Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue
- Recommended Text for the Course:
- Research Methodology, General
- Quantitative Research
- Qualitative Research
- Interviews/Questionnaires/Focus Groups
- Discourse Analysis/Conversation Analysis
- Applied Linguistics / Sociolinguistics
- Instrumental Phonetics
- Corpus Linguistics
- Methods in Formal Linguistics
- First Language Acquisition
- Learner Language, Second Language Acquisition, Classroom Research
- Research Ethics
Recommended Text for the Course:
Dornyei, Zoltan (2007) Research methods in applied linguistics : quantitative qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford: OUP.
Rasinger, S. (2008) Quantitative research in linguistics : an introduction. London: Continuum.
Also useful, but somewhat simplistic is the undergraduate text:
Wray Alison, Kate Trott and Aileen Bloomer (2006) Projects in Linguistics: A Practical Guide to Researching Language. London: Arnold.
Research Methodology, General
Adam F. & M. Healy (2000) A practical guide to postgraduate research in the business area : coping with Pandora's box. Dublin: Blackhall Publishing.
Bailey A. (1996) A guide to field research. California. Pine Forge Press.
Balnaves M. & P. Caputi (2001) Introduction to quantitative research methods : an investigative approach. London: Sage Publications.
Blaxter Lorraine, Christina Hughes, Malcolm Tight (2010) How to Research. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Cohen Louis, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison (2011) Research Methods in Education. 7th edition. London: Routledge.
Denscombe, M. (2010) The Good Research Guide. Buckingham: OUP.
Frankfort-Nachmias C. and D. Nachmias (2000) Research Methods in the Social Sciences. London: Edward Arnold.
Greenfield Tony (ed.) (2002) Research methods for postgraduates. London: Arnold.
Herzog T. (1996) Research methods in the social sciences. London: Edward Arnold.
Baayen, R.H. (2008) Analyzing linguistic data : a practical introduction to statistics using R. Cambridge: CUP. [Note: This text is very technical. You may not find it very accessible].
Greene, J. and M. D'Oliveira (1982). Learning to use statistical tests in psychology : a student's guide. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Gries, St. Th. 2009. Quantitative corpus linguistics with R : a practical introduction. New York: Routledge.
Johnson, K. 2008. Quantitative methods in linguistics. Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell.
Rasinger, S. (2008) Quantitative research in linguistics : an introduction. London: Continuum. [Note: This is a good text to start with].
Denzin N. K. & Y. S. Lincoln (2003) The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues. London: Sage.
Denzin N. K. & Y. S. Lincoln (2003) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. London: Thousand Oaks.
Glesne, C. (1998) Becoming Qualitative Researchers: An Introduction. New York: Longman.
Mason Jennifer (2002) Qualitative Researching. London: Sage Publications.
Miles M. & M. A. Huberman (2013) Qualitative Data Analysis. Beverley Hills: Sage.
Schostak John F. (2002) Understanding, designing, and conducting qualitative research in education : framing the project. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Silverman D. (2011) Interpreting Qualitative Data. London: Sage Publications.
Arksey Hilary & Peter Knight (1999) Interviewing for social scientists : an introductory resource with examples. London: Sage Publications.
Barbour, R. S. & J. Kitzinger (eds) (1999) Developing focus group research : politics, theory and practice. London: Sage.
Breakwell Glynis M. (1990) Interviewing. London: Routledge.
Briggs C. I. (1986) Learning how to ask : a sociolinguistic appraisal of the role of the interview in social science research. Cambridge: CUP.
Cukor-Avila, P. and G. Bailey (2001) The effects of the race of the interviewer on sociolinguistic fieldwork. Journal of sociolinguistics., 5/2, 254-70.
Fowler F. J. (2009) Survey Research Methods. London: Sage Publications.
Frazer Lorelle & Meredith Lawley (2000) Questionnaire design & administration : a practical guide. Brisbane: John Wiley and Sons.
Gilbert N. (ed.) (2008) Researching Social Life. London: Sage.
Gillham Bill (2000) Developing a questionnaire. London: Continuum.
Greenbaum T. L. (2000) Moderating focus groups : a practical guide for group facilitation. California: Sage Publications.
Houtkoop-Steenstra, H. (2000) Interaction and the standardized survey interview : the living questionnaire. Cambridge: CUP.
