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HIST3315
HIST3135 reading list

Citizens of the World: British Merchants in the Long Eighteenth Century, 2019/20, Semester 1, 2
Dr Pete Maw
TBC
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Printed primary source collections:

T.S. Ashton (ed.) Letters of a West African trader : Edward Grace, 1767-70 (London: Council for the preservation of archives, 1950).

M. Balderston (ed.) James Claypoole's letter book: : London and Philadelphia, 1681-1684 (California: Huntingdon Library, 1967).

D. C. Barck (ed.) Letter book of John Watts, merchant and councillor of New York, January 1, 1762 - December 22, 1765. (New York: New-York Historical Society, 1928).

S. Bruchey, (ed.) The Colonial merchant : sources and readings (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966).

W.B. Crump, (ed.) The Leeds woollen industry 1780-1820 (Leeds: Thoresby Society, Vol. 32, 1931).

K.G. Davies (ed.) Letters from Hudson Bay, 1703-40 (London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1965).

F. Atkinson (ed.) Some aspects of the eighteenth century woollen and worsted trade in Halifax (Halifax: Halifax Museums, 1956).

G.H. Guttridge (ed.) The American correspondence of a Bristol merchant, 1766-1776 : letters of Richard Champion (Berkley, CA.: University of California Press, 1934).

D. Hancock (ed.) The letters of William Freeman, London merchant, 1678-1685 (London: London Record Society, 2002).

H. Heaton (ed.) The letter books of Joseph Holroyd (cloth-factor) and Sam Hill (clothier) : documents illustrating the organisation of the Yorkshire textile industry in the early 18th century (Halifax: F. King & Sons, 1914).

R.C. Jarvis (ed.) Customs letter-books of the port of Liverpool, 1711-1813 (Manchester: Chetham Society, 1954).

F.N. Mason (ed.) John Norton & Sons, merchants of London and Virginia : being the papers from their counting house for the years 1750 to 1795 (2nd edition. Newton Abbott: David & Charles, 1968).

M. Lynn (ed.) Travel, trade and power in the Atlantic 1765-1884. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). [See B.Wood (ed.) ‘the letters of Simon Taylor of Jamaica, 1765-1775 ] . Available online: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6350704&fileId=S0960116300003523

K. Morgan, (eds.) An American Quaker in the British Isles : the travel journals of Jabez Maud Fisher, 1775-1779 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

K. Morgan (eds.) The Bright-Meyler papers : a Bristol-West India connection, 1732-1837 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

G.F. Nutall (ed.) Letters of John Pinney, 1679-1699 (London: Oxford University Press, 1939).

A. Oliver, The journal of Samuel Curwen, loyalist (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1972) [older online version available]

J.M. Price, Joshua Johnson's letterbook, 1771-1774 : letters from a merchant in London to his partners in Maryland (London: London Record Society, 1979).

U. Priestley, The letters of Philip Stannard, Norwich textile manufacturer (1751-1763) (1751-1763) (Norwich: Norfolk Record Society, 1994)

E.E. Rich (ed.) Hudson's Bay copy booke of letters, commissions, instructions outward, 1688-1696 (London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1957).

P. Riden (ed.) George Sitwell's letterbook 1662-66 (Chesterfield: Derbyshire Record Society, 1985).

H. Roseveare, Markets and merchants of the late seventeenth century : the Marescoe-David Letters, 1668-1680 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

J. Smail, J. Woollen manufacturing in Yorkshire : the memorandum books of John Brearley, cloth frizzer at Wakefield, 1758-1762 (Leeds: Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 2001)

S.D. Smith, "An exact and industrious tradesman" : the letter book of Joseph Symson of Kendal, 1711-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

G.F. Steckley (ed.) The letters of John Paige, London merchant, 1648-1658 (London: London Record Society, 1979).

I.K. Steele (ed.) Atlantic merchant-apothecary : letters of Joseph Cruttenden, 1710-1717 (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1977).

M. Tinling, (ed.) The Correspondence of the three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-1776 (Charlottesville: the University Press of Virginia, 1977).

T.M. Truxes (ed.) Letterbook of Greg & Cunningham, 1756-57 : merchants of New York and Belfast (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Van Horne, J.C. and Reese, G. The letter book of James Abercromby, colonial agent, 1751-1773 (Richmond, VA., Virginia State Library and Archives, 1991)

J. Wilkinson, (ed.) The letters of Thomas Langton, flax merchant of Kirkham, 1771-1788 (Manchester: Chatham Society, 2000).

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Week 1.

Introduction: Primary sources for the study of British merchants in the long eighteenth century .

Essential preparatory reading

J.M. Price, Directions for the conduct of a merchant’s counting house, 1766’, Business history., Vol. 28 (1986), pp. 134-150.

T.L. Ditz, ‘Shipwrecked; or masculinity imperilled: Mercantile representations of failure and the gendered self in eighteenth-century Philadelphia, The Journal of American history., Vol. 81 (1994), pp. 51-80.

W.E. Minchinton, ‘The merchants in England in the Eighteenth Century’, Explorations in entrepreneurial history., 1st Series, Vol. X (1957-8), pp. 22-31.

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Week 2.

British foreign trade during the ‘merchants’ century’.

Essential preparatory reading

R. Davis, ‘English Foreign Trade, 1660-1700’, The economic history review., Vol. 7 (1954), pp. 150-166.

R. Davis, ‘English Foreign Trade 1770-1774’, The economic history review., 2nd Series, Vol. 15 (1962), pp. 285-303.

W. Minchinton, ‘Editor’s Introduction’ in W. Minchinton (Ed.) The growth of English overseas trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (London: Methuen, 1969).

Further Reading:

Seventeenth-century background:

R. Brenner, Merchants and revolution: commercial change, political conflict, and London's overseas traders, 1550-1653 (London: Verso, 2003), especially chapters 1-2.

D.C. Coleman, ‘An innovation and its diffusion: the “new draperies”’, The economic history review., Vol. 22 (1969).

C.G.A. Clay, Economic expansion and social change : England 1500-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), chapter 9. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

R. Davis, ‘English Foreign Trade, 1660-1700’, The economic history review., Vol. 7 (1954), pp. 150-166.

R. Davis, ‘England and the Mediterranean, 1570-1670’ in F.J. Fisher (ed.) Essays in the economic and social history of Tudor and Stuart England, in honour of R. H. Tawney (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1961). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

R. Davis, English overseas trade, 1500-1700 (London: Economic History Society, 1973).

F.J. Fisher, ‘London’s export trade in the early seventeenth century’, The economic history review. Vol. 3 (1950), pp. 151-161.

A. Games, The web of empire : English cosmopolitans in an age of expansion, 1560-1660 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), chapter 3. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J.D. Gould, ‘Cloth exports, 1600-1640’, The economic history review., Vol. 24 (1971).

D. Hancock (ed.) The letters of William Freeman, London merchant, 1678-1685 (London: London Record Society, 2002), introduction. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

D.W. Jones, War and economy in the age of William III and Marlborough (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988), esp. pp. 43-52.

G.D. Ramsay, English overseas trade during the centuries of emergence : studies in some modern origins of the English-speaking world (London : Macmillan, 1957).

T.C. Smout, Scottish trade on the eve of union, 1660-1707 (London: Oliver & Boyd, 1963)

W.B. Stephens, ‘The cloth exports of provincial ports, 1600-1640’, The economic history review., Vol. 22 (1969).

W.B. Stephens, ‘Further observations on English cloth exports, 1600-1640’, The economic history review., Vol. 24 (1971).

H. Taylor, ‘Trade, neutrality and the “English Road”, 1630-1648’, The economic history review., Vol. 25 (1972), pp. 236-260.

C. Wilson, ‘Cloth production and international competition in the seventeenth century’, The economic history review., Vol. 13 (1960).

N. Zahedieh, ‘London and the Colonial Consumer’, The economic history review., Vol. 47 (1994), pp. 239-261.

N. Zahedieh, ‘Overseas expansion and trade in the seventeenth century’ in N. Canny (ed.) The Oxford History of the British Empire, Volume 1: The origins of empire: British overseas enterprise to the close of the seventeenth century ISBN: 0198205627 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), chapter 18.

N. Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), chapters 5 and 6.

The eighteenth century:

W.A. Cole, ‘Factors in demand’ in R. Floud and D. McCloskey (eds.) The economic history of Britain since 1700 vol 1. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1st edition, 1981).

J. Cuenca Esteban, ‘Comparative Patterns of Colonial Trade: Britain and its Rivals’ in L. Prados de la Escosura (ed.) Exceptionalism and industrialisation : Britain and its European rivals, 1688-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

P. Deane and W.A. Cole, British Economic Growth, 1688-1959: Trends and Structure (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962), chapter 2.

F. Crouzet, ‘Toward an Export Economy: British Exports during the Industrial Revolution’, Explorations in economic history., Vol. 17 (1980), pp. 48-93.

R. Davis, A commercial revolution : English overseas trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. (London: Historical Association, 1967).

R. Davis, ‘English Foreign Trade 1770-1774’, The economic history review., 2nd Series, Vol. 15 (1962), pp. 285-303.

R. Davis, Industrial Revolution and British overseas trade (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1979).

S. Engerman, ‘Mercantilism and overseas trade, 1700-1800’ in R. Floud and D. McCloskey (eds.) The economic history of Britain since 1700, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

R. Findlay, and K. O’Rourke, Power and plenty : trade, war, and the world economy in the second millennium (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), chapter 6.

H.E.S. Fisher, The Portugal trade : a study of Anglo-Portuguese commerce, 1700-1770 (London: Methuen, 1971), esp. chapters 1-2.

T. Hatton, J.S. Lyons and S.E. Satchell. 'Eighteenth century British trade: homespun or empire made? ' Explorations in economic history., Vol. 20, (1983), pp. 163-182.

S.J Hornsby,. ‘Geographies of the British Atlantic World’ in H.V. Bowen, E. Mancke, and J.G. Reid (eds.) Britain's oceanic empire : Atlantic and Indian Ocean worlds, c. 1550-1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012). [eBook].

W. Minchinton, ‘Editor’s Introduction’ in W. Minchinton (Ed.) The growth of English overseas trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (London: Methuen, 1969).

K. Morgan, Slavery, Atlantic trade and the British economy, 1660-1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), chapter 1. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J.M. Price, ‘The Imperial Economy, 1700-1776’ in P.J. Marshall (ed.) The Oxford History of the British Empire, Volume II: The eighteenth century ISBN: 0198205635 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 80-100.

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Week 3.

There is no assigned reading this week. We will use the session to go over some essential primary source skills and to open up discussions on the history dissertations/long essays.

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Week 4.

Identification: The merchants of eighteenth-century Britain

Essential preparatory reading

S. D. Chapman , Merchant enterprise in Britain : from the industrial revolution to World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), chapter 1. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

S. Haggerty, The British-Atlantic trading community,1760-1810 : men, women, and the distribution of goods (Leiden: Brill, 2006), chapters 2. [ebook] 

J.M. Price, and P.G.E Clemens, ‘A revolution of scale in overseas trade : British firms in the Chesapeake trade, 1675-1775’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 47, No. 1 (1987), pp. 1-43.

Further reading:

H.V. Bowen, Elites, enterprise, and the making of the British overseas empire, 1688-1775 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996), pp. 56-60. EBook available

N.S. Buck, The Development of the Organisation of Anglo-American trade (1925, Reprinted Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1969), chapter 2. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

P. Gauci, The politics of trade : the overseas merchant in state and society, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), chapter 1.

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), introduction and chapter 2.

D. Hancock (ed.) The letters of William Freeman, London merchant, 1678-1685 (London: London Record Society, 2002), xii-xxi.

S. Haggerty, 'Merely for money'? : business culture in the British Atlantic, 1750-1815 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2012), pp. 26-33.

G. Jones, Merchants to multinationals: British trading companies in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), chapter 2.

W.E. Minchinton, ‘The merchants in England in the Eighteenth Century’, Explorations in entrepreneurial history., 1st Series, Vol. X (1957-8), pp. 22-31.

J.M. Price, ‘What did merchants do? Reflections on British overseas trade, 1660-1790’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 49 (1989), pp. 267-284.

P. Sharpe, ‘Gender in the economy: Female merchants and family businesses in the British Isles, 1600-1850’, Social history., Vol. 38 (2001), pp. 283-306.

R.B. Westerfield, R. B. Middlemen in English business, particularly between 1660 and 1760 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1915), esp. Chapter 7 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Wilkinson, (ed.) The letters of Thomas Langton, flax merchant of Kirkham, 1771-1788 (Manchester: Chatham Society, 2000), introduction. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), especially introduction and chapter 2.

N. Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 86-103.

Buying and selling:

C. Gill, ‘Blackwell Hall Factors, 1795-1799’, The economic history review., Vol. 6 (1953-4), pp. 268-81.

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), chapters 5-6.

P. Hudson, The genesis of industrial capital : a study of the West Riding wool textile industry c.1750-1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), chapters 7 and 8. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

P. Maw, ‘Yorkshire and Lancashire ascendant: England’s textile exports to New York and Philadelphia, 1750-1805’, The economic history review., Vol. 63 (2010), pp. 734-68.

K. Morgan, ‘James Rogers and the Bristol Slave Trade’, Historical research., Vol. 76 (2003), pp. 189-216.

K. Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century (Cambridge, 1993), chapter 5. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J.M. Price, Capital and credit in British overseas trade : the view from the Chesapeake, 1700-1776. (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1980), esp. chapter 6. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), pp. 63-70.

