ‘Black Meets Black: Afro-American Reactions to West Indian Immigrants in the 1920s’ The South Atlantic quarterly.. (1978): 206-224 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Robert H Brisbane, "Some New Light on the Garvey Movement," Journal of Negro history., 36 (1951), 53-62

M. Ellis, “Black Leadership in the United States: Douglass, Garvey and King Compared”, Ethnic and racial studies., 16 (1993)

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Women and Black Nationalism

Amy Jacques Garvey, Garvey and Garveyism (London, 1963)

Amy Jacques Garvey ed. Philosophy and opinions of Marcus Garvey : or, Africa for the Africans; Or, Africa for the Africans. 1923 Reprint (1986) Vol I, II & III

Gerda Lerner ed., Black women in white America : a documentary history Amy Jacques Garvey ‘Women As Leaders’ pp576-578. Nannie Helen Burroughs ‘Glorify Blackness’ pp 550-551. ‘Unload your Uncle Toms’ pp 551-552

Keisha Blain, Set the World on Fire: Black Nationalist Women and the Global Struggle for Freedom (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018)

Deborah Gray White, Too heavy a load : black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994: Black Women in Defense of Themselves (1999)

Lois A. West ed. ‘Introduction: Feminism Constructs Nationalism’ in Feminist nationalism (1997)

Cynthia Enloe, Bananas, beaches & bases : making feminist sense of international politics (1989)

Kate Dossett, 'Amy Jacques Garvey, Jessie Fauset and Pan-Africanist Feminist Thought' Chapter 4 in Bridging race divides : black nationalism, feminism, and integration in the United States, 1896-1935 (2008)

Ula Y. Taylor, The veiled Garvey : the life & times of Amy Jacques Garvey ( 2002)

Articles

Wilbert Jenkins, ‘Jessie Fauset: A Modern Apostle of Black Racial Pride’ in The Zora Neale Hurston forum : official publication of the Zora Neale Hurston Society. ISSN: 1051-6867 Vol. 1 Part 1 Fall, 1986 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (srj 31/07/2017) 

Karen Adler, ‘Always Leading Our Men in Service and Sacrifice’: Amy Jacques Garvey, Feminist Black Nationalist’ in Gender & society.., Vol 6, Issue 3 (Sept, 1992)

Mark D. Matthews, ' "Our women and what they think" : Amy Jacques Garvey and the negro world " Black Scholar 10, no. 8/9 (1979) 2-13 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Hakim Adi, "Amy Ashwood Garvey and the Nigerian Progress Union, " in Gendering the African diaspora : women, culture, and historical change in the Caribbean and Nigerian hinterland ISBN: 9780253221537 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780253354167 (cloth : alk. paper); 0253354161 (cloth : alk. paper); 0253221536 (pbk. : alk. paper), eds. Judith Byfield, LaRay Denzer, and Anthea Morrison (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010).

Keisha N Blain, "Confraternity Among All Dark Races": Mittie Maude Lena Gordon and the Practice of Black (Inter)nationalism in Chicago, 1932-1942," Palimpsest: A Journal on Women, Gender, and the Black International (Spring 2016) Vol 5, No. 2: 151-181. - Available online: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/636809

Keisha N. Blain,"˜We Want to Set the World on Fire,": Black Nationalist Women and Diasporic Politics in the New Negro World, 1940-1944," Journal of Social History. ISSN: 0022-4529, Vol. 49, No. 1 (Fall 2015): 194-212.

Melissa. Castillo-Garsow, "Afro-Latin@ Nueva York: Maymie de Mena and the Unsung Afro-Latina Leadership of the UNIA,” in Afro-Latin@s in movement : critical approaches to blackness and transnationalism in the Americas ISBN: 1137603208; 9781137603203; 9781137598745 (ebk.), eds. Petra R. Rivera-Rideau, Jennifer A. Jones, and Tianna S. Paschel (2016).

Natanya Duncan, "Our Men Hesitate Then the Women of the Race Must Come Forward: Henrietta Vinton Davis and the UNIA in New York," New York History, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Fall 2015): 558-583. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (srj 31/07/2017) 

Natanya. Duncan, "Princess Laura Kofey and the Reverse Atlantic Experience," in The American south and the Atlantic world ISBN: 9780813048338 (e-book), eds. Brian Ward, Martyn Bone, and William A. Link (2013).

Reena. Goldthree, "Amy Jacques Garvey, Theodore Bilbo, and the Paradoxes of Black Nationalism," in Global circuits of blackness : interrogating the African diaspora ISBN: 9780252077531 (pbk.) : £20.99; 9780252035623 (hbk.) : £64.00; 0252035623 (hbk.) : £64.00; 0252077539 (pbk.) : £20.99, eds. Jean Muteba Rahier, Percy C. Hintzen and Felipe Smith ( 2010).

Asia Leeds, "Toward the "Higher Type of Womanhood,": The Gendered Contours of Garveyism and the Making of Redemptive Geographies in Costa Rica, 1922 -1941, " Palimpsest: A Journal on Women, Gender, and the Black International, Volume 2, No. 1 (November 2013): 1-27. - Available online: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/505527

Rhoda Reddock, "The First Mrs. Garvey: Pan-Africanism and Feminism in the Early Twentieth Century British Colonial Caribbean," Feminist Africa, Issue 19 (2014): 58-77. - Available online: http://agi.ac.za/journal/feminist-africa-19-2014-pan-africanism-and-feminism  

Nydia A. Swaby, "Amy Ashwood Garvey and the Political Aesthetics of Diasporic Social Spaces in London," Symbolism: An International Annual of Critical Aesthetics, Volume 14 (2014): 59-73. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (srj 31/07/2017) 

Minkah. Makalani, "An International African Opinion: Amy Ashwood Garvey and C.L.R. James in Black Radical London, " in Escape from New York : the New Negro Renaissance beyond Harlem, eds. Davarian L. Baldwin and Minkah Makalani (2013).

Erik S. McDuffie, "The Diasporic Journeys of Louise Little: Grassroots Garveyism, the Midwest, and Community Feminism," Special Issue: Women, Gender Politics, and Pan-Africanism (eds. Keisha N. Blain, Asia Leeds and Ula Taylor), Women, Gender and Families of Color (Fall 2016). OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (srj 31/07/2017) 

Courtney Morris, "Becoming Creole, Becoming Black: Migration, Diasporic Self-Making, and the Many Lives of Madame Maymie Leona Turpeau de Mena,"Special Issue: Women, Gender Politics, and Pan Africanism (eds. Keisha N. Blain, Asia Leeds and Ula Taylor), Women, Gender and Families of Color (Fall 2016). OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (srj 31/07/2017) 

Barbara Bair, ‘True Women, Real Men: Gender, Ideology and Social Roles in the Garvey Movement’ in Dorothy O. Helly and Susan M. Reverby eds., Gendered domains : rethinking public and private in women's history ; essays from the seventh Berkshire Conference on the History of Women (Ithaca, New York, 1992) Berkshire Conference on the History of Women (7th : 1987 : Wellesley College) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Barbara Bair, ‘Renegotiating Liberty: Garveyism, Women, and Grassroots Organizing in Virginia’ in Women of the American south: a multicultural reader / edited by Christie Anne Farnham. (New York, 1997)

Barbara Bair, “Ethiopia Shall Stretch Forth her hands unto God”: Laura Kofey and the gendered vision of redemption in the Garvey Movement” in A mighty baptism : race, gender, and the creation of American Protestantism (1996). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

William Seraille ‘Henrietta Vinton Davis and the Garvey Movement’ Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 7 (July 1983) : 7-24 also in Darlene Clark Hine Black women in America : an historical encyclopedia

Tony Martin, ‘Women in the Garvey Movement’ in Rupert Lewis & Patrick Bryan eds., Garvey : his work and impact: 67-72 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Honor Ford Smith, ‘Women in the Garvey Movement in Jamaica’ in Rupert Lewis & Patrick Bryan eds., Garvey : his work and impact: 73-86 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Ula Y. Taylor ‘Negro Women Are Great Thinkers as well as doers’: Amy Jacques Garvey and Community Feminism in the United States, 1924-1927’ in Journal of women's history. Vol 12 No. 2 (Summer)

Ula Y. Taylor, “Intellectual Pan-African Feminists: Amy Ashwood-Garvey and Amy Jacques-Garvey.” In : a century of African American activism, 1850-1950.

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Black Radicals and the International Left

Primary Sources

Ch.11 ‘Communists in the 1930s’; Ch. 13 ‘Black American Looks at Communism’; Ch 15 ‘Blacks and the Trade Union Movement’ in Theodore G. Vincent ed. Voices of a black nation: political journalism in the Harlem Renaissance (1973)

Philip S. Foner and Herbert Shapiro eds., American communism and Black Americans : a documentary history, 1930-1934 (Temple University Press, 1991).

Richard Wright, Black Boy: a record of childhood and youth, (London: Vintage, 2000)

Harry Haywood, Black Bolshevik : autobiography of an Afro-American Communist, Chicago: Liberator Press, c1978. **

Nell Irvin Painter, The narrative of Hosea Hudson, ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979). **

George Padmore, Pan-Africanism or communism? : the coming struggle for Africa **

Secondary Reading

Cedric J. Robinson, Black Marxism: the making of the Black Radical Tradition, (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2000). **

Harold Cruse, The crisis of the Negro intellectual. (1967; New York: New York Review Books, 2005).

