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HIST3887
Module Reading List

Changing Enemies: Germany Occupied and Divided, 1945-55, 2019/20, Semester 2
Dr Matthew Frank
m.frank@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

 

 

 

 

Changing Enemies: Germany occupied and divided, 1945-55 (HIST3887)

Dr Matthew Frank

MSB 338

Office hours: Tuesday 11-12, Thursday 10-11

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SEMINAR SCHEDULE

MSB 311, Thursday 11-1, Week 1-8

*NB: also Baines Wing G40, Wednesday 10-12, Week 5 and 7

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Week 1

Introduction

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2

Approaches

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3

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4

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5a*

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5b

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6

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7a*

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7b

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8

Writing the Research Essay

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EASTER

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9

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10

Research Essay consultations

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11

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TOPICS

  1. Never Again
  2. Defeat
  3. Encounters
  4. Displacement
  5. Trials
  6. Food
  7. Transformations
  8. Divisions
  9. Berlin
  10. Revolt
  11. Rehabilitation

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General histories

Balfour, Michael, Germany : the tides of power ISBN: 0415067871; 041506788X (pbk) (London, 1992)

Bark, Dennis L. and David R. Gress, A history of West Germany ISBN: 0631167870 (v.1); 0631167889 (v.2); 0631169245, i: From Shadow to Substance 1945-1963 (Oxford, 1989)

Fulbrook, Mary, Interpretations of the two Germanies ISBN: 0333665791, 2nd edn (Basingstoke, 2000)

__________, History of Germany 1918-2000 ISBN: 0631232087 (pbk); 0631232079, 3rd edn (Oxford, 2008)

Gless, Antony, Reinventing Germany : German political development since 1945 ISBN: 1859731856 (pbk. : alk. paper ; hardcover : alk. paper); 1859731902 (Oxford, 1996)

Kettenacker, Lothar, Germany since 1945 ISBN: 0192892428 ISBN: 0192892428 (London, 1997)

Nicholls, A. J., The Bonn Republic : West German democracy, 1945-1990 ISBN: 0582492319 (cased); 0582492300 (pbk) : No price (London, 1997)

O’Dochartaigh, P., Germany since 1945 ISBN: 0333964721 (Basingstoke, 2004)

Smyser, W. R., From Yalta to Berlin: The Cold War Struggle over Germany (Basingstoke, 1999)

Turner, Henry Ashby, Jr., Germany from partition to reunification ISBN: 0300053479 (New Haven, 1992)

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Something different/something lighter:

Fiction:

Buckley, William F., Nuremberg : the reckoning ISBN: 0151006792 (2002)

Burke, James, The big rape (1951)

Böll, Heinrich, The train was on time ISBN: 0810111233 (pbk. : alk. paper); 081011156X (1949)

Chwin, Stefan, Death in Danzig ISBN: 9780099481362 (pbk.) : £7.99; 0099481367 (pbk.) : £7.99 (2005)

Edric, Robert, The kingdom of ashes ISBN: 9780552774178 (pbk.) : £7.99; 0552774170 (pbk.) : £7.99 (2007)

Frei, Pierre, Berlin : a novel ISBN: 1843543249 (pbk.) : £7.99 (2006)

Grass, Günter, The tin drum ISBN: 0436187833 (1959)

__________, The call of the toad ISBN: 0749398787; 9780749398781 (1992)

Hebbe, Hans, Off Limits (1957)  

Horbach, Michael, The reckoning1961)

Hubner, Linda Marie, No fraternization : a novel (New York, 1951)

Greene, Graham, The Third Man (1950)

Malessa, Bryan, The flight ISBN: 9780007266746 (pbk.) : £7.99; 000726674X (pbk.) : £7.99 (2007)

Mayhew, Margaret, The pathfinder ISBN: 0552152412 (pbk.) : £6.992002)

McEwan, Ian, The innocent ISBN: 9780385494335 (pbk) (1990)

McGovern, James, Fraülein (1957)

Puzo, Mario, The dark arena ISBN: 0099418029 (1973)

Uris, Leon, Armageddon ISBN: 0552073008 A Novel of Berlin (1964)

Walters, Guy, The occupation ISBN: 0755320662 (pbk.) (2005)

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Film:

The stranger [videorecording]. (dir. Orson Welles, USA, 1946) In public domain and widely available online.  

The murderers are among us [videorecording], (dir. Wolfgang Staudte, (East) Germany, 1946)

The search [videorecording] (dir. Fred Zinnemann, USA, 1948)

A foreign affair [videorecording]. (dir. Billy Wilder, USA, 1948)

Germany, year zero [videorecording] (dir. Roberto Rossellini, Italy, 1948)

The Third Man (dir. Carol Reed, UK, 1949)

The big lift [videorecording]. (dir. George Seaton, USA, 1950)

Teenage Wolfpack / Die Halbstarken (Dir: Georg Tressler, FRG, 1956)

Berlin Schoenhauser Corner [videorecording]. (Dir: Gerhard Klein, GDR, 1957)

Judgement at Nuremberg [DVD recording] (dir. Stanley Kramer, USA, 1961)

One, two, three [videorecording] (dir. Billy Wilder, USA, 1961)

Goodbye, Lenin! (dir. Wolfgang Becker, Germany, 2003)

Downfall (dir. Oliver Hirschbiegel, Germany, 2004)

The edukators [videorecording] (dir. Hans Weingartner, Germany, 2004)

Good German, The (2006) (dir. Steven Soderbergh, USA, 2006)

The lives of others [videorecording] (dir. Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, Germany, 2007)

The Downfall of Berlin – Anonyma (dir. Max Färberböck, Germany/Poland, 2008)

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Other occupations

Cronin, Audrey Kurth, Great power politics and the struggle over Austria, 1945-1955 ISBN: 0801418542 (Itahca, 1986)

Dower, John, Embracing defeat : Japan in the aftermath of World War II ISBN: 0140285512 (pbk) (London, 1999)

Liberman, Peter, Does conquest pay? : the exploitation of occupied industrial societies ISBN: 0691029865 (cl: alk. paper) (Princeton, 1996)

Nelson, Keith L., Victors divided : America and the Allies in Germany, 1918-1923 ISBN: 0520023153 (Berkeley, 1975)

Pawley, Margaret, The watch on the Rhine : the military occupation of the Rhineland, 1918-1930 ISBN: 9781845114572 (hbk.) : £24.50; 1845114574 (hbk.) : £24.50 (London, 2007)

Reynolds, David, Rich relations : the American occupation of Britain, 1942-1945 ISBN: 0002551276 (London, 1995)

Schaller, Michael, The American occupation of Japan : the origins of the cold war in Asia ISBN: 0195036263; 0195051904 (pbk) (New York, 1985)

Steiniger, Rolf, Austria, Germany, and the Cold War : from the Anschluss to the State Treaty 1938-1955 ISBN: 9781845453268 (hardback : alk. paper); 1845453263 (hardback : alk. paper) (New York, 2008)

Whitnah, Donald R. and Edgar L. Erikson, The American occupation of Austria : planning and early years ISBN: 031324894X (lib. bdg) (Westport, 1985)

Williamson, David G., The British in Germany, 1918-30 ISBN: 085496584X (Oxford, 1991)

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Research guides, sourcebooks and published documents

Research guides:

Barber, Sarah and Corinna M. Peniston-Bird (eds), History beyond the text : a student's guide to approaching alternative sources ISBN: 9780415429627 (pbk.); 9780415429610 (hbk.); 0415429617 (hbk.); 0415429625 (pbk.) (London, 2009)

Brivati, Brian, Julia Buxton and Anthony Seldon (eds), The contemporary history handbook ISBN: 0719048362 (pbk); 0719048354 (Manchester, 1996)

Claus, Peter and John Marriott, History : an introduction to theory, method and practice ISBN: 9781405812542 (pbk.) : £22.99; 1405812540 (pbk.) : £22.99 (Harlow, 2012)

Dobson, Miriam and Benjamin Ziemann (eds), Reading primary sources : the interpretation of texts from nineteenth- and twentieth-century history ISBN: 0415429579 (pbk.); 9780415429566 (hbk.); 0415429560 (hbk.); 9780415429573 (pbk.) (Routledge, 2008)

Tosh, John The Pursuit of History: Aims, Methods & New Directions in the Study of Modern History, 4th edn (Harlow, 2006) [eBook]

Trachtenberg, Marc, The craft of international history : a guide to method ISBN: 0691125694 (pb : alk. paper); 9780691125015 (cl : alk. paper); 0691125015 (cl : alk. paper); 9780691125695 (pb : alk. paper) (Princeton, 2006)

Sourcebooks:

Grünbacher, Armin, The making of German democracy : West Germany during the Adenauer era, 1945-65 ISBN: 9780719080777 (Manchester, 2010)

Malzahn, Manfred, Germany 1945-1949 : a sourcebook ISBN: 0415008409 (London, 1991)

Ruhm von Oppen, Beate, Documents on Germany under occupation, 1945-1954 (London, 1955)

Webb, Adrian, The Longman companion to Germany since 1945 ISBN: 0582307376 (pbk); 0582307368 (Harlow, 1998) (London, 1955)

Published documents and archival collections:

Bundesarchiv und Institut für Zeitgeschichte (eds), Akten zur Vorgeschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1945-1949 ISBN: 3486443216 (v. 1); 3486445510; 3486491415; 3486491512; 348649161X (Munich, 1976-)

Merrill, Dennis, The documentary history of the Truman Presidency (Bethseda, 1997-2002)

 Vol. 3: United States Policy in Occupied Germany after World War II

 Vol. 16: Cold War Confrontation: Truman, Stalin and the Berlin Airlift

Merritt, Anna J. and Richard L. Merrit (eds), Public opinion in occupied Germany: the OMGUS surveys, 1945-1949 ISBN: 0252000773 (Urbana, 1970)

Office of Military Government for Germany, Minutes of the Division Staff Meetings of the US Group Control Council for Germany (USGCC) and the Office of Military Government for Germany (US) (OMGUS), July 1944-August 1949 (Washington DC, 1979) [4 microfilms]

Schieder, Theodor et al. (eds), Documents on the Expulsion of the Germans from East-Central Europe

i: The expulsion of the German population from the territories east of the Oder-Neisse-Line (Bonn, c 1960)

 ii/iii, The Fate of the Germans in Hungary (Bonn, 1961)

iv: The Expulsion of the German Population from Czechoslovakia (Bonn, 1960)

US Department of State, Documents on Germany, 1944-1985 (Washington, DC, 1985) https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002885551

Confidential US State Dept. Central Files: Federal Republic of Germany: Foreign Affairs, 1950-1954, ed. Paul Kesaris (Frederick, Md, 1986) [9 microfilms] http://www.loc.gov/rr/microform/guide/u.html

See also the relevant volumes of Documents of British Policy Overseas:

Series 1, vol.1: The Conference at Potsdam July-August 1945 ISBN: 0115916822 (London, 1984)

Series 1, vol. 2: Documents on British policy overseas. Series 1, 1945-1950. Vol.2, Conferences and conversations 1945 : London, Washington and Moscow ISBN: 0115916830 (London, 1985)

Series 1, vol. 5: Germany and Western Europe, 11 August-31 December 1945 ISBN: 0115916865 (London, 1990)

Series 2, vol. 3: German Rearmament, September-December 1950 ISBN: 0115916946 (London, 1989)

Series 3, vol. 6: Berlin in the Cold War, 1948-1990 ISBN: 9780415448703 (hbk.) : £75.00; 0415448700 (hbk.) : £75.00 (London, 2009)

British documents on foreign affairs : reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. Pt.IV, From 1946 through 1950. Series F, Europe ISBN: 1556557671 has volumes on Germany for the period 1946-50

[Private Foreign Office papers of Ernest Bevin, 1945-1951] [microform]., 1945-1951 [16 microfilms]

Private Office papers of the Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, 1951-1955 [13 mircrofilms]

The Brotherton also has:

For those interested in refugees and displacement in postwar Germany, see the relevant parts of the 70 reel microfilm series:

United States Department of State, Records of the Department of State relating to the problems of relief and refugees in Europe arising from World War II and its aftermath, 1938-49 [microform]. (Washington, DC: National Archives, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1984)

Newspapers

Brotherton has the following newspapers/magazines from the period:

The economist. ISSN: 0013-0613 [digital]

Jewish chronicle [microform].

Life [via Google books] https://books.google.co.uk/books/about/LIFE.html?id=N0EEAAAAMBAJ

The Manchester guardian. [digital]

The New York times. ISSN: 0362-4331 [digital]

Picture Post

The Observer. ISSN: 0029-7712 [digital]

Time

The Times. ISSN: x000-0061 [digital]

Times literary supplement historical archive 1902-2009 [electronic resource]. ISSN: x001-3239 [digital]

Die Zeit [and online at: http://www.zeit.de/1946/index

Daily Express, Daily Mirror, News of the World, People, Sunday Express for 1945 are available as part of Popular newspapers during World War II [microform]. ISBN: 1857110269 (guide pt.1-5) (Marlborough, 1993) [83 microfilms]

Diaries, memoirs and contemporary accounts

NOTE: This list is by no means exhaustive, but contains most of those publications used in the document packs which the Brotherton has copies of.

Adenauer, Konrad, Memoirs, 1945-1953 (London, 1966)

Andreas-Friedrich, Ruth, Battleground Berlin : diaries, 1945-1948 ISBN: 1557781915 : $18.95 trans. Anna Boerresen (New York, 1990)

Anonymous, A Woman in Berlin (London, 2004)

Annan, Noel, Changing enemies : the defeat and regeneration of Germany ISBN: 0002556294 (London, 1995)

Bach, Julian, America's Germany : an account of the occupation (New York, 1946)

Boveri, Margaret, Tage des Überlebens : Berlin 1945 ISBN: 3937989013; 9783937989013 (Munich, 1968)

Brandt, Willy, In exile : essays, reflections and letters, 1933-1947 ISBN: 0854961208 (London, 1971)

Brett-Smith, Richard, Berlin '45 : the grey city. (London, 1966)

Brockway, Fenner, German diary (London, 1946)

Byford-Jones, Lt. Col., Berlin twilight (London, 1947)

Chesney, Inga L., A time of rape ISBN: 0139220135 : $6.95 (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972)

Clare, George, Berlin days ISBN: 033360587X 1946-47 (London, 1989)

Clay, Lucius D., Decision in Germany (London, 1950)

__________, The papers of General Lucius D. Clay, Germany, 1945-1949. ISBN: 0253342880: Volume 2, ed. Jean Edward Smith (Bloomington, 1974)

Gollancz, Victor, Our threatened values. (London, 1946)

__________, In darkest Germany (London, 1947)

Gorbachevsky, Boris, Through the maelstrom : a Red Army soldier's war on the Eastern Front, 1942-1945 ISBN: 9780700616053 (cloth : alk. paper) (Lawrence, 2008)

Grossman, Vasily, A writer at war : Vasily Grossman with the Red Army, 1941-1945 ISBN: 9781845950156 (pbk.) : £8.99; 1845950151 (pbk.) : £8.99 ed. by Antony Beevor and Luba Vinogradova (London, 2005)

Höcker, Karla, Beschreibung eines Jahres : Berliner Notizen 1945 ISBN: 3760585779; 9783760585772 (Berlin, 1987)

Horstmann, Lali, Nothing for tears ISBN: 1842127381 (pbk) : £7.99 (London, 2003)

Howley, Frank, Berlin command (1950)

Klemperer, Victor, To the bitter end : the diaries of Victor Klemperer, 1942-1945 ISBN: 0753810697 (pbk.); 0297818805 (London, 1999)

__________, The lesser evil : the diaries of Victor Klemperer 1945-1959 ISBN: 0753817942 : £8.99 : CIP entry (Jun.) (London, 2003)

Knef, Hildegard, The gift horse ISBN: 0586037969 (pbk.) : £0.50; 9780586037966 (pbk.) (London, 1971)

Krockow, Christian Graf von, Hour of the women ISBN: 0060164727; 9780060164720 (London, 1993)

