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HIST2005
Module Reading List

Rule and Reform under Charlemagne and his Successors, 768-987, 2019/20, Semester 1
Dr Jonathan Jarrett
TBC
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General Bibliography

Period textbooks

David Rollason, Early Medieval Europe 300-1050: The Birth of Western Society (London: Routledge, 2012)

Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London: Allen Lane, 2009, repr. London: Penguin, 2009)

Matthew Innes, An Introduction to Early Medieval Western Europe, 400-900: The Sword, the Plough and the Book (London: Routledge, 2007)

Julia M. H. Smith, Europe after Rome: A New Cultural History 500-1000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Roger Collins, Early Medieval Europe 300-1000 (1st ed. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1991; 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999; 3rd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)

Standard references

Atlas of Medieval Europe, ed. by David Ditchburn, Simon MacLean and Angus MacKay, 2nd edn (London: Routledge, 2007)

The New Cambridge Medieval History Vol. 2: c. 700- c. 900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

The Carolingians and their lands

Hywel Williams, Emperor of the West: Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (London: Quercus, 2010): pop history, but good for all that, an easy introduction

Marios Costambeys, Simon MacLean and Matthew Innes, The Carolingian World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009)  

Pierre Riché, The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. by Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1993)

Janet Nelson, Charles the Bald (London: Longman, 1992): covers much more than just Charles

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the Early Middle Ages c. 800-1056 (London: Longman, 1991)

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751-987 (London: Longman, 1983)

Pierre Riché, Daily Life in the World of Charlemagne, trans. by JoAnn McNamara (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1978; 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1998)

Donald Bullough, The Age of Charlemagne (London: Elek, 1965): lavishly illustrated

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Weekly Reading Lists

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Week 1 Lecture. Dynasties and Takeover: The Rise of the Carolingians

Required reading

No required reading in first week

Additional Reading

Paul Fouracre, ‘Francia to 814’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History Vol. 2: c. 700- c. 900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 85–109

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Week 1 Tutorial. Contested Memories: The Merovingians Remembered

Required reading

Primary material

‘Fredegar’, Chronicles, in The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar, with its Continuations, ed. and trans. by J. Michael Wallace-Hadrill (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), pp. 80–121 (Continuations 1–4); pp. 87–103 available on Minerva and will do  

Secondary orientation

Paul Barnwell, ‘Einhard, Louis the Pious and Childeric III’, Historical Research, 78 (2005), 129–39  

Additional reading

Primary material

Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. by Paul Edward Dutton, 2nd edn. (Peterborough, ON: Broadview, 2004), pp. 1–22 (nos 1–5)  

The Laws of the Salian Franks, trans. by Katherine Fischer Drew (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991)

Secondary orientation

Paul Fouracre, ‘The Long Shadow of the Merovingians’, in Charlemagne: Empire and Society, ed. by Joanna Story (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005), pp. 5–21, repr. in Fouracre, Frankish History: Studies in the Construction of Power (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter VII

Paul Fouracre, ‘Writing About Charles Martel’, in Law, Laity and Solidarities: Essays in Honour of Susan Reynolds, ed. by Pauline Stafford and Janet L. Nelson (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001), pp. 12–26

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘The Illusion of Royal Power in the Carolingian Annals’, English Historical Review, 115 (2000), 1–20

Paul Fouracre, The Age of Charles Martel (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 155–74

Richard Gerberding, The Rise of the Carolingians and the Liber Historiae Francorum (Oxford: Clarendon, 1987)

David Harry Miller, ‘Sacral Kingship, Biblical Kingship, and the Elevation of Pepin the Short’, in Religion, Culture, and Society in the Early Middle Ages: Studies in Honor of Richard E. Sullivan, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble and John J. Contreni (Kalamazoo, MI: West Michigan University Press, 1987), pp. 131–54: more than a bit mad—but how much more?