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Week 5: Case study 1:

European trade (The Baltic; North-West Europe; the Mediterranean and Southern Europe)

The Baltic trade

17th-century background

E.F. Heckscher, ‘Multilateralism, the Baltic trade and the mercantilists’, The economic history review., Vol. 3 (1950).

J.K. Fedorowicz, ‘Anglo-Polish commercial relations in the first half of the seventeenth century’, The journal of European economic history., Vol. 5 (1979).

J.K. Fedorowicz, England's Baltic trade in the early seventeenth century : a study in Anglo-Polish commercial diplomacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980),

J.M. Price, ‘Multilateralism and/or bilateralism: the settlement of British trade imbalances with “the north”’, The economic history review., Vol.14 (1961).

H. Zins, England and the Baltic in the Elizabethan era (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1972).

The long eighteenth century

S-E. Astron, ‘Swedish iron and the English iron industry about 1700: Some neglected aspects’, The economic history review., Vol. 30 (1982), pp. 129-41.

R. Bartlett, ‘Foreigners, faith and freemasonry in the Eastern Baltic: The British Factory and Pastor Georg Ludwig Collins in Riga at the end of the eighteenth century’ in C. Brennan and F. Murray (eds.) Russia and the wider world in historical perspective : essays for Paul Dukes ISBN: 0333683005 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 45-66 [eBook]

A. Eklund, C. Evans and G. Rydén: ‘From the Baltic to the Atlantic: British merchants and the development of trade networks in the northern seas during the eighteenth century’ in Spinning the commercial web : international trade, merchants, and commercial cities, c.1640-1939 ISBN: 3631509804; 0820464481, c. 1640-1939 (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2004).

C. Evans, O. Jackson and G. Ryden, ‘Baltic iron and the British iron industry in the eighteenth century’ The economic history review., Vol. LV (2002), pp. 642-665.

C. Evans and G. Ryden, Baltic iron in the Atlantic world in the eighteenth century (Leiden: Brill, 2007).

K.G. Hildebrand, K.G. ‘Foreign markets for Swedish iron in the eighteenth century’, The Scandinavian economic history review., Vol. 6 (1958), pp. 3-52.

K.G. Hildebrand, Swedish iron in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries : export industry before the industrialization (Bergen: K.G. Hildebrand, 1992).

H.D. Hudson, The rise of the Demidov family and the Russian iron industry in the eighteenth century (Newtonville, MA.: Oriental Research Partners, 1986)

G. Jackson, Hull in the eighteenth century : a study in economic and social history (Hull: Hull University Press, 1972).

H.H.Kaplan,  Russian overseas commerce with Great Britain during the reign of Catherine II (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1995).

H.S.K. Kent, ‘The Anglo-Norwegian timber trade in the eighteenth century’, The economic history review., Vol. 8 (1955), pp. 62-74.

H.S.K. Kent, War and trade in northern seas : Anglo-Scandinavian economic relations in the mid-eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973).

H. C. Johansen, ‘Scandinavian shipping in the late eighteenth century in a European perspective’, The economic history review, Vol. XLV (1992), pp. 479-93.

L. Muller, The merchant houses of Stockholm, c. 1640-1800 : a comparative study of early-modern entrepreneurial behaviour (Uppsala: Uppsala University library, 1998).

J. Ojala, ‘The Principal Agent Problem Revisited: Entrepreneurial networks between Finland and ‘world markets’ during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries’ in M.S. Beerbuhl and J. Vogele (eds.) Spinning the commercial web : international trade, merchants, and commercial cities, c.1640-1939 ISBN: 3631509804; 0820464481, c. 1640-1939 (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2004).

 P. Ridden, ‘An English factor at Stockholm in the 1680s’, The Scandinavian economic history review., Vol. 35 (1987), pp. 191-207.

D. K. Reading, The Anglo-Russian commercial treaty of 1734 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1938).

North west Europe

17th century background:

C. Antunes, ‘Urban links, trade networks and globalisation in the Early Modern period: Amsterdam and Lisbon, 1640-1705’ in M.S. Beerbuhl and J. Vogele (eds.) M.S. Beerbuhl and J. Vogele (eds.) Spinning the commercial web : international trade, merchants, and commercial cities, c.1640-1939 ISBN: 3631509804; 0820464481 c. 1640-1939 (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2004), 65-85

M. Priestley, ‘Anglo-French trade and the “unfavourable balance” controversy, 1660-85’, The economic history review, Vol. 4 (1951).

C.H. Wilson, Anglo-Dutch commerce & finance in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941), chapter 1.

The long eighteenth century:

M.S. Beerbuhl, The forgotten majority : German merchants in London, naturalization, and global trade, 1660-1815 ISBN: 9781782384472; 1782384472 (Oxford: Berghahn books, 2015), chapters 2-3.

N.B. Harte, ‘The rise of protection and the English linen trade, 1690-1790’, in N. B. Harte and K. G. Ponting (eds.) Textile history and economic history : essays in honour of Miss Julia de Lacy Mann (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1973), pp. 74-112.

W.G. Hoskins, Industry, trade and people in Exeter, 1688-1800 : with special reference to the serge industry (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1935).pp. 86-91. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

G. Jackson, Hull in the eighteenth century : a study in economic and social history (Hull: Hull University Press, 1972).

D.W. Jones, War and economy in the age of William III and Marlborough (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988), chapters 6, 8-9.

D. Ormrod, The rise of commercial empires: England and the Netherlands in the age of mercantilism, 1650-1770 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

J. Smail, Merchants, markets and manufacture : the English wool textile industry in the eighteenth century (Basingstoke: Macmillian, 1999), chapters 2 and 6

S.D. Smith, ‘The Later Business Career of William Crane, Linen Yarn Merchant of Manchester’, Northern history., Vol. 42 (2005), pp. 131-149.

C.H. Wilson, Anglo-Dutch commerce & finance in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941).

G. Yogev, Diamonds and coral : Anglo-Dutch Jews and eighteenth-century trade (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1978)

Southern Europe and the Mediterranean

17th century background:

D.C. Coleman, ‘An innovation and its diffusion: the “new draperies”’, The economic history review, Vol. 22 (1969).

R. Davis, ‘England and the Mediterranean, 1570-1670’ in F.J. Fisher (ed.) Essays in the economic and social history of Tudor and Stuart England, in honour of R. H. Tawney (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1961).

P. Duguid, ‘Networks and knowledge: The beginning and end of the port commodity chain’, Business history review., Vol. 79 (2005), pp. 492-526.

R. Gravil, ‘Trading to Spain and Portugal, 1670-1700’, Business history., Vol. 10 (1968), pp. 69-88.

G.D. Ramsay, ‘The undoing of the Italian mercantile colony in sixteenth-century London’, in N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (Eds.) Textile history and economic history : essays in honour of Miss Julia de Lacy Mann ( Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1973).

R.T. Rapp, ‘The unmaking of the Mediterranean trade hegemony and the commercial revolution’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 35 (1975).

H. Taylor, ‘Price revolution or price revision? The English and Spanish trade after 1604’, Renaissance and modern studies., Vol. 12 (1968).

The long eighteenth century:

A. Christelow, ‘Economic Background of the Anglo-Spanish War of 1762’, The journal of modern history. ISSN: 0022-2801; 1537-5358, Vol. 18 (1946), pp. 22-36.

A. Christelow, ‘Great Britain and the trades from Cadiz and Lisbon to Spanish America and Brazil 1759-1783, The Hispanic American historical review. ISSN: 0018-2168, Vol. 27 (1947), pp. 2-29.

H.E.S. Fisher, The Portugal trade : a study of Anglo-Portuguese commerce, 1700-1770 (London: Methuen, 1971), esp. chapters 3-5.

* H.E.S. Fisher, ‘Lisbon, its English merchant community and the Mediterranean in the eighteenth century’ in P.L. Cottrell and D.H. Aldcroft (eds.) Shipping, trade and commerce : essays in memory of Ralph Davis ISBN: 0718511956 (corrected) (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1981), pp. 23-44.

X. Lamikiz, Trade and trust in the eighteenth-century Atlantic world : Spanish merchants and their overseas networks (London: Royal Historical Society, 2010), esp. chapter 7.

I.D. Neu, ‘An English businessman in Sicily’, Business history review., Vol. 31 (1957), pp. 355-374.

T. Fawcett, ‘Argonauts and commercial travellers: The foreign marketing of Norwich stuffs in the later eighteenth century’, Textile history., Vol. 16 (1985).

S. Gekas, ‘The merchants of the Ionian Islands between East and West: Forming Internal and local networks’ in in M.S. Beerbuhl and J. Vogele (eds.) Spinning the commercial web : international trade, merchants, and commercial cities, c.1640-1939 ISBN: 3631509804; 0820464481 (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2004), 43-63.

L.M.E. Shaw, The Anglo-Portuguese alliance and the English merchants in Portugal, 1654-1810 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998).

J. Smail, Merchants, markets and manufacture : the English wool textile industry in the eighteenth century (Basingstoke: Macmillian, 1999), chapter 6.

L.S. Sutherland, A London merchant, 1695-1774 (London: F. Cass, 1962).

R. Uriarte Ayo, ‘Anglo-Spanish trade through the port of Bilbao during the second half of the eighteenth century: some preliminary findings’, International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 4 (1992), pp. 193-217. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

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Week 6. Case study 2:

Atlantic colonies (The West Indies; the southern mainland colonies; the middle and northern colonies)

General/synoptic accounts of British-Atlantic trade:

N.S. Buck, The Development of the Organisation of Anglo-American trade (Newton Abbot: David & Charles,1969)

R.C. Nash, ‘The Organisation of Trade and Finance in the British-Atlantic Economy, 1600-1830’ in P. A. Coclanis (Ed.) The Atlantic economy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries : organization, operation, practice, and personnel (Columbia, SC.: University of South Carolina Press, 2005), pp. 95-151.

J.M. Price, ‘Economic Function and the Growth of American Port Towns in the Eighteenth Century’, Perspectives in American History, Vol. 8 (1974), pp. 123-182. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J.F. Shepherd and G.M. Walton, Shipping, maritime trade, and the economic development of colonial North America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972).

The West Indies

K.G. Davies, ‘The origins of the commission system in the West Indies trade’, Royal Historical Society Transactions, Vol. 2 (1952), pp. 89-107.

D. Hancock, ‘A world of business to do: William Freeman and the foundation of England’s commercial empire’, William and Mary quarterly., Vol. 57 (2000).

K. Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), chapter 7.

R. Pares, A West-India fortune (London: Longman, 1950).

R. Pares, Merchants and planters (Oxford: Economic History Review Supplement no. 4, 1960).

R. Pares, ‘A London West-India merchant house, 1740-1769’, in R.A. and E. Humphreys (ed.) The historian's business, and other essays (Oxford University Press, 1961). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

R.B. Sheridan, ‘Planters and merchants: The Oliver family of Antigua and London, 1716-1784’, Business history., Vol. 13 (1971), pp. 104-113.

D.W. Thoms, ‘The Mills family: London sugar merchants of the eighteenth century’, Business history., Vol. 2 (1969).

N. Zahedieh, ‘London and the Colonial Consumer’, The economic history review., Vol. 47 (1994), pp. 239-261.

N. Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), especially chapters 5 and 6.

The North American Mainland (Southern colonies)

The Chesapeake (Virginia and Maryland) :

T.M. Devine, The tobacco lords : a study of the tobacco merchants of Glasgow and their trading activities, c. 1740-90 (Edinburgh: Donald, 1975).

Edward C. Papenfuse, In pursuit of profit : the Annapolis merchants in the era of the American Revolution, 1763-1805 (London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975).

J.M. Price, ‘The rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco trade, 1707-1775’, William and Mary quarterly., Vol. 11 (1954).

J.M. Price, ‘Who was John Norton? A note on the historical character of some eighteenth-century London Virginia firms’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 29 (1962).

J.M. Price, France and the Chesapeake : a history of the French tobacco monopoly, 1674-1791, and of its relationship to the British and American tobacco trades, and its relationship to the British and American tobacco trades (2 vols. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1973).

J.M. Price, ‘Joshua Johnson in London’ in A. Whiteman et. al (eds.) Statesmen, scholars and merchants : essays in eighteenth-century history presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1973). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

J.M. Price, ‘Buchanan and Simson, 1759-1763: A different kind of Glasgow firm trading to the Chesapeake’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 40 (1983).

J.M. Price, ‘Sheffeild v. Starke: Institutional experimentation in the London-Maryland trade, c. 1696-1706’, Business history., Vol. 28 (1986).

J.M. Price, ‘The last phase of the Virginia-London consignment trade: James Buchanan & co. 1758-1768’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 43 (1986), 82-96.

S.M. Rosenblatt, ‘The significance of credit in the tobacco trade: a study of John Norton & Sons, 1768-1775’, William and Mary quarterly., 3rd ser., Vol. 19 (1962), pp. 383-99.

J.H. Soltow, ‘Scottish traders in Virginia, 1750-1775’, The economic history review., Vol. 12 (1959), pp. 83-98.

C.G. Steffen, ‘The rise of the independent merchant in the Chesapeake: Baltimore County, 1660-1769’, The Journal of American history., Vol. 76 (1989).

W.R. Roberts, ‘Samuel Storke: an Eighteenth-Century London Merchant Trading to the American Colonies’, Business history review., Vol. 39 (1965), pp. 147-170.

The Carolinas:

C.D. Clowse, Economic beginnings in colonial South Carolina, 1670-1730 (Columbia, SC.: University of South Carolina Press, 1971).

