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GEOG3895 Reading List

Timescales of Global Change, 2019/20, Semester 1, 2
Dr Graeme Swindles
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Core texts for each module component are listed below. Additional reading may be provided in each lecture.

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Reading for Pre-Quaternary Atmosphere, Climate & Evolution (Semester 1)

Belcher, C.M., (2013) Fire phenomena and the Earth system : an interdisciplinary guide to fire science. Wiley-Blackwell 
Benton, M.J., & Harper, D.A.T. (2009) Introduction to paleobiology and the fossil record. 2nd Edition, Wiley-Blackwell 
Briggs, D., & Crowther, P.R. (2001) Palaeobiology II. Wiley-Blackwell 
Willis, K.,  & McElwain, J.C. (2013) The evolution of plants.. 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press 
Additional reading will be suggested for each lecture.

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Reading for Quaternary Climates (Semester 1)

Anderson, D. E., et al., (2007) Global environments through the Quaternary : exploring environmental change. Oxford University Press.
Bradley, R.S. (1999) Paleoclimatology : reconstructing climates of the quaternary.. 2nd Edition. London Academic
Lowe, J.J. (1997) Reconstructing Quaternary Environments. 2nd Edition. Harlow Longman
Mackay, A., et al., (2005) Global change in the holocene
Roberts, N. (1998) The Holocene: An Environmental History. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishers
Additional reading will be suggested for each lecture. 

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Reading for Recent Climate Change (Semester 2)

Additional reading will be suggested for each lecture. 

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Reading for Human Impacts on the Climate (Semester 2)

* essential reading

Lecture 20 Human Impacts on the Climate System

Ackerley, D., Booth, B. B. B., Knight, S. H. E., Highwood, E. J., Frame, D. J., Allen, M. R. & Rowell, D. P. 2011: Sensitivity of Twentieth-Century Sahel Rainfall to Sulfate Aerosol and CO(2) Forcing. Journal of climate. , 24, 4999-5014.

Biasutti, M. 2011: Atmospheric Science A man-made drought. Nature climate change , 1, 197-198.

Biasutti, M. 2016. Hydrology: What brings rain to the Sahel? Nature climate change, 6 , 897-898

Bonan, G. 2002. Ecological Climatology Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 13: Agroecosystems 12.2 Drylands and 13.6 US Central Plains

Caminade C, Terray L. 2010. Twentieth century Sahel rainfall variability as simulated by the ARPEGE AGCM, and future changes. Climate dynamics. 35(1) Special Issue: SI, 75-94.

Charney J.G. 1975: Dynamics Of Deserts And Drought In Sahel, Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. ISSN: 0035-9009 101(428), 193-202.

Cook, B.I., Miller, R.L. and Seager R. 2008: Dust and sea surface temperature forcing of the 1930s “Dust Bowl” drought, Geophysical Research Letters. , 35, L08710, doi10.1029/2008GL033486.

Cook, B.I., Miller, R.L. and Seager R. 2009: Amplification of the North American “Dust Bowl” drought through human-induced land degradation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. , 106(13), 4997-5001

Dai, Aiguo Peter J. Lamb, Kevin E. Trenberth, Mike Hulme, Philip D. Jones, Pingping Xie 2004: The recent Sahel drought is real, International journal of climatology. , 24(11), 1323-1331.

Donat, M. G., King, A. D., Overpeck, J. T., Alexander, L. V., Durre, I. & Karoly, D. J. 2016. Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions. Climate dynamics. , 46 , 413-426.

Druyan, L. M. 2011: Studies of 21st-century precipitation trends over West Africa. International journal of climatology. , 31, 1415-1424.