Walter Goffart, ‘The Fredegar Problem Reconsidered’, Speculum, 38 (1963), 206–41, repr. in Goffart, Rome's Fall and After (London: Hambledon, 1989), pp. 319–54

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Week 2 Lecture. Charlemagne the Conqueror

Required reading (in suggested order)

François-Louis Ganshof, ‘Charlemagne’, in Ganshof, The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy: Studies in Carolingian History, trans. by Janet Sondheimer (London: Longman, 1971), pp. 17–27 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 20/09/2019)  

Janet L. Nelson, ‘Charlemagne and the Paradoxes of Power’, in Challenging the Boundaries of Medieval History: The Legacy of Timothy Reuter, ed. by Patricia Skinner (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), pp. 29–50  

Additional Reading

Matthias Becher, Charlemagne, trans. by David S. Bachrach (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003): the shortest and clearest of many many biographies of Charlemagne  

Henry Mayr-Harting, ‘Charlemagne, the Saxons and the Imperial Coronation of 800’, English Historical Review, 111 (1996), 1113–33

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Week 2 Tutorial. Super-Frank: Einhard’s Charlemagne

Does Einhard’s Life of Charles show us the real Charles the Great and his actions, or veil them? Why did Einhard write it, and for whom? How else can we study the reign? Was it so outstanding if we do?

Required reading

Primary material

Einhard, Life of Charles, as trans. in one of:

Two Lives of Charlemagne, trans. by David Ganz (London: Penguin, 2009), pp. 17–44  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 20/09/2019)  

Charlemagne and Louis the Pious: The Lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, trans. by Thomas F. X. Noble (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2009), pp. 21–50 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. and trans. by Paul Edward Dutton, 2nd edn. (Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2005), pp. 26–49 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva , or  

Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard, trans. by Paul Edward Dutton (Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 1997), pp. 17–44 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 20/09/2019)   

There are translations online but these are better; try to read the translator’s introduction too.

Secondary orientation

Janet L. Nelson, ‘Frankish Identity in Charlemagne's Empire’, in Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and State Formation in Early Medieval Europe, ed. by Ildar Garipzanov, Patrick Geary and Przemyslaw Urbanczyk (Turnhout: Brepols, 2008), pp. 71–86  

Additional reading

Primary material

Charlemagne: Translated Sources, ed. by P. D. King (Kendal: P. D. King, 1986)

Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories, trans. by Bernhard Walter Scholz with Barbara Rogers (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1970) <https://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015015186805> [last modified not available as of 19 July 2016], pp. 35–125 ( Royal Frankish Annals: 46–99, entries for the years 768–814)

Secondary orientation

*Janet L. Nelson, King and Emperor: A New Life of Charlemagne (London: Allen Lane, 2019)

Jennifer R. Davis, Charlemagne’s Practice of Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

Richard Broome, ‘Pagans, Rebels and Merovingians: Otherness in the Early Carolingian World’, in The Resources of the Past in Early Medieval Europe, ed. by Clemens Gantner, Rosamond McKitterick, and Sven Meeder (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 155–71

*Janet L. Nelson, Opposition to Charlemagne (London: German Historical Institute, 2009): pamphlet   

David Ganz, ‘Einhardus Peccator’, in Lay Intellectuals in the Carolingian World, ed. by Patrick Wormald and Janet L. Nelson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 37–50

*Charlemagne: Empire and Society, ed. by Joanna Story (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005): essays on all themes, inc. Janet L. Nelson’s ‘Charlemagne the Man’, pp. 22–37

Janet L. Nelson, ‘The Voice of Charlemagne’, in Belief and Culture in the Middle Ages: Studies Presented to Henry Mayr-Harting, ed. by Richard Gameson and Henrietta Leyser (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 77–88

Religious warfare?

Samuel Ottewill-Soulsby, ‘“Those Same Cursed Saracens”: Charlemagne’s Campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula as Religious Warfare’, Journal of Medieval History, 42.4 (2016), 405–28

Daniel G. König, ‘Charlemagne’s ›Jihād‹ Revisited: Debating the Islamic Contribution to an Epochal Change in the History of Christianization’, Medieval Worlds, 3 (2016), 3–40: cf. Hen below

Yitzhak Hen, ‘Charlemagne’s Jihad’, Viator, 37 (2006), 33–51: questionable! Cf. König above

Aachen and the Palace

David Rollason, ‘Charlemagne’s Palace’, Archaeological Journal, 172.2 (2015), 443–48

Janet L. Nelson, ‘Aachen as a Place of Power’, in Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Mayke de Jong, Frans Theuws, and Carine van Rhijn (Leiden: Brill, 2001), pp. 217–41

Regional Impacts

Peter Štih, ‘Imperial Politics and Its Regional Consequences: Istria between Byzantium and the Franks 788-812’, in Imperial Spheres and the Adriatic: Byzantium, the Carolingians and the Treaty of Aachen (812), ed. by Mladen Ančić, Jonathan Shepard, and Trpimir Vedriš (Abingdon: Routledge, 2018), pp. 57–72