Lehndorff, Hans von, East Prussian diary : a journal of faith, 1945-1947 (London, 1963)

Mann, Anthony, Comeback : Germany, 1945-1952 ISBN: 0333274997 (London, 1980)

McClelland, Grigor, Embers of war : letters from a Quaker relief worker in war-torn Germany ISBN: 1860643124 : £25.00 (London, 1997)

McDermott, Berlin : success of a mission? (London, 1963)

Mosley, Leonard, Report from Germany (London, 1945)

Murphy, Robert, Diplomat among warriors (London, 1964)

Pollock, James K., Besatzung und Staatsaufbau nach 1945 : occupation diary and private correspondence 1945-1948 ISBN: 3486560026, ed. by. Ingrid Krüger-Bulcke (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1994)

Riess, Curt, The Berlin story (London, 1953)

Shirer, William, End of a Berlin diary [July 1944-1945] (London, 1947)

Skrjabina, Elena, The Allies on the Rhine, 1945-1950 ISBN: 0809309394 (Carbondale, 1980)

Spender, Stephen, European Witness (London, 1946)

Vassiltchikov, Marie ‘Missie’, The Berlin diaries 1940-1945 of Marie "Missie" Vassiltchikov. (London, 1945)

Wagner, Ilse C., Refugee : memories of war ISBN: 1413401449; 1413401457 (Philadelphia, 2003)

West, Rebecca, A Train of Powder (London, 1955)

White, Osmar, Conquerors' road ISBN: 0521537517 (pbk.); 0521830516 (hbk.): An Eyewitness Report of Germany 1945 (Cambridge, 1996)

White, W. L., Report on the Germans (New York, 1947)

Useful websites for sources:

‘German History in Documents and Images’, German Historical Institute, Washington DC (site still under construction):

http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/section.cfm?section_id=14

(East) German Propaganda Archive, and links: http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/gdrmain.htm#Speech

East German Studies Association (now defunct) but with links other sites of interest: http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/egsg/   

Cold War International History Project:

http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=topics.home&topic_id=1409

Foreign Relations of the United States: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/FRUS/

The Presidential Libraries and Museums of Franklin Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower and Kennedy all have relevant archival material online:

http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/archives/collections/documents.html

http://www.trumanlibrary.org/photos/av-photo.htm

http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/online_documents.html

http://www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Search-Our-Collections/Browse-Digital-Collections.aspx

The UK National Archives (Kew, London) have ‘The Cabinet Papers, 1915-79’ online, with material on policy towards Germany:

 http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/default.htm

Hansard (the verbatim record of the Houses of Parliament) has plenty of debates on Germany, and is now available online:

 http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/sittings/C20

Some relevant material can be found at http://www.cvce.eu/publications_cr_sf: a digital library dedicated to the history of European integration (formerly European Navigator)

Numerous French newspapers from the mid-20th Century are available digitized via Gallica:

 http://gallica.bnf.fr/

Finally, a good source for book reviews is H-German Reviews:

http://www.h-net.org/reviews/review_browse.php?list=18&page

Abbreviations

AAAPSS Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

CEH Contemporary European History

DH Diplomatic History

GH German History

HEQ History of Education Quarterly

HJ Historical Journal

HJFRT Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television

IA International Affairs

IHR International History Review

JCH Journal of Contemporary History

JMH Journal of Modern History

JPFT Journal of Popular Film and Television

PQ Political Quarterly

PSQ Political Science Quarterly

TCBH Twentieth Century British History

 

 

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Additional reading: American Zone and the Division of Germany

Backer, John H., The decision to divide Germany : American foreign policy in transition ISBN: 0822303914 (Durham, 1978)

__________, Winds of history : the German years of Lucius DuBignon Clay ISBN: 0442213824 (est.) : $20.00 (New York, 1983),

Bungert, Heike, ‘A New Perspective on French-American Relations during the Occupation of Germany, 1945-1948: Behind-the-Scenes Diplomatic Bargaining and the Zonal Merger’, Diplomatic history. ISSN: 0145-2096 18:3 (1994), 333-52

Cresswell, Michael and Marc Trachtenberg, ‘France and the German Question, 1945-1955’, Journal of Cold War studies. ISSN: 1520-3972 5:3 (2003), 5-28

Davidson, Eugene, The death and life of Germany : an account of the American occupation ISBN: 0826212492 (Columbia MO, 1999)

Dorn, Walter L., ‘The Debate Over American Occupation Policy in Germany in 1944-1945’, Political Science Quarterly ISSN: 0032-3195 72 (1957), 481-501

Eisenberg, Carolyn, Drawing the line : the American decision to divide Germany, 1944-1949 ISBN: 0521392128; 0521627176 (pbk) (New York, 1996)

Golay, John Ford, The founding of the Federal Republic of Germany (Chicago, 1958)

Grathwol , Robert P. and Donita, M. Moorhus, American Forces in Berlin: Cold War Outpost, 1945-1994 (New York, 1999)

Hahn, Eric J. C., ‘The Occupying Powers and Constitutional Reconstruction of West Germany, 1945-1949’, in Detlef Junker et al (eds), Cornerstone of Democracy: The West German Grundgesetz 1949-1989, German Historical Institute, Occasional Paper No. 13 (Washington DC, 1995), 7-35

https://www.ghi-dc.org/fileadmin/user_upload/GHI_Washington/PDFs/Occasional_Papers/Cornerstone_of_Democracy.pdf

Hook, James C. Van, ‘From Socialization to Co-Determination: The US, Britain, and Public Ownership in the Ruhr, 1945-1951’, The historical journal. ISSN: 0018-246x 45:1 (2002), 153-78

Junker, Detlef et al. (eds.), The United States and Germany in the era of the Cold War, 1945-1990 : a handbook ISBN: 052179112X (v. 1); 0521834201 (v. 2); 0521837316 (set), vol. 1: 1945-1968 (Cambridge, 2004) [More than a dozen essays on American foreign, security and economic policy]

Krieger, Wolfgang, ‘Was General Clay a Revisionist? Strategic Aspects of the United States Occupation of Germany’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 18 (1983), 165-84

Leffler, Melvyn, The Struggle for Germany and the Origins of the Cold War, German Historical Institute Washington DC, Occasional Paper No. 16 (Washington DC, 1996) https://www.ghi-dc.org/fileadmin/user_upload/GHI_Washington/PDFs/Occasional_Papers/The_Struggle_for_Germany.pdf

Maier, Charles S., ‘Feature Review: Who Divided Germany?’, Diplomatic history. ISSN: 0145-2096 22:3 (1998), 481-8

Merkl, Peter H., The origin of the West German Republic (New York, 1963)

Peterson, Edward N., The American occupation of Germany : retreat to victory ISBN: 0814315887 (Detroit, 1977)

Prowe, Diethelm, ‘Economic Democracy in Post-War II Germany: Corporatist Crisis Response, 1945-1948’, The journal of modern history. ISSN: 0022-2801; 1537-5358 57:3 (1985), 451-82

Rogers, Daniel E., ‘Transforming the German Party System: The United States and the Origins of Political Moderation, 1945-1949’, The journal of modern history. ISSN: 0022-2801; 1537-5358 65: 3 (1993), 512-41

__________, ‘Review of Französische Besatzungspolitik und Deutsche Sozialdemokratie by Edgar Wolfrum’, The journal of modern history. ISSN: 0022-2801; 1537-5358 67:3 (1995), 739-41

__________, Politics after Hitler : the western allies and the German party system ISBN: 0333628152 (Basingstoke, 1995)

Willis, F. Roy, The French in Germany, 1945-1949 (Stanford,1962)

Zink, Harold, The United States in Germany, 1944-1955 (Washington DC, 1957)

Special edition of Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. ISSN: 0002-7162 260 (Nov. 1948): ‘Postwar Reconstruction in Western Germany’

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Essay questions:

One 2,000-word essay due on Monday of Week 8 (12 Mach):

  1. Assess the significance of the notion of ‘zero hour’ for post-war German history
  1. Can Germans be victims?

One 4,000-word essay is due on Tuesday of Revision Week (8 May):

  1. Were any of the occupying powers able to pursue a coherent and consistent policy towards their zone of occupation and towards Germany as a whole in the period up to 1949? You may limit your answer to one area of policy and to one occupying power.
  1. ‘The task of holding Germany down will not be a hard one. It will be much more difficult to hold her up’ (Winston S. Churchill). Discuss.
  1. ‘The GDR was Stalin’s “unwanted child”’. Discuss.
  1. You are encouraged to frame your own research essay question relating to any of the material covered in the module. You must, however, consult me about your choice of topic and title in advance of the essay deadline. Any such essay title must be approved, at the latest, by Week 10 (i.e. immediately after the Easter Break).

 APPROACHES  

Post-1945 Germany: (re)writing histories – ‘Zero hour’, Germans as Victims, and ‘Coming to Terms with the past’

Discussion:

1945: endpoint or beginning? What you think Bergen means by saying that ‘World War II was a war without losers’ (‘The Changing Legacy of 1945 in Germany’, p. 522)? How does 1945 compare with 1918? What are some of the contrasts and parallels in the case of Germany? Can Germans be victims? How have developments in Germany (and internationally) over the last three decades changed the way in which 1945 is viewed?

Core reading:

Jarausch, Konrad H., ‘1945 and the Continuities of German History: Reflections on Memory, Historiography, and Politics’, in Geoffrey J. Giles (ed.), Stunde Null: The End and the Beginning Fifty Years Ago, German Historical Institute Occasional Papers No. 20 (Washington DC, 1997), 9-24

https://www.ghi-dc.org/fileadmin/user_upload/GHI_Washington/PDFs/Occasional_Papers/Stunde_Null.pdf

‘The Changing Legacy of 1945 in Germany: A Round-Table Discussion’, GH 23:4 (2005), 519-46

http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/23/4/519?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=1945+changing+legacy&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT

Moeller, Robert, ‘Germans as Victims? Thoughts on a Post-Cold War History of World War II’s Legacies’, History & memory. ISSN: 0935-560x, 17 (2005), 147-94

Further reading:

Alter, Reinhard and Peter Monteath (eds), Rewriting the German past : history and identity in the new Germany ISBN: 039104026X (pbk); 0391040251 (Atlantic Highlands NJ, 1997)

Assmann, Aleida, ‘On the (In)compatibility of Guilt and Suffering in German Memory’, German life and letters. ISSN: 0016-8777, 59:2 (2006), 187-200

Berger, Stefan, The search for normality : national identity and historical consciousness in Germany since 1800 ISBN: 1571818634 (alk. paper) (New York, 1997)

Botes, Roger and William Horsley, ‘The Germans as Victims: A British View’, World Today, 51:6 (1995), 110-14 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Brandt, Peter, ‘Germany after 1945: Revolution by Defeat?’, in Reinhard Rurüp (ed.), The problem of revolution in Germany, 1789-1989 ISBN: 1859732763 (Oxford, 2000)

Cohen-Pfister, Laurel and Dagmar Wienroeder-Skinner (eds), Victims and perpetrators, 1933-1945 : (re)presenting the past in post-unification culture ISBN: 3110189828 (alk. paper); 9783110189827 (alk. paper) (Berlin, 2006)

Dahrendorf, Ralph, Society and democracy in Germany (London, 1968)

Dorpalen, Andreas, German history in Marxist perspective : the East German approach ISBN: 1850430241 (London, 1985)

Enssle, Manfred J., ‘Five Theses on German Everyday Life after World War II’, Central European history. ISSN: 0008-9389, 26:1 (1993), 1-19

Evans, Richard J., In Hitler's shadow : West German historians and the attempt to escape from the Nazi past ISBN: 1850431469; 1850431582 (pbk) (London, 1989)

Fulbrook, Mary, ‘Approaches to German Contemporary History since 1945: Politics and Paradigms”, Zeithistorische Forschungen ISSN: 1612-6033/Studies in Contemporary History, 1:1 (2004), 31-50

http://www.zeithistorische-forschungen.de/site/40208147/default.aspx

Geyer, Michael and Konrad Jarausch, Shattered past : reconstructing German histories ISBN: 0691059365 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0691059357 (alk. paper) (Princeton, 2002)

Jarausch, Konrad H., After Hitler : recivilizing Germans, 1945-1995 ISBN: 019512779X (hbk.) : £19.99; 9780195127799 (hbk.) : £19.99, trans. Brandon Hunziker (Oxford, 2006)

Kohn, Hans (ed.), German history : some new German views (London, 1954)

Moeller, Robert, War stories : the search for a usable past in the Federal Republic of Germany ISBN: 0520239105 (pbk.) (Berkeley, 2001)

__________, ‘Remembering the War in a Nation of Victims’, in Hanna Schissler (ed.), The miracle years : a cultural history of West Germany, 1949-1968 ISBN: 0691058202 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0691058199 (Princeton, 2001), 83-109

__________, ‘Sinking Ships, the Lost Heimat and Broken Taboos: Günter Grass and the Politics of Memory in Contemporary Germany’, Contemporary European history. ISSN: 0960-7773 12:2 (2003), 147-81

Niedhart, Gottfried, ‘From Total War to Total Peace? Reactions to World War II in Post-War Germany, 1945-1969/70’, in in Bulletin of the International Committee for the History of the Second World War, no. 27/28 (1995): 1945 : consequences and sequels of the Second World War.

Niven, Bill (ed.), Germans as victims : remembering the past in comtemporary Germany ISBN: 9781403990426 (alk. paper); 9781403990433 (pbk. : alk. paper); 1403990433 (pbk. : alk. paper); 1403990425 (alk. paper) (Basingstoke, 2006)

Nolan, Mary, ‘Germans and Victims during the Second World War: Air Wars, Memory Wars’, Central European history. ISSN: 0008-9389, 38:1 (2005), 7-40

Perkins, John, ‘Restoration and Renewal? West Germany since 1945’, Contemporary European history. ISSN: 0960-7773 8:3 (1999), 487-97

Schissler, Hanna, ‘Zeitgenossenschaft: Some Reflections on Doing Contemporary German History’, in Frank Biess, Mark Roseman and Hanna Schissler (eds), Conflict, catastrophe and continuity : essays on modern German history ISBN: 9781845452001 (hbk.); 1845452003 (hbk.) (New York, 2007)

Schmitz, Helmut (ed.), A nation of victims? : representations of German wartime suffering from 1945 to the present ISBN: 9789042022096 (hd.bd.); 9042022094 (hd.bd.) (Amsterdam, 2007)

Schulze, Rainer, ‘Memory in Germany History: Fragmented Noises or Meaningful Voices of the Past?’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 39:4 (2004), 637-99

Taylor, A. J. P, The Course of German History, rev. edn (London, 1961)

Woller, Hans, ‘Germany in Transition from Stalingrad (1943) to Currency Reform (1948), in Michael Ermarth (ed.), America and the shaping of German society, 1945-1955 ISBN: 0854963278; 9780854963270, 1945-1955 (Oxford, 1993)

Further reading on Vergangenheitsbewältigung (‘coming to terms with the past’:

Behrenbeck, Sabine, ‘Between Pain and Silence: Remembering the Victims of Violence in Germany after 1949’, in Richard Bessel and Dirk Schuman (eds), Life after death : approaches to a cultural and social history during the 1940s and 1950s ISBN: 0521009227 (pbk); 0521804132 (Cambridge, 2003), 37-64

Earl, Hilary, The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen trial, 1945-1958 : atrocity, law, and history ISBN: 9780521456081 (hbk.) : £45.00; 0521456088 (hbk.) : £45.00 (Cambridge: CUP, 2009)

Frei, Norbert, Adenauer's Germany and the Nazi past : the politics of amnesty and integration ISBN: 0231118821 (New York, 2002)

__________, ‘Coping with the Burdens of the Past: German Politics and Society in the 1950s’, in Dominik Geppert (ed.), The postwar challenge : cultural, social, and political change in Western Europe, 1945-58 ISBN: 0199266654 (Oxford, 2003), 27-39

Fulbrook, Mary, German national identity after the Holocaust ISBN: 0745610455 (pbk) (London, 1999), pp. 48-78 [Ch. 3: ‘Overcoming the Past in Practice? Trials and Tribulations’]

