Skip to main content

COMM5601M
Innovations in Political Communication

Innovations in Political Communication, 2019/20, Semester 2
Prof Stephen Coleman
S.Coleman@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Week 1. Introduction to the Module and Planning a Local Campaign

Coleman, S. and Firmstone, J., 2014. Contested meanings of public engagement: exploring discourse and practice within a British city council. Media, culture & society. ISSN: 0163-4437, 36(6), pp.826-844.  

Fieldhouse, E., Cutts, D., Widdop, P. and John, P., 2013. Do impersonal mobilisation methods work? Evidence from a nationwide Get-Out-the-Vote experiment in England. Electoral studies. ISSN: 0261-3794, 32(1), pp.113-123.  

Peixoto, T., Sjoberg, F.M. and Mellon, J., 2017. A Get-Out-the-Vote Experiment on the World’s Largest Participatory Budgeting Vote in Brazil. British journal of political science. ISSN: 0007-1234, pp.1-9.  

Inch, A., 2015. Ordinary citizens and the political cultures of planning: In search of the subject of a new democratic ethos. Planning theory ISSN: 1473-0952, 14(4), pp.404-424.
 
 

Coleman, S., Thumim, N., Birchall, C., Firmstone, J., Moss, G., Parry, K., Stamper, J. and Blumler, J.G., 2016. The mediated city : the news in a post-industrial contextZed Books Ltd, pp. 16-33 (Chapter 1).  

Top of page

Week 2. Networked Political Communication

Required reading:

Bennett, W. Lance, and Alexandra Segerberg. "The logic of connective action: Digital media and the personalization of contentious politics." Information, communication and society.ISSN: 1369-118x 15.5 (2012): 739-768.  

Ford, H. and Graham, M., 2016. Provenance, power and place: Linked data and opaque digital geographies. Environment and planning. D, Society and space. ISSN: 0263-7758 34(6), pp.957-970.  

Mejias, Ulises A. "The limits of networks as models for organizing the social." New media and society.ISSN: 1461-4448 12.4 (2010): 603-617.  

Freelon, D., McIlwain, C. and Clark, M., 2018. Quantifying the power and consequences of social media protest. New media and society. ISSN: 1461-4448, 20(3), pp.990-1011.  

Supplementary reading:

Bennett, W. L, and A. Segerberg, 2011. Digital media and the personalization of collective action, Information, communication and society. 14 (6), 770-799.

Fenton, N. (2016). The internet and radical politics. In Curran, J., Fenton, N. and Freedman, D. (Eds.), Misunderstanding the Internet (2nd Edition). London: Routledge, pp. 173-202.

Kaun, A. and Uldam, J. (2017). Digital activism: After the hype. New media and society., 1-8. (SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE TOPIC)

Treré, E. and Mattoni, A. (2015). Media ecologies and protest movements: main perspectives and key lessons. Information, communication and society, 19(2): 290–306. 

Madianou, Mirca. "Humanitarian campaigns in social media: Network architectures and polymedia events." Journalism studies.ISSN: 1461-670x 14, no. 2 (2013): 249-266.

Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis. "Mundane Internet Tools, the Risk of Exclusion, and Reflexive Movements—Occupy Wall Street and Political Uses of Digital Networked Technologies." The sociological quarterly.ISSN: 0038-0253; 1533-8525 54, no. 2 (2013): 173-177.

Ford, Heather, and Mark Graham. "Semantic Cities: Coded Geopolitics and the Rise of the Semantic Web." Code and the cityISBN: 9781138922112 (pbk.); 9781138922105 (hardback); 9781315685991 (ebook)'(in press) edited by Rob Kitchin and Sung-Yueh Perng, published by Routledge (2015) - Available online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2682459

Theocharis, Yannis. "The wealth of (Occupation) networks? Communication patterns and information distribution in a Twitter protest network." Journal of information technology and politics.ISSN: 1933-1681; 1933-169X 10.1 (2013): 35-56

Vie, Stephanie. "In defense of “slacktivism”: The Human Rights Campaign Facebook logo as digital activism." First Monday [electronic resource].ISSN: 1396-0466 19, no. 4 (2014)

Top of page

Week 3. Online Deliberation

Required reading:

Strandberg, K. and Grönlund, K., 2018. Online deliberation. In A. Bächtiger, J.S. Dryzek, J. Mansbridge, and M.E. Warren (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of deliberative democracy ISBN: 9780198747369; 0198747365. Oxford University Press, pp. 365–377. (READ FIRST)  Available online

Coleman, S. and Cardoso Sampaio, R., 2017. Sustaining a democratic innovation: a study of three e-participatory budgets in Belo Horizonte. Information, communication and society. ISSN: 1369-118x, 20(5), pp.754-769.  