S.R. Cope, ‘Bird, Savage and Bird of London: Merchants and bankers, 1783-1802’, Guildhall studies in London history., Vol. 5 (1981), pp. 202-17.

R. R. Menard, ‘Financing the Lowcountry export boom: capital and growth in early South Carolina’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 51 (1994).

R.C. Nash, ‘Urbanization in the Colonial South: Charleston, South Carolina as a case study’, Journal of Urban History, Vol. 19 (1992).

R.C. Nash, ‘Trade and business in eighteenth-century South Carolina: The Career of John Guerard, Merchant and Planter’, The South Carolina Historical Magazine, Vol. 96 (1995), pp. 6-29.

R.C. Nash, ‘The organization of trade and finance in the Atlantic economy: Britain and South Carolina, 1660-1775’ in J.P. Greene, R. Brana-Shute, and R.J. Sparks (eds.) Money, trade, and power : the evolution of colonial South Carolina's plantation society (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2001).

L. Sellers, Charleston business on the eve of the American Revolution. (London: Macdonald and Jane’s, 1974).

The middle and northern (American) colonies

Middle colonies:

R.G. Albion, The rise of New York port (1815-1860) (New York: Charles Scribner, 1939).

H.D. Berg, ‘Economic consequences of the French and Indian War for the Philadelphia Merchants’, Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, Vol. 13 (1946), pp. 185-193.

H.D. Berg, ‘The organization of business in colonial Pennsylvania’, Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies Vol. 10 (1943), pp. 157-177.

R.A. Davison, Isaac Hicks : New York merchant and Quaker, 1767-1820. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1964).

T.M. Doerflinger, ‘Commercial Specialization in Philadelphia’s Merchant Community, 1750-1791’, Business history review., Vol. 57 (1983), pp. 20-49.

T.M. Doerflinger, ‘Philadelphia Merchants and the Logic of Moderation, 1760-1775’, William and Mary quarterly Vol. 40 (1983), pp. 197-226.

T.M. Doerflinger, A vigorous spirit of enterprise : merchants and economic development in Revolutionary Philadelphia (Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina Press,1986).

S. Haggerty, The British-Atlantic trading community,1760-1810 : men, women, and the distribution of goods (Leiden: Brill, 2006).

V. Harrington, The New York merchant on the eve of the revolution (New York: Columbia University Press,1935).

H. Heaton, ‘Yorkshire Cloth Traders in the United States, 1770-1840’, Thoresby Society, 37 (1941), pp. 225-287. 

J. Killick, ‘Bolton, Ogden & co. A Case Study in Anglo-American trade’ Business history review., Vol. 48 (1974), pp. 501-519

C. Matson, Merchants & empire : trading in colonial New York (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,1998)

K. Morgan, ‘Business Networks in the British export trade to North America, 1750-1800’ in J.J McCusker and K. Morgan (ed.) The early modern Atlantic economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 36-62.

G.B. Nash, ‘The early merchants of Philadelphia: The formation and disintegration of a founding elite’ in R.S. Dunn and M. Marples (eds.) The World of William Penn (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

S.D. Smith, ‘“requisites of a considerable trade”: The letters of Robert Plumstead, Atlantic Merchant, 1752-58’, English historical review., Vol. CXXIV, (2009), pp. 545-570.

E. Tooker, Nathan Trotter, Philadelphia merchant, 1787-1853 (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1953).

C. A. Kierner, Traders and gentlefolk : the Livingstons of New York, 1675-1790 (London: Cornell University Press, 1992).

New England:

B. Bailyn, The New England merchants in the seventeenth century. (Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press, 1955).

W.T. Baxter, The House of Hancock : business in Boston 1724-1775 (New York: Russell & Russell, 1965).

B.M. Bigelow, ‘Aaron Lopez: Colonial Merchant of Newport’, The New England quarterly., Vol. 4 (1931), pp. 757-76.

E. Edelman, ‘Thomas Hancock, Colonial Merchant’, Journal of economic and business history., Vol. 1 (1928).

F.W. Gregory, Nathan Appleton, merchant and entrepreneur, 1779-1861 (Charlottesville, VA. : University of Virginia Press, 1975)

J. B. Hedges. The Browns of Providence Plantations : Colonial Years (Cambridge, MA., 1952).

R.R. Johnson, John Nelson, merchant adventurer : a life between empires Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).

W.I. Roberts III, ‘Samuel Storke: An eighteenth-century merchant trading to the American colonies’, Business history review., Vol. 39 (1965), 147-170.

S. Rodgers, ‘Colonial Boston and the Commerical Webs: One city’s dilema’ M.S. Beerbuhl (eds.) Spinning the commercial web : international trade, merchants, and commercial cities, c.1640-1939 ISBN: 3631509804; 0820464481 (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2004).

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Week 7. Case study 3: Asia and the Middle East

India

S. Arasaratnam, ‘Trade and political dominion in South India, 1750-1790: Changing British-Indian relationships’, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 13 (1979), pp. 19-40.

S.R. Bakshi, ‘Early Trade and Expansion of the East India Company’, The modern review., 121 (1967)

H.V. Bowen, ‘“No Longer Mere Traders”: Continuities and Change in the Metropolitan Development of the East India Company, 1600-1834’, in H. V. Bowen, M. Lincoln and N. Rigby (eds.) The worlds of the East India Company (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2002) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

H.V. Bowen, ‘Sinews of Trade and Empire: the Supply of Commodity Exports to the East India Company during the Late Eighteenth Century’, The economic history review., Vol. 55 (2002)

H. V. Bowen, The business of empire : the East India Company and imperial Britain, 1756-1833, 1756-1833 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), esp. chapter 8.

H. V. Bowen, ‘“So Alarming an Evil”: Smuggling, Pilfering and the English East India Company, 1750-1810’, International Journal of Maritime History, 14 (2002) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

H. V. Bowen, ‘Tea, Tribute and the East India Company c.1750-c.1775’, in R. Connors, C. Jones and S. Taylor (eds.) Hanoverian Britain and empire : essays in memory of Philip Lawson (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

H.V. Bowen, ‘British exports of raw cotton from India to China during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries’ in T. Roy and G. Riello (eds.) How India clothed the world : the world of South Asian textiles, 1500-1850 (Leiden: Brill, 2009). Available online

H.V. Bowen ‘The consumption of British manufactured good in India: A prologue, 1765–1813’ in D. E. Haynes, A. McGowan, T. Roy, and H. Yanagisawa (eds.) Towards a history of consumption in South Asia  (New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2010), 26–50.

K.N. Chaudhuri, ‘Treasure and Trade Balances: the East India Company’s Export Trade, 1660-1720’, The economic history review., Vol. 21 (1968)

K. N Chaudhuri,. ‘Foundation of the English East India Company’s Trade in Bengal’, Indo-British Review, 3 (1971)

K.N. Chaudhuri, The trading world of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660-1760 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978).

K. N. Chaudhuri,. ‘The English East India Company’s Shipping (c.1660-1760)’, in J. R. Bruijn and F. S. Gaastra (eds.) Ships, sailors and spices : East India companies and their shipping in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries (Amsterdam: Neha, 1993)

K. N. Chaudhuri, ‘Connors, Richard, ‘Opium and Imperial Expansion : the East India Company in Eighteenth-century Asia’ in R. Connors, C. Jones and S. Taylor (eds.) Hanoverian Britain and empire : essays in memory of Philip Lawson, (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998)

S. Chaudhuri, ‘Asian merchants and companies in Bengal’s export trade’ in in S. Chaudhury and M. Morineau (eds.) Merchants, companies and trade : Europe and Asia in the early modern era (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

K. Chatterjee, ‘Grain Traders and the East India Company : Patna and Its Hinterland in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries’, Indian Economic & Social History Review, 23 (1986).

A. Das Gupta, Merchants of maritime India, 1500-1800 ISBN: 0860784320 (alk. paper) (Aldershot: Variorium, 1994).

K.K. Data, ‘India’s trade with Europe and America in the eighteenth century’, Journal of economic and social history of the Orient., Vol. 2 (1959), pp. 313-323.

R. Davini, ‘Bengali Raw Silk, the East India Company and the European Global Market, 1770-1833’, Journal of Global History, Vol. 4 (2009). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

A.W. Douglas, ‘Cotton Textiles in England : the East India Company’s Attempt to Exploit Developments in Fashion, 1660-1721’, The journal of British studies., Vol. 8 (1969)

A. Farrington, Trading places : the East India Company and Asia 1600-1834 (London: British Library, 2002)

H. Furber, John Company at work : a study of European expansion in India in the late eighteenth century. (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1948).

H. Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient 1600-1800 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1976).

D. Keswani, ‘Private commercial dealings of the Servants of the East India Company from 1757-67’, Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. 36 (1961)

P. J. Marshall, East Indian fortunes : the British in Bengal in the eighteenth century ISBN: 0198215665 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976).

* P.J. Marshall, ‘Private British Trade in the Indian Ocean’ in A. Das Gupta and M.N. Pearson (eds.) India and the Indian Ocean (Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1987) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

S. Mentz, The English gentleman merchant at work : Madras and the City of London 1660-1740 (Copenhagen: Meseum Tusculanun Press, 2005), esp. chapters 4-5 and 7.

O. Prakash, ‘The English East India Company and India’ in H V. Bowen, M. Lincoln and N. Rigby (eds.) The worlds of the East India Company, ed. by (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2002)

D. Rothermund, ‘The changing pattern of British trade in Indian textiles, 1701-1757’ in S. Chaudhury and M. Morineau (eds.) Merchants, companies and trade : Europe and Asia in the early modern era (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

M. Sayako, ‘The English East India Company and Indigenous Trading Systems : The Grain Trade in Early Colonial Bengal’ in L. Grove and S. Sugiyama (eds.) Commercial networks in modern Asia (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2001) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

S. Sen, Empire of free trade : the East India Company and making of the colonial marketplace (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997)

A. Tripathi, Trade and finance in the Bengal Presidency, 1793-1833 (Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1979).

A. Webster, ‘The Political Economy of Trade Liberalization: the East India Company Charter Act of 1813’, The economic history review., Vol.43 (1990)

A. Webster, The richest East India merchant [electronic resource] : the life and business of John Palmer of Calcutta, 1767-1836 ( Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2007).

A. Webster , The twilight of the East India Company : the evolution of Anglo-Asian commerce and politics, 1790-1860 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2009)

The Far East

D.K. Bassett, ‘The trade of the English East India Company in the Far East, 1623-84’, 2 Pts, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society., Vol. 37 (1960).

H. Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient 1600-1800 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1976).

M. Greenburg, British trade and the opening of China, 1800-42. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969).

A. Griffin, ‘London, Bengal, the China Trade and the Unfrequented Extremities of Asia : the East India Company’s Settlement in New Guinea, 1793-5’, British Library Journal, Vol. 16 (1990) Available online: http://www.bl.uk/eblj/1990articles/pdf/article13.pdf

N. Hussin, Trade and society in the Straits of Melaka : Dutch Melaka and English Penang, 1780-1830 ISBN: 8791114470 (Copenhagen: Nias, 2007).

F. Kerlogue. ‘The Early English Textile Trade in South East Asia : the East India Company Factory and the Textile Trade in Jambi, Sumatra, 1615-1682’, Textile history., Vol. 28 (1997)

H.B. Morse, The chronicles of the East India Company, trading to China 1635-1834 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1926) 5 Vols.

P. Van Dyke, The Canton trade : life and enterprise on the China coast, 1700-1845 (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2005).

Middle East

G. Ambrose, ‘English traders at Aleppo (1658-1756)’, The economic history review. ISSN: 0013-0117, Vol. 3 (1931/2), pp. 246-67.

R. Davis, Aleppo and Devonshire Square : English traders in the Levant in the eighteenth century. (London: Longman, 1967).

R. Davis, ‘'English Imports from the Middle East, 1580-1780', In M.A. Cook (ed.) Studies in the economic history of the Middle East : from the rise of Islam to the present day (London: Oxford University Press, 1970).

M. Epstein, The early history of the Levant Company (London: Routledge, 1908).

R. Grassby, The English gentleman in trade : the life and works of Sir Dudley North, 1641-1691 (Oxford: Clarendon Press,1994).

C. Laidlaw, The British in the Levant : trade and perceptions of the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century (London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2010).

A. C. Wood, A history of the Levant company (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935), especially chapter 11. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Trading corporations: key studies

A.M. Carlos and S. Nichols, ‘“Giants of an earlier capitalism”: the chartered companies as modern multinationals’, Business history review., Vol. 62 (1988), pp. 398-419.

C.G.A. Clay, Economic expansion and social change : England 1500-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), chapter 9. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

K.N. Chaudhuri, ‘The English East India Company in the 17th and 18th centuries: A pre-modern multinational organization’ in L. Blusse and F. Gaastra, (ed.) Companies and trade : essays on overseas trading companies during the Ancien Régime (The Hague: Leiden University Press, 1981).

S.R.H. Jones and S. Ville, ‘Efficient transactors or rent-seeking monopolists? The rationale for early chartered trading companies’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 56 (1996), pp. 898-915.

D. Ormrod, ‘The demise of regulated trading in England: The case of the Merchant Adventurers, 1650-1730’, C. Lesger and L. Noordegraaf (eds.) Entrepreneurs and enterpreneurship in early modern times : merchants and industrialists within the orbit of the Dutch Staple Market (Leiden: Brill 1995). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

General sixteenth/seventeenth century background:

K. R. Andrews, Trade, plunder, and settlement : maritime enterprise and the genesis of the British Empire, 1480-1630 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).