Geller, Jay Howard, Jews in post-Holocaust Germany, 1945-1953 ISBN: 0521541263 (pb); 0521833531 (Cambridge, 2005), esp. Ch. 7

Heinemann, Elizabeth, ‘The Hour of the Woman: Memories of Germany’s “Crisis Years” and West German National Identity’, The American historical review. ISSN: 0002-8762, 101 (1996), 354-96

__________, ‘Gender, Sexuality, and Coming to Terms with the Nazi Past’, Central European history. ISSN: 0008-9389, 28:1 (2005), 41-74

Herf, Jeffrey, Divided Memory: The Nazi Past in the Two Germanys (Cambridge, MA, 1997)

__________, ‘The Emergence and Legacies of Divided Memory: Germany and the Holocaust since 1945’, in Jan-Werner Müller, Memory and power in post-war Europe : studies in the presence of the past ISBN: 052100070x (paperback); 0521806100 (Cambridge, 2002), 184-205

Honig, Frederick, ‘The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany’, American journal of international law. ISSN: 0002-9300, 48 (1954), 564-78

Kansteiner, Wulf, ‘Losing the War, Winning the Battle: The Legacy of Nazism, World War II, and the Holocaust in the Federal Republic of Germany’, in Richard Ned Lebow, Wulf Kansteiner, and Claudio Fogu (eds), The politics of memory in postwar Europe ISBN: 0822338173 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780822338024 (cloth : alk. paper); 0822338025 (cloth : alk. paper); 9780822338178 (pbk. : alk. paper) (Durham, NC, 2006), 102-46

Kupferberg, Feiwel, The rise and fall of the German Democratic Republic ISBN: 0765801191 (alk. paper) (New Brunswick, 2002)

Ludtke, Alf, ‘“Coming to Terms with the Past”: Illusions of Remembering, Ways of Forgetting Nazism in West Germany’, The journal of modern history. ISSN: 0022-2801; 1537-5358 65:3 (1993), 542-72

Maier, Charles S., The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity (Cambridge, MA, 1988)

McClellan, Antifascism and memory in East Germany : remembering the International Brigades, 1945-1989 ISBN: 0199276269 (hbk.) (Oxford, 2004)

Moeller, Robert G., War stories : the search for a usable past in the Federal Republic of Germany ISBN: 0520239105 (pbk.) (Berkeley, 2001)

__________, ‘Remembering the War in a Nation of Victims’, in Hanna Schissler (ed.), The miracle years : a cultural history of West Germany, 1949-1968 ISBN: 0691058202 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0691058199 (Princeton, 2001), 83-109

Moses, A. Dirk, German intellectuals and the Nazi past ISBN: 9780521145718 (pbk.); 9780521864954 (hbk.); 052186495X (hbk.) (Cambridge, 2009)

Niven, Bill, Facing the Nazi past : united Germany and the legacy of the Third Reich ISBN: 041526281X (pbk); 0415180112 (London, 2001)

Niven, Bill and Chloe Paver (eds), Memorialisation in Germany since 1945 ISBN: 9780230207035 (hbk.) : £65.00; 0230207030 (hbk.) : £65.00 (Basingstoke, 2009)

Nothnagle, Alan, ‘From Buchenwald to Bismarck: Historical Mythmaking in the German Democratic Republic’, Central European history. ISSN: 0008-9389, 26:1 (1993), 91-113

Pendas, Devin, ‘I Didn’t Know What Auschwitz Was: The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial and the German Press’, Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities ISSN: 1041-6374 12 (2000), 387–446

__________, ‘“Law, not Vengeance”: Human Rights, the Rule of Law and the Claims of Memory in German Holocaust Trials’, in Mark Bradley and Patrice Petro (eds), Truth claims : representation and human rights ISBN: 0813530520 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0813530512 (New Brunswick, NJ, 2002)

___________, The Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, 1963-1965 : genocide, history, and the limits of the law ISBN: 0521844061 (hardback : alk. paper) (Cambridge, 2006)

__________, ‘Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt in Frankfurt: The Eichmann Trial, the Auschwitz Trial, and the Banality of Justice’, New German critique. ISSN: 0094-033X, 34 (2007), 77-109

Schlink, Bernhard, Guilt about the past ISBN: 9781905636778 (pbk.); 1905636776 (pbk.) (London, 2010)

Teschke, John P, Hitler's legacy : West Germany confronts the aftermath of the Third Reich ISBN: 082045821X (New York, 1999)

Wielenga, Friso, ‘An Inability to Mourn? The German Federal Republic and the Nazi Past’, European Review ISSN: 1062-7987; 1474-0575, 11:4 (2003), 551-72

Wiesen, S. Jonathan, West German industry and the challenge of the Nazi past, 1945-1955 ISBN: 080785543X; 0807826340 : No price (Chapel Hill, NC, 2001)

 

Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 38:1 (2003) – Special issue: ‘Redesigning the Past’

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1: Never Again

Allied wartime planning and the ‘German Problem’

POTSDAM

Discussion:

Were there any fundamental points of disagreement between the western Allies over the treatment of Germany? Do we need to reevaluate Allied wartime planning towards Germany in the light of recent revelations from the Soviet archives? What was meant by a ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ peace? And what arguments did advocates of each position put forward to justify their plans for the treatment of Germany? What was the Potsdam Conference? In what ways did decisions made at Potsdam constitute a ‘hard’ or ‘soft’ peace? What parts of the Potsdam Protocol were likely to prove (un)workable and/or (un)enforceable?

Core reading:

Lach, Donald, ‘What They Would Do About Germany’, The journal of modern history. ISSN: 0022-2801; 1537-5358 17 (1945), 227-43

Olick, Jeffrey K., In the house of the hangman : the agonies of German defeat, 1943-1949 (Chicago, 2005), 65-94

Roberts, Geoffrey, ‘Stalin at the Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam Conferences’, Journal of Cold War studies. ISSN: 1520-3972, 9:4 (2007), 6-40

Further reading:

Burridge, Trevor, British Labour and Hitler's war ISBN: 0233967141 : £5.95 (London, 1976)

__________, ‘Great Britain and the Dismemberment of Germany at the End of the Second World War’, International history review. ISSN: 0707-5332 3 (1984), 565-79

Dorn, Walter L., ‘The Debate Over American Occupation Policy in Germany in 1944-1945’, Political science quarterly. ISSN: 0032-3195 72 (1957), 481-501

Hoenicke Moore, Michaela, Know your enemy : the American debate on Nazism, 1933-1945 ISBN: 9780521829694 (hbk.) : £45.00; 0521829690 (hbk.) : £45.00 (Cambridge, 2009)

Kaes, Anton, ‘What to Do with Germany? American Debates about the Future of Germany, 1942-1947’, German Politics and Society, 13 (1995), 130-41https://www.jstor.org/stable/23736494

Kettenacker, Lothar, ‘The Anglo-Soviet Alliance and the Problem of Germany, 1941-1945’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 17:3 (1982), 435-58

__________, ‘British Post-War Planning for Germany: Haunted by the Past’, in Ulrike Jordan (ed.), Conditions of surrender : Britons and Germans witness the end of the war ISBN: 1860641008 (London, 1997), 13-25

King, Frank, ‘Allied Negotiations and the Dismemberment of Germany’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 16:3 (1981), 585-95

Lamberti, Majorie, ‘German Antifascist Refugees in America and the Public Debate on “What Should be Done with Germany after Hitler”, 1941-1945’, Central European history. ISSN: 0008-9389, 40 (2007), 279-305

Loth, Wilfred, Stalin's unwanted child : the Soviet Union, the German question, and the founding of the GDR ISBN: 0333716574; 0312210280 (St. Martins) (Basingstoke, 1999), Ch. 1

Minshall, T. H., ‘The Problem of Germany’, International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850 20:1 (1944), 3-18

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr., Germany is our problem (New York, 1945)

Raack, R. C., ‘Stalin Plans His Post-War Germany’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 28:1 (1993), 53-73

Roberts, Geoffrey, Stalin's wars : from World War to Cold War, 1939-1953 ISBN: 0300112041 (alk. paper); 9780300112047 (alk. paper) (New Haven, 2002), Ch. 8

Sainsbury, Keith, ‘British Policy and German Unity at the End of the Second World War’, English historical review. ISSN: 0013-8266, 94 (1979), 786-804

Sharp, Tony, The wartime alliance and the zonal division of Germany ISBN: 0198225210 : £6.00 (Oxford, 1975)

Smith, Jean Edward, ‘Selection of a Proconsul for Germany: The Appointment of Gen. Lucius D. Clay, 1945’, Military affairs. ISSN: 0026-3931, 40:3 (1976), 123-9

Smyser, W. R., From Yalta to Berlin: The Cold War Struggle over Germany (Basingstoke, 1999), Ch. 1

Tombs, Isabelle, ‘The Victory of Socialist “Vanisittartism”: Labour and the German Question, 1941-45’, 20th century British history. ISSN: 0955-2359 7 (1996), 287-309

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2: Defeat

Germany 1945: conquest and/or liberation?

GERMAN REACTIONS TO DEFEAT

THE PROBLEM OF RAPE

BELSEN: THE LIBERATION OF A CONCENTRATION CAMP

Discussion:

How ‘total’ was Germany’s defeat? What was the mood of the German people in defeat, and how did it manifest itself? How did the treatment of the Germans in different zones of occupation compare in the immediate post-hostilities period? What were some of the most fundamental problems facing defeated Germany and its occupiers? In what respects did defeated Germany wear a ‘predominantly female face’? What impact did the liberation of concentration camps at the end of the war have on debates over the treatment of Germany and the Germans?

Core reading:

Burds, J., ‘Sexual Violence in Europe in World War II, 1939-45’, Politics and society. ISSN: 0032-3292, 37:1 (2009), 35-74

Grossmann, Atina, Jews, Germans, and Allies: Close Encounters in Occupied Germany (Princeton, 2007), 48-86 [Ch. 2: ‘Gendered Defeat: Rape, Motherhood, and Fraternization’]

Pritchard, Gareth, The making of the GDR, 1945-53 : from antifascism to Stalinism ISBN: 0719069815 (pbk); 0719056543 (Manchester, 2000), 7-29 [Ch 1: ‘Eastern Germany at “Zero Hour”] OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (GW 01/02/2018) 

Further reading:

Many of the following readings focus on the issue of rape in postwar Germany and in its wider context:

Balfour, Michael, Four-power control in Germany and Austria 1945-1946. (London, 1956)

Beevor, Antony, Berlin : the downfall, 1945 ISBN: 0670886955 (London, 2002)

Bessel, Richard, ‘The War to End All Wars: The Shock of Violence in 1945 and its Aftermath in Germany’, in Alf Ludtke and Bernd Weisbrod (eds), No man's land of violence : extreme wars in the 20th century ISBN: 9783892448259; 3892448256 (Gottingen, 2006), pp. 71-99

__________, Germany 1945 : from war to peace ISBN: 9780743239554 (hbk.); 0743239555 (hbk.) (London, 2009)

__________, ‘They Raped Every German Female from 18 to 80’, Guardian, 1 May 2002 http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4404728,00.html

Bos, Pascale R., ‘Feminists Interpreting the Politics of Wartime Rape: Berlin, 1945; Yugoslavia, 1992-1993’, Journal of Women in Culture and Society ISSN: 0097-9740, 31 (2006), 995-1025

Botting, Douglas, In the ruins of the Reich ISBN: 0413775119 (pbk.) : £8.99 (London, 1985)

Brownmiller, Susan, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape (New York, 1975)

Epp, Marlene, ‘The Memory of Violence: Soviet and East European Mennonite Refugees and Rape in the Second World War’, Journal of women's history. ISSN: 1042-7961. 9:1 (1997), 58-87

Foschepoth, Josef, ‘German Reaction to Defeat and Occupation’, in Robert Moeller (ed.), West Germany under construction : politics, society, and culture in the Adenauer era ISBN: 047206648X; 0472096486 (Ann Arbor, 1997), pp. 73-92

Fritz, Stephen, Endkampf : soldiers, civilians, and the death of the Third Reich ISBN: 0813123259 (alk. paper) (Lexington KY, 2004)

Grossman, Vasily, A writer at war : Vasily Grossman with the Red Army, 1941-1945 ISBN: 9781845950156 (pbk.) : £8.99; 1845950151 (pbk.) : £8.99 ed. by Antony Beevor and Luba Vinogradova (London, 2005), pp. 309-350

Harsch, Donna, ‘Approach/Avoidance: Communists and Women in East Germany, 1945-9’, Social history. ISSN: 0307-1022, 25:2 (2000), 156-82

Henke, Klaus-Dietmar, ‘Gentle Conquest in the West: Americans and Germans, 1944-1945’, in Detlef Junker et al. (eds), The United States and Germany in the era of the Cold War, 1945-1990 : a handbook ISBN: 052179112X (v. 1); 0521834201 (v. 2); 0521837316 (set) vol. 1: 1945-1968 (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 508-14

Herzog, Dagmar (ed.), Brutality and desire : war and sexuality in Europe's twentieth century ISBN: 9780230542532 (pbk); 9780230285637; 0230285635 (Basingstoke, 2011)

Jordna, Ulrike (ed.), Conditions of surrender : Britons and Germans witness the end of the war ISBN: 1860641008 (London, 1997)

Krieger, Leonard, ‘The Inter-Regnum in Germany: March-August 1945’, Political science quarterly. ISSN: 0032-3195 64:4 (1949), 507-32

Lühe, Irmela von der, ‘ “This book does not want to be a work of art. This book is the truth”: The Diaries of Ruth Andreas-Friedrich’, in Helmut Peitsch, Charles Burdett and Claire Gorrarar (eds), European memories of the Second World War ISBN: 1571819363 (Providence, 1998), pp. 23-34

Mark, James, ‘Remembering Rape: Divided Social Memory and the Red Army in Hungary, 1944-1945, Past & present. ISSN: 0031-2746, 188 (2005), 133-61

Messerschmidt, James W., ‘Review Symposium: The Forgotten Victims of World II: Masculinities and Rape in Berlin, 1945’, Violence against women. ISSN: 1077-8012, 12 (2006), 706-12

Naimark, Norman, The Russians in Germany (Cambridge, Mass., 1995) [esp. Ch. 2: ‘Soviet Soldiers, German Women and the Problem of Rape’]

Peterson, Edward N., The many faces of defeat : the German people's experience in 1945 ISBN: 0820413518; 9780820413518 (New York, 1990)

Petö, Andrea, ‘Memory and the Narrative of Rape in Budapest and Vienna in 1945’,in Richard Bessel and Dirk Schuman (eds), Life after death : approaches to a cultural and social history during the 1940s and 1950s ISBN: 0521009227 (pbk); 0521804132 (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 129-48

Raphael, Jody, ‘Silencing Reports of Sexual Assault: The Controversy over A Woman in Berlin’, Violence against women. ISSN: 1077-8012, 12:7 (2006), 693-99

Stiglmayer, Alexandra (ed.), Mass rape : the war against women in Bosnia-Herzegovina ISBN: 0803292295 (Lincoln, 1994)

Teo, Hsiu-ming, ‘The Continuum of Sexual Violence in Occupied Germany, 1945-49’, Women’s History Review, 5:2 (1996), 191-218 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09612029600200111

Tröger, Annemarie, ‘Between Rape and Prostitution: Survival Strategies and Chances of Emancipation for Berlin Women after World War II’, in Friedlander, Wiesen Cook, Kessler-Harris, and Smith-Rosenberg (eds.),

Women in culture and politics : a century of change (Bloomington, 1986)

‘Berlin 1945: War and Rape: “Liberators Take Liberties”’, special edition of the journal October. ISSN: 0162-2870, 72 (Spring 1995)

Liberation of Belsen and its aftermath:

Bardgett, Susan and David Cesarni (eds), Belsen 1945 : new historical perspectives ISBN: 9780853037170 (pbk.) : No price; 9780853037163 (cased) : No price; 0853037167 (cased) : No price; 0853037175 (pbk.) : No price (London, 2006)