Keats Daphne M. (2001) Interviewing : a practical guide for students and professionals. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Krueger R. A. (2009) Focus Groups: a Practical guide for Applied Research. California: Sage Publications.
Kvale S. (1996) Interviews : an introduction to qualitative research interviewing. London: Sage Publications.
Merton R. K., M. Fiske and P.L. Kendall (1990) The Focused Interview: A Manual of Problems and Procedures. New York: The Free Press.
Morgan D. L. (1997) Focus groups as qualitative research. London: Sage.
Myers, Greg (1998) Displaying opinions: Topics and disagreement in focus groups. Language in society. 27 (1): 85-111.
Myers, Greg (2004) Matters of opinion : talking about public issues. Cambridge: CUP.
Oppenheim A. N. (2003) Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. London: Pinter.
Peterson Robert A. (2000) Constructing effective questionnaires. London: Sage Publications.
Puchta, C. & J. Potter (1999) Asking elaborate questions: Focus groups and the management of spontaneity. Journal of sociolinguistics. 3: 314-35.
Stewart D. W. & P. N. Shamdasani (2007) Focus Groups: Theory and Practice. California: Sage Publications.
Weiss R. S. (1994) Learning from strangers : the art and method of qualitative interview studies. New York: The Free Press.
Wengraf T. (2001) Qualitative research interviewing : biographic narrative methods and semi-structured methods. London: Sage.
Wilson M. & S. McLean (2003) Questionnaire Design: a Practical Introduction. Newton Abbey, C. Antrim: University of Ulster Press.
Discourse Analysis/Conversation Analysis
Cameron, Deborah (2001) Working with spoken discourse. London: Sage.
Cameron Deborah, Elizabeth Fraser, Penelope Harvey, Ben Rampton and Kay Richardson (1992) Researching language : issues of power and method. London: Routledge. (Excerpts reprinted in Coupland & Jaworski, 1997: 145-62 and Jaworski & Couplan, 1999: 141-58).
Chouliaraki Lilie and Norman Fairclough (1999) Discourse in late modernity : rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Derek Roger and Bull Peter (1988) Conversation : an interdisciplinary perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Fairclough Norman (1992) Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Fairclough Norman (2003) Analyzing discourse : textual analysis for social research. London: Routledge.
Hutchby Ian and Robin Wooffitt (2008) Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Johnstone, Barbara (2000) Qualitative methods in sociolinguistics. Oxford: OUP.
Pennycock Alistair (2001) Critical applied linguistics : a critical introduction. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schiffrin Deborah (1994) Approaches to discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ten Have, P. (2007) Doing Conversation Analysis. London: Sage.
Wolfson, Nessa (1976). Speech events and natural speech: some implications for sociolinguistic methodology. Language in society. 5 (2): 189-209
Applied Linguistics / Sociolinguistics
Atkinson P. (1990) The ethnographic imagination : textual constructions of reality. London: Routledge.
Atkinson, J.M. and Heritage, J. (1984) Structures of social action : studies in conversation analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Atkinson P., Coffey A., Delamont S., Lofland J. & Lofland L. (2007) The Handbook of Ethnography. London: Sage Publications.
Bryman A. (2012) Social Research Methods. Oxford: OUP.
Clifford J. & G. E. Marcus (eds.) (1986) Writing culture : the poetics and politics of ethnography : a School of American Research advanced seminar. California: University of California Press.
Cukor-Avila, P. (2000) Rethinking the Observer’s Paradox. American Speech., 75/3, 253-4.
Duranti A. (1997) Linguistic anthropology. Cambridge: CUP.
Emerson R. M., Fretz R. I. & L. L. Shaw (1995) Writing ethnographic fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fairclough Norman (2001) Language and Power. London: Longman.
Fetterman D. M. (2007) Ethnography step-by-step. London: Sage Publications.
Gilbert N. (ed.) (2008) Researching Social Life. London: Sage.
Hammersley M & P. Atkinson (2007) Ethnography: Principles in Practice. London: Routledge.
Janesick V. J. (2011) Stretching Exercises for Qualitative Researchers. London: Sage Publications.
Johnson Sally (1995) Gender, group identity, and variation in the Berlin urban vernacular : a sociolinguistic study. Zurich. Peter Lang.