Warren Brown, Unjust Seizure: Conflict, Interest, and Authority in an Early Medieval Society (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001): excellent in-depth study of the conquest of Bavaria

Geoffrey V. B. West, ‘Charlemagne’s Involvement in Central and Southern Italy: Power and the Limits of Authority’, Early Medieval Europe, 8 (1999), 341–67

*Stuart Airlie, ‘Narratives of Triumph and Rituals of Submission: Charlemagne’s Mastering of Bavaria’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th Series, 9 (1997), 93–119, repr. with original pagination in Airlie, Power and its Problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter III

Queens and Empresses

Matthew Innes, ‘Queenship in Dispute: Fastrada, History and Law’, in Writing the Early Medieval West: Studies in Honour of Rosamond McKitterick, ed. by Elina Screen and Charles West (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), pp. 230–47

*Janet L. Nelson, ‘Women at the Court of Charlemagne: A Case of a Monstrous Regiment? ’, in Medieval Queenship, ed. by John Carmi Parsons (Stroud: Alan Sutton, 1994), pp. 43–61, reprinted in Nelson, The Frankish World, 750-900 (London: Hambledon, 1996), pp. 223–42

Einhard and his Life of Charles

Jason Glenn, ‘Between Two Empires: Einhard and his Charles the Great’, in The Middle Ages in Texts and Texture: Reflections on Medieval Sources, ed. by Jason Glenn (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011), pp. 105–18

David Ganz, ‘Einhardus Peccator’, in Lay Intellectuals in the Carolingian World, ed. by Patrick Wormald and Janet L. Nelson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 37–50

*David Ganz, ‘Einhard's Charlemagne: The Characterisation of Greatness’, in Story, Charlemagne, as above, pp. 38–51

Matthew S. Kempshall, ‘Some Ciceronian Models for Einhard's Life of Charlemagne’, Viator, 26 (1995), 11–37

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Week 3 Lecture. Succession and Reform

Required reading

Matthew Innes, ‘Charlemagne's Will: Piety, Politics and the Imperial Succession’, English Historical Review, 112 (1997), 833–55  

Thomas F. X. Noble, ‘Louis the Pious and his Piety Reconsidered’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 58 (1980), 297–316 <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rbph_0035-0818_1980_num_58_2_3278> [last modified 18 October 2013 as of 18 September 2015]  

Additional reading

Jonathan P. Conant, ‘Louis the Pious and the Contours of Empire’, Early Medieval Europe, 22 (2014), 336–60

François-Louis Ganshof, ‘The Last Period of Charlemagne's Reign: A Study in Decomposition’, in Ganshof, The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy: Studies in Carolingian History, trans. by Janet Sondheimer (London: Longman, 1971), pp. 240–55 <http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/a/a144195.pdf> [last modified 18 March 2008 as of 18 September 2015]

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Week 3 Tutorial. Poor Son of a Great Father? Louis the Pious

Charlemagne’s shoes were always likely to be too big to fill, we may think, not least because Einhard tells us so... What actually went wrong in Louis the Pious’s reign, though; why did his aristocracy prove so unwilling to follow his lead? Can this be blamed on the single personality of the emperor (or the empress?) or was something bigger wrong? And is it possible to see success in other areas of Louis’s reign?

Required reading

Primary material

The Royal Frankish Annals, trans. in Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories, trans. by Bernhard Walter Scholz with Barbara Rogers (Ann Arbor: Michigan, 1970), pp. 35–125 <https://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015015186805> [last modified not available as of 19 July 2016] (Royal Frankish Annals: 99–125, entries for the years 814–29) 

Secondary orientation

Janet L. Nelson, ‘The Last Years of Louis the Pious’, in Charlemagne's Heir: New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious (814-840), ed. by Peter Godman and Roger Collins (Oxford: Clarendon, 1990), pp. 147–59, repr. in Nelson, The Frankish World, 750-900 (London: Hambledon, 1996), pp. 37–50    

Additional reading

Primary material

Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. by Paul Edward Dutton, 2nd edn. (Peterborough, ON: Broadview, 2005), pp. 159–254, 256–65 and 291–94 (nos 26–39, 41, 44), of which nos 26, 39, 41 and 44 are trans. in full in Charlemagne and Louis the Pious: The Lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2009), pp. 127–86 (Thegan, Life of Louis), 194–218 (Ermold the Black, ‘In Honour of Louis’) & 226–302 (Deeds of Louis)

Charlemagne's Cousins: Contemporary Lives of Adalard and Wala, trans. by Allen Cabaniss (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1967)