R. Brenner, Merchants and revolution: commercial change, political conflict, and London's overseas traders, 1550-1653 (London: Verso, 2003), especially chapters 1-2.

C.G.A. Clay, Economic expansion and social change : England 1500-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), chapter 9.

K.N. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company : the study of an early joint-stock company, 1600-1640. (London: Cass, 1965).

P. Croft, The Spanish Company. (London: London Record Society, 1973).

K.G. Davies, ‘Joint-stock investment in the later seventeenth century’, The economic history review., Vol. 4 (1952), pp. 283-301.

A. Friss, Alderman Cockayne's project and the cloth trade : the commercial policy of England in its main aspects, 1603-1625 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1927).

F.J. Griffiths, A licence to trade : the history of English chartered companies ISBN: 051027403X  (London: E. Benn, 1974)

W.K. Hinton, The Eastland trade and the common weal in the seventeenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959).

E. Mancke, ‘Charted enterprises and the evolution of the British-Atlantic World’ in E. Mancke and C. Shammas (eds.) The creation of the British Atlantic world (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), pp. 237-62. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

G.D. Ramsay, ‘The cloth trade at London in the mid-sixteenth century’ in M.Spallanzani (ed.) Atti della seconda Settimana di studio (10-16 aprile 1970) : produzione, commercio e consumo dei panni di lana (nei secoli XII-XVIII) (Florence : L.S. Olschki, 1976).

W.R. Scott, The constitution and finance of English, Scottish and Irish joint-stock companies to 1720 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1919).

V.M. Shillington, The commercial relations of England and Portugal (New York: B. Franklin, 1970).

T.S. Willan The early history of the Russia Company, 1553-1603. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1956).

T.S. Willan, ‘Trade between England and Russia in the second half of the sixteenth century’, The economic history review., Vol. 63 (1948).

T.S. Willan, ‘Some aspects of English trade with the Levant in the sixteenth century’, The economic history review., Vol. 70 (1955).

C. Wilson, England’s Apprenticeship: 1603-1763 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965), esp. pp. 172-6. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Chartered companies: ‘modern multinational’ and managerial problems

G.M. Anderson, R.E. McCormick and R.D. Tollison, ‘The economic organization of the English East India Company’, Journal of economic behavior & organization., Vol. 4 (1983), pp. 221-38.

A.M. Carlos and S. Nichols, ‘“Giants of an earlier capitalism”: the chartered companies as modern multinationals’, Business history review., Vol. 62 (1988), pp. 398-419.

A.M. Carlos and S. Nichols, ‘Agency problems in early chartered companies: The case of the Hudson’s Bay Company’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 50 (1990), pp. 853-75.

A.M. Carlos, ‘Bonding and agency problem: Evidence from the Royal Africa Company, 1672-1691’, Explorations in economic history., Vol. 31 (1994), pp. 313-35.

A.M. Carlos and S. Nichols, ‘Theory and history: Seventeenth-century joint-stock chartered companies’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 56 (1996), pp. 916-24.

K.N. Chaudhuri, ‘The English East India Company in the 17th and 18th centuries: A pre-modern multinational organization’ in L. Blusse and F. Gaastra, (ed.) Companies and trade : essays on overseas trading companies during the Ancien Régime (The Hague: Leiden University Press, 1981).

P. Gauci, The politics of trade : the overseas merchant in state and society, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), esp. pp. 112-126.

S.R.H. Jones and S. Ville, ‘Efficient transactors or rent-seeking monopolists? The rationale for early chartered trading companies’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 56 (1996), pp. 898-915.

E. Mancke ‘chartered enterprises and the evolution of the British-Atlantic World’ in E. Mancke and C. Shammas (eds.) The creation of the British Atlantic world (London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), pp. 237-62.

S. Mentz, The English gentleman merchant at work : Madras and the City of London 1660-1740 (Copenhagen: Meseum Tusculanun Press, 2005), pp. 263-276.

N. Robins, The corporation that changed the world: How the East India Company shaped the modern multinational (Ann Arbor: Pluto Press, 2006).

Royal African Company:

K.G. Davies, The Royal African Company. (London: Longman, 1957).

D.W. Galenson, Traders, planters, and slaves : market behavior in early English America (Cambridge, 1996).

T. Keirn, ‘Monopoly, economic thought, and the Royal African Company’ in J. Brewer and S. Staves (ed.) Early modern conceptions of property (London: Routlege, 1995), pp. 427-66.

East India Company:

H. Bowen, The business of empire : the East India Company and imperial Britain, 1756-1833 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), especially introduction and chapter 8.

J. R. Bruijn, and F.S. Gaastra, Ships, sailors and spices : East India companies and their shipping in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries ( Amsterdam: Neha, 1993).

K.N. Chaudhuri, The trading world of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660-1760  (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978)

K.N. Chaudhuri, ‘The English East India Company in the 17th and 18th centuries: a pre-modern multinational organization’ in L. Blusse and F. Gaastra (eds.) Companies and trade : essays on overseas trading companies during the Ancien Régime (Leiden: Brill, 1981), pp. 29-46.

K.N. Chaudhuri, ‘The “New Economic History” and the business records of the East India Company’ in P.L. Cottrell and D.H. Aldcroft (eds.) Shipping, trade and commerce : essays in memory of Ralph Davis (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1983).

A. Farrington, Trading places : the East India Company and Asia 1600-1834 (London: British Library, 2002).

M. Ogborn, Global lives : Britain and the world, 1550--1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), chapter 4. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Levant Company:

R. Davies, ‘'English Imports from the Middle East, 1580-1780', In M.A. Cook (ed.) Studies in the economic history of the Middle East : from the rise of Islam to the present day (London: Oxford University Press, 1970).

R. Davis, Aleppo and Devonshire Square : English traders in the Levant in the eighteenth century. (London: Macmillan,1967).

R. Grassby, The English gentleman in trade : the life and works of Sir Dudley North, 1641-1691 (Oxford: Clarendon Press,1994).

A. C. Wood, A history of the Levant company (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935).

Hudson’s Bay Company

E.E. Rich, The history of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1670-1870 (London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1959).

A.M. Carlos and S. Nicholas, ‘Agency problems in early chartered companies: The case of the Hudson’s Bay Company’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 50 (1990), pp. 853-875.

D. Hope, ‘Britain and the Fur Trade: Commerce and Consumers in the North-Atlantic World, 1783-1821’, Ph.D. Thesis, Northumbria University, 2016, esp. 20-39, chapters 3 and 4 [http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/31598/1/hope.david_phd.pdf]

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Week 8. Africa and the trade in people

The organisation of the British transatlantic slave trade

S.D. Behrendt, ‘Markets, Transaction Cycles, and Profits: Merchant Decision-Making in the British Slave Trade,' William and Mary quarterly, 58, (2001), pp. 171-204.

T. Burnard and K. Morgan, ‘The dynamics of the slave market and slave purchasing patterns in Jamaica, 1655-1788’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 58 (2001).

K.G. Davies, The Royal African Company. (London: Longman, 1957).

B.K. Drake, ‘The Liverpool–African voyage, 1790–1807, and some of its commercial problems’ in R. Anstey, and P.E. Hair (eds.) Liverpool, the African slave trade, and abolition : essays to illustrate current knowledge and research (Liverpool: Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1976), pp. 126-156.

M. Elder, The slave trade and the economic development of eighteenth-century Lancaster (Halifax: Ryburn, 1992).

M. Elder, ‘The Liverpool Slave Trade, Lancaster and its Environs’ in D. Richardson, S. Schwarz and A. Tibbles (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007).

C. Gill, Merchants and mariners of the 18th century (London: Edward Arnold, 1961).

S. Haggerty, ‘Risk and management in the Liverpool slave trade’, Business history., Vol. 51 (2009), pp. 817-34.

F.E. Hyde, B.B. Parkinson, and S. Marriner, ‘The Nature and Profitably of the Slave Trade’, The economic history review., 2nd Series, 5 (2) (1952), pp. 368-377.

J.E. Inikori, Africans and the industrial revolution in England [electronic resource] : a study in international trade and development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), chapter 5.

H.S. Klein, The Atlantic slave trade (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), chapter 7.

K. Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), chapter 5.

K. Morgan, ‘Slave sales in colonial Charleston’, English historical review., Vol. 113 (1998).

K. Morgan, ‘James Rogers and the Bristol Slave Trade’, Historical research., Vol. 76 (2003), pp. 189-216.

K. Morgan, ‘Remittance Procedures in the Eighteenth-Century British Slave Trade’, Business history review., Vol. 79 (2005), pp. 715-49.

J. Price, ‘Credit in the slave trade and plantation economies’ in Solow, B. (eds.) Slavery and the rise of the Atlantic system (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), chapter 11. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. A. Rawley, ‘The port of London and the Eighteenth-century slave trade; Historians, sources and a reappraisal’, African economic history., Vol. 9 (1980).

D. Richardson, ‘The eighteenth-century British slave trade’, Research in economic history., Vol. 12 (1989).

D. Richardson, Bristol, Africa, and the eighteenth-century slave trade to America (Gloucester: Bristol Record Society, 1986).

D. Richardson, The Bristol slave traders : a collective portrait (Bristol: Bristol Historical Association, 1985).

R.B. Sheridan, R.B. ‘The Commercial and Financial Organization of the British Slave Trade, 1750-1807’, The economic history review., Vol. 11 (1958), pp. 249-263.

N. Tattersfield, The forgotten trade : comprising the log of the "Daniel and Henry" of 1700 and accounts of the slave trade from the minor ports of England, 1698-1725 (London: Cape, 1991).

L.S. Walsh, ‘Liverpool's Slave Trade to the Colonial Chesapeake: Slaving on the Periphery’ in D. Richardson, S. Schwarz and A. Tibbles (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007).

Relations between British and African slave merchants

H.S. Klein, The Atlantic slave trade (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), chapter 8. [eBook].

P.E. Lovejoy, and D. Richardson. ‘African Agency and the Liverpool Slave Trade’ in D. Richardson, S. Schwarz and A. Tibbles (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007). [eBook]

R. Law, ‘Royal monopoly and private enterprise in the Atlantic trade: The Case of Dahomey’, The journal of African history., vol. 18 (1977), pp. 555–577

P.E. Lovejoy, ‘Slave marketing in West Africa’ in Gemery, H.A. and Hogendorn, J.S. (Ed.) The Uncommon market : essays in the economic history of the Atlantic slave trade (New York: Academic Press, 1979). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

P.E. Lovejoy and D. Richardson, ‘Trust, pawnship, and Atlantic History: The institutional foundation of the Old Calabar slave trade’, The American historical review., Vol. 104 (1999), pp. 333-55.

P.E. Lovejoy and D. Richardson, ‘The business of slaving: Pawnship in western Africa, c.1600-1800’, The journal of African history., Vol. 42 (2001), pp. 67-89.

Merchants and other trades in people

K. Morgan, ‘The Organization of the Convict Trade to Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 42 (1985), pp. 201-227.

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Week 9. London: The emporium of global trade

Essential preparatory reading

C.J. French, ‘“Crowded with traders and a great commerce”: London’s Domination of English overseas trade. 1700-1775’, London journal., 17 (1992), pp. 27-35.

P. Gauci, Emporium of the world : the merchants of London, 1660-1800 (London: Continuum, 2007), chapter 2.

Further Reading

Seventeenth-century background:

J.E. Farnell, ‘The Navigation Act of 1651, the First Dutch War and the London merchant community’, The economic history review., Vol. 16 (1964).

R.G. Lang, ‘Social origins and social aspirations of Jacobean London merchants’, The economic history review., Vol. 27 (1974).

The eighteenth century:

E. Donnan, ‘Eighteenth-Century English Merchants: Micajah Perry’, Journal of economic and business history., Vol. 4 (1932)

N. Draper, ‘The City of London and slavery: evidence from the first Dock Companies’, The economic history review., Vol, 61 (2008), pp. 432-66.

P. Earle, The making of the English middle class : business, society and family life in London, 1660-1730 (Berkley: University of California Press, 1989).

F.J. Fisher, ‘The development of London as a Centre of Conspicuous Consumption in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., Vol. 30 (1948), pp. 37-50.

P. Gauci, The politics of trade : the overseas merchant in state and society, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), esp. chapters 1 and 3.

P. Gauci, Emporium of the world : the merchants of London, 1660-1800 (London: Continuum, 2007), esp. chapter 2.

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1995).

A.H. John, ‘Miles Nightingale—Drysalter: A Study in Eighteenth-Century Trade’, The economic history review., Vol. 18 (1965), pp. 152-163.

D.W. Jones, ‘London merchants and the crisis of the 1690s’ in P. Clark and P. Slack (eds.) Crisis and order in English towns, 1500-1700 : essays in urban history (London: Routledge, 1972).

D.W. Jones, War and economy in the age of William III and Marlborough (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988).

F.N. Mason (ed.) John Norton & Sons, merchants of London and Virginia : being the papers from their counting house for the years 1750 to 1795 (Richmond, VA., 1937)

L.B. Namier, ‘Brice Fisher M.P.: A Mid-Eighteenth-Century Merchant and his Connexions’, English historical review. Vol. 42 (1927)

L.B. Namier, ‘Anthony Bacon M.P.: An Eighteenth-Century Merchant’, Journal of economic and business history., Vol. 2 (1929)

R.C. Nash, ‘The Organization of Trade and Finance in the Atlantic Economy in the British Atlantic Economy, 1600-1830’ in Coclanis, P. (ed.) The Atlantic economy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries : organization, operation, practice, and personnel (Columbia, SC. 2005), pp. 110-112.