Johnson Sally (2001) Who’s misunderstanding whom? (Socio)linguistics, public debate and the media. Journal of sociolinguistics. 5 (4): 591-610. [With responses by Jean Aitchison (University of Oxford), James Milroy (University of Michigan) and Peter Garrett (University of Cardiff).]
Johnstone Barbara (2000) Qualitative methods in sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Labov, William (1966) The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Labov, William (1972a) Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press Inc.
Labov, William (1972b) Language in the inner city : studies in the Black English vernacular. Pennsylvania:. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press Inc.
Labov, William (1982) Objectivity and commitment in linguistic science: the case of the Black English trial in Ann Arbor. Language in society, 44: 165-210.
Milroy Lesley (1987) Language and Social Networks. Oxford: Blackwell.
Milroy Lesley (1987) Observing and analysing natural language : a critical account of sociolinguistic method. Oxford: Blackwell.
Milroy Lesley & Matthew Gordon (2003) Sociolinguistics : method and interpretation. Oxford: Blackwell.
Myers, Greg (2004) Matters of opinion : talking about public issues Cambridge: CUP.
Pink S. (2007) Doing Visual Ethnography. London: Sage.
Preston, Dennis (2000) Mowr and mowr bayud spellin': Confessions of a sociolinguist. Journal of sociolinguistics. 4 (4): 614-21.
Ribbons J. & R. Edwards (1998) Feminist dilemmas in qualitative research : public knowledge and private lives. London: Sage.
Rietveld Toni and Roeland van Hout (2005) Statistics in language research : analysis of variance. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Saville-Troike Muriel (2003) The Ethnography of Communication: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ward K. J. (1999) Cyber-ethnography and the emergence of the virtually new community. Journal of information technology. 14: 95-105.
Wilson, J. (1987) The sociolinguistic paradox: data as a methodological product. Language and Communication. 7, 161-77.
Wolcott H. E. (1999) Ethnography : a way of seeing London: AltaMira Press.
Wolcott, H. E. (1990) ‘On seeking – and rejecting – validity in quantitative research.’ In E. W. Eisner & A. Peshkin (eds) Qualitative inquiry in education : the continuing debate. Teachers’ College Press.
Wolf D. (ed.) (1996) Feminist dilemmas in fieldwork. Oxford: Westview Press.
Wolfram Walt and Ralph W Fasold (1974) The study of social dialects in American English. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Wolfram W. & R. Fasold (1974) Field methods in the study of social dialects. In W. Wolfram and R. Fasold The study of social dialects in American English (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Abercrombie, D. (1967) Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 127-132.
Bucholtz, Mary (2001) The politics of transcription. Journal of Pragmatics. 32, 1439-65.
Coates Jennifer and Joanna Thornborrow (1999) Myths, lies and audiotape: some thoughts on data transcripts. Discourse & society. 10 (4), 594-7.
Edwards, J. A. (2001) The transcription of discourse. In Schiffrin, Tannen and Hamilton (eds) The Handbook of discourse analysis. Oxford: Blackwell. 321-48.
Jaffe Alexandra (2000) Introduction: Non-standard orthography and non-standard speech. Journal of sociolinguistics., 4 (4), 497-513.
Jaffe Alexandra and Shana Walton (2000) The voices people read: Orthography and the representation of non-standard speech. Journal of sociolinguistics., 4 (4), 561-88.
Laver, J. (1994) Principles of phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp.549-562.
Macauley, Ronald (1991) “Coz it izny spelt when they say it”: displaying dialect in writing. American Speech. 66, 280-91.
Maxwell Atkinson J and John Heritage (1984) Jefferson's transcription notation. In J. Maxwell Atkinson and John Heritage (eds) Structures of social action : studies in conversation analysis. Cambridge: CUP. (Reprinted in Adam Jaworski and Nikolas Coupland, 1999, The Discourse Reader, London: Routledge, pp 158-66.)
Müller, N. (2006) Multilayered transcription. San Diego: Plural Publishing.
Ochs Elinor (1979) Transcription as theory. In Elinor Ochs and Bambi B Schieffelin, Developmental pragmatics. New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in Adam Jaworski and Nikolas Coupland, 1999, The Discourse Reader, London: Routledge, pp 167-82.)
Preston, Dennis (1995) The Li’l Abner syndrome: written representations of speech. American Speech. 60/4, 328-36.