Ercan, S.A., Hendriks, C.M. and Dryzek, J.S., 2018. Public deliberation in an era of communicative plenty. Policy and politics. ISSN: 0305-5736; 1470-8442, 47(1), pp.19-36.  

Iandoli, L., Quinto, I., Spada, P., Klein, M. and Calabretta, R., 2018. Supporting argumentation in online political debate: Evidence from an experiment of collective deliberation. New media and society. ISSN: 1461-4448, 20(4), pp.1320-1341.  

Yan, W., Sivakumar, G. and Xenos, M.A., 2018. It’s not cricket: examining political discussion in nonpolitical online space. Information, communication and society. ISSN: 1369-118x, 21(11), pp.1571-1587.
 
 

Supplementary reading:

Public sphere theory

Scannell, P. (2007). Media and Communication, London, SAGE, pp. 233–259 (Chapter 9).

Goode, L. (2005) Jürgen Habermas. Democracy and the Public Sphere. London: Pluto Press. 

Internet and the public sphere

Coleman, S. and Blumler, J.G. (2009). The Internet and Democratic Citizenship:Theory, practice and policy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Papacharissi, Z.A. (2010). A private sphere : democracy in a digital age ISBN: 9780745645254 (pbk.) : £14.99; 9780745645247 (hbk.) : £50.00; 0745645240 (hbk.) : £50.00; 0745645259 (pbk.) : £14.99, Cambridge: Polity. 

Overviews of the filed of online deliberation

Coleman, S. and Moss, G. (2012). Under Construction: The Field of Online Deliberation Research, Journal of information technology and politics, 9:1, 1-15. (SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE TOPIC)

Friess, D., & Eilders, C. (2015). A systematic review of online deliberation research. Policy and Internet7(3), 319-339.

Graham, T. (2015). Everyday political talk in the Internet-based public sphere. In: Coleman S and Freelon, D. (ed.) Handbook of digital politics. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 247-263.

Design and moderation

Birchall, C. and Coleman, S. (2015). Creating spaces for online deliberation. In: Coleman S and Freelon, D. (Eds.), Handbook of Digital Politics. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 264-280.

'Third space' and the public sphere

Graham, T., Jackson, D., & Wright, S. (2016). ‘We need to get together and make ourselves heard’: Everyday online spaces as incubators of political action. Information, communication and society, 19(10), 1373-1389. 

Top of page

Week 4. Unstable Political Epistemologies: The Challenge of Post-truth

Required reading:

Lowrey, W., 2017. The emergence and development of news fact-checking sites: Institutional logics and population ecology. Journalism studies. ISSN: 1461-670x, 18(3), pp.376-394. (READ LAST)  

Bennett, W.L. and Livingston, S., 2018. The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions. European journal of communication. ISSN: 0267-3231, 33(2), pp.122-139. (READ FIRST)  

Coleman, S., 2018. The elusiveness of political truth: From the conceit of objectivity to intersubjective judgement. European journal of communication, 33(2), pp.157-171. (READ THIRD)  

Waisbord, S., 2018. Truth is What Happens to News: On journalism, fake news, and post-truth. Journalism studies. ISSN: 1461-670x, 19(13), pp.1866-1878. (READ SECOND)  

Supplementary reading:

Coleman, S. (2018). Introduction. European journal of communication, 33(2), 117–121. (SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE TOPIC)

Bennett, L., Berry, M., & Allan, S. (2018). Introduction, Journalism studies, 19:13, 1849-1853. (SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE TOPIC)

Boler, M., & Davis, E. (2018). The affective politics of the “post-truth” era: Feeling rules and networked subjectivity. Emotion, space and society ISSN: 1755-4586, 27, 75-85.

Carlson, M. (2018). The Information Politics of Journalism in a Post-Truth Age. Journalism studies, 19(13), 1879-1888.

Zelizer, B. (2018). Resetting journalism in the aftermath of Brexit and Trump. European journal of communication, 33(2), 140-156.