J.M. Price (ed.), Joshua Johnson's letterbook, 1771-1774 : letters from a merchant in London to his partners in Maryland (London, 1979)

J.M. Price, ‘The great Quaker business families of eighteenth-century London’ in R.S. Dunn and M.M. Dunn (eds.) The World of William Penn (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986), pp. 363-99.

J.M. Price, ‘English Quaker merchants and War at Sea, 1689-1783’ in R.A. McDonald (ed.) West Indies accounts : essays on the history of the British Caribbean and the Atlantic economy in honour of Richard Sheridan (Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 1996).

W.I. Roberts III, ‘Samuel Storke: An Eighteenth-Century London Merchant Trading to the American Colonies’, Business history review., Vol. 39 (1965)

C.H. Wilson, Anglo-Dutch commerce & finance in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941), pp. 40-46, 53-62.

E.A. Wrigley, ‘A Simple Model of London's Importance', Past & present., Vol. 37 (1967), pp. 44-70.

N. Zahedieh, ‘Making mercantilism work: London merchants and Atlantic trade in the seventeenth century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th Series, Vol. 9 (1999), pp. 143-58.

N. Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

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Week 10: New generations (1): Outports (and the rise of Liverpool merchants in the slave trade)

Essential preparatory reading

K. McDade, ‘Liverpool Slave Merchant entrepreneurial networks’, Business history., Vol. 53 (2011), pp. 1092-1109.

K. Morgan, ‘Liverpool’s dominance in the British slave trade, 1740-1807’ in D. Richardson, S. Schwarz and A. Tibbles (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007).

Further Reading

Bristol:

J.H. Bettey, ‘Graffin Prankard: an eighteenth-century Bristol merchant’, Southern history. Vol. 12 (1991), pp. 34-47.

A. Forestier, ‘Risk, kinship and personal relationship in late eighteenth-century West Indian trade: The commercial network of Tobin & Pinney’, Business history., Vol. 52, No. 6 (2010).

P. McGrath (eds.) Bristol in the eighteenth century (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1972).

K. Morgan, ‘Bristol’s West India merchants in the eighteenth century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th Series, Vol. 3 (1993), pp. 185-208.

K. Morgan (ed.) The Bright-Meyler papers : a Bristol-West India connection, 1732-1837 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

K. Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

K. Morgan, ‘Bristol and the Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century’, English historical review., Vol. 107 (1992), pp. 626-50.

W.E. Minchinton, ‘Bristol: Metropolis of the west in the eighteenth century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th Series, Vol. 4 (1954), pp. 69-89.

W.E. Minchinton, The Port of Bristol in the eighteenth century (Bristol: Bristol Branch of the Historical Association, 1962).

R.C. Nash, ‘The Organization of Trade and Finance in the Atlantic Economy in the British Atlantic Economy, 1600-1830’ in Coclanis, P. (ed.) The Atlantic economy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries : organization, operation, practice, and personnel (Columbia, SC. 2005), pp. 110-112.

D.H. Sacks, The widening gate : Bristol and the Atlantic economy, 1450-1700 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991)

W.B. Stephens, ‘Trade trends at Bristol, 1700-1800’, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society., Vol. 93 (1974).

Liverpool

R. Anstey and P.E.H. Hair (eds.) Liverpool, the African slave trade, and abolition : essays to illustrate current knowledge and research (Liverpool: Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1976).

P.G.E. Clemens, ‘The rise of Liverpool, 1665-1750’, The economic history review., Vol. 29 (1976), pp. 211-255.

W. Gomer, History of the Liverpool privateers, and letters of marque with an account of the Liverpool slave trade. (London: F. Cass, 1966).

S. Haggerty, The British-Atlantic trading community,1760-1810 : men, women, and the distribution of goods (Leiden: Brill, 2006).

F. E. Hyde, Liverpool and the Mersey : an economic history of a port, 1700-1970 (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1971).

R.C. Nash, ‘The Organization of Trade and Finance in the Atlantic Economy in the British Atlantic Economy, 1600-1830’ in Coclanis, P. (ed.) The Atlantic economy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries : organization, operation, practice, and personnel (Columbia, SC. 2005), pp. 110-112.

C. Northcote-Parkinson, The rise of the port of Liverpool. (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1952).

M.M. Schofield, ‘Thee Virginia Trade of the Firm of Sparling and Bolden of Liverpool: 1788-99’, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire., Vol. 116 (1965), pp. 117-165.

D.M. Williams, ‘Merchanting the in the first half of the nineteenth century: The Liverpool timber trade’, Business history., Vol. 8 (1966), pp. 103-121.

D.M. Williams, ‘Liverpool merchants and the cotton trade, 1820-1850’ in J.R. Harris (ed.) Liverpool and Merseyside : essays in the economic and social history of the port and its hinterland (London: F. Cass, 1969).

The rise of Liverpool in the slave trade

D. Ascott, F. Lewis, and M. Power, Liverpool 1660-1750 : people, prosperity and power (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2006).

T. C. Barker, ‘Lancashire coal, Cheshire salt, and the rise of Liverpool’, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire., Vol. 103 (1951), pp. 83-101.

S. D. Behrendt, ‘Markets, Transaction Cycles, and Profits: Merchant Decision-Making in the British Slave Trade,' William and Mary quarterly, 58, (2001), pp. 171-204.

S.D. Behrendt, ‘Human capital in the slave trade’ in Richardson, D., Schwarz, S. and Tibbles, A. (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2007), pp. 66-97.

B.K. Drake, ‘The Liverpool–African voyage, 1790–1807, and some of its commercial problems’ in Anstey, R. and Hair, P.E. (eds.) Liverpool, the African slave trade, and abolition : essays to illustrate current knowledge and research (Liverpool: Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1976), pp. 126-156.

M. Elder, ‘The Liverpool Slave Trade, Lancaster and its Environs’ in Richardson, D., Schwarz, S. and Tibbles, A. (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2007), pp. 118-138.

S. Haggerty. ‘Risk and management in the Liverpool slave trade’, Business history., Vol. 51 (2009), pp. 817-34.

K. McDade, ‘Liverpool Slave Merchant entrepreneurial networks’, Business history.,, Vol. 53 (2011), pp. 1092-1109.

K. Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century (Cambridge, 1993), chapter 5.

K. Morgan, ‘Liverpool’s dominance in the British slave trade, 1740-1807’ in D. Richardson, S. Schwarz and A. Tibbles (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007).

J.A. Rawley, ‘The port of London and the Eighteenth-century slave trade; Historians, sources and a reappraisal’, African economic history., Vol. 9 (1980).

D. Richardson, The Bristol slave traders : a collective portrait (Bristol: Bristol Historical Association, 1985).

D. Richardson, Bristol, Africa, and the eighteenth-century slave trade to America (Gloucester: Bristol Record Society, 1986).

N. Tattersfield, The forgotten trade : comprising the log of the "Daniel and Henry" of 1700 and accounts of the slave trade from the minor ports of England, 1698-1725 (London: Cape, 1991).

Glasgow

J.M. Price, ‘The rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco trade, 1707-1775’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 11 (1954).

T.M. Devine, The tobacco lords : a study of the tobacco merchants of Glasgow and their trading activities, c. 1740-90 (Edinburgh: Donald, 1975).

T.M. Devine, ‘An eighteenth-century business elite: Glasgow-West India merchants, c.1750-1815’, Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 57 (1978), pp. 40-67.

T. M. Devine, ‘Glasgow merchants and the collapse of the tobacco trade’, Scottish Historical Review, vol. 57 (1978), pp. 40-67.

J.M. Price, ‘The rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco trade, 1707-1775’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 11 (1954).

J.M. Price, ‘Buchanan and Simson, 1759-1763: A different kind of Glasgow firm trading to the Chesapeake’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 40 (1983).

J.H. Soltow, ‘Scottish traders in Virginia, 1750-1775’, The economic history review., Vol. 12 (1959), pp. 83-98.

Other

J.V. Beckett, Coal and tobacco : the Lowthers and the economic development of West Cumberland, 1660-1760 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

G. Jackson, G. Hull in the eighteenth century : a study in economic and social history (Hull: Hull University Press, 1972).

W.G. Hoskins, Industry, trade and people in Exeter, 1688-1800 : with special reference to the serge industry (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1935).

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Week 11: New generations (2): Manufacturing towns (and the rise of Yorkshire merchants in the woollen industry)

Essential preparatory reading

P. Maw, ‘Yorkshire and Lancashire ascendant: England’s textile exports to New York and Philadelphia, 1750-1805’, The economic history review., Vol. 63 (2010), pp. 734-68.

J. Smail, Merchants, markets and manufacture : the English wool textile industry in the eighteenth century (Basingstoke: Macmillian, 1999), chapter 7.

R.G. Wilson, ‘The Supremacy of the Yorkshire Cloth Industry’ in N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (Eds.) Textile history and economic history : essays in honour of Miss Julia de Lacy Mann (Manchester, 1973), pp. 225-246. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Further Reading:

Manchester/Lancashire

B.W. Clapp, John Owens : Manchester merchant (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1965).

S.D. Chapman, ‘The commercial sector’ in Rose, M.B. (ed.) The Lancashire cotton industry : a history since 1700 (Preston: Lancashire County Books, 1996), pp. 63-93.

M.M. Edwards, The growth of the British cotton trade,1780-1815. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1967).

D.A. Farnie. ‘The Role of Merchants as Prime Movers in the Expansion of the Cotton Industry, 1760-1990’ in Farnie, D.A. and Jeremy, D.J. (Eds.) The fibre that changed the world : the cotton industry in international perspective, 1600-1990s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 15-55.

R.S. Fitton,‘Overseas Trade during the Napoleonic War, as illustrated by the records of W.G. and J. Strutt’ Economica., 20 (77) (1953), pp. 53-60.

B. Lemire, Fashion's favourite : the cotton trade and the consumer in Britain, 1660-1800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).

P. Maw, ‘Yorkshire and Lancashire ascendant: England’s textile exports to New York and Philadelphia, 1750-1805’, The economic history review., Vol. 63 (2010), pp. 734-68.

K. Morgan, ‘Business networks in the British export trade to North America, 1750-1800’ in McCusker, J.J. and Morgan, K. (eds.) The early modern Atlantic economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

A. Redford, Manchester merchants and foreign trade, 1794-1858 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1934).

M.B. Rose, Firms, networks and business values : the British and American cotton industries since 1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

M.B. Rose, The Gregs of Quarry Bank Mill : the rise and decline of a family firm, 1750-1914 (Manchester, 1986).

S.D. Smith, ‘The Later Business Career of William Crane, Linen Yarn Merchant of Manchester’, Northern history., 42 (1) (2005), pp. 131-149.

A.P. Wadsworth, and J. de Lacy Mann, The cotton trade and industrial Lancashire, 1600-1780 (Manchester, 1931).

Leeds/Yorkshire

S. Caunce, ‘Complexity, community structure and competitive advantage within the West Yorkshire Woollen Industry’, Business history., Vol. 39 (1997), pp. 27-41.

F.J. Glover, ‘Thomas Cook and the American Blanket Trade in the Nineteenth Century’, Business history review., 35 (2) (1961), pp. 226-246.

F.J. Glover, ‘Philadelphia Merchants and the Yorkshire Blanket Trade’, Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, 28 (1961), pp. 121-141.

H. Heaton, ‘Benjamin Gott and the Anglo-American Cloth Trade’, Journal of economic and business history., 2 (1) (1929), pp. 146-162.

H. Heaton, ‘Yorkshire Cloth Traders in the United States, 1770-1840’, Thoresby Society, 37 (1941), pp. 225-287. 

H. Heaton, ‘A Merchant Adventurer in Brazil’, The journal of economic history. Vol. 6 (1946), pp. 1-23.

P. Hudson, The The genesis of industrial capital : a study of the West Riding wool textile industry c.1750-1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

J.R. Killick, ‘Bolton, Ogden & co. A Case Study in Anglo-American trade’ Business history review., 48 (4), (1974), pp. 501-519.

P. Maw, ‘Yorkshire and Lancashire ascendant: England’s textile exports to New York and Philadelphia, 1750-1805’, The economic history review., Vol. 63 (2010), pp. 734-68.

K. Morgan, K. ‘Business networks in the British export trade to North America, 1750-1800’ in McCusker, J.J. and Morgan, K. (eds.) The early modern Atlantic economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

J. Smail, The origins of middle-class culture : Halifax, Yorkshire, 1660-1780 (Ithaca, NY.: Cornell University Press, 1994).

J. Smail, Merchants, markets and manufacture : the English wool textile industry in the eighteenth century (Basingstoke: Macmillian, 1999).

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971).

R.G. Wilson, ‘The Supremacy of the Yorkshire Cloth Industry’ in N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (Eds.) Textile history and economic history : essays in honour of Miss Julia de Lacy Mann (Manchester, 1973), pp. 225-246.

East Anglia/West Country/East Midlands

S. D. Chapman, ‘Enterprise and innovation in the British Hosiery Industry, 1750-1850’, Textile history. ISSN: 0040-4969, Vol. 5 (1974).

J.H. Clapham, ‘The transference of the worsted industry from Norfolk to the West Riding’, Economic journal., Vol. 20 (1910), pp. 195-210.