Feddema, J.J. Oleson, K.W. Bonan, G.B. Mearns, L.O. Buja, L.E. Meehl, G.A. and W. M. Washington 2005: The Importance of Land-Cover Change in Simulating Future Climates Science. : 310 (5754), 1674-1678. [DOI:10.1126/science.1118160]

Govaerts, Y. 2007: Surface albedo response to Sahel precipitation changes, Transactions 88 (3) 18 Jan 2007, 25. - Available online:

*McLeman, R., Dupre, J., Berrang Ford, L., Ford, J., Gajewski, K. & Marchildon, G. 2014. What we learned from the Dust Bowl: lessons in science, policy, and adaptation. Population and environment. , 35, 417-440.

Schubert, S.D., Suarez M.J., Pegion P.J, Koster R.D. and J. T. Bacmeister 2004: On the Cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl,  Science, 303 (5665), 1855-1859

Woodhouse, C.A. and J.T. Overpeck, 1998: 2000 years of drought variability in the central United States, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. , 79, 2693-2714.

Zeng, N 2003. Drought in the Sahel,  Science, 302, 999-1000

Lecture 21 – The Instrumental Period

Bindoff, N.L., P.A. Stott, K.M. AchutaRao, M.R. Allen, N. Gillett, D. Gutzler, K. Hansingo, G. Hegerl, Y. Hu, S. Jain, I.I. Mokhov, J. Overland, J. Perlwitz, R. Sebbari and X. Zhang, 2013: Detection and Attribution of Climate Change: from Global to Regional. In: Climate change 2013 : the physical science basis . Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. pages 872-878.

De Jager 2005: Solar forcing of climate. 1: Solar variability, Space science reviews. , 120, 197-241 (An introduction to solar cycles).

Domínguez-Castro, F., Vaquero, J. M., Marín, M., Gallego, M. C. & García-Herrera, R. 2012. How useful could Arabic documentary sources be for reconstructing past climate? Weather. ISSN: 0043-1656, 67, 76-82.

Duncan, K. 1991: A comparison of the temperature records of Edinburgh and central England, Weather. , 46, 169-173. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (srj 19/02/2018) 

Dunn, J. 2004: The influence of volcanic activity on large-scale atmospheric processes: A discussion, Weather. , 59(2), 46-49.

Eddy, J.A. 1977: The case of the missing sunspots, Scientific American. , 236, 80‑92.

Endfield, G. H. 2007. Archival explorations of climate variability and social vulnerability in colonial Mexico. Climatic Change. ISSN: 0165-0009, 83, 9-38.

* Read one of the following three papers

Gray, L.J., Haigh, J.D., Harrison, R.G. 2005: A Review of the Influence of Solar Changes on the Earth’s Climate, Hadley Centre Technical Note 62. Available from:

Haigh, J.D. 2000: Solar variability and climate, Weather. , 55, 399-407.

Haigh, J.D. 2003: The effects of solar variability on the Earth’s climate, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. A. London A, 361, 95-111. Available online

Grundmann, R. 2013. “Climategate” and The Scientific Ethos. Science, technology, & human values. ISSN: 0162-2439, 38 , 67-93. This article gives a brief review of climategate and the scientitfic method for interest only

Hausfather, Z., Cowtan, K., Clarke, D. C., Jacobs, P., Richardson, M. & Rohde, R. 2017. Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records. Science advances ISSN: 2375-2548 [Online] , 3. 10.1126/sciadv.1601207 Available from

Hegerl, G. & Zwiers, F. 2011. Use of models in detection and attribution of climate change. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Climate change. , 2 , 570-591.

Karl, T. R., Arguez, A., Huang, B., Lawrimore, J. H., Mcmahon, J. R., Menne, M. J., Peterson, T. C., Vose, R. S. & Zhang, H.-M. 2015. Possible artifacts of data biases in the recent global surface warming hiatus. Science. .

Lean, J. 2005: Living with a variable sun, Physics today. , 58(6), 32-38

*Lockwood, M. 2012: Solar Influence on Global and Regional Climates. Surveys in geophysics. , 33 , 503-534.

Manley, G. 1974: Central England temperatures: Monthly means 1659-1973, Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 100, 389-405.