Margaret Stevens,Red International and Black Caribbean: Communists in New York City, Mexico and the West Indies, 1919-1939 (Pluto Press, 2017)

Glenda Gilmore, Defying Dixie : the radical roots of civil rights, 1919-1950, (New York, W.W.Norton, 2008). **

Lauren Sklaroff, Black culture and the New Deal : the quest for civil rights in the Roosevelt era (2009)

Erik McDuffie, Sojourning for freedom : black women, American communism, and the making of black left feminism. (Duke University Press, 2011)

Theodore Draper, American communism & Soviet Russia. New York: Vintage Books. 1986).

Wilson Record Race and radicalism: the NAACP and the Communist Party in conflict. (1964)

Mark I Solomon, The cry was unity: communists and African Americans, 1917-36, 1917-36. (University Press of Mississippi 1998).

Mark Naison, Communists in Harlem during the depression (1983)

Robin D.G. Kelley, Race rebels: culture, politics, and the black working class (1994) espc Chs. 5 and 6.

Robin D.G. Kelley, Hammer and hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression (1990)

James Edward Smethurst, The new red Negro : the literary left and African American poetry, 1930-1946 / New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Richard Gid Powers, Not without honor : the history of American anticommunism /. New York: Free Press, c1995)

Michael Denning, The cultural front : the laboring of American culture in the Twentieth Century, (New York: Verso, 1998). **

Brian Dolinar, The Black cultural front : Black writers and artists of the Depression generation (2012)

Harvard Sitkoff A new deal for blacks : the emergence of civil rights as a national issue (1978)

Randi Storch, Red Chicago : American communism at its grassroots, 1928-35 ( Urbana :University of Illinois Press, c2007).

Eric Arnesen, The black worker : race, labor, and civil rights since emancipation (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, c2007).

Earl Ofari Hutchinson Blacks and reds : race and class in conflict, 1919-1990, (1995)

Carol Boyce Davies, Left of Karl Marx : the political life of black Communist Claudia Jones (Duke University Press, 2008).

Bill V. Mullen and James Smethurst eds, Left of the color line : race, radicalism, and twentieth-century literature of the United States, (Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, c2003)

Bill Mullen, Popular fronts : Chicago and African-American cultural politics, 1935-46, Chicago : University of Illinois Press, 1999). **

Michael E. Brown ed., et al, New studies in the politics and culture of U.S. communism, (New York : Monthly Review Press, 1993).

Danny Duncan Collum, ed., African Americans in the Spanish Civil War : "This ain't Ethiopia, but it'll do" (New York, G.K.Hall).

Joseph E. Harris, African-American reactions to war in Ethiopia, 1936-1941, (Louisiana State University Press, 1994)

William R. Scott, The sons of Sheba's race : African-Americans and the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935-1941. (Bloomington, 1993)

Barbara Foley, Radical representations : politics and form in U.S. proletarian fiction, 1929-1941. (1993)See especially Ch. 5. pp.170-212. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Patricia Sullivan, Days of hope : race and democracy in the New Deal Era (1996)

Paula A Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph, pioneer of the civil rights movement (1990)

William H. Harris, Keeping the faith : A. Philip Randolf, Milton P. Webster, and The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1925-37 (1977)

Cary D. Wintz ed. African American political thought, 1890-1930 : Washington, Du Bois, Garvey, and Randolph (1996)

Doug McAdam, Political process and the development of black insurgency, 1930-1970 (1999. 2 nd ed.)

Nancy Weiss, Farewell to the party of Lincoln : Black politics in the age of FDR (1983)

Ralph C., Bunche, The political status of the negro in the age of FDR

William J. Maxwell, New Negro, old Left : African-American writing and Communism between the wars

Articles

Manning Marable, “ Marxism, Memory, and the Black Radical Tradition: Introduction to Volume 13,” Souls ISSN: 1099-9949, 13:1, Jan-Mar2011, pp 1-16:

Nikhil Pal Singh, ‘Retracing the Black-Red Thread,’ American literary history. 2003 15(4): 830-840.

Harvey Klehr and William Tompson, "Self-Determination in the Black Belt: Origins of a Communist Policy," Labor history. 30 (Summer 1989).

Eric Arnesen, "No "Graver Danger": Black Anticommunism, the Communist Party, and the Race Question." Labor : studies in working-class history of the Americas. 3, no. 4 (Winter 2006): 13-52.

Daniel Hanglberger,  “Marcus Garvey and His Relation to (Black) Socialism and Communism,” American communist history ISSN: 1474-3892, (2018), 17:2, 200-219

Kenneth R. Janken, "Anticommunism or Anti--Communist Party? A Response to Eric Arnesen." Labor : studies in working-class history of the Americas., Winter 2006., 69-74,

Carol Anderson, 2006, '"The Brother in black is always told to wait": The Communist Party, African American Anticommunism, and the Prioritization of Black Equality -- A Reply to Eric Arnesen', Labor : studies in working-class history of the Americas., 2006, 65-68.

Eric Arnesen,. "The traditions of African-American anti-communism." Twentieth Century Communism no. 6 (May 2014): 124-148.

Dayo F Gore, ""The Danger of Being an Active anti-Communist": Expansive Black Left Politics and the Long Civil Rights Movement." American communist history ISSN: 1474-3892 11, no. 1: (2012, 45-48.

Charles H. Martin, "The International Labor Defense and Black America." Labor history. 26.2 (1985): 165-194

Hugh T. Murray, Jr. “The NAACP versus the Communist Party: The Scottsboro Rape Cases, 1931-1932. Phylon (1960-), Vol. 28, No. 3. (3 rd Qtr., 1967), pp. 276-287.

Winston James, ‘Being Red and Black in Jim Crow America: On the Ideology and Travails of Afro-America’s Socialist Pioneers, 1877-1930’, in Charles Payne & Adam Green, eds., : a century of African American activism, 1850-1950.

Robin D.G. Kelley, Ch. 5 Afric’s Sons With Banner Red: African American Communists and the Politics of Culture, 1919-1934 in Race rebels : culture, politics, and the black working class pp.103-121. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Erik S. McDuffie, "Black and Red: Black Liberation, The Cold War, and the Horne Thesis," Journal of African American History Spring 2011, Vol. 96 Issue 2, p236-247

Oliver Ayers, “Black Nationalism and Opposition to Organized Labour in 1930s New York City,” European journal of American culture. ISSN: 1466-0407; 1758-9118. Mar 2015, Vol. 34 Issue 1, p5-24.

William R. Scott, ‘ Black Nationalism and the Italo-Ethiopian Conflict 1934-1936,’ Journal of Negro history., Vol. 63, No. 2. (Apr., 1978), pp. 118-134.

Eric Putnam, ‘ Ethiopia Is Now: J. A. Rogers and the Rhetoric of Black Anticolonialism during the Great Depression,’ Rhetoric & Public Affairs – Volume 10, Number 3, Fall 2007, pp. 419-444

Cedric J. Robinson, ‘The African Diaspora and the Italo-Ethiopian Crisis,’ Race and class., Vol 27, No.2, (1985).

John B. Kirkby, “The Roosevelt Administration and Blacks: An Ambivalent Legacy”, in Barton J. Bernstein and Allen J. Matusow, eds., Twentieth-century America: recent interpretations, 265-288 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Benjamin Quarles, “A. Philip Randolph: Labor Leader at Large” in John Hope Franklin & August Meier, eds., Black leaders of the twentieth century.

William H. Harris, “A. Philip Randolph as a Charismatic Leader, 1925-1941,” Journal of Negro history., XLIV (1979), 301-315.

Irving Howe & B. J. Widick, “The U.A.W. Fights Race Prejudice,” in August Meier & Elliott Rudwick, eds., The making of black America: essays in Negro life & history, Volume II, The Black Community in Modern America, 234-

David Cullen and Kyle G. Wilkison “The Communist Party of the United States and African American political candidates” in Bruce A. Glasrud and Cary D. Wintz eds, African Americans and the presidency : the road to the White House (New York, Routledge, 2010).

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Black Women’s Organisation and Politics in the 1930s

Deborah Gray White Ch. 5 ‘Rethinking Place’ in Too heavy a load : black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994 (1999)

Darlene Clark Hine, “Housewives’ League of Detroit,” in Hine ed., Black women in America : an historical encyclopedia, 584-585 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Joyce Ross, “Mary McLeod Bethune and the National Youth Administration: A Case Study of Power Relationships in the Black Cabinet of Franklin D. Roosevelt” in John Hope Franklin & August Meier, eds., Black leaders of the twentieth century.