J.K. Edwards, ‘The decline of the Norwich textile industry’, Yorkshire Bulletin of Economic and Social Research., Vol. 16 (1964).

T. Fawcett, ‘Argonauts and commercial travellers: The foreign marketing of Norwich stuffs in the later eighteenth century’, Textile history., Vol. 16 (1985).

W.G. Hoskins, Industry, trade and people in Exeter, 1688-1800 : with special reference to the serge industry (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1935).

J. James, History of the worsted manufacture in England : from the earliest times : with introductory notices of the manufacture among the ancient nations, and during the middle ages (London, 1857).

J. de Lacy Mann, The cloth industry in the west of England from 1640 to 1880 (Oxford, 1971).

M. F. Lloyd Prichard, 'The Decline of Norwich', The economic history review., 2nd series, Vol. 3 (1950-51), pp. 371-77.

U. Priestley, ‘The fabric of stuffs: The Norwich Textile industry c.1650-1750’, Textile history., Vol. 16 (1985)

U. Priestley, ‘The marketing of Norwich stuffs, c.1660-1730’, Textile history., Vol. 22 (1991).

J. Smail, Merchants, markets and manufacture : the English wool textile industry in the eighteenth century (Basingstoke: Macmillian, 1999).

R.G. Wilson, ‘The textile Industry’ in C. Rawcliffe and R. Wilson (eds.) Norwich since 1550 ISBN: 1852854502 (London: Bloomsbury, 2004).

Metalware towns (West Midlands/Sheffield)

W.H.G. Armytage, ‘A Sheffield Quaker in Philadelphia’, Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, Vol. 17 (1950), pp. 192-205.

B.A. Holderness, ‘A Sheffield commercial house in the mid-eighteenth century: Messrs Osborne and Gunning around 1760’, Business history., Vol. 15 (1973).

E. Hopkins, ‘The trading and service sectors of the Birmingham economy 1750-1800’, Business history, Vol. 15 (1973)

S.R. H. Jones, ‘The country trade and the marketing and distribution of Birmingham hardware, 1750-1810’, Business history, Vol. 26 (1984)

K. Morgan, ‘Business networks in the British export trade to North America, 1750-1800’ in J.J. McCusker, and K. Morgan, (eds.) The early modern Atlantic economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

A. Popp, ‘Building the market: John Shaw of Wolverhampton and commercial travelling in early nineteenth-century England’, Business history, Vol. 49 (2007), pp. 321-47.

Other

N. McKendrick, ‘Josiah Wedgwood: an 18th-century entrepreneur in salesmanship and marketing techniques’, The economic history review., Vol. 12 (1959-60)

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Week 12. It’s who you know: merchants and their local and global networks

Secondary sources:

A. Forestier, ‘Risk, kinship and personal relationship in late eighteenth-century West Indian trade: The commercial network of Tobin & Pinney’, Business history, Vol. 52, No. 6 (2010).

S. Haggerty, 'Merely for money'? : business culture in the British Atlantic, 1750-1815 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2012), chapter 6.  

D. Hancock, ‘The trouble with networks: Managing the Scots’ early modern Madeira trade’ Business history review., Vol. 79 (2005), pp. 467-91.

Further reading :

S. Bruchey, ‘Success and failure factors: American merchants in foreign trade in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries’, Business history review., Vol. 32 (1958), pp. 272-292.

B.W. Clapp, John Owens : Manchester merchant (New York: Kelly, 1965), pp. 9-12. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

D. Cressy, ‘Kinship and kin interaction in early-modern England’, Past & present., Vol. 113 (1986)

F. Crouzet, ‘Opportunity and Risk in Atlantic Trade during the French Revolution’ in C.L. Holtfrerich, (Ed.) Interactions in the world economy : perspectives from international economic history (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall, 1989), pp. 90-150. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

T.M. Doerflinger, A vigorous spirit of enterprise : merchants and economic development in Revolutionary Philadelphia (Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina Press,1986), pp. 58-69.

P. Duguid, ‘Networks and knowledge: The beginning and end of the port commodity chain’, Business history review., Vol. 79 (2005), pp. 492-526.

A. Forestier, ‘Risk, kinship and personal relationship in late eighteenth-century West Indian trade: The commercial network of Tobin & Pinney’, Business history., Vol. 52, No. 6 (2010).

R. Grassby, Kinship and capitalism : marriage, family, and business in the English speaking world, 1580-1740 ISBN: 0521782031 (hb) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

S. Haggerty, The British-Atlantic trading community,1760-1810 : men, women, and the distribution of goods (Leiden: Brill, 2006).

S. Haggerty, 'Merely for money'? : business culture in the British Atlantic, 1750-1815 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2012), chapters 2-6.

J. Haggerty and S. Haggerty. ‘Risk and management in the Liverpool slave trade’, Business history., Vol. 51 (2009), pp. 817-34.

S. Haggerty, ‘Visual analytics of an eighteenth-century business network’, Enterprise and society., Vol. 11 (2010)

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), chapters 3-4

D. Hancock, ‘Commerce and conversation in the eighteenth-century Atlantic: the invention of Madeira wine’, The journal of interdisciplinary history., Vol. 29 (1998), pp. 197-219.

D. Hancock, ‘“A revolution in trade”: Wine distribution and the development of the infrastructure of the Atlantic economy, 1703-1807’ in J.J. McCusker and K. Morgan (eds.) The early modern Atlantic economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

M.R. Hunt, The middling sort: Commerce, Gender, and the Family in England, 1680-1780 (Berkley: University of California Press, 1996).

X. Lamikiz, Trade and trust in the eighteenth-century Atlantic world : Spanish merchants and their overseas networks (London: Royal Historical Society, 2010), esp. chapter 7.

P. Mathias, ‘Risk, Credit and Kinship in Early Modern Enterprise’ in J.J. McCusker and K. Morgan (eds.) The early modern Atlantic economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

C. Muldrew, The economy of obligation : the culture of credit and social relations in early modern England (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998), esp. Chapter 2. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

N. Glaisyer, ‘Networking: Trade and exchange in the eighteenth-century British empire’, The historical journal., Vol. 47 (2004), pp. 451-76.

J. Stobart, ‘Personal and commercial networks in an English port: Chester in the early eighteenth century’, Journal of historical geography., Vol. 30 (2004), pp. 277-293.

J. Stobart, ‘Information, trust and reputation: Shaping a merchant elite in the early eighteenth century’, Scandinavian journal of history., Vol. 30 (2005), pp. 298-307.

J. Stobart: Webs of Information, Bonds of Trust: The networks of early eighteenth-century Chester merchants’, Spinning the commercial web : international trade, merchants, and commercial cities, c.1640-1939 (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2004). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Smail, ‘The culture of credit in eighteenth-century commerce’, Enterprise and society., Vol. 4 (2003), pp, 229-325.

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), chapter 9

N. Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 90-113.

N. Zahedieh, ‘Credit, risk and reputation in late seventeenth-century colonial trade’, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700.

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Week 13 Self-made men? Merchants, their origins and careers

 K. Morgan, ‘Bristol’s West India merchants in the eighteenth century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th Series, Vol. 3 (1993), pp. 185-208.

J.M. Price, ‘The great Quaker business families of eighteenth-century London: The rise and fall of a sectarian patriciate’ in R.S. Dunn and M.M. Dunn, The World of William Penn (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Further reading

T.M. Devine, The tobacco lords : a study of the tobacco merchants of Glasgow and their trading activities, c. 1740-90 (Edinburgh: Donald, 1975), pp. 3-17; 72-81 .

R. Davis, Aleppo and Devonshire Square : English traders in the Levant in the eighteenth century. (London: Longman, 1967).

T.M. Doerflinger, A vigorous spirit of enterprise : merchants and economic development in Revolutionary Philadelphia (Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina Press,1986), pp. 45-69.

P. Earle, The making of the English middle class : business, society and family life in London, 1660-1730 (Berkley: University of California Press, 1989), chapter 2.

P. Gauci, The politics of trade : the overseas merchant in state and society, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), chapter 2.

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), chapters 1-2.

D. Hancock (ed.) The letters of William Freeman, London merchant, 1678-1685 (London: London Record Society, 2002), xii-xxi.

S. Haggerty, 'Merely for money'? : business culture in the British Atlantic, 1750-1815 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2012), pp. 26-33.

K. A. Kellock, ‘London merchants and the pre-1776 American debts’, Guildhall studies in London history., Vol. 1 (1974), pp. 109-149.

W.E. Minchinton, ‘The merchants in England in the Eighteenth Century’, Explorations in entrepreneurial history., 1st Series, Vol. X (1957-8), pp. 22-31.

K. Morgan, ‘Bristol’s West India merchants in the eighteenth century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th Series, Vol. 3 (1993), pp. 185-208.

J. M. Price, Capital and credit in British overseas trade : the view from the Chesapeake, 1700-1776. (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1980), chapter 3.

J.M. Price, ‘What did merchants do? Reflections on British overseas trade, 1660-1790’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 49 (1989), pp. 267-284.

J. Thirsk, 'Younger Sons in the Seventeenth Century', History., Vol. 54, (1969), pp. 358-377

C.H. Wilson, Anglo-Dutch commerce & finance in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941), pp. 28-35.

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), chapter 2.

N. Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 57-65, 86-103.

Merchant capital

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), chapter 8.

R.C. Nash, ‘The Organization of Trade and Finance in the Atlantic Economy in the British Atlantic Economy, 1600-1830’ in Coclanis, P. (ed.) The Atlantic economy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries : organization, operation, practice, and personnel (Columbia, SC. 2005), pp. 121-130.

J.M. Price, Capital and credit in British overseas trade : the view from the Chesapeake, 1700-1776. (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1980), chapter 3; Appendix B.

N. Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 90-103, 127-136 .

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Week 14 Female merchants and the trading community

Essential preparatory reading

P. Sharpe, ‘Gender in the Economy: Female Merchants and Family Businesses in the British Isles, 1600-1850’, Histoire Sociale/Social History, Vol. 34 (2001), pp. 283-306. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

S. Haggerty, The British-Atlantic trading community,1760-1810 : men, women, and the distribution of goods ISBN: 9004150188 (acid-free paper) (Leiden: Brill, 2006), chapter 3. [eBook]

P. Earle, The making of the English middle class : business, society and family life in London, 1660-1730 ISBN: 0413519104 (Berkley: University of California Press, 1989), chapter 6. 

Further reading:

H Barker, The business of women : female enterprise and urban development in northern England, 1760-1830 ISBN: 0199299714 (alk. paper); 9780199299713 (alk. paper) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

L. Davidoff and C. Hall, Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780-1850, (London: Hutchinson 1987, rev. ed. London: Routledge, 2002)

S. Haggerty, ‘Women, work, and the consumer revolution: Liverpool in the late eighteenth century’ in J. Benson and L. Ugolini (eds.) A nation of shopkeepers : five centuries of British retailing ISBN: 1860647081 pbk; 186064709x (London: I.B. Taurus, 2003), 106-126.

S. Haggerty, “Miss Fan can tun her han!” Female traders in eighteenth-century British-American Atlantic port cities’, Atlantic studies. ISSN: 1478-8810; 1740-4649, Vol. 6 (2009), pp. 29-42

D. Rabuzzi, ‘Women as Merchants in Eighhteenth-Century Northern Germany: The case of Stralsund, 1750-1830’, Central European history. ISSN: 0008-9389, Vol. 28 (1995), 435-56.

E. Sanderson, Women and work in eighteenth-century Edinburgh ISBN: 0333645588 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 1996), esp. chapter 6.

D. Simonton, ‘Widows and Wenches: Single Women in Eighteenth-Century Urban Economies’ in Deborah Simonton and Anne Montenach (eds.), Female agency in the urban economy : gender in European towns, 1640-1830 ISBN: 9780415537292 (hbk.); 0415537290 (hbk.); 9780203110522 (ebk); 0203110528 (ebk) (London: Routledge 2013)

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Week 15.Student presentations. No required reading 

Each student will deliver a (non-assessed) 15-20 minute presentation based on their merchant case study for the 10% assignment. This will be followed by group discussion and tutor feedback.

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Week 16. Merchants and Religion:

Essential preparatory reading

T. Vaneste, Global trade and commercial networks : eighteenth-century diamond merchants (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2011), chapter 3 [eBook]

C.H. Wilson, ‘Anglo-Dutch establishment in eighteenth-century England’ in C. Wilson (ed.) The Anglo-Dutch contribution to the civilization of early modern society : an Anglo-Netherlands Symposium, London, 27 and 28 June 1974 under the auspices of the British Academy and the Royal Society in association with the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

E. Sahle, ‘A Faith of Merchants: Quakers and Institutional change in the Early Modern Atlantic, c.1660-1800’, unpublished PhD Dissertation, LSE (2016), chapter 1, pp. 70-98. http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/3368/ 

Anglicans and non-conformists

J.E. Bradley, Religion, revolution, and English radicalism : nonconformity in eighteenth-century politics and society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

S. D. Chapman Merchant enterprise in Britain : from the industrial revolution to World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), introduction and chapter on ‘International Houses’.

J. Seed, ‘Gentlemen dissenters’, The historical journal., Vol. 28 (1985).

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), pp. 182-191.

Quakers

W.H.G. Armytage, ‘A Sheffield Quaker in Philadelphia’, Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, Vol. 17 (1950), pp. 192-205.

R.A. Davison, Isaac Hicks : New York merchant and Quaker, 1767-1820. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1964).