Wales, J. (2017). 'With the power of online transparency, together we can beat fake news'. The Guardian, 3 February 2017. 

Lievrouw, L. A., & Farb, S. E. (2003). Information and equity. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology37(1), 499-540.

Top of page

Week 5: Agenda-setting, Social Media, and Political Communication

Required reading:

Skogerbø, E., Bruns, A., Quodling, A. and Ingebretsen, T., 2016. Agenda-setting revisited: Social media and sourcing in mainstream journalism. . In A. Bruns, G. Enli, E. Skogerbø, A.O. Larsson, C. Christensen (Eds.),The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics, pp.104-120. (READ FIRST)  

Conway, B.A., Kenski, K. and Wang, D., 2015. The rise of Twitter in the political campaign: Searching for intermedia agenda-setting effects in the presidential primary. Journal of computer-mediated communication [electronic resource]. ISSN: 1083-6101, 20(4), pp.363-380.  

Harder, R.A., Sevenans, J. and Van Aelst, P., 2017. Intermedia agenda setting in the social media age: How traditional players dominate the news agenda in election times. The international journal of press/politics. ISSN: 1940-1612, 22(3), pp.275-293.  

Williams, C.B., Fedorowicz, J., Kavanaugh, A., Mentzer, K., Thatcher, J.B. and Xu, J., 2018. Leveraging social media to achieve a community policing agenda. Government information quarterly. ISSN: 0740-624X 35(2), pp.210-222.  

Supplementary reading:

Overview of agenda-setting theory/research (in the digital age)

Wanta, W., & Alkazemi, M. (2018). 10 Journalism as Agenda Setting. In: Vos, T.P. (ed) Journalism ISBN: 9781501510380 (hardcover); 9781501500084 (PDF); 9781501500107 (EPUB)De Gruyter Mouton: Boston/Berlin, pp. 189-204. ISBN: 978-1-5015-0008-4

Weimann, Gabriel, and Hans-Bernd Brosius. 2016. “A New Agenda for Agenda-Setting Research in the Digital Era.” In: Vowe, G. and P Henn (eds) Political communication in the online world : theoretical approaches and research designs ISBN: 9781138900080; 1138900087. New York: Routledge, pp. 26–44.

Moy, P. , Tewksbury, D. and Rinke, E. M. (2016). Agenda‐Setting, Priming, and Framing. In The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy (eds K. B. Jensen, E. W. Rothenbuhler, J. D. Pooley and R. T. Craig). doi:10.1002/9781118766804.wbiect266 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 27/02/2019) 

Aruguete, Natalia, The agenda setting hypothesis in the new media environment. Communication and society. ISSN: 1992-1985 [online] 2017, (January-April): [Date of consultation: March 11, 2019] Available at: <http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=34649149003> ISSN 0188 -252X 

Research on agenda-building

Parmelee JH (2014). The agenda-building function of political tweets. New media and society. 16 (3):434–450.

Broersma M, Graham T (2016). Tipping the balance of power: Social media and the transformation of political journalism. In: Bruns A, Enli G, Skogerbø E, Larsson AO, Christensen C (eds) The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics. Routledge, New York, p 89–103.

Brands, BJ, Graham, T, Broersma, M (2018). Social media sourcing practices: how Dutch newspapers use tweets in political news coverage. In: Schwanholz, J, Graham, T, Stoll, PT (eds) Managing Democracy in the Digital Age ISBN: 9783319617084 (electronic bk.); 3319617087 (electronic bk.); 9783319617077. Cham: Springer, pp. 159–178. 

Research on agaenda-setting and big data

W. Russell Neuman, Lauren Guggenheim, S. Mo Jang, Soo Young Bae; The Dynamics of Public Attention: Agenda-Setting Theory Meets Big Data, Journal of communication. ISSN: 0021-9916, Volume 64, Issue 2, 1 April 2014, Pages 193–214, https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12088

Top of page

Week 6: Performative Politics

Required reading:

Brassett, J. and Sutton, A., 2017. British satire, everyday politics: Chris Morris, Armando Iannucci and Charlie Brooker. British journal of politics & international relations. ISSN: 1369-1481, 19(2), pp.245-262.  

Loader, B.D., Vromen, A. and Xenos, M.A., 2016. Performing for the young networked citizen? Celebrity politics, social networking and the political engagement of young people. Media, culture & society. ISSN: 0163-4437, 38(3), pp.400-419.  