Brown, Daniel Patrick, The beautiful beast : the life & crimes of SS-Aufseherin Irma Grese ISBN: 0930860144 (pbk.) (Ventura CA, 1996)

Caven, H., ‘Horror in Our Time: Images of Concentration Camps in the British Media, 1945’, Historical journal of film, radio and television. ISSN: 0143-9685, 21:3 (2001), 205-53

Flanagan, Ben and Donald Bloxham (eds), Remembering Belsen : eyewitnesses record the liberation ISBN: 0853036055 (paper) : No price; 9780853036050; 0853036047 (cloth) : No price (London, 2005)

Haggith, Tony and Joanna Newman, Holocaust and the moving image : representations in film and television since 1933 ISBN: 1904764517 (pbk) : £16.99; 1904764525 (London, 2005)

Hardman, Leslie, The survivors : the story of the Belsen remnant ISBN: 9780853038214 (pbk.) : £8.95; 9780853038313 (hbk.) : £25.00; 0853038317 (hbk.) : £25.00; 085303821X (pbk.) : £8.95 (London, 2009)

Holmita, Antero, Reporting the Holocaust in the British, Swedish and Finnish Press, 1945-50 ISBN: 9780230229778 (hbk.) : £50.00; 0230229778 (hbk.) : £50.00 (Basingstoke, 2011)

Irgun Sheerit Hapleita Me'Haezor Habriti (ed.), Belsen. (Tel Aviv, 1957)

Lavsky, Hagit, ‘British Jews and the Jews in Post-Holocaust Germany: The Jewish Relief Unit 1945-50’, Journal of Holocaust Education, 4 (1995), 29-40 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

__________, ‘The Day After: Bergen-Belsen from Concentration Camp to the Centre of Jewish Survivors in Germany’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 11 (1993), 36-59

__________, New beginnings : Holocaust survivors in Bergen-Belsen and the British zone in Germany, 1945-1950 ISBN: 0814330096 (Detroit, 2002)

Levy, Isaac, Witness to evil : Bergen-Belsen, 1945 ISBN: 1870015584 (London, 1995)

Phillips, Raymond (ed.), Trial of Josef Kramer and forty-four others : (the Belsen trial) (London, 1949)

Reilly, Joanne, Belsen : the liberation of a concentration camp ISBN: 0415138272 (London, 1998)

Reilly, Joanne, David Cesarani, Tony Kushner and Colin Richmond, Belsen in history and memory ISBN: 0714643238 (pbk.) : £15.00; 0714647675 (cased) : £35.00 (London, 1997)

Schulze, Rainer, ‘“A Continual Source of Trouble”: The Displaced Persons Camp Bergen-Belsen (Höhne), 1945-1950’, in Post-War Europe: Refugees, Exile and Resettlement: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:qE1qRqBzbp4J:gale.cengage.co.uk/images/PWEEssay_Schulze_A%2520Continual%2520Source%2520of%2520Trouble.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk&client=firefox-b-ab   

Shephard, Ben, After daybreak : the liberation of Belsen, 1945 ISBN: 1844135403 (New York, 2005)

Sington, Derrrick, Belsen uncovered (London, Duckworth 1946)

Steinert, Johannes-Dieter, ‘British Relief Teams in Belsen Concentration Camp: Emergency Relief and the Perception of Survivors’, Journal of Holocaust Education, 12 (2006), 62-78 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/17504902.2006.11087168?needAccess=true

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 3: Encounters  

Occupiers/occupied, occupiers/occupiers,

Germans/Germans (refugees/POWs), Germans/DPs, Survivors/rescuers

Discussion:

What roles do women perform in accounts of postwar Germany? How frequent and extensive were ‘encounters’ between occupiers and occupied in Germany? What forms did these ‘encounters’ take? Where did they take place, between whom, and for what purpose? Did these ‘encounters’ have any discernible impact on relations between occupier and occupied? What other ‘encounters’ were there in postwar Germany, and between what groups? And in what ways were they similar / did they differ from the occupied / occupier encounter? Why was there such a furore over ‘fraternization’ in 1945? Why did the fraternization ban become ‘the most ignored rule ever published by an American administration’? What explanations are there for the poor discipline of US troops in Germany from late 1945 onwards?

Core reading:

Barnouw, Dagmar, Germany 1945 : views of war and violence (Bloomington, 1996), 88-135 [Ch. 3: ‘What They Saw: Germany 1945 and Allied Photographers]

Heineman, Elizabeth, What Difference Does a Husband Make? Women and Marital Status in Nazi and Postwar Germany (Berkeley, 1999), 75-107 [Ch. 4: ‘The Hour of the Women: Survival during Defeat and Occupation’] [Ebook]

Further reading:

You will also find the readings from Topic 2 useful for this session.

DPs, Refugees and POWs:

Biess, Frank, Homecomings : returning POWs and the legacies of defeat in postwar Germany ISBN: 9780691125022 (cloth : alk. paper); 0691125023 (cloth : alk. paper) (Princeton, NJ, 2006)

Brenner, Michael, After the Holocaust : rebuilding Jewish lives in postwar Germany ISBN: 0691026653 (Princeton, 1997)

Cohen, Daniel, In war's wake : Europe's displaced persons in the postwar order ISBN: 9780195399684 (alk. paper); 0195399684 (alk. paper) (Oxford, 2011)

Cohen, Michael, The Jews in Germany, 1945-1993 : the building of a minority ISBN: 0275948781 (alk. paper) (London, 1994)

Feinstein, Margarete Myers, Holocaust survivors in postwar Germany, 1945-1957 ISBN: 9780521429580 (hbk.) : £40.00; 0521429587 (hbk.) : £40.00 (Cambridge, 2010)

Gay, Ruth, Safe among the Germans : liberated Jews after World War II ISBN: 0300092717 (cloth : alk. paper) (New Haven, 2002)

Geller, Jay Howard, Jews in post-Holocaust Germany, 1945-1953 ISBN: 0521541263 (pb); 0521833531 (Cambridge, 2005)

Grossmann, Atina, ‘Trauma, Memory, and Motherhood: Germans and Jewish Displaced Persons in Post-Nazi Germany, 1945-1949’, in Richard Bessel and Dirk Schuman (eds.), Life after death : approaches to a cultural and social history during the 1940s and 1950s ISBN: 0521009227 (pbk); 0521804132 (Cambridge, 2003)

__________ Jews, Germans and Allies: Close Encounters in Occupied Germany (Princeton, 2007)

Kolinsky, Eva, After the Holocaust : Jewish survivors in Germany after 1945 ISBN: 1844133176 (London, 2004)

Königseder, Angelika, and Juliane Wetzel, Waiting for hope : Jewish displaced persons in post-World War II Germany ISBN: 0810114771 (pbk.); 0810114763 (cloth) : CIP entry (Evanston, 2001)

Lavsky, Hagit, New beginnings : Holocaust survivors in Bergen-Belsen and the British zone in Germany, 1945-1950 ISBN: 0814330096 (Detroit, 2002)

Mankowitz, Zeev W., Life between memory and hope : the survivors of the Holocaust in occupied Germany ISBN: 0521811058 (Cambridge, 2002)

Rapaport, Lynn, Jews in Germany after the Holocaust : memory, identity, and Jewish-German relations ISBN: 052158809X (pbk); 0521582199 (Cambridge, 1997)

Schulze, Rainer, ‘Growing Discontent: Relations between Native and Refugee Populations in a Rural District in Western Germany after the Second World War’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 7:3 (1989), 332-49

__________, ‘A Continual Source of Trouble: The Displaced Persons Camp at Bergen-Belsen (Hohne), 1945-1950’, in Post-war Europe: Refugees, Exile and Resettlement, 1945-1950 http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:qE1qRqBzbp4J:gale.cengage.co.uk/images/PWEEssay_Schulze_A%2520Continual%2520Source%2520of%2520Trouble.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk&client=firefox-b-ab   

(US) soldiers and German women

Baerwald, Friedrich, ‘Non-Fraternization: A Case Study in the Breakdown of an “Operational Concept”’, The American Catholic sociological review. ISSN: 0362-515x, 7:1 (1946), 15-23

Biddiscombe, Perry, ‘Dangerous Liaisons: The Anti-Fraternization Movements in the US Occupied Zones of Germany and Austria, 1945-1948’, Journal of Social History. ISSN: 0022-4529, 34 (2001), 611-47

Chamberlain, B., Review of J. Kleinschmidt, ‘“Do Not Fraternise”: Die schwierigen Anfange deutsch-amerikanischer Freundschaft, 1944-49’, The Journal of American history. ISSN: 0021-8723, 86: 2 (1999), 830-1

Esser, Raingard, ‘“Language No Obstacle”: War Brides in the German Press, 1945-49’, Women's history review. ISSN: 0961-2025, 12:4 (2003), 577-603

Fehrenbach, Heide, Race after Hitler : black occupation children in postwar Germany and America ISBN: 9780691133799 (pbk.) : No price; 0691133794 (pbk.) : No price (Princeton, 2005), Ch. 1-2

Goedde, Petra, ‘From Villains to Victims: Fraternization and the Feminization of Germany, 1945-1947’, Diplomatic history. ISSN: 0145-2096 23 (1999), 1-20

__________, GIs and Germans : culture, gender and foreign relations, 1945-1949 ISBN: 0300090226 (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2003)

__________, ‘Gender, Race, and Power: American Soldiers and the German Population’, in Detlef Junker et al. (eds.), The United States and Germany in the era of the Cold War, 1945-1990 : a handbook ISBN: 052179112X (v. 1); 0521834201 (v. 2); 0521837316 (set), vol. 1: 1945-1968 (Cambridge, 2004)

Heinemann, Elizabeth, ‘The Hour of the Woman: Memories of Germany’s “Crisis Years” and West German National Identity’, in Hannah Schissler (ed.), The miracle years : a cultural history of West Germany, 1949-1968 ISBN: 0691058202 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0691058199 (Princeton, 2001), 21-56

There is also a slightly extended version of this essay in The American historical review. ISSN: 0002-8762, 101 (1996), 354-95

Herzog, D., Sex After Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany (Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2005)

Hodenberg, Christina von, ‘Of German Fräuleins, Nazi Werewolves and Iraqi Insurgents: The American Fascination with the Hitler’s Last Foray’, Central European history. ISSN: 0008-9389, 41:1 (2008), 71-92

Höhn, Maria, GIs and Fräuleins : the German-American encounter in 1950s West Germany ISBN: 0807827061 : £46.95; 0807853755 (pbk.) : £17.50 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2002)

Schmundt-Thomas, Georg, ‘Hollywood’s Romance of Foreign Policy: American GIs and the Conquest of the German Fraulein’, JPFT 19:4 (1992), 188-197 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Schroer, Timothy L., Recasting race after World War II : Germans and African Americans in American-occupied Germany ISBN: 0870818694 (hbk. : alk. paper); 9780870818691 (hbk. : alk. paper) (University Press of Colorado, 2007)

Tröger, Annemarie, ‘Between Rape and Prostitution: Survival Strategies and Chances of Emancipation for Berlin Women after World War II’, in Friedlander, Wiesen Cook, Kessler-Harris, and Smith-Rosenberg (eds.),

Women in culture and politics : a century of change ISBN: 0253203759 pbk; 0253313287 (Bloomington, 1986)

Weber-Newth, Inge, ‘Bilateral Relations: British Soldiers and German Women’, in Louise Ryan and Wendy Webster (eds), Gendering migration : masculinity, femininity and ethnicity in post-war Britain ISBN: 9780754671787 (alk. paper) (Burlington, 2008)

Willoughby, John, Remaking the conquering heroes : the social and geopolitical impact of the early American occupation of Germany ISBN: 0312234007 (cloth) (New York, 2001)

__________, ‘The Sexual Behavior of American GIs during the Early Years of the Occupation of Germany’, The journal of military history. ISSN: 0899-3718 62 (1998), 155-74

Ziemke, Earl F., The U.S. Army in the occupation of Germany, 1944-1946 (Washington DC, 1990)

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/other/us-army_germany_1944-46_index.htm#contents

For comparison with other historical contexts, see:

Kuhlman, Erika, ‘American Doughboys and German Fraueleins: Sexuality, Patriarchy and Privilege in the American-Occupied Rhineland, 1918-1923’, The journal of military history. ISSN: 0899-3718, 71:4 (2007), 1077-1106

Stetz, Margaret and Bonnie B C Oh, Legacies of the comfort women of World War II ISBN: 0765605449 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0765605430 (New York, 2001)

Stoltzfus, Brenda and Saundra Pollock Sturtevant, Let the good times roll : prostitution and the U.S. military in Asia ISBN: 1565840496 (pbk) : $24.95; 1565840259 (New York, 1992)

And the wider phenomenon of ‘war brides’:

Fortune, Gabrielle, ‘“Mr Jones’s Wives”: War Brides, Marriage, Immigration and Identity Formation’, Women's history review. ISSN: 0961-2025, 15:4 (2006), 587-99

Goodman, Gloria, ‘“Only the Best British Brides”: Regulating the Relationship Between US Servicemen and British Women in the Early Cold War’, Contemporary European history. ISSN: 0960-7773, 17 (2008), 483-503

Hawthorne, Elizabeth, War brides and memories of World War II ISBN: 0962325511; 9780962325519 (Denver, 1998)

Kohl, Seena B., ‘Love, Valor and Endurance: World War II Brides Making a Home in Montana’, Montana: The Magazine of Western History ISSN: 0026-9891, 56:3 (2006), 22-37

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4: displacement

Flight and expulsion of Germans from eastern Europe

the Refugee crisis in Germany

Discussion:

Why were so many German civilians on the move at the end of the Second World War? What was the broader context of European displacement in which the mass movement of German populations occurred? What were the immediate and longer-term challenges of the mass influx of refugees into Germany?