Mann, M.E. 2001: Climate during the past millennium, Weather. , 56, 91-102.

McIntyre S. and McKitrick R. 2003: Corrections to the Mann et. al. (1998) proxy data base and northern hemispheric average temperature series, Energy & Environment, Vol. 14, No. 6, 751-771. Available from :

Meehl, G. A., Arblaster, J. M., Fasullo, J. T., Hu, A. & Trenberth, K. E. 2011. Model-based evidence of deep-ocean heat uptake during surface-temperature hiatus periods. Nature climate change , 1 , 360-364.

*Miller, G. H., Geirsdóttir, Á., Zhong, Y., Larsen, D. J., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Holland, M. M., Bailey, D. A., Refsnider, K. A., Lehman, S. J., Southon, J. R., Anderson, C., Björnsson, H. & Thordarson, T. 2012. Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters. , 39 , L02708, DOI 10.1029/2011gl050168.

Murphy, C., Noone, S., Duffy, C., Broderick, C., Matthews, T. & Wilby, R. L. 2017. Irish droughts in newspaper archives: rediscovering forgotten hazards? Weather. ISSN: 0043-1656, 72, 151-155.

National Research Council. 2006: Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the last 2,000 years, Committee on surface temperature reconstructions for the last 2000 years. Available from

Pribyl, K. 2014. The study of the climate of medieval England: a review of historical climatology's past achievements and future potential. Weather. ISSN: 0043-1656, 69, 116-120.

Roscoe, H.K. 2004: The influence of volcanic activity on large-scale atmospheric processes: Continuing the discussion, Weather. , 59(12), 342-345.

Stendel, M., Mogensen, I.A. and Christensen, J.H. 2006: Influence of various forcings on global climate in historical times using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, Climate dynamics. , 26, 1-15.

Stott P.A. and Jones G.S. 2012 : Observed 21st century temperatures further constrain likely rates of future warming, Atmospheric science letters. . 13: 151–156.

Stott, P. A. & Walton, P. 2013. Attribution of climate-related events: understanding stakeholder needs. Weather. ISSN: 0043-1656, 68, 274-279

Vernier, J.-P., Fairlie, T. D., Deshler, T., Natarajan, M., Knepp, T., Foster, K., Wienhold, F. G., Bedka, K. M., Thomason, L. & Trepte, C. 2016. In situ and space-based observations of the Kelud volcanic plume: The persistence of ash in the lower stratosphere. Journal of geophysical research. D, Atmospheres. , 121 , 11,104-11,118

Versteegh, G.J.M. 2005: Solar forcing of climate 2: evidence from the past, Space science reviews. , 120, 243-286.

*Wanner, H., Beer, J., Bütikofer, J., Crowley, T. J., Cubasch, U., Flückiger, J., Goosse, H., Grosjean, M., Joos, F., Kaplan, J. O., Küttel, M., Müller, S. A., Prentice, I. C., Solomina, O., Stocker, T. F., Tarasov, P., Wagner, M. & Widmann, M. 2008: Mid- to Late Holocene climate change: an overview. Quaternary science reviews. , 27 , 1791-1828.

Wang, J., Emile-Geay, J., Guillot, D., Smerdon, J. E. & Rajaratnam, B. 2014. Evaluating climate field reconstruction techniques using improved emulations of real-world conditions. Climate of the past , 10 , 1-19.

Lecture 22 - Climate Model Predictions

Diffenbaugh, N. & Scherer, M. 2011. Observational and model evidence of global emergence of permanent, unprecedented heat in the 20th and 21st centuries. Climatic Change. , 107, 615-624.