Kent, R. D. & Read, C. (2002) The acoustic analysis of speech. 2nd edition. San Diego: Singular Publishing.
Ladefoged, P. (2003) Phonetic data analysis : an introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques. Oxford: Blackwell.
Tatham, M. & Morton, K. (1997) Recording and displaying speech. In M.J.Ball & C.Code (eds.) Instrumental clinical phonetics. London: Whurr Publishers. pp.1-21.
Burton-Roberts, N., Carr, P. & Docherty, G. eds. (2000) Phonological knowledge : conceptual and empirical issues. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gussman, E. (2002). Phonology : analysis and theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biber, D. Conrad, S. and Reppen, R. (1998) Corpus linguistics : investigating language structure and use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McEnery Tony and Andrew Wilson (1996) Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Meurers, W.M. (2005) On the use of electronic corpora for theoretical linguistics: Case studies from the syntax of German. Lingua., 115: 1619-1639.
Oostdijk N. & P. de Haan (eds) (1994) Corpus-based research into language : in honour of Jan Aarts. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Svartvik, Y (ed). (1992) Directions in corpus linguistics : proceedings of Nobel Symposium 82, Stockholm, 4-8 August 1991. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Methods in Formal Linguistics
Aarts, Bas (2007) Syntactic gradience : the nature of grammatical indeterminacy. Oxford University Press
Bard, E., Robertson, D. and Sorace, A. (1996) Magnitude estimation of linguistic acceptability. Language. 72(1): 32-68.
Borsley, R.D. ed. (2005) Data in Theoretical Linguistics. Special Issue of Lingua.. (See all entries in this journal's special issue for papers on a range of issues in research methods for formal linguistics).
Cowart, W. (1997) Experimental syntax : applying objective methods to sentence judgements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Featherston, S. & Sternefeld, W. (2007) Roots : linguistics in search of its evidential base. Studies in Generative Grammar 96, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Henry, Alison. (2005) Non-standard dialects and linguistic data. Lingua. 115:1599-1617.
Murphy, V. (1997) The effect of modality on a grammaticality judgment task. Second language research.. 13: 34 – 65.
Schütze, Carson T. (1996) The empirical base of linguistics : grammaticality judgments and linguistic methodology. University of Chicago Press.
Snyder, W. (2000) An experimental investigation of syntactic satiation effects. Linguistic inquiry. 31:575-582.
Sorace, A. & Keller, F. (2005) Gradience in linguistic data. Lingua. 115: 1497-1524.
Nagata, Hiroshi (1988) The relativity of linguistic intuition: The effect of repetition on grammaticality judgements. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research.. 17: 1-17
First Language Acquisition
Ambridge, B & Lieven E (2011) Child language acquisition : contrasting theoretical approaches. Cambridge, CUP especially pages 6-13
Crain, S. & Thornton, R. (1998) Investigations in universal grammar : a guide to experiments on the acquisition of syntax and semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hoff, E (2011). Research methods in child language : a practical guide. Wiley-Blackwell.
McDaniel, Dana, McKee, Cecile & Cairns, Helen (1996) Methods for assessing children's syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Menn, L. & Bernstein Ratner, N. (2000) Methods for studying language production, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.
Learner Language, Second Language Acquisition, Classroom Research
Allwright, D. (1993) Integrating ‘research’ and ‘pedagogy’: appropriate criteria and practical possibilities In J. Edge and K. Richards (eds) Teachers develop teachers research : papers on classroom research and teacher development (pp125-135) GB, Heinemann International
Allwright, D. (2003) Exploratory Practice: rethinking practitioner research in language teaching. Language teaching research. Vol. 7 No. 2. Arnold (pp113-141)
Bell J. (2010) Doing your Research Project: A Guide for First-time Researchers in Education and Social Science. Oxford: OUP.
Birdsong, D. (1989) Metalinguistic performance and interlinguistic competence. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Burns, A. (1999) Collaborative action research for English language teachers. Cambridge University Press
Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2011) Research Methods in Education GB, Routledge Falmer
Brown, J. & Rogers, T. (2002) Doing second language research. Oxford: OUP.
Ellis, R. (1991) Grammaticality judgments and second language acquisition. Studies in second language acquisition. 13: 161 -186.
Ellis, R. & Barkhuizen G. (2005) Analysing learner language. Oxford: OUP.