Core reading:

Schulze, Rainer, ‘Forced Migration of German Populations During and After the Second World War: History and Memory’, in Jessica Reinisch and Elizabeth White (eds), The disentanglement of populations : migration, expulsion and displacement in post-war Europe, 1944-9 ISBN: 9780230222045 (hbk.) : £55.00; 0230222048 (hbk.) : £55.00 (Basingstoke, 2011), 51-71

Ahonen, Pertti, ‘On Forced Migrations: Transnational Realities and National Narratives in Post-1945 (West) Germany’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554, 32:4 (2014), 599-614

 

Further reading:

Cohen, G. Daniel, In war's wake : Europe's displaced persons in the postwar order ISBN: 9780195399684 (alk. paper); 0195399684 (alk. paper) (Oxford, 2011)

Connor, Ian, Refugees and expellees in post-war Germany ISBN: 071906886X (Manchester, 2007)

Corni, Gustavo et al, People on the move : forced population movements in Europe in the Second World War and its aftermath ISBN: 1845208242 (pbk.); 9781845204808 (cloth); 1845204808 (cloth); 9781845208240 (pbk.) (Oxford, 2008)

Frank, Matthew, Expelling the Germans : British opinion and post-1945 population transfer in context ISBN: 9780199233649 (hbk.) : £55.00; 0199233640 (hbk.) : £55.00 (Oxford, 2008)

__________,‘Reconstructing the Nation-State: Population Transfer in Central and Eastern Europe, 1944-48’, in Jessica Reinisch and Elizabeth White (eds), The disentanglement of populations : migration, expulsion and displacement in post-war Europe, 1944-9 ISBN: 9780230222045 (hbk.) : £55.00; 0230222048 (hbk.) : £55.00 (Basingstoke, 2011), 27-47

_________, Making Minorities History: Population Transfer in Twentieth-Century Europe (Oxford, 2017)

Glassheim, Eagle, ‘The Mechanics of Ethnic Cleansing: The Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia, 1945-1947’, in Philipp Ther and Ana Siljak (eds), Redrawing nations : ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948 ISBN: 0742510948 (pbk. : alk. paper); 074251093X (alk. paper); CIP entry (Lanham, 2001)

Link, Bernard, ‘Recent Debates on the Fate of the German Population in Upper Silesia 1945-1950’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 22 (2004), 372-405

Marrus, Michael, The unwanted : European refugees in the twentieth century ISBN: 0195036158 (pbk) (New York, 1985), Ch. 5

Naimark, Norman, Fires of hatred : ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe ISBN: 0674009940; 0674003136 (Cambridge, Mass., 2001), 108-38 [Ch. 4: ‘The Expulsion of Germans from Poland and Czechoslovakia’]

Proudfoot, Malcolm J., European refugees, 1939-52 : a study in forced population movement. (London, 1957)

Reinisch, Jessica and Elizabeth White (eds), The disentanglement of populations : migration, expulsion and displacement in post-war Europe, 1944-9 ISBN: 9780230222045 (hbk.) : £55.00; 0230222048 (hbk.) : £55.00, (Basingstoke, 2011)

Rieber, Alfred J. (ed.), Forced migration in central and eastern Europe, 1939-1950 ISBN: 0714681555 pbk.; 071465132X (London, 2000) [essays by Noskova, Schraut and Schwartz]

Service, Hugo, Germans to Poles: Communism, Nationalism and Ethnic Cleansing after the Second World War (Cambridge, 2013)

Schechtman, Joseph, European population transfers, 1939-1945 (New York, 1946)

__________, ‘Postwar Population Transfers in Europe: A Survey’, The review of politics. ISSN: 0034-6705; 1748-6858, 15:2 (1953), 151-78

__________, Postwar population transfers in Europe, 1945-1955 (Philadelphia, 1962)

Schieder, Theodor et al. (eds), Documents on the Expulsion of the Germans from Eastern-Central Europe

i: The expulsion of the German population from the territories east of the Oder-Neisse-Line (Bonn, c 1960)

 ii/iii, The Fate of the Germans in Hungary (Bonn, 1961)

iv: The Expulsion of the German Population from Czechoslovakia (Bonn, 1960)

Shephard, Ben, The long road home : the aftermath of the Second World War ISBN: 9780224062756 (hbk.) : £20.00; 0224062751 (hbk.) : £20.00 (London, 2010)

Ther, Philipp and Ana Siljak (eds), Redrawing nations : ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948 ISBN: 0742510948 (pbk. : alk. paper); 074251093X (alk. paper); CIP entry (Lanham, 2001) [several relevant essays in this volume]

__________, The dark side of nation-states : ethnic cleansing in modern Europe ISBN: 9781785331954; 1785331957 trans. Charlotte Kreutzmüller (New York, 2014)

Wiskemann, Elizabeth, Germany's eastern neighbours : problems relating to the Oder-Neisse line and the Czech frontier regions. (London,1956)

Wyman Mark, DPs : Europe's displaced persons, 1945-1951 ISBN: 0801485428 (Ithaca, 1998)

Zayas, Alfred M. de, Nemesis at Potsdam : the Anglo-Americans and the expulsion of the Germans : background, execution, consequences ISBN: 0710004583, rev. edn (London, 1979)

See also the readings on Jews, DPs and refugees from Topic 3.

On the integration of refugees and expellees, and the memory of the expulsions:

Ahonen, Pertti, After the expulsion : West Germany and eastern Europe 1945-1990 ISBN: 0199259895, (Oxford, 2003)

__________, ‘Taming the Expellee Threat in Post-1945 Europe: Lessons from the Two Germanies and Finland’, Contemporary European history. ISSN: 0960-7773 14:1 (2005), 1-21

Bauerkämpfer, A., ‘Social Conflict and Social Transformation in the Integration of Expellees in Rural Brandenburg, 1945-1952’, in P. Ther and A. Siljak (eds.), Redrawing nations : ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948 ISBN: 0742510948 (pbk. : alk. paper); 074251093X (alk. paper); CIP entry, (Lanham, 2001)

Buscher, F., ‘The Great Fear: The Catholic Church and the Anticipated Radicalization of Expellees and Refugees in Post-War Germany’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 21:2 (2003), 204-24

Carey, Jane Perry Clark, ‘Political Organization of Refugees and Expellees in West Germany’, Political science quarterly. ISSN: 0032-3195 66 (1951), 191-215

Connor, Ian, ‘The Radicalization that Never Was? Refugees in the German Federal Republic’, in Frank Biess et al (eds), Conflict, Catastrophe and Continuity ISBN: 9781845452001 (hbk.); 1845452003 (hbk.) (New York. 2007), 221-236

__________, Refugees and expellees in post-war Germany ISBN: 071906886X (Manchester, 2007)

Demshuk, Andrew, ‘Citizens in Name Only: The National Status of German Expellees, 1945-53’, Ethnopolitics. ISSN: 1744-9057; 1744-9065, 5:4 (2006), 383-97

__________, The Lost German East: Forced Migration and the Politics of Memory, 1945-1970 (Cambridge, 2012)

Hughes, Michael L., Shouldering the burdens of defeat : West Germany and the reconstruction of social justice ISBN: 0807824941 (Chapel Hill NC, 1999)

Lee, Sabine, ‘CDU Refugee Policies and the Landesverband Oder/Neisse: Electoral Tool or Instrument of Integration?’, German politics. ISSN: 0964-4008, 8:1 (1999), 131-49

Levy, D., ‘Integrating Ethnic Germans in West Germany: The Early Postwar Period’, in David Rock and Stefan Wolff (eds), Coming home to Germany? : the integration of ethnic Germans from central and eastern Europe in the Federal Republic since 1945 ISBN: 1571817298 (pbk.); 1571817182 (New York, 2002)

Lutomski, Pavel, ‘The Debate about a Centre Against Expulsions: An Unexpected Crisis in German-Polish Relations, German Studies Review ISSN: 0149-7952, 27 (2004), 449-68

Maser, Clifford, After seven years (Philadelphia: American Friends Service Committee, 1952)   

Melendy, Brenda, ‘Expellees on Strike: Competing Victimization Discourses and the Dachau Refugee Camp Protest Movement, 1948-1949’, German Studies Review ISSN: 0149-7952, 28:1 (2005), 107-25

__________, ‘Narratives, Festivals and Reinvention: Defining the German Postwar Homeland in Waldkraiburg’, Journal of popular culture. ISSN: 0022-3840, 39 (2006), 1049-76

Schulze, Rainer, ‘Growing Discontent: Relations between Native and Refugee Populations in a Rural District in Western Germany after the Second World War’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 7:3 (1989), 332-49

__________, ‘The German Refugees and Expellees from the East and the Creation of a West German Identity after World War II’, in P. Ther and A. Siljak (eds.), Redrawing nations : ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948 ISBN: 0742510948 (pbk. : alk. paper); 074251093X (alk. paper); CIP entry (Lanham, 2001), 307-25

__________, ‘The Struggle of Past and Present in Individual Identities: The Case of German Refugees and Expellees from the East’, in David Rock and Stefan Wolff (eds.), Coming home to Germany? : the integration of ethnic Germans from central and eastern Europe in the Federal Republic since 1945 ISBN: 1571817298 (pbk.); 1571817182 (New York, 2002), 38-55

__________, ‘The Politics of Memory: Flight and Expulsion of German Populations after the Second World War and German Collective Memory’, National identities ISSN: 1460-8944, 8 (2006), 367–82

Seipp, Adam, Strangers in the wild place : refugees, Americans, and a German town, 1945-1952 ISBN: 9780253006776 (hbk.) : £23.99; 0253006775 (hbk.) : £23.99; 9780253007070 (ebk.); 0253007070 (ebk.) (Bloomington, 2013)

Ther, P., ‘The Integration of Expellees in Germany and Poland after World War II: A Historical Reassessment’, Slavic review. ISSN: 0037-6779, 55:4 (1996), 779-805.

__________, ‘Expellee Policy in the Soviet-occupied Zone and the GDR: 1945-1953’, in David Rock and Stefan Wolff (eds.), Coming home to Germany? : the integration of ethnic Germans from central and eastern Europe in the Federal Republic since 1945 ISBN: 1571817298 (pbk.); 1571817182 (New York, 2002), 56-76.

Wille, M., ‘Compelling the Assimilation of Expellees in the Soviet Zone of Occupation and the GDR’, in P. Ther and A. Siljak (eds.), Redrawing nations : ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948 ISBN: 0742510948 (pbk. : alk. paper); 074251093X (alk. paper); CIP entry (Lanham, 2001)

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 5: TRIALS  

War crimes tribunals

Discussion:

What were the aims of the International Military Tribunal (IMT) and were these achieved? In what sense was the IMT both an historic exercise in judgment and an exercise in historical judgment (Bidiss)? What was the Soviet contribution to the IMT? In what respects was Nuremberg ‘one of the first fronts of the Cold War’ (Hirsch)? What was the reaction to the trial both within and outside of Germany? What was the legacy of Nuremberg?

Core reading:

Bidiss, Michael, ‘The Nuremberg Trial: Two Exercises in Judgment’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 16:3 (1981), 597-615

Frei, Norbert, ‘Before and after Nuremberg’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 38:2 (2003), 333-43

Priemel, Kim Christian, ‘Consigning Justice to History: Transitional Trials after the Second World War’, The historical journal. ISSN: 0018-246x, 56:2 (2013), 553-81

Hirsch, Francine, ‘The Soviets and Nuremberg: International Law, Propaganda, and the Making of the Postwar Order’, The American historical review. ISSN: 0002-8762, 113 (2008), 701-30

Further reading:

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) website provides an extensive bibliography and links: https://www.ushmm.org/

http://www.ushmm.org/research/library/bibliography/index.php?content=nuremberg  

Bass, Gary Jonathan, Stay the hand of vengeance : the politics of war crimes tribunals ISBN: 069104922X (Princeton, 2002)

Berg, Manfred and Bernd Schaefer (eds), Historical justice in international perspective : how societies are trying to right the wrongs of the past ISBN: 9780521876834 (hardback) (Cambridge, 2008)

Bidiss, Michael, ‘Victors' Justice? The Nuremberg Tribunal’, History today. ISSN: 0018-2753, 45:5 (May 1995), pp. 40-6

Bloxham, Donald, Genocide on trial : war crimes trials and the formation of Holocaust history and memory ISBN: 0199259046 (pbk); 0198208723 (Oxford, 2001)

__________, ‘“The Trial that Never Was”: Why was there no Second International Trial of Major War Criminals at Nuremberg?’, History. ISSN: 0018-2648, 87 (2002), pp. 41-60

__________, ‘British War Crimes Trial Policy in Germany, 1945-1957: Implementation and Collapse’, The journal of British studies. ISSN: 0021-9371, 42:1 (2003), 91-118

Blumenthal, David A., and McCormack, Timothy L. H., The legacy of Nuremberg : civilising influence or institutionalised vengeance? ISBN: 9789004156913 (hbk.) : No price; 9004156917 (hbk.) : No price (Leiden, 2008)

Bower, Tom, Blind eye to murder : Britain, America and the purging of Nazi Germany : a pledge betrayed ISBN: 0586084223, new ed. (London, 1995)

Bryant, Michael S., Confronting the "good death" : Nazi euthanasia on trial, 1945-1953 ISBN: 0870818090 (alk. paper) (Boulder CO, 2005)

_________, Eyewitness to genocide : the Operation Reinhard death camp trials, 1955-1966 ISBN: 9781621900498 (hardcover) (Knoxville, 2014)

Cesarani, David, Justice delayed ISBN: 0749306181 (London, 1992)

Conot, Robert E., Justice at Nuremberg ISBN: 0881840327; 9780881840322 (New York, 1983)

Cramer, John, Belsen Trial 1945 ISBN: 9783835309005; 3835309005 (Göttingen, 2011)

Davidson, Eugene, The Trial of the Germans : an account of the twenty-two defendants before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg ISBN: 0826211399 (pbk. : alk. paper) (Columbia, MO, 1997)

Douglas, Lawrence, The memory of judgment : making law and history in the trials of the Holocaust ISBN: 0300084366 : No price (New Haven, 2001)

Drumbl, Mark A., Atrocity, punishment, and international law ISBN: 9780521691383 (pbk.); 0521691389 (pbk.); 9780521870894 (hbk.); 0521870895 (hbk.) (Cambridge, 2007)

Earl, Hilary, The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen trial, 1945-1958 : atrocity, law, and history ISBN: 9780521456081 (hbk.) : £45.00; 0521456088 (hbk.) : £45.00 (Cambridge, 2009)

Ehrenfreund, Norbert, The Nuremberg legacy : how the Nazi war crimes trials changed the course of history ISBN: 9781403979650 (hbk.) : £14.99; 1403979650 (hbk.) : £14.99 (Basingstoke, 2007)

Freyhofer, Horst H., The Nuremberg medical trial : the Holocaust and the origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code ISBN: 9780820467979; 0820467979 (alk. paper) (New York, 2004)

Futamura, Madoka, War crimes tribunals and transitional justice : the Tokyo trial and the Nuremburg legacy ISBN: 9780415426732 (hardback : alk. paper) (London, 2007)

Garsha, Winfried and Claudia Kuretsidis-Haider, ‘Justice and Nazi Crimes in Austria 1945-1955: Between Self-Purge and Allied Control’, in Bulletin of the International Committee for the History of the Second World War, no. 27/28 (1995): 1945 : consequences and sequels of the Second World War.

Ginsburgs, George, Moscow’s Road to Nuremberg ISBN: 9041101829 (The Hague, 1996)

Glees, Anthony, ‘The Making of British Policy on War Crimes: History as Politics in the UK’, Contemporary European history. ISSN: 0960-7773, 1 (1992), 171-97

Goda, Norman J., Tales from Spandau : Nazi criminals and the Cold War ISBN: 9780521730624 (pbk.) : £12.50; 9780521867207 (cased) : £20.00; 0521867207 (cased) : £20.00; 0521730627 (pbk.) : £12.50 (Cambridge, 2007)

Gonshak, Henry, ‘Does Judgment at Nuremberg Accurately Depict the Nazi War Crimes Trial?’, The Journal of American culture. ISSN: 1542-7331; 1542-734x, 13:2 (2008), 153-63

Heller, Kevin Jon, The Nuremberg military tribunals and the origins of international criminal law ISBN: 9780191622120 (e-book) (Cambridge, 2011)

Herberger, Patricia and Jürgen Matthäus (eds), Atrocities on trial : historical perspectives on the politics of prosecuting war crimes ISBN: 9780803210844 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0803210841 (pbk. : alk. paper) (London, 2006)

Hérbert, Valerie Geneviève, Hitler's generals on trial : the last war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg ISBN: 9780700616985; 0700616985 (Lawrence, 2010)

Jones, P. D., ‘Nazi Atrocities Against Allied Airmen: Stalag Luft III and the End of British War Crimes Trials’, The historical journal. ISSN: 0018-246x, 41:2 (1998), 545-65

Kochavi, Arieh J., ‘The Response to Nazi Germany’s Crimes Against Axis Nationals: The American and British Position’, Diplomacy and statecraft. ISSN: 0959-2296, 5:2 (1994), 334-57

__________, Prelude to Nuremberg : allied war crimes policy and the question of punishment ISBN: 080782433X (cloth : alk. paper) (Chapel Hill NC, 1998)

Kramer, Alan, ‘The First Wave of International War Crimes Trials: Istanbul and Leipzig’, Contemporary European history. ISSN: 0960-7773, 14 (2006), 441-55

Madajczyk, Czeslaw, ‘International Trials of War Criminals: Nuremberg and Tokyo: A Comparison and Estimation Half a Century Later’, in Bulletin of the International Committee for the History of the Second World War, no. 27/28: 1945 : consequences and sequels of the Second World War. (Paris, 1995)

Meltzer, Bernard D, ‘The Nuremberg Trial: A Prosecutor's Perspective’, Journal of genocide research. ISSN: 1462-3528, 4:4 (2002), 561-68

Mettraux, Guénaël (ed.), Perspectives on the Nuremberg Trial ISBN: 9780199232345 (pbk.); 9780199232338 (hbk.); 0199232334 (hbk.); 0199232342 (pbk.) (Oxford, 2008)