Martin, G., 2016. The Politics, Pleasure and Performance of New Age Travellers, Ravers and Anti-road Protestors: Connecting Festivals, Carnival and New Social Movements. In A. Bennett, J. Taylor, and I. Woodward (Eds.), The Festivalization of Culture (pp. 87-106). London: Routledge.  

Supplementary reading:

Papacharissi, Z., (2015). Affective publics : sentiment, technology, and politics ISBN: 9780190213329 (ebook) : No price. Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York, NY.

Papacharissi, Z. and Maria de Fatima Oliveira. (2012). “Affective News and Networked Publics: The rhythms of news storytelling on# Egypt." Journal of communication 62(2): 266-282.

Peters, C. (2011). ‘Emotion Aside or Emotional Side?: Crafting an ‘Experience of Involvement’ in the News’. Journalism. 12(3): 297-316.

Mahony, Nick. "Making democracy spectacular." RepresentationISSN: 0034-4893; 1749-4001 46.3 (2010): 339-352.

Bell, Charlotte, and Katie Beswick. "Authenticity and Representation: Council Estate Plays at the Royal Court." New Theatre Quarterly.ISSN: 0266-464x 30, no. 02 (2014): 120-135.

Top of page

Week 7. Digital Media, Political Parties, and Election Campaigns

Required reading:

Lilleker, D.G., Koc-Michalska, K., Jackson, N. (2015). Social media in the UK election campaigns 2008–14: Experimentation, innovation and convergence. In: Bruns, A, Skogerbo, E. (Eds.) Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics. London: Routledge, pp. 325–337.  

Chadwick, A., and Stromer-Galley, J. (2016). Digital media, power, and democracy in parties and election campaigns: Party decline or party renewal? The international journal of press/politics, 21(3), 283–293.  

Gibson, R. K. (2015). Party change, social media and the rise of ‘citizen-initiated’ campaigning. Party politics, 21(2), 183-197.  

Vaccari, C., & Valeriani, A. (2016). Party campaigners or citizen campaigners? How social media deepen and broaden party-related engagement. The international journal of press/politics, 21(3), 294-312.  

Supplementary reading:

Lee, B., & Campbell, V. (2016). Looking out or turning in? Organizational ramifications of Online Political Posters on Facebook. The international journal of press/politics, 21(3), 313-337.

Gibson, R. K., A. Römmele, and A. Williamson (2014). Chasing the digital wave: international perspectives on the growth of online campaigning. Journal of information technology and politics., 11(2), 123–129. (SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE TOPIC)

Jungherr, A. (2016). Twitter use in election campaigns: A systematic literature review. Journal of information technology and politics., 13(1):72–91. 

Schill, D. and Hendricks, J.A. (2018). The presidency and social media : discourse, disruption, and digital democracy in the 2016 presidential election (Eds.). New York: Routledge. 

Top of page

Week 8. Tracking Real-time Responses to Political Events and Messages

Requied reading:

Anstead, N. and O’Loughlin, B., 2011. The emerging viewertariat and BBC question time: Television debate and real-time commenting online. The international journal of press/politics. ISSN: 1940-1612, 16(4), pp.440-462.  

Burnap, P., Gibson, R., Sloan, L., Southern, R. and Williams, M., 2016. 140 characters to victory?: Using Twitter to predict the UK 2015 General Election. Electoral studies. ISSN: 0261-3794, 41, pp.230-233.  

Coleman, S., Moss, G. and Martinez-Perez, A., 2018. Studying Real-Time Audience Responses to Political Messages: A New Research Agenda. International Journal of Communication ISSN: 1932-8036, 12, pp.1696–1714.  

Supplementary reading:

Coleman, Stephen, and Giles Moss. "Rethinking Election Debates What Citizens Are Entitled to Expect." The international journal of press/politics.ISSN: 1940-1612 21, no. 1 (2016): 3-24.

Top of page

Week 9. Political Communication: Past, Present, and Future

Required reading:

Blumler, J.G. and Coleman, S., 2013. Comm Research—Views from Europe| Paradigms of Civic Communication. International Journal of Communication ISSN: 1932-8036, 7, pp.173-187.  

Bennett, W.L. and Iyengar, S., 2008. A new era of minimal effects? The changing foundations of political communication. Journal of communication. ISSN: 0021-9916, 58(4), pp.707-731.  