K. Morgan, (eds.) An American Quaker in the British Isles : the travel journals of Jabez Maud Fisher, 1775-1779 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

J.M. Price, ‘The great Quaker business families of eighteenth-century London’ in R.S. Dunn and M.M. Dunn (eds.) The World of William Penn (Philadelphia, 1986), pp. 363-99.

J.M. Price, ‘English Quaker merchants and War at Sea, 1689-1783’ in R.A. McDonald (ed.) West Indies accounts : essays on the history of the British Caribbean and the Atlantic economy in honour of Richard Sheridan (Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 1996).

R.T. Vann, ‘Quakerism: Made in America? ’ in R.S. Dunn and M. Marples (eds.) The World of William Penn (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986).

Jews

S. D. Chapman , Merchant enterprise in Britain : from the industrial revolution to World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), introduction and chapter on ‘International Houses’.

T. Vaneste, Global trade and commercial networks : eighteenth-century diamond merchants (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2011).

C.H. Wilson, Anglo-Dutch commerce & finance in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941), chapter 4.

G. Yogev, Diamonds and coral : Anglo-Dutch Jews and eighteenth-century trade (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1978)

Huguenots

A.C. Carter, ‘Financial Activities of Huguenots in London and Amsterdam in the mid-eighteenth century’, Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London., Vol. 19 (1957).

S. D. Chapman , Merchant enterprise in Britain : from the industrial revolution to World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), introduction and chapter on ‘International Houses’.

R.D. Gwynn, Huguenot heritage: The history and contribution of the Huguenots in Britain 2nd edition. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2001)

R.C. Nash, ‘Huguenot merchants and the development of South Carolina’s slave-plantation and Atlantic trading economy’ in B.V. Ruymbeke and R.J. Sparks (eds.) Memory and identity : the Huguenots in France and the Atlantic diaspora (Columbia, SC.: The University of South Carolina Press, 2003).

C. Wilson, ‘Anglo-Dutch establishment in eighteenth-century England’ in C. Wilson (ed.) The Anglo-Dutch contribution to the civilization of early modern society : an Anglo-Netherlands Symposium, London, 27 and 28 June 1974 under the auspices of the British Academy and the Royal Society in association with the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976).

European merchants

 M. S. Beerbuhl, The forgotten majority : German merchants in London, naturalization, and global trade, 1660-1815 ISBN: 9781782384472; 1782384472 (Oxford: Berghahn books, 2015), esp. chapter 1

 X. Lamikiz, Trade and trust in the eighteenth-century Atlantic world : Spanish merchants and their overseas networks ISBN: 9780861933068 (hbk.) : £50.00; 0861933060 (hbk.) : £50.00 (London: Royal Historical Society, 2010).

 C.H. Wilson, Anglo-Dutch commerce & finance in the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941).

C.H. Wilson, ‘Anglo-Dutch establishment in eighteenth-century England’ in C. Wilson (ed.) The Anglo-Dutch contribution to the civilization of early modern society : an Anglo-Netherlands Symposium, London, 27 and 28 June 1974 under the auspices of the British Academy and the Royal Society in association with the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences ISBN: 0197259618 (pbk) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976).

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Week 17. Merchants and landed society 

Essential preparatory reading

N. Rogers, 'Money, Land and Lineage', Social history., Vol. 4 (1979), pp. 437-54.

H. Horwitz, 'The Mess of the Middle Class Revisited', Continuity and Change, Vol. 2 (1987), 263-96.

D. Pope, ‘The wealth and social aspirations of Liverpool slave merchants in the second half of the eighteenth century’ in D. Richardson, S. Schwarz and A. Tibbles (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007). [eBook]

R.G. Wilson, ‘The Denisons and the Milneses: Eighteenth-Century Merchant Landowners’ in Ward, J.T. and Wilson, R.G. (Eds.) Land and industry : the landed estate and the Industrial Revolution : a symposium (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1971), pp. 145-172. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Further Reading:

D. T. Andrew, ‘Aldermen and Big Bourgeoisie of London Reconsidered’, Social history., Vol. 6 (1981), 359-64; and ‘A reply to Donna Andrew’, in the same journal and volume, (1981) 365-9.

G. Bannerman, Merchants and the military in eighteenth-century Britain : British Army contracts and domestic supply, 1739-1763 (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2008).

H.V. Bowen, Elites, enterprise, and the making of the British overseas empire, 1688-1775 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996), pp. 49-56.

J. Cannon Aristocratic century : the peerage of eighteenth-century England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).

T.M. Devine, ‘Glasgow colonial merchants and land, 1770-1815’ in Ward, J.T. and Wilson, R.G. (Eds.) Land and industry : the landed estate and the Industrial Revolution : a symposium (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1971), pp. 205-244.

P. Earle, The making of the English middle class : business, society and family life in London, 1660-1730 (Berkley: University of California Press, 1989), especially chapters 1 and 12.

R. Grassby, The English gentleman in trade : the life and works of Sir Dudley North, 1641-1691 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

R. Grassby, The business community of seventeenth-century England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

S. Halliday, ‘Social mobility, demographic change, and the landed elite of County Durham, 1610-1819: An open and shut case? ’, Northern history., Vol. 30 (1994).

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), chapters 9-10, appendix VI.

N.B. Harte and R.E. Quinault (eds) Land and society in Britain, 1700-1914 : essays in honour of F.M.L. Thompson (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996).

G. Homes and F. Heal, The gentry in England and Wales, 1500-1700 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1994).

H. Horwitz, 'The Mess of the Middle Class Revisited', Continuity and Change, Vol. 2 (1987), 263-96.

R.G. Lang, ‘Social origins and social aspirations of Jacobean London merchants’, The economic history review., Vol. 27 (1974), pp. 28-47

P. Langford, Public life and the propertied Englishman, 1689-1798 : the Ford Lectures delivered in the University of Oxford, 1990 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).

M.W McCahill, “Open Elites: recruitment to the French Noblesse and English Aristocracy in the eighteenth century”, Albion., Vol. 30 (1998).

G.A. Mingay, The gentry : the rise and fall of a ruling class (London: Longman, 1976).

H. Perkin, ‘An open elite? ’, The journal of British studies., Vol. 24 (1985).

D. Pope, ‘The wealth and social aspirations of Liverpool slave merchants in the second half of the eighteenth century’ in D. Richardson, S. Schwarz and A. Tibbles (eds.) Liverpool and transatlantic slavery [electronic resource] (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007).

H. Perkin, The origins of modern English society, 1780-1880 (London: Routledge,1969), pp. 56-62.

D. Rapp, ‘Social mobility in the eighteenth century: The Whitbreads of Bedfordshire, 1720-1815’, The economic history review., Vol. 27 (1974).

J.S. Rossenheim, The Townshends of Raynham : nobility in transition in Restoration and early Hanoverian England (Middletown, CT.: Wesleyan University Press, 1989)

C.S. Smith, ‘Supply and demand in English Country House building, 1660-1740’, Oxford art journal., Vol. 11 (1988).

E. and D. Spring, ‘The English landed elite, 1540-1879: A review’, Albion., Vol. 17 (1985).

E. and D. Spring, ‘Social mobility and the English landed elite’, Canadian journal of history = Annales canadiennes d'histoire., Vol. 21 (1986).

L. and J. Stone, An open elite? England, 1540-1880 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).

S. Whyman, Sociability and power in late-Stuart England : the cultural worlds of the Verneys, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), chapter 3. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Thirsk, ‘Younger Sons in the Seventeenth Century’, History., Vol. 54, (1969), pp. 358-377

E.A. Wasson, ‘The Penetration of New Wealth into the English Governing Class from the Middle Ages to the First World War’, The economic history review. Vol. 51 (1998).

R.G. Wilson, ‘The Denisons and the Milneses: Eighteenth-Century Merchant Landowners’ in Ward, J.T. and Wilson, R.G. (Eds.) Land and industry : the landed estate and the Industrial Revolution : a symposium (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1971), pp. 145-172.

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), chapter 10.

Gentlemanly capitalism: relations between landed elites, merchants and industrialists

P. Cain and A. Hopkins, 'Gentlemanly Capitalism and British Expansion Overseas', The economic history review., Vol. 39 (1986), pp. 501-25.

D. C. Coleman, `Gentlemen and Players’, The economic history review., Vol, 26, Issue 1 (1973), 92-8.

M. J. Daunton, '"Gentlemanly Capitalism" and British Industry', Past & present., Vol. 122 (1989), pp. 119-58.

S. Mentz, The English gentleman merchant at work : Madras and the City of London 1660-1740 (Copenhagen: Meseum Tusculanun Press, 2005), pp. 64-68.

W.D. Rubinstein, Men of property : the very wealthy in Britain since the Industrial Revolution (London: Croom Helm, 1981).

W.D. Rubinstein, ‘Debate: "Gentlemanly Capitalism" and British Industry', Past & present., Vol. 132 (1991), pp. 150-70, and (Same journal, same issue), Daunton, 'Reply', 170-87

F. Thompson, 'Life After Death', The economic history review., 2nd, XLIII (1990), 40-61

Merchants and the arts:

P. Borsay, The English urban renaissance : culture and society in the provincial town 1660-1770 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).

P.J. Corfield, ‘The rivals: landed and other gentlemen’ in N.B. Harte and R.E. Quinault (eds) Land and society in Britain, 1700-1914 : essays in honour of F.M.L. Thompson (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), appendix VII.

M. Galinou (ed.) City merchants and the arts, 1670-1720 (Wetherby: Corporation of London, 2004).

W-A. Landes (ed.) The London merchant (Studio City, CA.: Players Press, 1996).

J. McVeagh, Tradefull merchants : the portrayal of the capitalist in literature (London, 1981)

J. Viner, ‘Satire and economics in the Augustan age of satire’ in H.K. Miller, E. Rothstein, and G.S. Rousseau (eds.) The Augustan milieu : essays presented to Louis A. Landa (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

N. McKendrick. ‘Gentlemen and players revisited: The gentlemanly ideal, the business ideal and the professional ideal in English literary culture’ in N. McKendrick and R.B. Outhwaite (eds.) Business life and public policy : essays in honour of D.C. Coleman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1986) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

K. Wilson, ‘Empire, trade and popular politics in mid-Hanoverian Britain: The case of Admiral Vernon’, Past & present. Vol. 121 (1988).

J. Raven Judging new wealth : popular publishing and responses to commerce in England, 1750-1800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

 

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Week 18. Merchants and politics

Essential preparatory reading

M. Power, 'Councilors and commerce in Liverpool, 1650-1750’, Urban History, Vol. 24 (1997), pp. 301-323.

A.G. Olson, ‘The Virginia Merchants of London: A Study in Eighteenth-Century Interest Group Politics’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 40 (1983), pp. 363-388.

E.A. Wasson, ‘The Penetration of New Wealth into the English Governing Class from the Middle Ages to the First World War’, The economic history review. Vol. 51 (1998).40 (1983), pp. 363-388.

Further Reading:

Seventeenth –century background:

R. Ashton, The city and the court, 1603-1643, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

R. Brenner, ‘The civil war politics of London’s merchant community’, Past & present., Vol. 58 (1973).

D.W. Jones, ‘London merchants and the crisis of the 1690s’ in P. Clark and P. Slack (eds.) Crisis and order in English towns, 1500-1700 : essays in urban history (London: Routledge, 1972).

Further Reading

London and national politics

J. Brewer, The sinews of power : war, money and the English state, 1688-1783 (Oxford: Oxford University Press,1989).

E. Donnan, ‘Eighteenth-Century English Merchants: Micajah Perry’, Journal of economic and business history., Vol. 4 (1932)

P. Earle, The making of the English middle class : business, society and family life in London, 1660-1730 (Berkley: University of California Press, 1989), chapter 9. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

P. Gauci, The politics of trade : the overseas merchant in state and society, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), esp. chapters 4-6.

P. Gauci, Emporium of the world : the merchants of London, 1660-1800 (London: Continuum, 2007), chapter 8.

P. Gauci, Regulating the British economy, 1660-1850 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011).

D. Hancock, Citizens of the world : London merchants and the integration of the British Atlantic community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 313-319.

D.W. Jones, War and economy in the age of William III and Marlborough (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988).

L.B. Namier, ‘Brice Fisher M.P.: A Mid-Eighteenth-Century Merchant and his Connexions’, English historical review. Vol. 42 (1927)

L.B. Namier, ‘Anthony Bacon M.P.: An Eighteenth-Century Merchant’, Journal of economic and business history., Vol. 2 (1929).

A.G. Olson, Anglo-American politics, 1660-1775 : the relationship between parties in England and colonial America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973).

A.G. Olson, ‘The Board of Trade and London-American Interest Groups’, The journal of imperial and commonwealth history., Vol. 8 (1980), pp. 33-50.

A.G. Olson, ‘The London Mercantile Lobby and the Coming of the American Revolution’, The Journal of American history., Vol. 69 (1982), pp. 21-41.

A.G. Olson, ‘The Virginia Merchants of London: A Study in Eighteenth-Century Interest Group Politics’, William and Mary quarterly, Vol. 40 (1983), pp. 363-388.

A.G. Olson, Making the Empire work : London and American interest groups, 1690-1790 (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1992)

C.H. Philips, ‘The East India Company “Interest” and the English Government, 1783-1784’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., Vol. 20 (1937)

Sherman, Arnold A., ‘Pressure from Leadenhall: The East India Company Lobby, 1660-1678’, Business history review., 50 (1976)

J.M. Price, ‘Who cared about the colonies? The impact of the thirteen colonies on British society and politics’ in B. Bailyn and P.D. Morgan (ed.) Strangers within the realm : cultural margins of the first British Empire (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

E.A. Wasson, ‘The Penetration of New Wealth into the English Governing Class from the Middle Ages to the First World War’, The economic history review., Vol. 51 (1998).