Miale, Florence R. and Michael Selzer, The Nuremberg mind : the psychology of the Nazi leaders ISBN: 0812905814 (New York, 1975)

Minow, Martha, Between vengeance and forgiveness : facing history after genocide and mass violence ISBN: 0807045071; 0807045063 (hardcover : acid-free paper) (Boston, 1998) [Ch. 3: ‘Trials’]

Mitscherlich, Alexander and Fred Mielke, Doctors of infamy :\bthe story of the nazi medical crimes /cAlexander Mitscherlich. ISBN: 9781786257147 (e-book), trans. Heinz Norden (New York, 1949) [reprinted 2010]

Overy, Richard, Interrogations : the Nazi elite in allied hands, 1945 ISBN: 0713993502 (London, 2001)

Pendas, Devin O., The Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, 1963-1965 : genocide, history, and the limits of the law ISBN: 0521844061 (hardback : alk. paper) (Cambridge, 2006)

_________, ‘Seeking Justice, Finding Law: Nazi Trials in Postwar Europe’, The journal of modern history. ISSN: 0022-2801; 1537-5358, 81 (2009), 347-68

Persico, Joseph, Nuremberg : infamy on trial ISBN: 0850319293 (London, 1994)  

Phillips, Raymond (ed.), Trial of Josef Kramer and forty-four others : (the Belsen trial)  (London, 1949)

Priemel, Kim Christian, The betrayal : the Nuremberg trials and German divergence ISBN: 9780199669752 (hbk.); 0199669759 (hbk.) (Oxford, 2016)

Priemel, Kim C. and Alexa Stiller (eds), Reassessing the Nuremberg Military Tribunals : transitional justice, trial narratives, and historiography ISBN: 9780857455307 (hbk.); 0857455303 (hbk.); 9780857455321 (ebk.); 085745532X (ebk.) (Oxford, 2012)

Raim, Edith, Nazi crimes against Jews and German post-war justice : the West German judicial system during Allied occupation (1945-1949) ISBN: 9783110554014 (pbk.) : £13.99 (Berlin, 2017)

Reginbogin, Herbert R. and Christoph J. M. Safferling (eds), The nuremberg trials : international criminal law since 1945 ISBN: 9783110944846 (e-book) (Munich, 2006)

Salter, Michael, Nazi war crimes, US intelligence and selective prosecution at Nuremberg : controversies regarding the role of the Office of Strategic Services ISBN: 9781904385813 (hardback); 1904385818 (hardback); 9781904385806 (pbk.); 190438580X (pbk.) (Abingdon, 2015)

Schmidt, Ulf, Justice at Nuremberg : Leo Alexander and the Nazi doctors' trial ISBN: 033392147X (Basingstoke, 2004)

__________, ‘“The Scars of Ravensbrück”: Medical Experiments and British War Crimes Policy, 1945-1950’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 23 (2005), 20-49

Stetz, Margaret D., ‘Rebecca West and the Nuremberg Trials’, Peace Review ISSN: 1040-2659, 13:2 (2001), 229-45

Stoltzfus, Nathan and Henry Friedlander (eds), Nazi crimes and the law ISBN: 9780521899741; 0521899745 (Cambridge, 2008)

Tanaki, Yuki, Hidden horrors : Japanese war crimes in World War II ISBN: 0813327180 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0813327172 (alk. paper) (Oxford, 1992)

Totani, Yuma, The Tokyo war crimes trial : the pursuit of justice in the wake of World War II ISBN: 9780674033399; 9780674028708 (cloth : alk. paper); 0674028708 (cloth : alk. paper) (Cambridge, 2008)

Tusa, A. and J., The Nuremberg Trial (London, 1995)

Weindling, Paul, ‘From International to Zonal Trials: The Origins of the Nuremberg Medical Trial’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies ISSN: 8756-6583, 14 (2000), 367-89

__________, Nazi medicine and the Nuremberg Trials : from medical war crimes to informed consent ISBN: 140393911X (hardcover) (Basingstoke, 2004)

Wittmann, Rebecca, Beyond justice : the Auschwitz trial ISBN: 9780674063877 (pbk.); 0674063872 (pbk.); 9780674045293 (ebook); 0674045297 (ebook) (Cambridge MA, 2012)

Wolfe, Robert, ‘Flaws in the Nuremberg Precedent Inhibiting UN Conviction of Perpetrators of War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity’, in Bulletin of the International Committee for the History of the Second World War, no. 27/28 (1995)

Memoirs, biographies, recollections and contemporary accounts:

Belgion, Montgomery, Epitaph on Nuremberg : a letter intended to have been sent to a friend temporarily abroad (London, 1946)

Cronkite, Walter, A reporter's life ISBN: 0679774149 (New York, 2006)

Dodd, Christopher J. with Lary Bloom, Letters from Nuremberg : my father's narrative of a quest for justice ISBN: 9780307381163; 0307381161 (New York, 2007)

Elwyn-Jones, Frederick, In My Time ISBN: 0297781596 (London, 1983)

Fyfe, David Maxwell, Political adventure : the memoirs of the Earl of Kilmuir. (London, 1964)

Gilbert, G. M., Nuremberg diary ISBN: 0306806614 (New York, 1995) [orig. publ. 1947]

Goldensohn, Leon, The Nuremberg interviews : conversations with the defendants and witnesses ISBN: 9781844139194 (pbk.) : £14.99; 1844139190 (pbk.) : £14.99, ed. by Robert Gellately (London, 2007)

Hyde, H. Montgomery, Norman Birkett : the Life of Lord Birkett of Ulverston (London: 1964)

Kelley, Douglas M., 22 cells in Nuremberg (New York, 1961) [originally publ. 1947]

Kilmuir, David, Nuremberg in Retrospect (Birmingham, 1956)

Lawrence, Lord Justice, ‘The Nuremberg Trial’, International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850 23:2 (1947), 151-9

Neave, Airey, Nuremberg: A Personal Record ISBN: 0340254505 (pbk) : £1.95 (London, 1978)

Ribbentrop, Joachim von, The Ribbentrop memoirs (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1954)

Rubin, Eli, The Nuremberg trial : Germany before her judges (London, 1945)

Shawcross, Hartley, Life sentence : the memoirs of Lord Shawcross. ISBN: 0094749809 (London, 1995)

Smith, Bradley F., Reaching judgement at Nuremberg ISBN: 023396858X : £6.50 (London, 1977)

__________, The American road to Nuremberg : the documentary record, 1944-1945 ISBN: 0817974814 (Stanford, 1982)

Sonnenfeldt, Richard W., Witness to Nuremberg ISBN: 9781559708166 (hdbk. : alk. paper); 1559708166 (hdbk. : alk. paper): The Chief American Interpreter at the War Crimes Trials (New York, 2006)

Speer, Albert, Spandau: The Secret Diaries  (London, 2000)

Stave, Bruce M. and Michele Palmer with Leslie Frank, Witnesses to Nuremberg : an oral history of American participants at the war crimes trials ISBN: 0805716289 (alk. paper) (New York, 1998)

Taylor, Telford, ‘The Nuremberg Trials: An Appraisal’, Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science ISSN: 0065-0684, 23:3 (1949), 19-34

__________, The anatomy of the Nuremberg trials : a personal memoir ISBN: 0316834009 (Boston, 1992)

West, Rebecca, A Train of Powder (London, 1955)

Wright, Quincy, ‘The Nuremberg Trial’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. ISSN: 0002-7162 246 (1946), 72-80

Documents:

International Conference on Military Trials: Representative from the United States, Report of Robert H. Jackson, United States representative to the International Conference on Military Trials : London, 1945. (Washington DC, 1949)

International Military Tribunal, The trial of German major war criminals by the International military tribunal sitting at Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946 : Speeches of the prosecutors for the United States of America; the French Republic; the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics at the close of the case against the indicted organisations. […] at the close of the case against the indicted organisations (London, 1946)

__________, The Trial of German Major War Criminals: Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany, 23 vols (London, 1946-51)

__________, Trial of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945-1 October 1946. ISBN: 0404536506, 42 vols (Nuremberg, 1947-49)

 Full text version of this is available in PDF at:

 http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/NT_major-war-criminals.html

__________, Trials of war criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council law no. 10, Nuernberg, October 1946-April 1949. ISBN: 1575882159 (set : acid-free paper), 15 vols (Buffalo, 1997) [orig. publ. Washington, DC, 1949-53]

Marrus, Michael, The Nuremberg war crimes trial, 1945-46 : a documentary history ISBN: 0312136919 (pbk.); 031216386X (Basingstoke, 1997)

United States, Office of Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality, Nazi conspiracy and aggression, 8 vols (Washington DC, 1946)

Truman Presidential Library and Museum has numerous relevant documents@

http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/nuremberg/index.php?action=docs

Harvard Law School Library – Nuremberg Trials Project has background information and digitized documents relating to the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT) Case 1 (the Medical Case) - as opposed to the International Military Tribunal (IMT): http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/

http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/php/docs_swi.php?DI=1&text=overview  

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has material on the Doctors Trial: https://www.ushmm.org/information/exhibitions/online-exhibitions/special-focus/doctors-trial

http://www.ushmm.org/research/doctors/index.html  

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6: Food

BRITISH DILEMMAS IN GERMANY

Discussion:

What were British priorities in Germany, and how did they change during the occupation? Why did the British seek a zonal fusion with the Americans? How did the British public view the task of occupation and to what extent were domestic factors an influence on British policy?

Core reading:

Farquharson, John, ‘“The Essential Division”: Britain and the Partition of Germany 1945-9’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 9 (1991), 23-45

Marshall, Barbara, ‘German Attitudes to British Military Government 1945-47’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 15 (1980), 655-83

Further reading:

Annan, Noel, Changing enemies : the defeat and regeneration of Germany ISBN: 0002556294 (London, 1995)

[British Control Commission], Progress of Demilitarization in the British Zone of Occupation of Germany (Berlin, 1946)  

Bance, Alan (ed.), The Cultural Legacy of the British Occupation in Germany ISBN: 0854571868 (Oxford, 1995)

Cairncross, Alec, The price of war : British policy on German reparations 1941-1949 ISBN: 0631149198 (1986)

__________, A country to play with : level of industry negotiations in Berlin 1945-46 ISBN: 086140274X (Gerrards Cross,1987)

Carden, Robert W., ‘Before Bizonia: Britain’s Economic Dilemma in Germany, 1945-46’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 14:3 (1979), 535-55

Clare, George, Berlin days ISBN: 033360587X 1946-47 (London, 1989)

Deighton, Anne, ‘The “Frozen Front”: The Labour Government, the Division of Germany and the Origins of the Cold War 1945-47,’ International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850 63 (1987), 449-65

__________, The Impossible Peace: Britain, the Division of Germany and the Origins of the Cold War (Oxford, 1990)

Donnison, S. F. V., Civil affairs and military government : North-west Europe, 1944-1946 (London, 1961)

Ebsworth, Raymond, Restoring democracy in Germany : the British contribution (London, 1960)

Farquharson, John, The Western allies and the politics of food : agrarian management in postwar Germany ISBN: 0907582249 (Leamington Spa, 1985)

__________, ‘The British Occupation of Germany 1945-6’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 11 (1993), 316-338

Foschepoth, Josef, ‘British Interest in the Division of Germany after the Second World War’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 21:3 (1986), 391-411

Frank, Matthew, ‘The New Morality: Victor Gollancz, “Save Europe Now” and the German Refugee Crisis, 1945-46’, 20th century British history. ISSN: 0955-2359 17 (2006), 230-56

__________, ‘Working for the Germans: British Voluntary Societies and the German Refugee Crisis, 1945-50’, Historical research. ISSN: 0950-3471, 72 (2009), 157-75

Gollancz, Victor, Our threatened values. (London, 1946)

__________, In darkest Germany (London, 1947)

Greenwood, Sean, ‘Bevin, the Ruhr and the Division of Germany’, The historical journal. ISSN: 0018-246x, 29 (1986), 203-12

Hook, James C. Van, ‘From Socialization to Co-Determination: The US, Britain, and Public Ownership in the Ruhr, 1945-1951’, The historical journal. ISSN: 0018-246x 45:1 (2002), 153-78

Hughes, R. Gerald, Britain, Germany and the Cold War : the search for a European Detente, 1949-1967 ISBN: 9780415412070 (alk. paper) (London, 2007)

Knowles, Christopher, Winning the peace : the British in occupied Germany, 1945-1948 ISBN: 9781474267434 (hardback); 9781474267441 (epub) (London, 2017)

Marshall, Barbara, ‘The Democratization of Local Politics in the British Zone of Germany: Hanover 1945-47’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 21:3 (1986), 413-51

__________, The origins of post-war German politics ISBN: 0709946902 (London, 1988)

Meehan, Patricia, A strange enemy people : Germans under the British, 1945-1950 ISBN: 0720611156; 9780720611151 (London, 2006)

Ramsden, John, Don't mention the war : the British and the Germans since 1890 ISBN: 9780349115399 (pbk.) : £9.99; 0349115397 (pbk.) : £9.99 (London, 2006), Ch. 5-6

Roseman, Mark, Recasting the Ruhr, 1945-1958 : manpower, economic recovery, and labour relations ISBN: 0854966064 (Oxford, 1992)

Steinert, Johannes-Dieter, ‘Food and the Food Crisis in Post-war Germany, 1945-1948: British Policy and the Role of British NGOs’, in Flemming Just and Frank Trentmann (eds), Food and conflict in Europe in the age of the two world wars ISBN: 1403986843 (Basingstoke: 2006), pp. 266-88

Turner, Ian (ed.), Reconstruction in post-war Germany : British occupation policy, 1945-55 ISBN: 0854960961 (Oxford, 1989) [Several relevant essays in this collection]

Watt, D. C., Britain looks to Germany : British opinion and policy towards Germany since 1945 (London, 1965)

Weber-Newth, Inge, ‘Bilateral Relations: British Soldiers and German Women’, in Louise Ryan and Wendy Webster (eds), Gendering migration : masculinity, femininity and ethnicity in post-war Britain ISBN: 9780754671787 (alk. paper) (Burlington, 2008)

Zweinger-Bargielowska, Ina, ‘Bread Rationing in Britain, July 1946-July 1948’, 20th century British history. ISSN: 0955-2359 4:1 (1993), 57-85

Film:

A Defeated People (dir. Humphrey Jennings, UK, 1946) The complete Humphrey Jennings V.3

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 7: Transformations  

Denazification AND reeducation

Discussion:

How thorough was denazification, and how did the process differ in each zone? What were the main criticisms, and who were the principal critics, of the denazification process? How did the definition and function of denazification change under the occupation? Were denazification and reeducation two sides of the same coin? To what extent were the problems of denazification a reflection of how thoroughly nazified Germany was? How seriously did the occupying powers take denazification?