Bennett, W.L. and Pfetsch, B., 2018. Rethinking political communication in a time of disrupted public spheres. Journal of communication. ISSN: 0021-9916, 68(2), pp.243-253.  

Karpf, D., Kreiss, D., Nielsen, R.K. and Powers, M., 2015. The role of qualitative methods in political communication Research: Past, present, and future. International Journal of Communication ISSN: 1932-8036, 9, pp.1888-1906.  

Supplementary reading:

Blumler, J.G. and Coleman S. (2015). Democracy and the media–Revisited. Javnost : the public ISSN: 1318-3222, 22(2): 111–128.

Blumler, J., & Gurevitch, M. (2002). The crisis of civic communication. In The Crisis of Public Communication (pp. 9-16). Routledge.

Blumler, J. G., & Kavanagh, D. (1999). The third age of political communication: Influences and features. Political communication, 16(3), 209-230.

Brants, K. (1998). Who's afraid of infotainment?. European journal of communication13(3), 315-335.

Blumler, J. G. (1999). Political communication systems all change: A response to Kees Brants. European journal of communication14(2), 241-249.

Brants, K. (1999). A rejoinder to Jay G. Blumler. European journal of communication14(3), 411-415.

Aelst, P. V., Strömbäck, J., Aalberg, T., Esser, F., Vreese, C. D., Matthes, J., ... & Papathanassopoulos, S. (2017). Political communication in a high-choice media environment. Annals of the International Communication Association ISSN: 2380-8985, (1), 3-27.

Top of page

Useful Handbooks/Edited Volumes

Schwanholz J., Graham T., and Stoll P.T. (2018). Managing democracy in the digital age : internet regulation, social media use, and online civic engagement (Eds.). Berlin: Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-61708-4

Bruns A., Enli G., Skogerbø E., Larsson A.O., and Christensen C. (2016). The Routledge companion to social media and politics (Eds.). New York: Routledge

Coleman S. and Freelon D. (2015). Handbook of digital politics(Eds.). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar

Allen, D. and Light, J.S. (2015). From voice to influence : understanding citizenship in a digital age(Eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  

Ratto, M.,‎ Boler, M., and Deibert, R. (2014). DIY Citizenship : Critical Making and Social Media(Eds.).Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 

Dahlgren, P. and Sparks, C. (1993). Communication and citizenship : journalism and the public sphere(Eds.). London: Routledge. 

Coleman, S. and Shane, P.M. (2012). Connecting democracy : online consultation and the flow of political communication (Eds.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Peters, C.J. and Broersma, M.J. (2013). Rethinking journalism : trust and participation in a transformed news landscape (Eds.). London: Routledge.

Peters, C.J. and Broersma, M.J. (2017). Rethinking journalism again : societal role and public relevance in a digital age (Eds.). Oxon; New York: Routledge.

van Dijk, J.A.G.M. and Hacker, K.L. (2018). Internet and Democracy in the Network Society. London: Routledge. 

Benoit, W.L. (2016). Praeger handbook of political campaigning in the United States ISBN: 9781440831638 (e-book). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. 

Top of page

Useful Books on (Digital) Media, Citizenship, and Democracy

Coleman, S. (2017). Can the Internet Strengthen Democracy? Cambridge: Polity Press. 

Coleman, S. and Ross, K. (2010). The media and the public : 'them' and 'us' in media discourse. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

McQuail, D. (2013). Journalism & and society. London: Sage. 

Couldry, N. (2012). Media, society, world : social theory and digital media practice. Cambridge: Polity Press. 

Tufte, T. (2017). Communication and social change : a citizen perspective. Cambridge: Polity Press. 

Sunstein, C.R. (2017). #Republic : Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media. Princenton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 

Chadwick, A. (2017). The Hybrid Media System: Politics and Power (2nd Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Hintz, A., Dencik, l., and Wahl-Jorgensen, K. (2018). Digital citizenship in a datafied society. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Top of page

Big Data and Algorithmic Targeting

Howard, Philip N., and Bence Kollanyi. "Bots,# strongerin, and# brexit: Computational propaganda during the uk-eu referendum." (2016): https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1606/1606.06356.pdf

Kruikemeier, S., Van Noort, G., Vliegenthart, R., & De Vreese, C. H. (2013). Getting closer: The effects of personalized and interactive online political communication. European journal of communication28(1), 53-66.