Secondary orientation

Daniel Melleno, ‘Between Borders: Franks, Danes, and Abodrites in the Trans-Elben World up to 827’, Early Medieval Europe, 25 (2017), 359–85

David Ganz, ‘The Astronomer’s Life of Louis the Pious’, in Rome and Religion in the Medieval World: Studies in Honor of Thomas F.X. Noble, ed. by Valerie Garver and Owen M. Phelan (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 129–48

Eric J. Goldberg, ‘Louis the Pious and the Hunt’, Speculum, 88 (2013), 613–43

Mayke de Jong, The Penitential State: Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814-840 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Mayke de Jong, ‘Bride Shows Revisited: Praise, Slander and Exegesis in the Reign of the Empress Judith’, in Gender in the Early Medieval World: East and West, 300-900, ed. by Leslie Brubaker and Julia M. H. Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 257–77  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Mayke de Jong, ‘Power and Humility in Carolingian Society: The Public Penance of Louis the Pious’, Early Medieval Europe, 1 (1992), 29–52

*Godman and Collins, Charlemagne's Heir, as above, esp. Stuart Airlie, ‘Bonds of Power and Bonds of Association in the Court Circle of Louis the Pious’, pp. 191–204 (repr. in Airlie, Power and its Problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter VI), Timothy Reuter, ‘The End of Carolingian Military Expansion’, pp. 391–405 (repr. in Reuter, Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, ed. by Janet L. Nelson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 251–67) and David Ganz, ‘The “Epitaphium Arsenii” and Opposition to Louis the Pious’, pp. 537–50

Elizabeth Ward, ‘Agobard of Lyons and Paschasius Radbertus as Critics of the Empress Judith’, in Women in the Church, ed. by W. J. Sheils and Diana Wood (= Studies in Church History, 27 (1990)), 15–25

Peter R. McKeon, ‘The Empire of Louis the Pious: Faith, Politics and Personality’, Revue Bénédictine, 90 (1980), 50–62 <http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/a/a051353.pdf>[ last modified 18 July 2007 as of 11 July 2016]

Joel T. Rosenthal, ‘The Public Assembly in the Time of Louis the Pious’, Traditio, 20 (1964), 25–40, http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/a/a088598.pdf, last modified 18 July 2007 as of 11 July 2016

François-Louis Ganshof, ‘Louis the Pious Reconsidered’, History, 42 (1957), 171–80, repr. in Ganshof, Carolingians, as above, pp. 261–72, where also other very influential chapters

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Week 4 Lecture. Popes, Emperors and Theology

Required reading

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 80–153   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 23/09/2019) 

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Text and Image in the Carolingian World’, in The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe, ed. by McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 297–318, repr. in McKitterick, The Frankish Kings and Culture in the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1995), chapter VIII  

Additional Reading

Leslie Brubaker, Inventing Byzantine Iconoclasm (Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 2012), pp. 1–8 & 56–89

John Marenbon, ‘Carolingian Thought’, in Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 171–93

Week 4 Tutorial. Defence of Doctrine: the Carolingians and the Church

One of the key elements in the Carolingians’ rise to power was indubitably the popes, who profited considerably from Carolingian support. Nonetheless, this relationship was not always happy. Why did the Carolingian court vie with the popes over doctrine? How important was the Church to the Carolingians? What did it matter to the Carolingians what their subjects believed or how they worshipped? And can we say if it mattered to those subjects?

Required reading

Primary material

‘A Reply to the Three Letters’, in Early Medieval Theology, trans. and ed. by George E. McCracken and Allen Cabaniss (London: SCM Press, 1957), pp. 148–78  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 23/09/2019)  

Secondary orientation

David Ganz, ‘The Debate on Predestination’ in Charles the Bald: Court and Kingdom, ed. by Margaret T. Gibson and Janet L. Nelson (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1981), pp. 353–73   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 23/09/2019) 

Additional reading

Primary material

Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. by Paul Edward Dutton, 2nd edn. (Peterborough, Ont., 2005), pp. 92–100, 230–35, 360–64 and 488–96 (nos 14, 15, 16, 36, 51 and 68)

Secondary orientation

James B. Williams, ‘Carolingian Formation of a Persecuting Society’, The Heroic Age, 17 (2017) <http://www.heroicage.org/issues/17/williams.php> [accessed 25 August 2018]

Dorine van Espelo, ‘A Testimony of Carolingian Rule? The Codex Epistolaris Carolinus, its Historical Context, and the Meaning of Imperium’, Early Medieval Europe, 21.3 (2013), 254–82