Core reading:

Biddiscombe, Perry, The denazification of Germany : a history 1945-1950 ISBN: 9780752423463 (hbk.) : £20.00; 0752423460 (hbk.) : £20.00 (Stroud, 2007), 9-15 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Herz, John H., ‘The Fiasco of Denazification in Germany’, Political science quarterly. ISSN: 0032-3195 63:4 (1948), 569-94

Sträter, Artur, ‘Denazification’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. ISSN: 0002-7162 260 (1948), 43-52

Welch, David, ‘The Political Re-education of Germany after World War Two: A Need for a Reappraisal?’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 4:1 (1987), 23-35; and the response to this article - Balfour, Michael, ‘Re-education in Germany after 1945: Some Further Considerations’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 5 (1987), 24-34

Further reading:

Biddiscombe, Perry, The denazification of Germany : a history 1945-1950 ISBN: 9780752423463 (hbk.) : £20.00; 0752423460 (hbk.) : £20.00 1945-48 (Stroud, 2007)

Biebel, Charles D., ‘American Efforts for Educational Reform in Occupied Germany, 1945-1955: A Reassessment’, History of education quarterly. ISSN: 0018-2680 22:3 (1982), 277-87

Blessing, Benita, The Antifascist Classroom: Denazification in Soviet-Occupied Germany, 1945-1949 (New York, 2006)’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 26:2 (2008), 327-29

Boehling, Rebecca, A question of priorities : democratic reforms and economic recovery in postwar Germany : Frankfurt, Munich, and Stuttgart under U.S. occupation, 1945-1949 ISBN: 1571810358 (acid-free paper) (New York, 1996)

Connelly, J., Captive university : the Sovietization of East German, Czech and Polish higher education, 1945-1956 ISBN: 0807848654 (pbk.); 0807825557 (cased) : No price (Chapel Hill, NC, 2000)

Dastrup, Boyd L., Crusade in Nuremberg : military occupation, 1945-1949 ISBN: 0313248478 (alk. paper) (Westport, Conn, 1985)

Diefendorf, Jeffry et al (eds.), American policy and the reconstruction of West Germany, 1945-1955 ISBN: 0521431204 (Cambridge, 1993) [Essays by Boehling and Prowe]

Ebsworth, Raymond, Restoring democracy in Germany : the British contribution (London, 1960)

Ermarth, Michael (ed.), America and the shaping of German society, 1945-1955 ISBN: 0854963278; 9780854963270 (Providence, RI, 1993) [several relevant articles in this collection]

Fisher, Jaimey, Disciplining Germany : youth, reeducation, and reconstruction after the Second World War ISBN: 9780814333297 (hardcover : alk. paper); 081433329X (hardcover : alk. paper) (Michigan, 2007)

Fuessl, Karl-Heinz and Gregory Paul Wegne, ‘Education under Radical Change: Education Policy and the Youth Program of the United States in Postwar Germany’, History of education quarterly. ISSN: 0018-2680, 36 (1996), 1-18

Gimbel, John, A German community under American occupation : Marburg 1945-52 (1961)

__________, ‘German Scientists, United States Denazification Policy, and the Paperclip Conspiracy’, International history review. ISSN: 0707-5332 12:3 (1990)

Hayse, M., Recasting West German elites : higher civil servants, business leaders, and physicians in Hesse between Nazism and democracy, 1945-1955 ISBN: 1571812717 (alk. paper) (2003) [esp. Ch. 4: ‘Denazification and its effects, 1945-1955’]

Hearnden, Arthur (ed.), The British in Germany : educational reconstruction after 1945 ISBN: 0241896371 (London, 1978)

Jones, Jill, ‘Eradicating Nazism from the British Zone of Germany: Early Policy and Practice’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 8:2 (1990)

Junker, Detlef et al. (eds.), The United States and Germany in the era of the Cold War, 1945-1990 : a handbook ISBN: 052179112X (v. 1); 0521834201 (v. 2); 0521837316 (set) vol. 1: 1945-1968 (Cambridge, 2004) [Essays on democratization, denazification and Americanization]

Lamberti, Marjorie, ‘Returning Refugee Political Scientists and America’s Democratization Program in Germany after the Second World War’, German Studies Review ISSN: 0149-7952 31 (2008), 263-84

Lowenstein, Karl, ‘Comment on ‘Denazification’, Social research. ISSN: 0037-783x, 14:1 (1947), 365-9 [and ‘Denazification’, pp. 59-74]

Melis, Damian van, ‘Denazification in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 13:3 (1995)

Merritt, Richard L., Democracy imposed : U.S. occupation policy and the German public, 1945-1949 ISBN: 0300060378 (New Haven, 1995)

Monod, David, Settling scores : German music, denazification, & the Americans, 1945-1953 ISBN: 0807829447 (cloth) (Chapel Hill, NC, 2005)

Mumper, James A., ‘The Reopening of Heidelberg University, 1945-46: Major Earl L. Crum and the Ambiguities of American Postwar Policy’, in F. X. J. Homer and Larry D. Wilcox (eds), Germany and Europe in the era of the two world wars ISBN: 0813910773 (Charlottesville, 1986)

Naumann, Cindy, ‘The Rebirth of Educational Exchange: Anglo-German University level youth exchange programmes after the Second World War’, Research in comparative and international education ISSN: 1745-4999, 2:4 (2007), 355-68

Nicholls, A. J., ‘The British Impact in German Education: A Triumph for Commonsense or Missed Opportunity?’, Oxford Review of Education. ISSN: 0305-4985, 4:2 (1978), 125-9

Pepin, Craig K., ‘’Dilettantes and Over-Specialization’: Diagnosing and Treating Nazism at West German Universities after World War II’, History of education quarterly. ISSN: 0018-2680, 45:4 (2005), 604-14

Peterson, Edward N., The American occupation of Germany : retreat to victory ISBN: 0814315887 (Detroit, 1977)

Phillips, David (ed.), German universities after the surrender : British occupation policy and the control of higher education (Oxford, 1983)

__________, ‘War-Time Planning for the Re-education of Germany: Professor E.R. Dodds and the German Universities’, Oxford Review of Education. ISSN: 0305-4985, 12:2 (1986)

__________, ‘Helena Deneke and the Women of Germany: A Note on Post-War Educational Reconstruction’, German life and letters. ISSN: 0016-8777, 53:1 (2000), 89-105

Plischke, Elmer, ‘Denazifying the Reich’ The review of politics. ISSN: 0034-6705; 1748-6858, 9 (1947), 153-172

__________, ‘Denazification in Germany: A Policy Analysis’, in Robert Wolfe (ed.), Americans as proconsuls : United States military government in Germany and Japan, 1944-1952 ISBN: 0809311151 (1984)

Pronay, Nicholas and Keith Wilson (eds), The Political Re-education of Germany and Her Allies after World War II (London, 1985)

Pundt, Alfred C., ‘Re-educating the New Germany’, Journal of higher education. ISSN: 0022-1546; 1538-4640, 19:7 (1948), 350-360

Remy, Steven P., The Heidelberg myth : the Nazification and denazification of a German university ISBN: 0674009339 (Cambridge, 2002)

Tent, James F., Mission on the Rhine : re-education and denazification in American-occupied Germany ISBN: 0226793575 (Chicago, 1982)

__________, ‘Mission on the Rhine: American Educational Policy in Postwar Germany, 1945-1949’, History of education quarterly. ISSN: 0018-2680  22:3 (1982), 255-76

Tscharntke, Denise, Re-educating German women : the work of the Women's Affairs Section of the British Military Government 1946-1951 ISBN: 3631513577; 0820464805 (U.S.) (Frankfurt/Main, 2003)

Turner, Ian (ed.), Reconstruction in post-war Germany : British occupation policy, 1945-55 ISBN: 0854960961 (Oxford, 1989)

Vogt, Timothy, Denazification in Soviet-occupied Germany : Brandenburg, 1945-1948 ISBN: 0674003403 (Cambridge MA, 2000)

Wegner, Gregory P., ‘Germany’s Past Contested: The Soviet-American Conflict in Berlin over History Curriculum Reform, 1945-48’, Higher Education Quarterly, 30:1 (1990), 1-16 https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/08D0078F7769B582F79B133CECA80AAC/S0018268000022007a.pdf/germanys_past_contested_the_sovietamerican_conflict_in_berlin_over_history_curriculum_reform_194548.pdf

Willett, Ralph, The Americanization of Germany, 1945-1949 ISBN: 0415002877 (1989)

Zink, Harold, The United States in Germany, 1944-1955 (1957)

See also articles on America and German re-education in special issue of Paedagogica Historica. ISSN: 0030-9230: International Journal of the History of Education, 33:1 (2010)

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8: Divisions

developments in the Soviet zone

and the foundation of the Democratic Republic

Discussion:

What were the Soviets’ principal aims in Germany? Did the Soviets have a coherent and/or consistent policy towards Germany? ‘Who made [Soviet] policy for Germany, and who carried out policy in the Eastern zone?’ (Naimark, p. 321) What was the purpose and consequence of land reform? What type of political party was the SED and why was it formed? Why did the Soviets tolerate non-Marxist ‘bourgeois’ parties in their zone? In what ways was the outcome of the autumn 1946 elections significant? What parallels were there between developments in Soviet-occupied Germany and the rest of what was becoming ‘eastern’ Europe?

Core reading:

Laufer, Jochen, ‘From Dismantling to Currency Reform: External Origins of the Dictatorship, 1943-1948’, in Konrad Jarausch (ed.), Dictatorship as experience : towards a socio-cultural history of the GDR ISBN: 1571811826 (pbk); 1571811818 (New York, 1999), 73-89

Naimark, Norman, The Russians in Germany : A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1944-49 (Cambridge, MA, 1995), 318-52 [Ch. 6: ‘The Tiul’panov Question and Soviet Policy-Making in the Zone’] [ebook]

Further reading:

Bruce, Gary, Resistance with the people : repression and resistance in Eastern Germany, 1945-1955 ISBN: 0742524876 (hbk.); 0742524884 (pbk.) (Lanham, 2003)

Creuzberger, Stefan, ‘The Soviet Military Administration and East German Elections, Autumn 1946’, The Australian journal of politics and history. ISSN: 0004-9522, 45:1 (1999), 89-98.

Harsch, Donna, ‘Approach/Avoidance: Communists and Women in East Germany, 1945-9’, Social history. ISSN: 0307-1022, 25:2 (2000), 156-82

Loth, Wilfred, ‘Stalin’s Plans for Post-War Germany’, in Francesca Gori and Silvio Pons (eds), The Soviet Union and Europe in the Cold War, 1943-53 ISBN: 0333653165 (Basingstoke, 1996)

__________, Stalin's unwanted child : the Soviet Union, the German question, and the founding of the GDR ISBN: 0333716574; 0312210280 (St. Martins), trans. Robert H. Hogg (Basingstoke, 1999)

McCauley, Martin, ‘Liberal Democrats in the Soviet Zone of Germany, 1945-47’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 12:4 (1977), 779-89

__________, ‘East Germany’, in Martin McCauley (ed.), Communist power in Europe, 1944-1949 ISBN: 0333183657 (London, 1977)

Naimark, Norman, To Know Everything and to Report Everything Worth Knowing: Building the East German Police State, 1945-1949, CWIHP Working Paper No. 10 (Washington DC, 1994) https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/ACFB6F.PDF

__________, The Russians in Germany : A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1944-49 (Cambridge, MA, 1995)

__________, ‘The Soviets and the Christian Democrats: The Challenge of a ‘Bourgeois’ Party in Eastern Germany, 1945-9’, in Francesca Gori and Silvio Pons (eds), The Soviet Union and Europe in the Cold War, 1943-53 ISBN: 0333653165 (Basingstoke, 1996)

Pike, David, ‘Cultural Politics in Soviet-Occupied Germany 1945-46’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 24:1 (1989), 91-123

__________, The politics of culture in Soviet-occupied Germany, 1945-1949 ISBN: 0804720932 (Stanford, 1992)

Pritchard, Gareth, The making of the GDR, 1945-53 : from antifascism to Stalinism ISBN: 0719069815 (pbk); 0719056543 (Manchester, 2000)

Raack, R. C., ‘Stalin Plans His Post-War Germany’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 28:1 (1993), 53-73

Sandford, Gregory W., From Hitler to Ulbricht : the Communist reconstruction of East Germany, 1945-46 ISBN: 0691053677 (Princeton,1983)

Spilker, Dirk, The East German leadership and the division of Germany : patriotism and propaganda 1945-1953 ISBN: 0199284121 (hbk.) : £55.00; 9780199284122 (hbk.) : £55.00 (Oxford, 2006)

Weitz, Eric, Creating German Communism, 1890-1990 ISBN: 0691025940 (cloth : alk. paper); 0691026823 (pbk. : alk. paper) (Princeton, 1997), Ch. 9

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9: BERLIN

Berlin blockade and airlift, 1948-9

Discussion:

Why was the postwar situation in Berlin so precarious? Why did the Soviets impose a blockade on the city? How did Berliners react to the blockade and airlift? Did the Soviets miscalculate over Berlin, and why did they back down? In what ways was the Berlin airlift a transformative event?

Core reading:

Goedde, Petra, GIs and Germans : culture, gender and foreign relations, 1945-1949 ISBN: 0300090226 (New Haven, 2003), 166-98 [Ch. 5: ‘Forging a Consensus: Americans, Germans, and the Berlin Airlift’] Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

See also Maria Hoehn’s review:

http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=8249

Steege, Paul, ‘Holding on in Berlin: March 1948 and SED Efforts to Control the Soviet Zone’, Central European history. ISSN: 0008-9389, 38 (2005), 417-449

Further reading:

Backer, John H., Winds of history : the German years of Lucius DuBignon Clay ISBN: 0442213824 (est.) : $20.00 (New York, 1983), Ch. 10

Clay, Lucius D., Decision in Germany (London, 1950), Ch. 19-20

__________, The papers of General Lucius D. Clay, Germany, 1945-1949. ISBN: 0253342880: Volume 2, ed. Jean Edward Smith (Bloomington, 1974)

Collier, Richard, Bridge across the sky : the Berlin blockade and airlift, 1948-1949 ISBN: 0070117969 : $12.95 (London, 1978)

Harrington, Daniel F., ‘The Berlin Blockade Revisited’, International history review. ISSN: 0707-5332 6 (1984), 88-112

Haydock, Michael D., City under siege : the Berlin blockade and airlift, 1948-1949 ISBN: 1574881426 (Washington DC, 1999)

Howley, Frank, Berlin command (1950)

Murphy, David E. et al, Battleground Berlin : CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War ISBN: 0300072333 (alk. paper) (New Haven, 1997), Ch. 3

Murphy, Robert, Diplomat among warriors (New York, 1964), Ch. 22

Narinskii, Michail, ‘The Soviet Union and the Berlin Crisis, 1948-9’, in Francesca Gori and Silvio Pons (eds), The Soviet Union and Europe in the Cold War, 1943-53 ISBN: 0333653165 (Basingstoke, 1996)

Pennacchio, Charles F., ‘The East German Communists and the Origins of the Berlin Blockade Crisis’, East European Quarterly ISSN: 0012-8449, 29:3 (1995)

 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/penna.htm  

Peplow, Emma, ‘The Role of Britain in the Berlin Airlift’, History. ISSN: 0018-2648, 95 (2010), 207-24

Riess, Curt, The Berlin story (London, 1953), Pt. 3

Roesler, Jorg, ‘The Black Market in Post-War Berlin and the Methods Used to Counteract it’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 7:1 (1989), 92-107

Schake, Kori, ‘The Berlin Crises of 1948-49 and 1958-62’, in Beatrice Heuser and Robert O’Neill (eds), Securing Peace in Europe, 1945-62 ISBN: 9780333550021 (Basingstoke, 1992), 65-83

Shlaim, Avi, The United States and the Berlin Blockade 1948-1949 ISBN: 0520043855; 0520066197 (pbk.) (Berkeley, 1983).

__________, ‘Britain, the Berlin Blockade and the Cold War, International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850 60:1 (1983/4), 1-14

Short, K. R. M., ‘“The March of Time”, Time Inc. and the Berlin Blockade, 1948-1949: Selling Americans on the “New Democratic Germany’, Historical journal of film, radio and television. ISSN: 0143-9685 13 (1993), 451-68 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01439689300260361?needAccess=true

Steege, Paul, Black market, Cold War : everyday life in Berlin, 1946-1949 ISBN: 0521864968 (hardback); 9780521864961 (hardback) (Cambridge, 2007)

Steury, Donald P. (ed.), On the front lines of the Cold War : documents on the intelligence war in Berlin, 1946 to 1961 ISBN: 1929667019 (Washington DC, 1999)

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/on-the-front-lines-of-the-cold-war-documents-on-the-intelligence-war-in-berlin-1946-to-1961/index.html

Stivers, William, ‘The Incomplete Blockade: Soviet Zone Supply of West Berlin, 1948-49’, Diplomatic history. ISSN: 0145-2096 21:4 (1997), 569-602

Tusa, Ann and John Tusa, The Berlin blockade ISBN: 0340416076 (London, 1988)

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 10: REVOLT  

THE 1953 EAST GERMAN UPRISING:

ORIGINS, CHARACTER AND AFTERMATH

Discussion:

What was ‘June 1953’? What were the sources of popular grievance in the GDR leading up to the events of June 1953? What did the protesters want? How did the SED respond? How did the Soviets interpret the events of June 1953? Why did Ulbricht survive as SED General Secretary? What light does June 1953 cast on East-West relations during the period? What impact did June 1953 have on Soviet policy towards the GDR?