Erik McDuffie, "No Small Amount of Change Could Do," Esther Cooper Jackson and the Making of a Black Left Feminist" in Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodward eds., Want to start a revolution? : radical women in the black freedom struggle

Lashawn Harris, “Running with the Reds: African American women and the Communist Party during the Great depression,” Journal of African American History 94.1 (Winter 2009). Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Van Gosse, “To Organize in Every Neighborhood in Every Home”: The Gender Politics of American Communists between the wars, Radical History Review 50 Spring, 1991: 119-22. Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Robert Shaffer, “Women and the Communist Party, 1930-1940,” Socialist review.. 45 (May-June, 1979) Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

‘The Housewives’ League of Detroit: Black Women and Economic Nationalism,” in Suzanne Lesbock and Nancy Hewitt ed., Visible women : new essays on American activism (1993)

Rita Lois Helmbold, ‘The Depression’ in Black women in America : an historical encyclopedia eds., Darlene Clark Hine et al

Susan Ware, Beyond suffrage : women in the New Deal (1981)

Jacqueline Jones, Ch. 5 & 6 esp. In Labor of love, labor of sorrow : Black women, work, and the family from slavery to the present (1995)

Paula Giddings, Part II Ch.s 8-13 in When and where I enter : the impact of black women on race and sex in America (1984)

Angela Davis, Ch. 10 ‘Communist Women,’ in Women, race & class (1983)

Darlene Clark Hine and Kathleen Thompson, A shining thread of hope : the history of Black women in America

Martha H. Swain, ‘A New Deal for Southern Women’, in Christie Farnham Pope, ed., Women of the American south: a multicultural reader

Jerold S. Auerbach, ‘New Deal, Old Deal, or Raw Deal: Some Thoughts on New Left Historiography’ The journal of southern history. ISSN: 0022-4642. 35 (Feb 69)

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Civil Rights on the Eve of World War II

Nicholas Grant Winning our freedoms together : African Americans and apartheid, 1945-1960 ISBN: 9781469635286 (pbk : alk. paper); 9781469635279 (cloth : alk. paper); 9781469635293 (ebook) (Chapel Hill, November 2017)

Carol Anderson, Bourgeois radicals : the NAACP and the struggle for colonial liberation, 1941-1960 ISBN: 9780521155731 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0521155738 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780521763783 (hardback : alk. paper); 0521763789 (hardback : alk. paper) (2014)

Nat Brandt, Harlem at war : the Black experience in WWII

Earl Ofari Hutchinson, Betrayed : a history of presidential failure to protect black lives

Neil A. Wynn, The Afro-American and the Second World War (1993)

Neil McMillen, Remaking Dixie : the impact of World War II on the American South (1997)

John Morton Blum, V was for victory : politics and American culture during World War II (1976)

Graham Smith, When Jim Crow met John Bull : black American soldiers in World War II Britain (1987)

Articles

Lee Finkle, “The Conservative Aims of Militant Rhetoric: Black Protest During World War II,” The Journal of American history.., LX (1973), 692-713

Darlene Clark Hine, “Mabel K. Staupers and the Integration of Black Nurses into the Armed Forces” in John Hope Franklin & August Meier, eds., Black leaders of the twentieth century.

Pete Daniel, ‘Going among strangers: Southern reactions to World War II’, The Journal of American history.., 77 (1990), 886-911

C. R Kappes, & G. D. Black, “Blacks, Loyalty and Motion Picture Propaganda in World War II,” The Journal of American history.., 73 (1986), 383-406

Harvard Sitkoff, “Racial Militancy and Interracial Violence in the Second World War,” The Journal of American history.., 58 (December 1971): 661-68)

Charles V. Hamilton, “The Dual Agenda of African American Organizations since the New Deal: Social Welfare Politics and Civil Rights,” Political science quarterly., 107 (Fall, 1992): 436-42.

Bruce Nelson, ‘Organised Labour and the Struggle for Black Equality in Mobile during World War II’, The Journal of American history., 80 (1993)

Top of page

Civil Rights


Robert Cook, Sweet land of liberty? : the African-American struggle for civil rights in the twentieth century

Steven Lawson & Charles Payne, Debating the civil rights movement, 1945-1968

Tony Badger & Brian Ward, eds., The making of Martin Luther King and the civil rights movement

Manning Marable, Race, Reform and Rebellion

Harvard Sitkoff, The struggle for black equality 1954-1992

Glenda Gilmore, Defying Dixie : the radical roots of civil rights, 1919-1950, (2008)

Jeanne F. Theoharis, Komozi Woodard, and Matthew Countryman, eds, Freedom north : Black freedom struggles outside the South, 1940-1980 (2003) 

Jeanne F. Theoharis and Komozi Woodard, eds, Groundwork : local black freedom movements in America (2005)

Timothy B. Tyson, Radio Free Dixie : Robert F. Williams and the roots of black power (1999)

Simon Wendt, The spirit and the shotgun : armed resistance and the struggle for civil rights (2007)

Vicki Crawford et al, Women in the Civil Rights movement : trailblazers and torchbearers, 1941-1965 . (1993).** and *

Belinda Robnett, How long? How long? : African-American women and the struggle for civil rights (1997) ** and *

Bettye Collier-Thomas and V.P.Franklin eds., Sisters in the struggle : African American women in the civil rights-black power movement  (2001). ** and *

Peter Ling and Sharon Monteith, eds., Gender and the civil rights movement (2004) ** and *

Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard, Want to start a revolution? : radical women in the black freedom struggle (2009)

Dayo F. Gore, Radicalism at the crossroads : African American women activists in the Cold War (2011)

Megan Taylor Shockley, "We, too, are Americans" : African American women in Detroit and Richmond, 1940-54(2004)

Christina Greene, Our separate ways : women and the black freedom movement in Durham, North Carolina  (2005)

Jeanne Theoharis, The rebellious life of Mrs. Rosa Parks  (2013)

David Garrow ed., The Montgomery bus boycott and the women who started it : the memoir of Jo Ann Gibson Robinson  (1987)

Cynthia Griggs Flemming, Soon we will not cry : the liberation of Ruby Doris Smith Robinson (1998).

Joanne Grant, Ella Baker : freedom bound (1998).

Chana Kai Lee, For freedom's sake : the life of Fannie Lou Hamer (1999)

Paula Giddings, When and where I enter : the impact of black women on race and sex in America esp. Chs. 15 & 16 **

Deborah Gray White, Too heavy a load : black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994 ch. 6 & 7 . **

Sara Evans, Personal politics : the roots of women's liberation in the civil rights movement and the new left (1979). ** and *

Alice Kessler-Harris, In pursuit of equity : women, men, and the quest for economic citizenship in 20th-century America, (2001.)Ch. 5, pp.203-238 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Steve Estes, I am a man! : race, manhood, and the civil rights movement. (2005). ** and *

Articles

Robert Korstad and Nelson Lichtenstein, ‘Opportunities found and lost: labor, radicals, and the early civil rights movement’,  The Journal of American history. , lxxv (1988), 786–811

Jacqueline Dowd Hall, “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past,” The Journal of American history  91 4 (March, 2005), 1233-1263.

Judith Stein, "Why American Historians Embrace the "Long Civil Rights Movement"" American communist history ISSN: 1474-3892 11, no. 1 (April 2012): 55-58. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Sue Thrasher, Jacquline Dowd Hall and Bob Hall, "Learning from the Long Civil Rights Movement's First Generation" Southern cultures. ; Summer 2010, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p72-89

Eric Arnesen, “Reconsidering the ‘Long Civil Rights Movement,’” Historically Speaking 10 2 (April, 2009), 31-34.

Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua and Clarence Lang, The "Long Movement" as Vampire: Temporal and Spatial Fallacies in Recent Black Freedom Studies,” Journal of African American History , Vol. 92, No. 2 (Spring, 2007), pp. 265-288

Clarence Lang, "Between Civil Rights and Black Power in the Gateway City: The Action “Committee to Improve Opportunities for Negroes (ACTION), 1964-75"  Journal of Social History. , 37 (3) (2004)

Simon Wendt, ‘The Roots of Black Power? : Armed Resistance and the Radicalization of the Civil Rights Movement’, in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era, ed. by Peniel E. Joseph (New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. 145-166

William P. Jones, "The Unknown Origins of the March on Washington: Civil Rights Politics and the Black Working Class," Labor: Studies in Working Class History of the Americas; Fall 2010, Vol. 7 Issue 3, p33-52.

Robin Kelley, “Congested Terrain: Resistance on Public Transportation,” The Journal of American history, 80, No.1, June 1993.