*Flato, G., J. Marotzke, B. Abiodun, P. Braconnot, S.C. Chou, W. Collins, P. Cox, F. Driouech, S. Emori, V. Eyring, C. Forest, P. Gleckler, E. Guilyardi, C. Jakob, V. Kattsov, C. Reason and M. Rummukainen, 2013: Evaluation of Climate Models. In: Climate change 2013 : the physical science basis . Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assess­ment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Available at

Goosse, H. 2015. Climate system dynamics and modelling ISBN: 9781107445833 (paperback) : £39.99; 1107445833 (paperback) : £39.99 ISBN: 9781107445833 (paperback) : £39.99; 1107445833 (paperback) : £39.99. Cambridge University Press, New York. Chapter 3.

Gramelsberger, G. 2010. Conceiving processes in atmospheric models—General equations, subscale parameterizations, and ‘superparameterizations’. Studies in history and philosophy of science. Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 41, 233-241.

Gupta, A. S., Jourdain, N. C., Brown, J. N. & Monselesan, D. 2013. Climate Drift in the CMIP5 Models. Journal of climate. , 26, 8597-8615.

IPCC, 2007: Climate change 2007 : the physical science basis . Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Solomon, S. D. Qin, M. Manning, Z.Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Chapter 8 especially last section and chapter 11.

Kiehl, J.T. 1992: Atmospheric general circulation modeling, in Climate system modeling , K.E. Trenberth (ed), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 319-370. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Kuo, H.L. 1974: Further studies of the parameterization of the influence of cumulus convection on a large‑scale flow, Journal of the atmospheric sciences. , 31, 1232‑1240.

Malone, R.C., Smith, R.D., Maltrud, M.E. and Hecht, M.W. 2003: Eddy resolving ocean modelling, Los Alamos Science, 28, 223-231. Available from

May, W. and Roeckner, E. 2001: A time-slice experiment with the ECHAM4 AGCM at high resolution: the impact of horizontal resolution on annual mean climate change, Climate dynamics. , 17, 407-420.

Murphy, J.M., Sexton, D.M.H., Barnett, D.N., Jones, G.S., Webb, M.J., Collins, M. and Stainforth, D.A. 2004: Quantification of modelling uncertainties in a large ensemble of climate change simulations, Nature. , 430 (12 Aug 2004), 768-772.

*Parker, W. S. 2013. Ensemble modeling, uncertainty and robust predictions. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Climate change. , 4 , 213-223

Stainforth, D.A., Aina, T., Christensen, C., Collins, M., Faull, N., Frame, D.J., Kettleborough, J.A., Knight, S., Martin, A., Murphy, J.M., Piani, C., Sexton, D., Smith, L.A., Spicer, R.A., Thorpe, A.J. and Allen M.R. 2005: Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases,  Nature, 433 (27 Jan 2005), 403-406.

Stephens, E. M., Edwards, T. L. & Demeritt, D. 2012. Communicating probabilistic information from climate model ensembles—lessons from numerical weather prediction. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Climate change. , 3, 409-426.

Stocker, T.F. 2004: Models change their tune,  Nature, 430 (12 Aug 2004), 737-738.

Ullrich, P.A., P.H. Lauritzen, and C. Jablonowski, 2009: Geometrically Exact Conservative Remapping (GECoRe): Regular Latitude–Longitude and Cubed-Sphere Grids. Monthly Weather Review, 137, 1721–1741,

Lecture 23- Adapting to Climate Change

Abt Associates, 2016. Climate Adaptation: The State of Practice in US Communities. The Kresge Foundation. Available From:

ASC 2016. UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 Synthesis Report: priorities for the next five years. Adaptation Sub-Committee of the Committee on Climate Change, London. Available from

Defra, 2012. UK Climate Change Risk Assessment Government Report. London: The Stationery Office. Available From

Defra, 2013. The National Adaptation Programme: Making the country resilient to a changing climate. London: The Stationery Office. Available From

EEA, 2014. National adaptation policy processes in European countries, EEA Report No 4/2014, Available from

Klinsky, Sonja, Dowlatabadi, Hadi; McDaniels, Timothy 2012: Comparing public rationales for justice trade-offs in mitigation and adaptation climate policy dilemmas Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions. ISSN: 0959-3780 22( 4), 862-876

Houses of Parliament 2010: Sea Level Rise, Post Note Number 363, September 2010, The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, Available from

IPCC, 2014: Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea,T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-32.