Core reading:

Pritchard, Gareth, The making of the GDR, 1945-53 : from antifascism to Stalinism ISBN: 0719069815 (pbk); 0719056543 (Manchester, 2000), 194-224 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (GW 01/02/2018) 

Sperber, Jonathan, ’17 June 1953: Revisiting a German Revolution’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 22:4 (2004), 619-43

Further reading:

Allinson, Mark, Politics and popular opinion in East Germany, 1945-1968 ISBN: 0719055547 : £45.00 (Manchester, 2000)

Baring, Arnulf, Uprising in East Germany, June 17, 1953 ISBN: 0801407036 (Ithaca, 1972)

Bruce, Gary, Resistance with the people : repression and resistance in Eastern Germany, 1945-1955 ISBN: 0742524876 (hbk.); 0742524884 (pbk.) (Lanham, 2003)

Coleman, David G., ‘Eisenhower and the Berlin Problem, 1953-54’, Journal of Cold War studies. ISSN: 1520-3972, 2:1 (2000), 3-34

Dale, Gareth, Popular protest in East Germany, 1945-1989 ISBN: 0714654086 (hdbk.) (London, 2005)

Fulbrook, Mary, The Anatomy of a Dictatorship (Oxford, 1995), 176-93

Harrison, Hope M., ‘The New Course: Soviet Policy toward Germany and the Uprising in the GDR’, in Klaus Larres and Kenneth Osgood (eds), The Cold War after Stalin's death : a missed opportunity for peace? ISBN: 0742554511 (cloth : alk. paper); 9780742554511 (cloth : alk. paper) (Lanham, 2006) 

Hildebrandt, Rainer, The explosion : the uprising behind the Iron Curtain (New York, 1955)

Ingimundarson, Valur, ‘Cold War Misperceptions: The Communist and Western Responses to the East German Refugee Crisis in 1953’, Journal of contemporary history. ISSN: 0022-0094 29:3 (1994), 463-81

__________, ‘The Eisenhower Administration, the Adenauer Government, and the Political Uses of the East German Uprising in 1953’, Diplomatic history. ISSN: 0145-2096 20:3 (1996), 381-410

Lammers, Karl Christian, ‘The Making of the GDR: New Research on its Formative Years and Problems’, Contemporary European history. ISSN: 0960-7773, 11:2 (2002), 333-42

Lemke, Michael, ‘Foreign Influences on the Dictatorial Development of the GDR, 1949-1955’, in Konrad Jarausch, (ed.), Dictatorship as Experience: Towards a Socio-Cultural History of the GDR (New York, 1999), 91-107

Murphy, David E. et al, Battleground Berlin : CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War ISBN: 0300072333 (alk. paper) (New Haven, 1997) [Ch. 9]

Osterman, Christian F., ‘“Keeping the Pot Simmering”: The United States and the East German Uprising of 1953’, GSR 19:1 (1996), 61-89 https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/ACFB6C.PDF

__________, ‘New Evidence of the East German Uprising of 1953’, CWIHP Bulletin, 5 (1995), 10-21, 57 https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/bulletin-no-5-spring-1995

__________, The United States, the East German Uprising of 1953, and the Limits of Rollback, CWIHP Working Paper No. 11 (Washington D.C., 1994) https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/ACFB6C.PDF

http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/ACFB6C.PDF   

Osterman, Christian F. (ed.), Uprising in East Germany 1953 : the Cold War, the German question, and the first major upheaval behind the Iron Curtain ISBN: 9639241172 (Budapest, 2001)

Pence, K., ‘“You as a Woman Will Understand”: Consumption, Gender and the Relationship between State and Citizenry in the GDR’s Crisis of 17 June 1953’, German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 19:2 (2001), 218-52

Port, Andrew I., Conflict and stability in the German Democratic Republic ISBN: 0521866510 (hardback); 9780521866514 (hardback) (Cambridge, 2007)

Pritchard, Gareth, ‘Workers and the Socialist Unity Party of Germany in the Summer of 1953’, in Patrick Major and Jonathan Osmond (eds), The workers' and peasants' state : communism and society in East Germany under Ulbricht, 1945-71 ISBN: 0719062896 (pbk.) : £16.99; 0719062888 (Manchester, 2002), 112-29

Ross, Corey, Constructing socialism at the grass-roots : the transformation of East Germany, 1945-65 ISBN: 0312230419; 0333789806 (Basingstoke, 2000)

Spilker, Dirk, The East German leadership and the division of Germany : patriotism and propaganda 1945-1953 ISBN: 0199284121 (hbk.) : £55.00; 9780199284122 (hbk.) : £55.00 (Oxford, 2006)

On the Soviet Union and the early GDR:

Dijk, Ruud Van, The 1952 Stalin Note Debate: Myth or Missed Opportunity for German Unification? CWIHP Working Paper No. 14 (Washington DC, 1996) https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/ACFB54.pdf

Junker, Detlef et al. (eds), The United States and Germany in the era of the Cold War, 1945-1990 : a handbook ISBN: 052179112X (v. 1); 0521834201 (v. 2); 0521837316 (set), vol. 1: 1945-1968 (Cambridge, 2004) [several essays in the section on ‘Politics’]

Laufer, J., ‘Der Friedensvertrag mit Deutschland als Problem der sowjetischen Außenpolitik: Die Stalin-Note vom 10. Marz 1952 im Lichte neuer Quellen’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. ISSN: 0042-5702; 2196-7121, 52:1 (2004), 99-118

Kramer, Mark, ‘The Soviet Union and the Founding of the German Democratic Republic: 50 Years Later – A Review Article’, Europe-Asia studies. ISSN: 0966-8136; 1465-3427, 51 (1999), 1093-1124

Loth, Wilfried, ‘Stalin’s Plans for Post-War Germany’, in The Soviet Union and Europe in the Cold War, 1943-53 ISBN: 0333653165, ed. by F. Gori and S. Pons (Basingstoke, 1996)

__________, Stalin's unwanted child : the Soviet Union, the German question, and the founding of the GDR ISBN: 0333716574; 0312210280 (St. Martins) (Basingstoke, 1998)

__________, ‘The Origins of Stalin’s Note of 10 March 1952’, Cold war history. ISSN: 1468-2745, 4 (2004), 66-88

__________, ‘The German Question from Stalin to Khrushchev: The Meaning of New Documents’, Cold war history. ISSN: 1468-2745, 10 (2010), 229-45

Mastny, Vojtech, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (Oxford, 1996), Ch. 6

Richter, James, Reexamining Soviet Policy towards Germany during the Beria Interregnum, CWIHP Working Paper No. 3 (Washington DC, 1992) https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/ACFAEC.pdf

Roberts, Geoffrey, Stalin's wars : from World War to Cold War, 1939-1953 ISBN: 0300112041 (alk. paper); 9780300112047 (alk. paper) (New Haven, 2006)

Ruggenhalter, Peter, Stalins grosser Bluff : die Geschichte der Stalin-Note in Dokumenten der sowjetischen Führung ISBN: 9783486583984; 3486583980 (Munich, 2007)

Spilker, Dirk, The East German leadership and the division of Germany : patriotism and propaganda 1945-1953 ISBN: 0199284121 (hbk.) : £55.00; 9780199284122 (hbk.) : £55.00 (Oxford, 2006), Ch. 5

Staritz, Dietrich, ‘The SED, Stalin, and the German Question: Interests and Decision-Making in the Light of New Sources’, German history. ISSN: 0266-355, 10 (1992), 274-89

Steiniger, Rolf, The German question : the Stalin note of 1952 and the problem of reunification ISBN: 0231072163 (New York, 1990)

Wettig, Gerhard, ‘Stalin and German Reunification: Archival Evidence on Soviet Foreign Policy in the Spring of 1952’, The historical journal. ISSN: 0018-246x 37:2 (1994), 411-19

__________, ‘The Soviet Union and Germany in the Late Stalin Period, 1950-1953’, in Francesca Gori and Silvio Pons (eds), The Soviet Union and Europe in the Cold War, 1943-53 ISBN: 0333653165 (London, 1996)

__________, Stalin and the Cold War in Europe : the emergence and development of East-West conflict, 1939-1953 ISBN: 9780742555426 (cloth : alk. paper); 0742555429 (cloth : alk. paper) (Lanham, 2008) [Ch. 5]

Top of page

 11: REHABILITATION  

West German foreign and security policy:

rearmament, sovereignty, ‘Europe’

and the Atlantic alliance

Discussion:

Why did West Germany rearm? Who made the decision to rearm? Who opposed it and why? What constituted ‘Europe’ for the purposes of West German foreign policy during this period? Did West Germany have a ‘foreign policy’ in the 1950s? What were its aims? What were some of the obstacles to Franco-German rapprochement in the 1950s, and how were they overcome?

Core reading:

Irving, Ronald, Adenauer ISBN: 058206824X (London, 2002), pp. 88-149 [Ch. 4: ‘Adenauer’s Foreign Policy’] Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Küsters, Hanns Jürgen, ‘West Germany’s Foreign Policy in Western Europe, 1949- 58: The Art of the Possible’, in Clemens Wurm (ed.), Western Europe and Germany : the beginnings of European integration, 1945-1960 ISBN: 1859730523 (Oxford, 1995), 55-85 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Further reading:

Adenauer, Konrad, Memoirs, 1945-1953 (London, 1966)

Balabkins, Nicholas, West German reparations to Israel. ISBN: 0813506913 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1971)

Cioc, Mark, Pax atomica : the nuclear defense debate in West Germany during the Adenauer era ISBN: 0231065906 (alk. paper) (New York, 1988)

Craig, Gordon, ‘Konrad Adenauer and his Diplomats’, in Gordon Craig and F. L. Loewenheim (eds), The Diplomats, 1939-1979 ISBN: 0691036136 (CL) (Princeton, NJ, 1994)

Deutsch, Harold C., ‘The Impact of the Franco-German Entente’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. ISSN: 0002-7162 348 (1963), 82-94

Dockrill, Saki, ‘The Evolution of British Policy Towards a European Army, 1950-54’, The journal of strategic studies. ISSN: 0140-2390, 12 (1989), 38-63

__________, Britain's policy for West German rearmament, 1950-1955 ISBN: 0521381118 (Cambridge, 1991)

Drummond, Gordon D., The German Social Democrats in opposition, 1949-1960 : the case against rearmament ISBN: 0806117303 (jacket) (Norman, 1982)

Furdsen, Edward, The European Defence Community : a history ISBN: 0333261984 (London, 1980)

Gillessen, Günther, The Konrad Adenauer memorial lecture 1986 : Konrad Adenauer and Israel (Oxford, 1986)

Gillingham, John, Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945-1955: The Germans and French from the Ruhr Conflict to Economic Communist (Cambridge, 1991)

Granieri, Ronald J., The ambivalent alliance : Konrad Adenauer, the CDU/CSU, and the West, 1949-1966 ISBN: 1571814922 (pbk.); 9781571812728 (hbk); 1571812725 (hbk.) (New York, 2003)

Hallstein, Walter, United Europe : challenge and opportunity (Cambridge, 1962)

Hanrieder, Wolfram (ed.), West German foreign policy : 1949-1979 ISBN: 0891585796 (Stanford, 1980)

Hershberg, James G., ‘“Explosion in the Offing”: German Rearmament and American Diplomacy”, Diplomatic history. ISSN: 0145-2096 16:4 (1992), 511-49

Honig, Frederick, ‘The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany’, American journal of international law. ISSN: 0002-9300, 48 (1954), 564-78

Hughes, R. Gerald, Britain, Germany and the Cold War : the search for a European Detente, 1949-1967 ISBN: 9780415412070 (alk. paper) (London: Routledge, 2007)

Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus, Civilizing the enemy : German reconstruction and the invention of the West ISBN: 9780472069293; 0472099299 (cloth : alk. paper); 0472069292 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9780472099290 (Ann Arbor, 2006)

Junker, Detlef et al. (eds), The United States and Germany in the era of the Cold War, 1945-1990 : a handbook ISBN: 052179112X (v. 1); 0521834201 (v. 2); 0521837316 (set), vol. 1: 1945-1968 (Cambridge, 2004) [several essays in the sections on ‘Politics’ and ‘Security’]

Kirkpatrick, Ivone, The inner circle : memoirs of Ivone Kirkpatrick (London, 1959), Ch. 11-12

Large, David Clay, Germans to the front : West German rearmament in the Adenauer era ISBN: 0807845396 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0807822353 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1996)

Loth, Wilfred, ‘From the “Third Force” to the Common Market: Discussions about Europe and the Future of the Nation-State in West Germany, 1945-57’, in Dominik Geppert (ed.), The postwar challenge : cultural, social, and political change in Western Europe, 1945-58 ISBN: 0199266654 (Oxford, 2003), pp. 191-209

Martin, Laurence, ‘The American Decision to Rearm Germany’, in Harold Stein, (ed.), American Civil-Military Decisions: A Book of Case Studies (Birmingham, AL, 1963): http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.beal/acmildb0001&div=&id=37&page=&collection=beal

Maulucci, Thomas W., ‘Konrad Adenauer’s April 1953 Visit to the United States and the Limits of the German-American Relationship in the Early 1950s’, GSR 26:3 (2003), 577-96 https://www.jstor.org/stable/1432748?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

__________, Adenauer's foreign office : West German diplomacy in the shadow of the Third Reich ISBN: 9780875804637 : £29.00; 0875804632 : £29.00 (Chicago, 2013)

Mawby, Spencer, Containing Germany : Britain and the arming of the Federal Republic ISBN: 0333735811 (Basingstoke, 1999)

McAllister, James, No exit : America and the German problem, 1943-1954 ISBN: 0801438764 (alk. paper) (Ithaca, 2002)

Morgan, Roger, The United States and West Germany, 1945-1973 : a study in alliance politics ISBN: 0192183044 (London, 1974)

Nichols, Anthony J., Always good neighbours - never good friends : Anglo-German relations 1949-2001 ISBN: 0953357082 (London, 2005)

Pommerin, Reiner (ed.), The American impact on postwar Germany ISBN: 1571810048 (Oxford, 1995) [essays by Craig on Adenauer, Pommerin on arming West Germany, Orlow on the SPD and the US]

Richardson, James L., Germany and the Atlantic Alliance (Cambridge, MA, 1966)

Ruane, Kevin, The rise and fall of the European Defence Community : Anglo-American relations and the crisis of European defence, 1950-55 ISBN: 0333913191; 0312234821 (Basingstoke, 2000)

Schwartz, Hans-Peter, Churchill and Adenauer (Cambridge, 1994)

__________, Konrad Adenauer : a German politician and statesman in a period of war, revolution, and reconstruction ISBN: 1571818707 (v. 1 : alk. paper) 2 vols (Oxford, 1995-97)

Schwartz, Thomas Alan, America's Germany : John J.McCloy and the Federal Republic of Germany ISBN: 0674031156 (Cambridge, MA, 1991)

Stauber, Roni, ‘The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Debate over the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations with Germany, 1953-1955’, Yad Vashem studies. ISSN: 0084-3296 0084-3296 z, 37:2 (2009)

Willis, F. Roy, France, Germany, and the new Europe : 1945-1967, rev. edn (Stanford, 1968)

Wurm, Clemens (ed.), Western Europe and Germany : the beginnings of European integration, 1945-1960 ISBN: 1859730523 (Oxford, 1995)

Young, John W., ‘German Rearmament and the European Defence Community’, in John W. Young (ed.), The Foreign policy of Churchill's peacetime administration, 1951-1955 (Leicester, 1988)

Younger, Kenneth and Frank Beswick, German re-armament, for and against (London, 1954)

Zweig, Ronald W., German reparations and the Jewish world : a history of the Claims Conference ISBN: 0813375215 (alk. paper) (Boulder, 1987)

 

This list was last updated on 23/01/2018