A. Meier, ‘On the Role of Martin Luther King’ in C. Eric Lincoln, ed.,  Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Profile

'Black Conservatism in the Civil Rights Era', Ch. 5 in Christopher Alan Bracey, Saviors or sellouts : the promise and peril of Black Conservatism, from Booker T. Washington to Condoleezza Rice , (2008)

D. McAdam, ‘The Decline of the Civil Rights Movement’ in J. Freedman, ed,  Social movements of the sixties and seventies

A. Fairclough, ‘Historians and the Civil Rights Movement’ Journal of American studies. 24 (1990). **

S. Lawson, ‘Freedom Then, Freedom Now: The Historiography of the Civil Rights Movement’ The American historical review 96 (1991)

Charles Eagles, ‘Toward New Histories of the Civil Rights Era’, The journal of southern history., 66 (2000), 815-848

Peter J. Ling and Sharon Monteith ‘Introduction : gender and the civil rights movement', in Peter J. Ling and Sharon Monteith, eds, Gender and the civil rights movement  (2004)

Charles Payne, ‘Men Led, but Women Organized: Movement Participation of Women in the Mississippi Delta’, in Women in the Civil Rights movement : trailblazers and torchbearers, 1941-1965, ed. by Vicki L. Crawford et al., pp. 1-12

Belinda Robnett, “African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954- 1965: Gender, Leadership and Micromobilzation,” American Journal of Sociology. 101. no. 6 (May 1996): 1661-94. ***

Vicki Crawford, ‘Race, Class, Gender, and Culture: Black Women’s Activism in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement,’ Journal of Mississippi History, 58 (1) (1996), 1-21

V.P.Franklin and Bettye-Collier Thomas, ‘For the Race in General and Black Women in Particular: The Civil Rights Activities of African American Women’s Organizations, 1915-50’, in Bettye Collier-Thomas and V.P.Franklin, eds, Sisters in the struggle : African American women in the civil rights-black power movement,  pp. 21-41

Gail Murray, "How Did African American Women Shape the Civil Rights Movement and What Challenges Did They Face? " in Kathryn Kish Sklar and Tom Dublin eds.,  Women & social movements in the United States 1600-2000 [electronic resource]

Anne Standley, “The Role of Black Women in the Civil Rights Movement,” in Darlene Clark Hine ed., Black Women’s History: Theory and Practice 10 (1990): 183-201. Also in Mary Beth Norton ed., Major problems in American women's history : documents and essays , pp 448-456

Journal of black studies., 26 (5) (1996), Special Issue: The Voices of African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 539-647 esp.:

LaVern Gyant, 'Passing the Torch: African American Women in the Civil Rights Movement', 629-47 https://www.jstor.org/stable/2784888?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Carolyn Calloway-Thomas and Thurmon Garner, ‘Daisy Bates and the Little Rock School Crisis: Forging the Way’, 616-628 https://www.jstor.org/stable/2784887?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Anita K. Foeman, ‘Gloria Richardson: Breaking the Mold’, 604-15 https://www.jstor.org/stable/2784886?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Janice D. Hamlet, 'Fannie Lou Hamer: The Unquenchable Spirit of the Civil Rights Movement’, 560-76 https://www.jstor.org/stable/2784883?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Charles Payne, “Ella Baker and Models of Social Changes,” in Signs , 14 no. 4. (Summer, 1989). Also in Thomas C Holt and Elsa Barclay Brown ed. Major problems in African-American history : documents and essays  Vol. II. pp.305-311.

Belinda Robnett, ‘Women in the student non-violent coordinating committee : ideology, organizational structure, and leadership', in Peter J. Ling and Sharon Monteith, eds, Gender and the civil rights movement  (2004)

Cynthia Griggs Flemming, ‘Black Women Activists and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: The Case of Ruby Doris Smith Robinson.’ in Journal of women's history. Vol. 4. (Winter, 1993) 64-83. (hard copy)

Jacqueline A. Rouse, “We Seek to Know…..in Order to Speak the Truth”: Nurturing the Seeds of Discontent-Septima P. Clark and Participatory Leadership’ in Bettye Collier-Thomas and V.P.Franklin, eds, Sisters in the struggle : African American women in the civil rights-black power movement,  pp. 95-121

Sharon Harley, ‘“Chronicle of Death Foretold”: Gloria Richardson, the Cambridge Movement, and the Radical Black Activist Tradition’, in Sisters in the struggle : African American women in the civil rights-black power movement, ed. by Bettye Collier-Thomas and V.P. Franklin (New York: New York University Press, 2001), pp. 174-196

Jenny Walker, ‘The “Gun-Toting” Gloria Richardson: Black Violence in Cambridge, Maryland’, in Gender and the civil rights movement, ed. by Peter J. Ling and Sharon Monteith (2004), pp. 169-185

Ruth Feldstein, ‘“I Wanted the Whole World to See”: Race, Gender, and Constructions of Motherhood in the Death of Emmett Till,’ in Not June Cleaver : women and gender in postwar America, 1945-1960, ed. by Joanne Meyerowitz (1994), pp. 261-305 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Simon Wendt, ‘“They Finally Found Out that We Really Are Men”: Violence, Non-Violence and Black Manhood in the Civil Rights Era’, Gender & history., 19 (2007), 543-564

Christoper B. Strain, ‘“We Walked Like Men”: The Deacons for Defense and Justice’, Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, 38 (1997), 43-62

Laurie B. Green, ‘Race, Gender, and Labour in 1960s Memphis: “I AM A MAN” and the Meaning of Freedom’, Journal of Urban History, 30 (2004), 465-489

Danielle L. McGuire, ‘“It Was like All of Us Had Been Raped”: Sexual Violence, Community Mobilization, and the African American Freedom Struggle’, The Journal of American history., 91 (2004), 906-931

Brian Ward, ‘Sex machines and prisoners of love: male rhythm and blues, sexual politics, and the black freedom struggle’, in Peter J. Ling and Sharon Monteith, eds, Gender and the civil rights movement  (2004)

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Black Power

Robyn C. Spencer, The Revolution Has Come: Black Power, Gender, and the Black Panther Party in Oakland (Duke University Press, 2016)

Timothy B. Tyson, Radio Free Dixie : Robert F. Williams and the roots of black power

Peniel E. Joseph, ed.,  The Black Power movement: rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era (2006).

Peniel Joseph, ed., Neighborhood rebels : Black Power at the local level (2010)

Peniel Joseph, Dark days, bright nights: from Black Power to Barack Obama (2010), esp.  ch.s 1-3

Tom Adam Davies Mainstreaming black power ISBN: 9780520292116 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780520292109 (cloth : alk. paper) (2017)

Judson L. Jeffries, ed., Black Power : in the belly of the beast  (2006)

William L. Van Deburg, New day in Babylon : the Black Power movement and American culture, 1965-1975  (1992)

Rhonda Y. Williams, Concrete demands : the search for Black power in the 20th century (2015)

Charles E. Jones, ed., The Black Panther Party (reconsidered) (1998)

Kathleen Cleaver and George Katsiaficas, eds, Liberation, imagination, and the Black Panther Party : a new look at the Panthers and their legacy  (2001)

Jama Lazerow, and Yohuru Williams, In search of the Black Panther Party : new perspectives on a revolutionary movement (2006)

Joshua Bloom, Black against empire: the history and politics of the Black Panther Party  (2013)

Matthew J. Countryman, Up south: civil rights and Black power in Philadelphia  (2006)

Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003), Part III

Yohuru Williams, Black politics/white power: civil rights, black power and the Black Panthers in New Haven  (2000)

Premilla Nadasen, Welfare warriors : the welfare rights movement in the United States  (2005)

Annelise Orleck, Storming Caesar’s Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty (2005)

Dawn Marie Gibson, A history of the Nation of Islam: race, Islam, and the quest for freedom, (Praeger, 2012)

Bayyinah S. Jeffries, A nation can rise no higher than its women : African American Muslim women in the movement for black self determination, 1950-1975 (Lexington Books, 2014)

Stokely Carmichael & Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: the politics of liberation in America  (1968)

Philip S. Foner ed., The Black Panthers speak  (2002)

Manning Marable, Race, Reform and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1990,  2nd edn. (1991)

Richard King, Civil rights and the idea of freedom ch. 7

William Chafe, The unfinished journey : America since World War II  (1986) 

Hugh Pearson, The shadow of the panther : Huey Newton and the price of Black Power in America (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1994)

Articles

Tim Tyson, ‘Robert F. Williams, “Black Power”, and the Roots of the African American Freedom Struggle’,  The Journal of American history  (1998)

Rickey Hill, "The Bogalusa Movement: Self-Defense and Black Power in the Civil Rights Struggle," Black Scholar, 41 (3) ( 2011), 43-54

Peniel E. Joseph, ‘Black Liberation Without Apology: Reconceptualizing the Black Power Movement’, Black scholar.  31 (Fall 2001)

David Garrow, “Picking up the Books: The New Historiography of the Black Panther Party,” Reviews in American history  35 (2007), 650-670

Angela D. LeBlanc-Ernest, et al. "Ode to Our Feminist Foremothers: The Intersectional Black Panther Party History Project on Collaborative Praxis and Fifty Years of Panther History." Souls ISSN: 1099-9949: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society, vol. 19, no. 3, Jul-Sep2017, pp. 241-260.