Martinich, J., Neumann, J., Ludwig, L. & Jantarasami, L. 2013. Risks of sea level rise to disadvantaged communities in the United States. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change. , 18 , 169-185.

Nutters, Heidi, 2012: Addressing Social Vulnerability and Equity in Climate Change Adaptation Planning, Adapting to Rising Tides White Paper June 2012: San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission, NOAA & The Baldwin Group Inc. Available from:

Osberghaus, D., Dannenberg, A., Mennel, T. & Sturm, B. 2010. The role of the government in adaptation to climate change. Environment and planning. C : government and policy. , 28, 834-850.

Pelsmakers, S. 2013. Future-proofing London. In Bell, S and Paskins, J (eds.) Imagining the Future City: London 2062. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: Available from

Thomas, D.S.G. and Twyman, C. 2005: Equity and justice in climate change adaptation amongst natural-resource-dependent societies, Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions. ISSN: 0959-3780; 15(2), 115-124

Tol, R. S. J. 2005. Adaptation and mitigation: trade-offs in substance and methods. Environmental science and policy. , 8, 572-578.

Lecture 24 - Mitigating Climate Change

Blanco, G. Gerlagh, R. Suh S. 2014. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation. In Climate change 2014 : mitigation of climate change : Working Group III contribution to the Fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISBN: 9781107058217 hardback; 110705821X hardback; 9781107654815 paperback; 1107654815 paperback Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA Chapter 5. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Boettcher, M. & Schäfer. S. 2017. Reflecting upon 10 Years of Geoengineering Research: Introduction to the Crutzen +  10 Special Issue. Earth's future ISSN: 2328-4277, [Online] 10.1002/2016ef000521. Available from

Ciais, P., C. Sabine, G. Bala, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, J. Canadell, A. Chhabra, R. DeFries, J. Galloway, M. Heimann, C. Jones, C. Le Quéré, R.B. Myneni, S. Piao and P. Thornton, 2013: Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles. In: Climate change 2013 : the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Section 6.5 Only

Drake F. 2012. Mitigating Climate Change at Sub-national Scales: The Yorkshire & Humber Experience. Journal of environmental planning and management. , 56(3), 435-454,

Fankhauser, S. 2012. A practitioner's guide to a low-carbon economy: lessons from the UK. Climate policy. , 13, 345-362.

Friedlingstein, P., Andrew, R. M., Rogelj, J., Peters, G. P., Canadell, J. G., Knutti, R., Luderer, G., Raupach, M. R., Schaeffer, M., Van Vuuren, D. P. & Le Quere, C. 2014. Persistent growth of CO2 emissions and implications for reaching climate targets. Nature geoscience , 7, 709-715.

Hollander, R.D., Benya, F.F., Fletcher,C.H. 2014.The Climate Change Educational Partnership: Climate Change, Engineered Systems, and Society: A Report of Three Workshops. Available from The National Academies Press at record_id=18957

Lenton, A., D. Keller, and P. Pfister 2017. How will Earth respond to plans for carbon dioxide removal?, Eos, 98,

Moriarty, P. & Honnery, D. 2010. A human needs approach to reducing atmospheric carbon. Energy Policy. , 38, 695-700.

Shepherd J. G. 2012. Geoengineering the climate: an overview and update, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. A, Mathematical, physical and engineering sciences. A , 370: 4166 - 4175. 

*Vaughan, N. & Lenton, T. 2011. A review of climate geoengineering proposals. Climatic Change. , 109, 745-790.

Zhang, Z., Moore, J. C., Huisingh, D. & Zhao, Y. 2015. Review of geoengineering approaches to mitigating climate change. Journal of cleaner production. , 103 , 898-907.

Additional reading may be suggested for each lecture. 

This list was last updated on 23/09/2019