C. Wilson, England’s Apprenticeship: 1603-1763 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965).

C. Wilson, ‘Governmental policy and Private Interest in Modern England’, in C. Wilson (ed.) Economic history and the historian : collected essays (London: Littlehampton Book Services, 1969), 140-155. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

N. Zahedieh, ‘Making mercantilism work: London merchants and Atlantic trade in the seventeenth century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th Series, Vol. 9 (1999), pp. 143-58.

N. Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies : London and the Atlantic economy, 1660-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 113-127 .

Provincial politics

S.G. Checkland, ‘American versus West India traders in Liverpool, 1793-1815’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 18 (1958), pp. 141-60.

P. Gauci, The politics of trade : the overseas merchant in state and society, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), esp. chapters 4-6.

W.E. Minchinton, Politics and the port of Bristol in the eighteenth century : the petitions of the Society of Merchant Venturers, 1698-1803 (Bristol: Bristol Record Society, 1963), p. xvii. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

M. Power, ‘Councilors and commerce in Liverpool, 1650-1750’, Urban history., Vol. 24 (1997), pp. 301-323.

F. E. Sanderson, ‘The structure of politics in Liverpool, 1780-1807’, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire., Vol. 127 (1977), pp. 65-89.

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), pp. 161-182.

Merchant associations and specific political campaigns

R.J. Bennett, Local business voice : the history of Chambers of Commerce in Britain, Ireland, and revolutionary America, 1760-2011 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

S.G. Checkland, ‘American versus West India traders in Liverpool, 1793-1815’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 18 (1958), pp. 141-60.

P. Gauci, The politics of trade : the overseas merchant in state and society, 1660-1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), chapters 3 and 7.

S. Haggerty, 'Merely for money'? : business culture in the British Atlantic, 1750-1815 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2012), pp. 206- 234.

A.G. Olson, ‘The Board of Trade and London-American Interest Groups’, The journal of imperial and commonwealth history., Vol. 8 (1980), pp. 33-50.

A.G. Olson, ‘The London Mercantile Lobby and the Coming of the American Revolution’, The Journal of American history., Vol. 69 (1982), pp. 21-41.

A.G. Olson, ‘The Virginia Merchants of London: A Study in Eighteenth-Century Interest Group Politics’, William and Mary quarterly , Vol. 40 (1983), pp. 363-388.

A.J. O’Shaugnessy, ‘The formation of a commercial lobby: The West India interest, British colonial policy and the American Revolution’, The historical journal., Vol. 40 (1997), pp. 71-95.

A.J. O’Shaugnessy, ‘The West India Interest and the Crisis of American Independence’ in R.A. McDonald (ed.) West Indies accounts : essays on the history of the British Caribbean and the Atlantic economy in honour of Richard Sheridan (Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 1996).

L. M. Penson, ‘The London West India Interest in the Eighteenth Century’, English historical review., Vol. 36 (1921).

C.H. Philips, ‘The East India Company “Interest” and the English Government, 1783-1784’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., Vol. 20 (1937)

D.B. Ryden, West Indian slavery and British abolition, 1783-1807 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), chapter 5. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

F.E. Sanderson, ‘The Liverpool delegates and Sir William Dolben’s bill’, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire., Vol. 124 (1972), pp. 57-84.

F.E. Sanderson, ‘Liverpool abolitionists’ in R. Anstey, and P.E. Hair (eds.) Liverpool, the African slave trade, and abolition : essays to illustrate current knowledge and research (Liverpool: Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1976), pp.196-238.

S. Satsuma, ‘Politicians, merchants and colonial maritime war: The political and economic background of the American Act of 1708’, Parliamentary history., Vol. 32 (2013), pp. 317-336.

A.A. Sherman, ‘Pressure from Leadenhall : The East India Company Lobby, 1660-1678’, Business history review., Vol. 50 (1976)

B. Tolley, ‘The Liverpool campaign against the Order in Council and the War of 1812’, in J.R. Harris (ed.) Liverpool and Merseyside : essays in the economic and social history of the port and its hinterland (London: F. Cass, 1969).

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Week 19.  Merchants and the industrial revolution

Essential preparatory reading

T.M. Devine, ‘The colonial trades and industrial investment in Scotland, c.1700-1815’, The economic history review., Vol. 29 (1976), pp. 1-13.

P. Maw, Transport and the industrial city : Manchester and the canal age, 1750-1850 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013), pp. 209-216. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), chapter 6.

K. Morgan, ‘Atlantic trade and British economic growth in the eighteenth century’ in P. Mathias and J.A. Davis (eds.) International trade and British economic growth : from the eighteenth century to the present day ISBN: 0631181164 (Oxford: Bakewell, 1996). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Further Reading:

General texts on the causes of the industrial revolution

R.C. Allen, ‘Why the industrial revolution was British: Commerce, induced invention, and the scientific revolution’, The economic history review., Vol. 64 (2011), pp. 357-84.

M. Berg, The age of manufactures, 1700-1820 : industry, innovation and work in Britain (2nd Edition. London: Routledge, 1994), Chapter 3.

E. Griffin, A short history of the British Industrial Revolution (London: Palgrave Macmillian, 2010), chapter 7 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

M. Hartwell, ‘The causes of the industrial revolution: An essay in methodology’, The economic history review., Vol. 18 (1965), pp. 164-184.

N.F.R. Crafts, ‘Industrial revolution in Britain and France: some thoughts on the question“ Why was England first? ”’, The economic history review., New Series, Vol. 30 (1977), pp. 429-41.

M.W. Flinn, The origins of the industrial revolution (London: Longman, 1966).

D.S. Landes ‘What room for accident in history? Explaining big changes by small events’, The economic history review., 2nd Series, Vol. 47 (1994), pp. 637–55.

N. McKendrick, N. ‘Consumer revolution in eighteenth-century England’ in McKendrick, N., Brewer, J., and Plumb, J.H. (eds.) The birth of a consumer society : the commercialization of eighteenth-century England (London: Europa, 1982). Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Mokyr, The British industrial revolution: An economic perspective (2nd edition. Boulder, CO.: University of Colorado Press, 1999), pp. 19-68. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Mokyr, The enlightened economy : Britain and the industrial revolution 1700-1850 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009).

K. Pomeranz, The Great divergence: China, Europe, and the making of the modern world economy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000)

E.A. Wrigley, Energy and the English Industrial Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

Merchants and factories/industry

J.V. Beckett, Coal and tobacco : the Lowthers and the economic development of West Cumberland, 1660-1760 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

W.H. Chaloner, ‘Robert Owen, Peter Drinkwater and the Early Factory System in Manchester’, Bulletin of John Rylands Library, Vol. 37, (1) (1954), pp. 78-102. Available online: http://www.themeister.co.uk/hindley/cotton_mills.pdf

S.D. Chapman, The early factory masters : the transition to the factory system in the Midlands textile industry. (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1967).

S.D. Chapman, ‘The Peels in the Early English Cotton Industry’, Business history., Vol. 11 (1969), pp. 61-89.

S.D. Chapman, ‘Fixed Capital Formation in the British Cotton Industry, 1770-1815’, The economic history review., 2nd Series, 23 (2), (1970), pp. 235-266.

S.D. Chapman, Merchant enterprise in Britain : from the industrial revolution to World War I (Cambridge, 1992).

F. Crouzet, The first industrialists : the problem of origins (Cambridge, 1985).

T.M. Devine, ‘The colonial trades and industrial investment in Scotland, c.1700-1815’, The economic history review. Vol. 29 (1976), pp. 1-13.

M.M. Edwards, The growth of the British cotton trade,1780-1815. (Manchester, 1967).

K. Honeyman, Origins of enterprise : business leadership in the industrial revolution (Manchester, 1982).

A.H. John, The industrial development of South Wales, 1750-1850 : an essay (Cardiff: Cardiff University Press, 1987).

P. Maw, ‘Yorkshire and Lancashire ascendant: England’s textile exports to New York and Philadelphia, 1750-1805’, The economic history review., Vol. 63 (2010), pp. 734-68.

M.B. Rose, The Gregs of Quarry Bank Mill : the rise and decline of a family firm, 1750-1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986)

E. Williams, Capitalism and slavery (London: Deutsch, 1944).

Overseas trade and the industrial revolution

R. Blackburn, The American crucible : slavery, emancipation and human rights (London: Verso, 2011), pp. 99-120. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

J. Cuenca Esteban, ‘The Rising Share of British Industrial exports in industrial output, 1700-1851’, The journal of economic history., Vol. 57 (1997), pp. 879-906.

R. Davis, Industrial Revolution and British overseas trade (1979), chapter 5. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

D. Eltis, and S.L. Engerman, ‘The Importance of Slavery and the Slave Trade to Industrializing Britain’, The journal of economic history, 60 (1) (2000), pp. 123-144.

D.A. Farnie, ‘The Role of Merchants as Prime Movers in the Expansion of the Cotton Industry, 1760-1990’ in Farnie, D.A. and Jeremy, D.J. (Eds.) The fibre that changed the world : the cotton industry in international perspective, 1600-1990s Perspective , 1600-1990s (Oxford, 2004), pp. 15-55. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

H.E.S. Fisher, The Portugal trade : a study of Anglo-Portuguese commerce, 1700-1770 (London: Methuen, 1971), esp. chapter 9.

C.K. Harley, ‘Trade: discovery, mercantilism and technology’ in R. Floud and P. Johnson (Ed.) The Cambridge economic history of modern Britain: Vol 1, Industrialisation, 1700-1860(Cambridge, 2004), pp. 175-203. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

P. Hudson, The Industrial Revolution (London: Arnold 1992), chapter 6.

J.E. Inikori, Africans and the industrial revolution in England [electronic resource] : a study in international trade and development (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

D. McCloskey and R.P. Thomas, ‘Overseas Trade and Empire 1700-1860’ in Floud, R.C. and McCloskey, D.M. (eds.) The Economic History of Britain since 1700: Vol. 1 (1st edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 87-102.

P.K. O’Brien, ‘Inseparable connections: Trade, economy, state and empire’ in Marshall, P.J. (ed.) The Oxford history of the British Empire, Volume II: The eighteenth century ISBN: 0198205635 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 54-77.

P.K. O’Brien and S.L. Engerman, ‘Exports and the growth of the British economy from the Glorious Revolution to the Peace of Amiens’ in B.L. Solow (ed.) Slavery and the rise of the Atlantic system (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

K. O’Rourke and R. Findlay, Power and plenty : trade, war, and the world economy in the second millennium (Princeton, 2007), Chapter 6 [eBook].

D. Ormrod, The rise of commercial empires: England and the Netherlands in the age of mercantilism, 1650-1770 (Cambridge University Press 2003), chapter 11.

J. M. Price, Capital and credit in British overseas trade : the view from the Chesapeake, 1700-1776. (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1980), chapter 8.

J. Smail, Merchants, markets and manufacture : the English wool textile industry in the eighteenth century (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999), esp. introduction.

B.L. Solow and S. L. Engerman, British capitalism and Caribbean Slavery: The Legacy of Eric Williams (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), esp. chapters by Solow, Richardson and Inikori.

J. K. J. Thomson, ‘British industrialisation and the external world: a unique experience or an archetypal model? ’ in M. Bienefeld and M. Godfrey (eds.) The struggle for development : national strategies in an international context (Chichester: Wiley, 1982) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

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Week 20. The decline of the eighteenth-century merchant?

Essential preparatory reading

N.S. Buck, The Development of the Organisation of Anglo-American trade (1925, Reprinted Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1969), chapter 5. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (MAA 28/09/2017) 

S.D. Chapman, ‘British Marketing Enterprise: The Changing Roles of Merchants, Manufacturers and Financiers, 1700-1860’, Business history review., Vol. 53 (1979), pp. 205-234.

D.A. Farnie, ‘The Role of Merchants as Prime Movers in the Expansion of the Cotton Industry, 1760-1990’ in Farnie, D.A. and Jeremy, D.J. (Eds.) The fibre that changed the world : the cotton industry in international perspective, 1600-1990s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 15-55.

Further Reading:

P. Cain and A. Hopkins, 'Gentlemanly Capitalism and British Expansion Overseas', The economic history review., Vol. 39 (1986), pp. 501-25.

P. Hudson, The genesis of industrial capital : a study of the West Riding wool textile industry c.1750-1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1986), chapter 7.

G. Jackson, G. Hull in the eighteenth century : a study in economic and social history (Hull: Hull University Press, 1972).

P. Maw, ‘Yorkshire and Lancashire ascendant: England’s textile exports to New York and Philadelphia, 1750-1805’, The economic history review. Vol. 63 (2010), pp. 734-68.

R.C. Nash, ‘The Organization of Trade and Finance in the Atlantic Economy in the British Atlantic Economy, 1600-1830’ in Coclanis, P. (ed.) The Atlantic economy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries : organization, operation, practice, and personnel (Columbia, SC. 2005).

W.D. Rubinstein, Men of property : the very wealthy in Britain since the Industrial Revolution (London: Croom Helm, 1981).

R.G. Wilson, Gentleman merchants : the merchant community in Leeds, 1700-1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), chapter 6.

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Week 21 Revision session 1. Primary sources

No assigned reading

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Week 22 Revision session 2. Exam answers

No assigned reading

This list was last updated on 12/09/2019