Bonnie Young Laing, “The Universal Negro Improvement Association, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and Black Panther Party: Lessons for Understanding African American Culture-Based Organizing.”  Journal of black studies.  39, no. 4 (2009), 635-656

Simon Hall, ‘The NAACP, Black Power, and the African American Freedom Struggle, 1966-1969’, The Historian, 69 (1) (2007), 49-82

Leilah Danielson, ‘The "Two-ness" of the Movement: James Farmer, Nonviolence, and Black Nationalism’, Peace and change.  29 (2004)

Daniel Matlin, “‘Lift Up Yr Self!’ Reinterpreting Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), Black Power, and the Uplift Tradition,” The Journal of American history  93 1 (2006), 91-116

Clarence Lang, "Between Civil Rights and Black Power in the Gateway City: The Action “Committee to Improve Opportunities for Negroes (ACTION), 1964-75"  Journal of Social History. , 37 (3) (2004)

Simon Wendt, ‘The Roots of Black Power? : Armed Resistance and the Radicalization of the Civil Rights Movement’, in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era, ed. by Peniel E. Joseph (New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. 145-166

Charise Cheney, ‘“We Men Ain’t We”: Mas(k)ulinity and the Gendered Politics of Black Nationalism’, in : a century of African American activism, 1850-1950, ed. by Charles Payne and Adam Green (New York: New York University Press, 2003), pp. 536-563

Williams, Rhonda Y., ‘Black Women and Black Power,’ Magazine of History, 22 (2008), 22-27 - Available online: http://maghis.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/3/22.full.pdf

Regina Jennings, '“Why I Joined the Party: An Africana Womanist Reflection,' in Charles Jones, ed., The Black Panther Party (reconsidered)  (1998), pp. 257-65

Tracye Matthews, ‘“No One Ever Asks What a Man’s Role in the Revolution Is”: Gender Politics and Leadership in the Black Panther Party, 1966-71,’ in Sisters in the struggle : African American women in the civil rights-black power movement, ed. by Bettye Collier-Thomas and V.P. Franklin (2001), pp. 230-256

Angela D. LeBlanc-Earnest, ‘“The Most Qualified Person to Handle the Job”: Black Panther Party Women, 1966-1982’, in The Black Panther Party (reconsidered), ed. by Charles E. Jones (1998), pp. 305-334

Robyn Ceanne Spencer, ‘Engendering the Black Freedom Struggle: Revolutionary Black Womanhood and the Black Panther Party in the Bay Area, California,’ Journal of women's history., 20 (1) (2008), 90-113

Erika Huggins and Angela D. LeBlanc-Ernest, “Revolutionary Women, Revolutionary Education: The Black Panther Party's Oakland Community School,” in Want to start a revolution? : radical women in the black freedom struggle  ed. by Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis, and Komozi Woodard (2009)

Kathleen Neal Cleaver, ‘Women, Power, and Revolution’, in Liberation, imagination, and the Black Panther Party : a new look at the Panthers and their legacy, edited by Kathleen Cleaver and George Katsiaficas (2001), pp. 125-126

Farah Jasmine Griffin, ‘Ironies of the Saint’: Malcolm X, Black Women and the Price of Protection in Sisters in the struggle : African American women in the civil rights-black power movement, ed. by Bettye Collier-Thomas and V.P. Franklin (2001), pp. 214-229

Ula Y. Taylor, “As-Salaam Alaikum, My Sister, Peace Be Unto You: The Honorable Elijah Muhammed and the Women Who followed Him.’ Race and society1 (1998), 177-196

Rhonda Y. Williams, ‘Black Women, Urban Politics, and Engendering Black Power,’ in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era, ed. by Peniel E. Joseph (London: Routledge, 2006), pp. 79-103

Premilla Nadasen, ‘“We Do Whatever Becomes Necessary”: Johnnie Tillmon, Welfare Rights, and Black Power,’ in Want to start a revolution? : radical women in the black freedom struggle? , ed. by Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard (2009), pp. 317-338

Anne Valk, ‘“Mother Power”: The Movement for Welfare Rights in Washington, D.C., 1966-1972,’ Journal of women's history., 11, no. 4 (2000), 34-58

Kimberly Springer, ‘Black Feminists Respond to Black Power Masculinism,’ in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era, ed. by Peniel E. Joseph (2006), pp. 105-118

Stephen Ward, ‘The Third World Women’s Alliance: Black Feminist Radicalism and Black Power Politics,’ in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era, ed. by Peniel E. Joseph (2006), pp. 119-144

Duchess Harris, ‘From the Kennedy Commission to the Combahee Collective: Black Feminist Organizing, 1960-1980’ in ibid, 280-306 .

Simone M Caron, “Birth Control and the Black community in the 1960s: Genocide or Power Politics? ” Journal of Social History.  31 (3) (1998), 545-570. (hardcopy) Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

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Black Feminism

Deborah Gray White, Too heavy a load : black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994  (1999) 

Paula Giddings, When and where I enter : the impact of black women on race and sex in America  (1984) 

Angela Davis, Women, Race & Class  (1981)

William Chafe,  The American woman : her changing social, economic, and political roles, 1920-1970 (1972) 

Sara Evans, Personal politics : the roots of women's liberation in the civil rights movement and the new left  (1979)

Johnetta Betsch Cole and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, Gender talk: the struggle for women's equality in African American communities  ( 2003)

Benita Roth, Separate roads to feminism: Black, Chicana, and White feminist movements in America's second wave  (2004) 

Kimberly Springer, Living for the revolution : black feminist organizations, 1968-1980  (2005) 

Kimberley Springer, ed., Still lifting, still climbing : contemporary African American women's activism (1999)

Naples, Nancy A., ed., Community activism and feminist politics : organizing across race, class, and gender (1998)

Premilla Nadasen, Welfare warriors : the welfare rights movement in the United States  (2005)

Annelise Orleck, Storming Caesar’s Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty  (2005)

Anne M. Valk, Radical sisters : second-wave feminism and black liberation in Washington, D.C. (2008)

Jennifer Nelson, Women of color and the reproductive rights movement [electronic resource]  (2003)

Stephanie Gilmore, ed., Feminist coalitions : historical perspectives on second-wave feminism in the United States  (2008)

Toni Cade Bambara (ed.) The Black woman : an anthology  (New York: Washington Square Press 2005)

Barbara Smith (ed.) Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology (London: Rutgers University Press, 2000)

Layli Phillips (ed.), The Womanist reader  (New York: Routledge, 2006)

bell Hooks, Ain't I a woman: black women and feminism  (1982)

bell Hooks, Feminist theory: from margin to center  (2000)

Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment  (1990) 

Patricia Hill Collins, Black sexual politics : African Americans, gender, and the new racism  (2004)

Stanlie M. James and Abena P. A. Busia, eds, Theorizing black feminisms : the visionary pragmatism of black women (1993)

E. Frances White, Dark continent of our bodies: black feminism and the politics of respectability (2001)

Michele Wallace, Black macho and the myth of the Superwoman  (1970)

Gloria Hull et al, All the women are White, all the Blacks are men, but some of us are brave: Black women's studies  (1982)

Stanlie M. James, Frances Smith Foster, Beverly Guy-Sheftall, eds., Still brave : the evolution of black women's studies  (2009)

Articles

Sara Evans, ‘Women’s Consciousness and the Southern Black Movement’, in William Chafe and Harvard Sitkoff, eds, A History of Our Time (1999), pp. 199-9209

Kimberly Springer, ‘Black Feminists Respond to Black Power Masculinism,’ in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era ed. by Peniel E. Joseph (2006), pp. 105-118

Stephen Ward, ‘The Third World Women’s Alliance: Black Feminist Radicalism and Black Power Politics,’ in The Black Power movement : rethinking the civil rights-Black Power era ed. by Peniel E. Joseph (2006), pp. 119-144

Angela D. LeBlanc-Ernest, et al. "Ode to Our Feminist Foremothers: The Intersectional Black Panther Party History Project on Collaborative Praxis and Fifty Years of Panther History." Souls ISSN: 1099-9949: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society, vol. 19, no. 3, Jul-Sep2017, pp. 241-260.

Premila Nadasen, '"We Do Whatever Becomes Necessary": Johnnie Tillmon, Welfare Rights, and Black Power,' in Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharris, and Komozi Woodard (eds) Want to start a revolution? : radical women in the black freedom struggle  (New York: New York University Press, 2009): pp. 317-338.

Nadasen, Premilla, ‘Expanding the Boundaries of the Women’s Movement: Black Feminism and the Struggle for Welfare Rights,’ Feminist Studies., 28 (2002), 271-301

Martha Davis, 'Welfare Rights and Women's Rights in the 1960s,' Journal of Policy History, 8, no. 1 (1996), 144-165. Also printed in Robert Griffith and Paula Baker, eds, Major problems in American history since 1945: documents and essays , 2nd edn. (2001), pp. 389-400

Simone M. Caron, ‘Birth Control and the Black Community in the 1960s: Genocide or Power Politics? ’, Journal of Social History., 31, no. 3 (1998), 545-569

Loretta J. Ross, ‘African-American Women and Abortion,’ in Abortion wars : a half century of struggle, 1950-2000, ed. by Rickie Solinger (1998 ), pp. 161-207

Julie Gallagher, 'How Did Shirley Chisholm, the First African American Woman Elected to the United States Congress, Advance an Inclusive Feminist Politics in the 1960s and 1970s? ', in Kathryn Kish Sklar and Tom Dublin, eds, Women & social movements in the United States 1600-2000 [electronic resource] ( 1996), pp. 9-17

Wini Breines 'What's Love Got to Do with It? White Women, Black Women, and Feminism in the Movement Years', Signs, 27 (4) (2002), 1095-1133

Sherna Berger Gluck, ‘Whose Feminism, Whose History? Reflections on Excavating the History of (the) U.S. Women’s Movement(s)’, in Community activism and feminist politics : organizing across race, class, and gender, ed. by Nancy A. Naples (1998), pp. 31-56

Rosalyn Baxandall, 'Revisioning the Women’s Liberation Movement’s Narrative: Early Second Wave African American Feminists,' Feminist Studies  (2 001) 27 (1), 225-245