Bucher, Taina. "Want to be on the top? Algorithmic power and the threat of invisibility on Facebook." New media and society 14.7 (2012): 1164-1180.

Halavais, Alexander. "Bigger sociological imaginations: framing big social data theory and methods." Information, communication and society.ISSN: 1369-118x 18, no. 5 (2015): 583-594.

Top of page

Affective and Pre-Cognitive Political Communication

Goodwin, Tom. "Why we should reject ‘nudge’." Politics.ISSN: 0263-3957; 1467-9256 32, no. 2 (2012): 85-92.

Olivola, Christopher Y., and Alexander Todorov. "Elected in 100 milliseconds: Appearance-based trait inferences and voting." Journal of nonverbal behavior.ISSN: 0191-5886 34.2 (2010): 83-110.

Sunstein, Cass R. "Do people like nudges?" (2016): https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/16147874/likenudges5_8%5B2%5D.pdf?sequence=1

Arno, Anneliese, and Steve Thomas. "The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis." BMC Public Health [electronic resource]. 16, no. 1 (2016): 676.

Top of page

Essay Core Readings

What can be learned from the success in mobilising traditionally disengaged groups during the 2016 EU Referendum and the 2017 UK general election?

Lilleker, Darren G., and Duje Bonacci. "The structure of political e-expression: What the Brexit campaign can teach us about political talk on Facebook." International journal of digital television 8.3 (2017): 335-350.

Jackson, Dan, Einar Thorsen, and Dominic Wring. EU Referendum Analysis 2016: Media, Voters and the Campaign. (2016).

Lopez, Julio Cesar Amador Diaz, et al. "Predicting the Brexit Vote by Tracking and Classifying Public Opinion Using Twitter Data." Statistics, Politics and Policy 8.1 (2017): 85-104. Available online

Henn, Matt, and James Hart. "Re-generated youth citizenship: youth civic and electoral mobilisation at the 2017 General Election. So…" The School of Social Sciences Magazine, winter (2017): 10-11. Available online

Sloam, James. "New voice, less equal: The civic and political engagement of young people in the United States and Europe." Comparative political studies 47.5 (2014): 663-688.

Why are the voices of the poor heard less by governments than the voices of the rich?

Armingeon, Klaus, and Lisa Schädel. "Social inequality in political participation: The dark sides of individualisation." West European politics 38.1 (2015): 1-27.

Leighley, Jan E., and Jennifer Oser. "Representation in an Era of Political and Economic Inequality: How and When Citizen Engagement Matters." Perspectives on politics (2017): 1-17.

Bartels, Larry M. Political Inequality in Affluent Democracies: The Social Welfare Deficit. (2017). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/52d6/7f869ba5b3eb7f48fa366334c5a0fc7bb96d.pdf

Gilens, Martin. Affluence and influence: Economic inequality and political power in America. Princeton University Press, 2012.

Marsh, David, David Richards, and Martin Smith. "Unequal plurality: Towards an asymmetric power model of British politics." Government and opposition 38.3 (2003): 306-332.

Franko, William W., Nathan J. Kelly, and Christopher Witko. "Class bias in voter turnout, representation, and income inequality." Perspectives on politics 14.2 (2016): 351-368.

‘Political parties need to re-invent themselves’. Discuss, offering practical proposals.

Ignazi, Piero. "The crisis of parties and the rise of new political parties." Party politics 2.4 (1996): 549- 566.

Somer‐Topcu, Zeynep. "Everything to Everyone: The Electoral Consequences of the Broad‐Appeal Strategy in Europe." American journal of political science 59.4 (2015): 841-854.

Invernizzi-Accetti, Carlo, and Fabio Wolkenstein. "The crisis of party democracy, cognitive mobilization, and the case for making parties more deliberative." The American political science review 111.1 (2017): 97-109.

Dalton, Russell J. Citizen politics: Public opinion and political parties in advanced industrial democracies. Cq Press, 2013.

Evans, Geoffrey, and James Tilley. The new politics of class : the political exclusion of the British working class ISBN: 9780191816901 (ebook) : No price. Oxford University Press, 2017.

Gibson, Rachel K. "Party change, social media and the rise of ‘citizen-initiated’campaigning." Party politics 21.2 (2015): 183-197.

This list was last updated on 11/03/2019