Freeman, D. (1996 ) Redefining the relationship between research and what teachers know In K.M. Bailey and D. Nunan (eds) Voices from the language classroom : qualitative research in second language education (pp88-115) GB, Cambridge University Press
Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (2008) Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course. Third Edition. New York: Routledge. (See page 82 for more references on Research Methods in SLA.)
Gass, S., Sorace, A. & Selinker, L. (1998) Second language learning data analysis. 2nd Edition. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gieve, S. & Miller, I.K. (2006) Understanding the language classroom. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Gorard, S. (2001) Quantitative methods in educational research : the role of numbers made easy. London: Continuum.
Granger, S. (ed.) (1998) Learner English on computer. London: Longman.
Green, A. (1998) Verbal protocol analysis in language testing research : a handbook. Cambridge: CUP.
Hitchcock, G. & Hughes, D. (1989) Research and the Teacher. London: Routledge.
Hyland, K. (2009) Teaching and Researching Writing. Pearson: Harlow.
Hymes, D. (1982/2004) Language in Education: Ethnolinguistic Essays. Washington DC: Centre for Applied Linguistics.
Kuschnir, A.N. & Machado, B. (2003) Puzzling and puzzling about puzzle development. Language teaching research. Vol 7/2 pp163-180.
Larson-Hall, J. (2009) A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS. London: Routledge.
Lyra, I., Fish, S., & Braga, W. (2003) What puzzles teachers in Rio de Janeiro, and what keeps them going? Language teaching research. Vol 7/2 pp143-162
Mandell, P. (1999) On the Reliability of Grammaticality Judgement Tests in Second Language Acquisition Research. Second language research.. 15: 73-99
Mazillo, T. M (1994) On Becoming a Researcher. TESOL journal. Vol.4 No 1 Autumn pp. 45-46
Morrison K. R. B. (1993) Planning and accomplishing school-centred evaluation. Norfolk: Peter Francis Publishers.
Nunan, D. (1993) Action research in language education. In J. Edge and K. Richards (eds) Teachers develop teachers research : papers on classroom research and teacher development (pp39-50) GB, Heinemann International
Nunan D. (1999) Research methods in language learning. Cambridge: CUP.
Porte, P.G. (2010) Appraising Research in Second Language Learning: A Practical Approach to Critical Analysis of Quantitative Research. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Richards, K. (2003) Qualitative inquiry in TESOL, Palgrave Macmillan
Schön, D. (1995) The Reflective Practitioner London, Temple Smith
Schön, D. (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner : toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions USA, Jossey-Bass Inc.
Seliger H. & E. Shohamy (1989) Second language research methods. Oxford: OUP.
Sorace, A. (1996) The use of acceptability judgments in second language acquisition research. In W. Ritchie and T. Bhatia (eds.) Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press.
Willis, J. & Willis, D. (eds) Challenge and change in language teaching. Oxford. Heinemann pp. 110-125.
Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and the Commonwealth. Ethical guidelines for good research practice. Available online
Bulmer M. (ed.) (1982) Social Research Ethics. London: Macmillan.
British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) (1994) Guidelines on good practice in applied linguistics. Available online
British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) (2004) Guidelines for the use of language analysis in relation to questions of national origin in refugee cases.
Dingwall R. (1980) Ethics and ethnography. The sociological review. 28: 871-89.
Homan R. (1991) The ethics of social research. London: Longman.
Kimmel A. J. (1988) Ethics and values in applied social research. London: Sage.
Lee R. M. (1993) Doing research on sensitive topics. London: Sage Publications.
Linn Andrew (2004) Research ethics in book-based, historical research. In Nicola McLelland and Andrew Linn (eds) Flores grammaticae : essays in memory of Vivien Law. Münster: Nodus Publications. pp. 21-32.
Sieber J. E. (1992) Planning ethically responsible research : a guide for students and internal review boards. London: Sage Publications.
Smith L. M. (1990) Ethics in qualitative field research: an individual perspective. In E. W. Eisner & A. Peshkin (eds) Qualitative inquiry in education : the continuing debate. Teachers’ College Press.
Soltis J. (1990) ‘The ethics of qualitative research.’ In E. W. Eisner & A. Peshkin (eds) Qualitative inquiry in education : the continuing debate. Teachers’ College Press.
This list was last updated on 14/10/2019