Becky Thompson, ‘Multiracial Feminism: Recasting the Chronology of Second Wave Feminism,” Feminist Studies, (2002) 28 (2), 337-360

Sara Evans, ‘Re-Viewing the Second Wave,' Feminist Studies, (2002) 28 (2), 259-267

Patricia Hill Collins, 'What's In a Name? Womanism, Black Feminism and Beyond' Black scholar,  26 (1). Also printed in Race, identity, and citizenship : a reader, ed. by Rodolfo D. Torres, Louis F. Miron, and Jonathan Xavier Inda (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 126-137

Deborah K. King, ‘Multiple Jeopardy, Multiple Consciousness: The Context of a Black Feminist Ideology,’ Signs., 14 (1) (1988), 42-72

Maxine Baca Zinn and Bonnie Thornton Dill, ‘Theorizing Difference from Multiracial Feminism,’ Feminist Studies. 22 (2) (1996), 321-331

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'Queering' Black America: Gay Liberation and Black Queer Studies

Videos

Paris is burning [videorecording], Jennie Livingston (director), 1994

Tongues untied [videorecording]., Marlon Riggs (director), 1989

The Color Purple, Steven Speilberg (director), 1985

Books and Edited Collections

Audre Lorde, Zami : a new spelling of my name (London: Pandora, 1996)

Joseph Beam, In the life : a Black gay anthology (Allyson Press, 1986)

bell hooks, “Is Paris Burning?” in Black looks : race and representation (South End Press, 1992), 145–156

Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa (eds), This bridge called my back : writings by radical women of color, 2 nd ed. (New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1983)

Mike Smith (ed.) Black men/white men : a gay anthology, 1999 edition (San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press, 1999 [1983])

Essex Hemphill (ed), Brother to brother : new writings by black gay men (Boston: Alyson, 1991)

Makeda Silvera (ed), Piece of my heart : a lesbian of colour anthology (Toronto: Sister Vision Press, 1991)

Marc Stein, Rethinking the gay and lesbian movement (New York: Routledge, 2012), chapter 3 Available online

Elizabeth A. Armstrong, Forging gay identities : organizing sexuality in San Francisco, 1950-1994 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2002)

Trimiko Melancon and Joanne M. Braxton eds., Black female sexualities ISBN: 9780813571737 (pbk.); 9780813571744 (hardback); 081357174X (hardback); 0813571731 (pbk.), (New Brunswick, New Jersey; London: Rutgers University Press, 2015).

Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy and Madeline D. Davis, Boots of leather, slippers of gold : the history of a lesbian community (New York: Routledge, 1993), chapter 4

Kimberly Springer, Living for the revolution : black feminist organizations, 1968-1980 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005)

Becky Thompson, A promise and a way of life : white antiracist activism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), Part II

Lillian Faderman, Odd girls and twilight lovers : a history of lesbian life in twentieth century America (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), pp. 72-78 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

E. Patrick Jonson and Mae G. Henderson (eds), Black queer studies : a critical anthology (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2005)

William G. Hawkeswood, One of the children : gay black men in Harlem (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996)

Keith Boykin, One more river to cross : black and gay in America (New York: Anchor Books, 1996)

Robert F. Reid-Pharr, Black gay man : essays (New York: New York University Press, 2001)

Siobhan B. Sommerville, Queering the color line : race and the invention of homosexuality in American culture (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Articles

Stephen Shapiro, “Pose, Paris is Burning, and the Creation of Community,” available at https://medium.com/@dr.sshapiro/pose-paris-is-burning-and-the-creation-of-community-1f1fdd69634d

Judith Butler, “Gender is Burning: Questions of Appropriation and Subversion.” Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex” (Routledge, 1993), 121–14.

Baker, Stuart, ed. Voguing and the House Ballroom Scene of New York City, 1989–1992.” (London: Soul Jazz Records, 2011). Also see a section online: http://www.timlawrence.info/articles2/2013/7/2/voguing-and-the-house-ballroom-scene-of-new-york-city-1989-92-soul-jazz

Rochella Thorpe, ‘“A house where queers go”: African-American Lesbian Nightlife in Detroit, 1940-1975’ in Ellen Lewin, ed., Inventing lesbian cultures in America (Boston: Beacon, 1996), pp.40-61 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

George Conerly, ‘The Politics of Black Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Identity’ in Brett Beemyn and Mickey Elianon (eds) Queer studies : a lesbian, gay, bisexual, & transgender anthology: (New York: NYU Press, 1996): pp. 133-145 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Adreana Clay, ‘Like an Old Soul Record: Black Feminism, Queer Sexuality, and the Hip-Hop Generation’ Meridians: feminism, race, transnationalism: 8(1), 2007: pp. 53-73

Dwight A McBride, "Toward the New Black Studies,” Journal of black studies. ISSN: 0021-9347 37, no. 3 (January 2007): 428-444

Patricia Hill Collins, Introduction: No Turning Back in her book, Black sexual politics : African Americans, gender, and the new racism: only pp. 1-8. Available online

Kendall Thomas, "Nothin Like the Real Thing": Black Masculinity, Gay Sexuality, and the Jargon of Black Authenticity," in Wahneema Lubiano ed., The house that race built ISBN: 0679760687 (pbk) (Vintage, 1998), 116-135;

Dwight McBride, "Can the Queen Speak?" Racial Essentialism, Sexuality and the Problem of Authority, Callaloo. ISSN: 0161-2492 21.2 (1998), 364-77.

Dwight A McBride, "Toward the New Black Studies," Journal of black studies. ISSN: 0021-9347. Jan2007, Vol. 37 Issue 3, pp428-444.

The Combahee River Collective, ‘Combahee River Collective Statement’ in Barbara Smith (ed) Home Girls : A Black Feminist Anthalogy (New York: Kitchen Table Women of Color Press, 1983) Available online

Allan Bérubé, ‘How Gay Stays White and What Kind of White It Stays’ in Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Eric Klinenberg, and Irene J. Nexica, eds, The making and unmaking of whiteness (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2001), pp. 234-265

Thom Beame, ‘Racism from a Black Perspective’ in Michael J. Smith (ed.) Black men/white men : a gay anthology: 57-63

Charles I. Nero, ‘Black Gay Men and White Gay Men: A Less Than Perfect Union’ in Carlos L. Dews and Carolyn Leste Law (eds) Out in the South (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001): pp. 115-126 EBook available

Cheryl Higashida, ‘To Be(come) Young, Gay, and Black: Lorraine Hansberry’s Existentialist Routes to Anticolonialism’ American Quarterly 60(4) (December 2008): pp. 899-925

Chong-Suk Han, ‘They Don’t Want to Cruise Your Type: Gay Men of Color and the Racial Politics of Exclusion’, Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture 13(1), 2007: pp. 51-67 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Amy A. Ongiri, ‘We Are Family: Black Nationalism, Black Masculinity, and the Black Gay Cultural Imagination’ College literature. 24, 1997: pp. 280-294.

Essex Hemphill, ‘ In Living Color: Toms, Coons, Mammies, Faggots, and Bucks’ in Corey K. Creekmur and Alexander Doty (eds), Out in culture : gay, lesbian, and queer essays on popular culture: (London: Duke University Press, 1995) pp. 389-401

Anthony Thomas, ‘The House the Kids Built: The Gay Black Imprint on American Dance Music’ in Corey K. Creekmur and Alexander Doty (eds), Out in culture : gay, lesbian, and queer essays on popular culture (London: Duke University Press, 1995) pp. 437-445

Marlon Riggs, ‘Black Macho Revisited: Reflections of a Snap! Queen’, in Corey K. Creekmur and Alexander Doty (eds),Out in culture : gay, lesbian, and queer essays on popular culture(London: Duke University Press, 1995) pp. 470-475 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Top of page

Black Politics and Culture Post Civil Rights

Richard Iton, In search of the Black fantastic : politics and popular culture in the post-civil rights era, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008). **

Kitwana Bakaria, The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture (2002).

Nathan Grant, “Mirrors Fade to Black: Masculinity, Misogyny and Class Ideation in The Cosby Show and Martin," in Athena D. Mutua ed., Progressive Black masculinities, (Routledge, 2006).

Christopher Alan Bracey, "The Influence of Infotainment: How Bill Cosby, Chris Rock, Pundits, and Bloggers lend Credibility to Black Conservative Ideas," Ch 9 in Saviors or sellouts : the promise and peril of Black Conservatism, from Booker T. Washington to Condoleezza Rice, (Beacon Press, 2008). **

Sut Jhally and Justin Lewis, Enlightened racism : the Cosby show, audiences, and the myth of the American dream (Harper Collins, 1992)**

Sut Jhally and Justin Lewis, "The politics of cultural studies: Racism, hegemony, and resistance." American Quarterly.  46, no. 1 (March 1994): 114 

Herman Gray, "Television, Black Americans, and the American Dream." Critical studies in mass communication. 6, no. 4 (December 1989): 376-386 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Herman Gray, "Black and white and in color." American Quarterly.  45, no. 3 (September 1993): 467 

And Herman Gray’s response Gray, Herman. American Quarterly , Mar1994, Vol. 46 Issue 1, p118. 

Leslie B., Inniss and Joe R. Feagin, "The Cosby Show: The view from the Black middle class." Journal of black studies. 25, no. 6 (July 1995): 692.

Special Issue of Dark Matter, 2009, Issue 4: Open access journal http://www.darkmatter101.org/site/category/journal/issues/4-the-wire/  See especially Ericka Johnson-Lewis, The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Serial Narrative on The Wire; Jud Franklin Common Ground: The Political Economy of The Wire; Sophie Fuggle, Short Circuiting the Power Grid: The Wire as Critique of Institutional Power  

Also see https://web.archive.org/web/20080413022628/http://www.iop.harvard.edu/Multimedia-Center/All-Videos/The-HBO-Series-The-Wire-A-Compelling-Portrayal-of-an-American-City

Greta de Jong, Invisible enemy : the African American freedom struggle after 1965 (Chichester, U.K. ; Malden, MA : Wiley-Blackwell, 2010). **

Robert C. Smith, We have no leaders : African-Americans in the post-civil rights era, (SUNY, 1996) **

William L. Van Deburg, Modern black nationalism : from Marcus Garvey to Louis Farrakhan (New York: New York University Press, 1997)

Ronald W. Walters and Robert Charles Smith eds., African American leadership (SUNY 1999)

Ollie A. Johnson, Karin L. Stanford, Black political organizations in the post-civil rights era, (Rutgers University Press, 2002). **

John White, Black leadership in America : from Booker T. Washington to Jesse Jackson, New York: Longman, 1985. **

David Covin Black politics after the civil rights movement : activity and beliefs in Sacramento, 1970-2000 (McFarland, 2009) **

Dean E. Robinson, Black nationalism in American politics and thought, (Cambridge, CUP, 2001).

Manning Marable and Leigh Mulllings, ‘‘The Divided Mind of Black America: Race, Ideology and Politics in the Post-Civil Rights Era,’’ in 73–86. Race and class 36, no. 1 (July–September 1994):

Top of page

Jesse Jackson and the Rainbow Coalition

Allen D. Hertzke Echoes of discontent : Jesse Jackson, Pat Robertson, and the resurgence of populism, (Washington: Congressional Q., 1993). **

Ernest R. House, Jesse Jackson & the politics of charisma : the rise and fall of the PUSH/Excel program, (Boulder, Westview Press, 1988)

Adolph L. Reed, Jr., The Jesse Jackson phenomenon : the crisis of purpose in Afro-American politics, (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1996). **

Tom Landess, Jesse Jackson & the politics of race. Ottawa, IL: Jameson Books, 1985).

Manning Marable, “Jackson and the Rise of theRainbow Coalition,” New left review., Jan/Feb85, Issue 149, p3-44

Paulette Pierce, “The Roots of the Rainbow Coalition,” Black scholar. 19, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 2-16

William Crotty, “Jacksonian Democracy-Black Style: Differing Perspectives, “ New perspectives in American politics 1, (July 1989): 143-151. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

James M. Smallwood, “Jesse Jackson: run, Jesse, run!” in Bruce A. Glasrud and Cary D. Wintz eds, African Americans and the presidency : the road to the White House  (New York, Routledge, 2010). **

E. Frances White, “Dis[mis]sing Clinton: Reflection on African Americans and the Elections, Radical America, 1990, Vol. 24 Issue 3, p22-27 Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Top of page

Louis Farrakhan, the Nation of Islam and the Million Man March

Mattias Gardell, In the name of Elijah Muhammad : Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam, (Duke University Press, 1996). **

McCormick, Joseph P. II. "The Messages and the Messengers: Opinions From the Million Men who Marched,” Race and representation 6, (July 1997): 142-164 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva .

Maulana Karenga, "The Million Man March/Day of absence mission statement." Black scholar. 25, no. 4 (Fall 1995): 2.

Marable, Manning. “Black fundamentalism: Farrakhan and conservative black nationalism.” Race and class. 39, no. 4 (April 1998): 1.

Stacey, Judith. “What Comes After Patriarchy? Comparative Reflections on Gender and Power in a 'Post-Patriarchal' Age.2 Radical History Review no. 71 (Spring98 1998): 63. Article available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Herb Boyd,. “The March.” Black scholar 25, no. 4 (Fall95 1995): 12

Top of page

Barack Obama and the ‘Post-Racial’ Politics

Barack Obama, Dreams from my father: a story of race and inheritance (New York: Times Books, 1995)

Barack Obama, The audacity of hope (Crown publishers, 2006)

David Remnick, The bridge: the life and rise of Barack Obama  (Knopf, 2010)

Michael Eric Dyson, The black presidency : Barack Obama and the politics of race in America ISBN: 9780544811805 (pbk.) : £11.99, (2016)   

James Kloppenberg, Reading Obama: dreams, hope, and the American political tradition (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), esp. ch.s 1 and conclusion

Manning Marable and Kristen Clarke eds., Barack Obama and African American empowerment: the rise of black America's new leadership  (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Edward Ashbee and John Dumbrell eds., The Obama presidency and the politics of change ISBN: 9783319410326 hardback (Cham,Switzerland: PalgraveMacmillan, 2017)

Thomas Sugrue, Not even past: Barack Obama and the burden of race (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010)

Michael Dawson, Not in our lifetimes : the future of black politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), esp. ch. 3 'The Obama Campaign and the Myth of a Post-Racial America'

Reginald Daniel and Hettie V. Williams eds., Race and the Obama phenomenon : the vision of a more perfect multiracial union ISBN: 9781628460216; 1628460210, (University of Mississippi Press, 2014)

Michelle Alexander, The new Jim Crow [electronic resource] : mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness (New Press, 2012)

Carol Anderson, White rage : the unspoken truth of our racial divide ISBN: 9781632864130 (PB); 9781632864123 (HB); 1632864126 (HB); 1632864134 (PB); 9781632864147 (ePub) (2016)   

Andra Gillespie, ed., Whose Black politics? : cases in post-racial Black leadership  (New York, Routledge, 2010)

Michael Tesler, Post-racial or most-racial? : race and politics in the Obama era ISBN: 9780226353012 (pbk.) : £17.50; 9780226352961 (hbk.) : £52.50; 9780226353159 (e-book), (University of Chicago Press, 2016)

Michael P. Jeffries, Paint the White House black : Barack Obama and the meaning of race in America ,(Stanford University Press, 2016).

Edward Ashbee and John Dumbrell eds., The Obama presidency and the politics of change ISBN: 9783319410326 hardback (Cham,Switzerland: PalgraveMacmillan, 2017).

Robert E. Terrill, Double-consciousness and the rhetoric of Barack Obama : the price and promise of citizenship ISBN: 9781611175318 (hardback); 1611175313 (hardback) . (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2015).

Houston A. Baker Jr., Betrayal: how black intellectuals have abandoned the ideals of the civil rights era  (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008)

William M. Banks, Black intellectuals: race and responsibility in American life (New York: W.W. Norton, 1996)

Chad Williams, Kidada E. Williams and Keisha N. Blain, eds, Charleston syllabus : readings on race, racism, and racial violence(Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2016)

Articles

Daedalus. Winter 2011 (140:1) - browse the whole issue and esp. articles by Gerald Early, Waldo E. Martin, Amina Gautier and Eric Sundquist

Carly Fraser "Race, Post-Black Politics, and the Democratic Presidential Candidacy of Barack Obama," Souls ISSN: 1099-9949: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society, vol. 11, no. 1, Jan-Mar2009, pp. 17-40

Farah Jasmine Griffith, "At Last...?: Michelle Obama, Beyonce, Race & History," Daedalus. ISSN: 0011-5266, v. 140 no. 1, pp. 131-141

Christopher J. Metzler, 'Barack Obama's Faustian Bargain and the Fight for America's Racial Soul', Journal of black studies 40 (3) (2010), 395-410

David Mastey, 'Slumming and/as Self-Making in Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father', Journal of black studies, ( 40) (3) (2010), 484-501

Tony Badger, "The Lessons of the New Deal: Did Obama Learn the Right Ones? " History. , Jan 2012, Vol. 97 Issue 325, p99-114.

Michael Kazin, "Too Many Obamas? " Raritan. . Winter 2011, Vol. 30 Issue 3, p80-93

Martell Teasley and David Ikard “ Barack Obama and the Politics of Race: The Myth of Postracism in America,” in Journal of black studies. 40: 3 (January, 2010): 411 - 425.

Andrew Rudalevige, “The Contemporary Presidency: The Obama Administrative Presidency: Some Late-Term Patterns." Presidential studies quarterly. ISSN: 0360-4918; 1741-5705 (Electronic), vol. 46, no. 4, Dec. 2016, pp. 868-890.

Mӑdӑlina Stӑlniceanu,. "President Barack Obama's Response to the Painfully Familiar Pattern of Violence against African Americans," European journal of American culture. ISSN: 1466-0407; 1758-9118, vol. 37, no. 2, June 2018, pp. 107-125

Daniel Q. Gillion, "Obama's Discussion of Racial Policies and Citizens' Racial Resentment in the Experimental Setting." Presidential studies quarterly. ISSN: 0360-4918; 1741-5705 (Electronic)y, vol. 47, no. 3, Sept. 2017, pp. 517-528

Richard H. King "Becoming black, becoming president," Patterns of prejudice. (February 2011):45:1/2, 62-85.

George Lewis "Barack Hussein Obama: the use of history in the creation of an ‘American’ president," (2011): Patterns of prejudice., 45:1/2, 43-61.

D Freeman, "Teaching Obama: history, critical race theory and social work education," Patterns of prejudice.  February 2011;45(1/2):177-197

Donatella Galella, "Being in “The Room Where It Happens”: Hamilton , Obama, and Nationalist Neoliberal Multicultural Inclusion." Theatre survey. ISSN: 0040-5574; 1475-4533, vol. 59, no. 3, Sept. 2018, pp. 363-385

Manning Marable, "Racializing Obama: The Enigma of Post-Black Politics and Leadership," Souls ISSN: 1099-9949, 11 (1) (2009), 1-15. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Robin D. G. Kelley, “He's Got the Whole World in His Hands”: US History and Its Discontents in the Obama Era,” Journal of American studies., February 2011;45(1): 185-200

G. Davies “Responses to Robin D. G. Kelley, “He's Got the Whole World in His Hands”. Journal of American studies, 45 (1) (2011), E1

Ebony Utley and Amy L. Heyse, “Barack Obama's (Im)Perfect Union: An Analysis of the Strategic Successes and Failures in His Speech on Race." Western journal of black studies. ISSN: 0197-4327. 33, no. 3 (Fall2009): 153-163. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Tressie McMillan Cottom, “The Problem With Obama's Faith in White America,” The Atlantic, Dec 13, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/12/obamas-faith-in-white-america/510503/

Carl Pedersen, "The Obama Dilemma: Confronting Race in the Twenty-First Century," Comparative American Studies, Aug 2012, Vol. 10 Issue 2/3, pp128-141 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Carole Boyce Davies,  "Con-di-fi-cation": Black Women, Leadership, and Political Power," and Cheryl A. Wall "On Dolls, Presidents, and Little Black Girls," in Stanlie M. James, Frances Smith Foster, Beverly Guy-Sheftall, eds., Still brave : the evolution of black women's studies  (Feminist Press, 2009)

Cary D. Wintz, “Colin Powell : the candidate who wasn’t,” in Bruce A. Glasrud and Cary D. Wintz eds, African Americans and the presidency : the road to the White House  (New York, Routledge, 2010). **

Timothy J. Lynch, "Obama and the Third Bush Term: Towards a Typology of Obama Studies." International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850, vol. 88, no. 5, Sept. 2012, pp. 1101-111

Paul Finkelman, “Barack Hussein Obama: an inspiration of hope, an agent for change,” Bruce A. Glasrud and Cary D. Wintz eds, African Americans and the presidency : the road to the White House  (New York, Routledge, 2010).**

Souls, Jan-Mar2008, Vol. 10 Issue 1. especially: **

Manning Marable “The Crisis of Black Leadership: Introduction to an International Symposium” pp1-4 in Ibid

Ryan Reft, “Limits of Black Pragmatism: The Rise and Fall of David Dinkins, 1989-1993.” Pp5-19 in Ibid.

David Covin, “The Paradox of Black Political Leadership,” pp 20-23 in Ibid.

Andra Gillespie, "The Third Wave: Assessing the Post-Civil Rights Cohort of Black Elected Leadership." New perspectives in American politics 12, (2009), 139-161 .

Charlton D. McIlwain, 'Perceptions of Leadership and the Challenge of Obama's Blackness',  Journal of black studies. 38, (1) (2007), 64-74

Clarence Taylor, 'Hurricane Katrina and the Myth of the Post-Civil Rights Era', Journal of Urban History 35 (5) (2009), 640-655

Jennifer R. Mercieca and Justin S. Vaughn,“Barack Obama and the Rhetoric of Heroic Expectations,” in The rhetoric of heroic expectations : establishing the Obama presidency ISBN: 9781623491215 (e-book), edited by Justin S. Vaughn and Jennifer R. Mercieca (College Station:TexasA& M UniversityPress, 2014),

Denise M. Borstdorff, "Obama, Trump, and Reflections on the Rhetoric of Political Change." Rhetoric & Public Affairs ISSN: 1094-8392, vol. 20, no. 4, Winter2017, pp. 695-706.

Activism, Politics and Culture in the #BlackLivesMatter Era

Alicia Garza, 2014. “A Herstory of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement by Alicia Garza.” The Feminist Wire (October 7, 2014). Available at <http://thefeministwire.com/2014/10/blacklivesmatter-2/>

Audrey June, 2015. “When Activism Is Worth the Risk.” The chronicle of higher education. ISSN: 0009-5982 (July 20, 2015). Available at <http://chronicle.com/article/When-Activism-Is-Worth-the/231729/?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en>

David Perry, 2014. “#FergusonSyllabus.” The chronicle of higher education. ISSN: 0009-5982 (November 25, 2014). Available at <http://chronicle.com/blogs/conversation/2014/11/25/fergusonsyllabus/>

Jennifer Chernega, "Black Lives Matter: Racialised Policing in the United States," in Comparative American Studies An International Journal Vol. 14 , Iss. 3-4, 2016. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Robin D.G. Kelley et al "Black Study, Black Struggle" Forum in Boston Review ISSN: 0734-2306, March 2016 https://bostonreview.net/forum/robin-d-g-kelley-black-study-black-struggle

Ruth Milkman, "A New Political Generation: Millennials and the Post-2008 Wave of Protest," American sociological review. ISSN: 0003-1224 (Jan 2017) Vol 82, Issue 1, pp. 1 - 31.

Ta-Nehisi Coates, "This Is How We Lost to the White Man," The Atlantic 2008. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/05/-this-is-how-we-lost-to-the-white-man/306774/

Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the world and me ISBN: 9781925240702; 1925240703(2010)

Ta-Nehisi Coates, We were eight years in power : an American tragedy ISBN: 9780241325230 hardback; 0241325234 hardback; 0241325242 trade paperback; 9780241325247 trade paperback (2017)

Claudia Rankine, Citizen : an American lyric ISBN: 9780141981772 pbk.; 0141981776 pbk. (2015)

Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, From #BlackLivesMatter to Black liberation ISBN: 9781608465620 (pbk.); 1608465624 (pbk.) (Haymarket Books, 2016)

Christopher J. Lebron, The making of Black Lives Matter : a brief history of an idea ISBN: 9780190601355 (e-book), (Oxford University Press, 2017)   

Ta-Nehisi Coates, "Charles Barkley and the Plague of 'Unintelligent' Blacks: A History of Respectability Politics, from the Postbellum Period to Today." The Atlantic, 28 Oct. 2014 https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/10/charles-barkley-and-the-plague-of-unintelligent-blacks/382022/ last

Fredrick C. Harris, "The Rise of Respectability Politics," Dissent Magazine, Winter 2014; https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/the-rise-of-respectability-politics

Michael Eric Dyson, "Where Do We Go After Ferguson?" The New York times. ISSN: 0362-4331, 30 Nov. 2014, SR1

Randall Kennedy, "Lifting As We Climb": A Progressive Defense of Respectability Politics," Harper's Magazine, Oct. 2015, http://harpers.org/archive/2015/10/lifting-as-we-climb/

William Julius Wilson, "Black youths, joblessness, and the other side of "Black Lives Matter" Ethnic and racial studies. ISSN: 0141-9870, Vol 39: 8, (2016) pp1450-1457

Michelle Alexander Review of Between the World and Me, by Ta-Nehisi Coates. The New York times. ISSN: 0362-4331 17 Aug. 2015.

D.Smith, "Ceding the Future." African American review. ISSN: 1062-4783, vol. 49 no. 3, 2016, pp. 183-191.

Howard Rambsy II, "The Remarkable Reception of Ta-Nehisi Coates." African American review. ISSN: 1062-4783, vol. 49, no. 3, Fall2016, pp. 196-204.

Thabiti. Lewis, "How Fresh and New Is the Case Coates Makes?." African American review. ISSN: 1062-4783, vol. 49, no. 3, Fall2016, pp. 192-196.

Harvey Young,. "Pessimism and the Age of Obama." American literary history. ISSN: 0896-7148, vol. 28, no. 4, Winter 2016, pp. 854-858

Clayton, Dewey M. "Black Lives Matter and the Civil Rights Movement: A Comparative Analysis of Two Social Movements in the United States." Journal of black studies. ISSN: 0021-9347s, vol. 49, no. 5, July 2018, pp. 448-480

Minkah Makalani, “Black Lives Matter and the Limits of Formal Black Politics” in “After Ferguson, After Baltimore: The Challenge of Black Death and Black Life for Black Political Thought,” pp529-552 in Special Issue of The South Atlantic quarterly. ISSN: 0038-2876, Vol 116, Issue No. 3

Barnor Hesse and Juliet  Hooker, “Introduction: On Black Political Thought inside Global Black Protest.” pp 443-456 in Special Issue of The South Atlantic quarterly. ISSN: 0038-2876, Vol 116, Issue No. 3

James D. Anderson, and Christopher M. Span. "History of Education in the News the Legacy of Slavery, Racism, and Contemporary Black Activism on Campus." History of education quarterly. ISSN: 0018-2680, vol. 56, no. 4, Nov. 2016, pp. 646-656

This list was last updated on 23/09/2019