*Thomas F. X. Noble, Images, Iconoclasm, and the Carolingians (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2009)

Gregory I. Halfond, ‘ Cum Consensu Omnium: Frankish Church Councils from Clovis to Charlemagne’, History Compass, 5 (2007), 539–59

Paul Fouracre, ‘The Origins of the Carolingian Attempt to Regulate the Cult of Saints’, in The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Essays on the Contribution of Peter Brown, ed. by James Howard-Johnston and Paul Hayward (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 143–65, repr. in Fouracre, Frankish History: Studies in the Construction of Power (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter III

"The Gentle Voices of Teachers": Aspects of Learning in the Carolingian Age, ed. by Richard E. Sullivan (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1995): Sullivan, ‘The Context of Cultural Activity in the Carolingian Age’, pp. 51-105, Bernice Martha Kaczynski, ‘Edition, Translation, and Exegesis: the Carolingians and the Bible’, pp. 171–85, and Lawrence Nees, 'Carolingian Art and Politics', pp. 186-226

*John C. Cavadini, The Last Christology of the West: Adoptionism in Spain and Gaul, 785-820 (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1993)

*Ann Freeman, ‘Carolingian Orthodoxy and the Fate of the “Libri Carolini”’, Viator, 16 (1985), 65–108, repr. in Freeman, Theodulf of Orléans: Charlemagne's Spokesman against the Second Council of Nicaea, ed. by Paul Meyvaert (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003), chapter III

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Church and the Carolingian Reforms, 789-895 (London: Royal Historical Society, 1977)

*R. G. Heath, ‘The Western Schism of the Franks and the Filioque ’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 23 (1972), 97–113

Ann Freeman, ‘Theodulf of Orleans and the “Libri Carolini”’, Speculum, 32 (1957), 663–705, repr. in Freeman, Theodulf of Orléans , as above, chapter II

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Week 5 Lecture. The War of the Brothers

Required reading

Elina Screen, ‘The Importance of the Emperor: Lothar I and the Frankish Civil War, 840–843’, Early Medieval Europe, 12 (2003), 25–51 

Janet L. Nelson, Charles the Bald (London: Longman, 1992), pp. 105–31  

Additional Reading

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 379–427, esp. 379–88

*Janet L. Nelson, ‘The Search for Peace in a Time of War: the Carolingian Brüderkrieg, 840–843’, in Träger und Instrumentarien des Friedens im hohen und späten Mittelalter, ed. by Johannes Fried (Sigmaringen: Thorbecke, 1996), pp. 87–114 <http://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/vuf/article/view/17517/11326> [last modified 16 December 2014 as of 19 July 2016]

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Week 5 Tutorial. The Search for a Villain

Was there ever any prospect of a peaceful succession to Louis the Pious’s reign? What, if anything, could have been done differently to achieve that? What were the consequences of the ‘War of the Brothers’? And how much do our sources obscure the issues?

Required reading

Primary material

Nithard, History of the Sons of Louis the Pious, partially trans. in Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. by Paul Edward Dutton, 2nd edn. (Peterborough, ON: Broadview, 2005), pp. 297–331 (no. 45); a fuller version available in Carolingian chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories, trans. by Bernhard Walter Scholz with Barbara Rogers (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970) <https://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015015186805> [last modified not specified as of 19 July 2016], pp. 127–74  

Secondary orientation

Janet L. Nelson, ‘Public Histories and Private History in the Work of Nithard’, Speculum, 60 (1985), 251–93, repr. in Nelson, Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London: Hambledon Press, 1986), pp. 195–237  

Additional Reading

Primary material

Angilbert, ‘Lament on the Battle of Fontenoy’, in Carolingian Civilization, ed. by Dutton, as above, pp. 332–33 (no. 46)

The Annals of Fulda, trans. by Timothy Reuter (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992), pp. 17–22 (annals for 840–43)

The Annals of St-Bertin, trans. by Janet L. Nelson (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991): pp. 48–56 (annals for 840–43)

Secondary orientation

Carl Hammer, ‘Bavarians at Verdun, 843’, Francia, 41 (2014), 49–73 <http://www.perspectivia.net/publikationen/francia/francia-retro/41-2014/0049-0073> [last modified 24 July 2015 as of 19 July 2016]

Sylvie Joye, ‘Carolingian Rulers and Marriage in the Age of Louis the Pious and His Sons’, in Gender and Historiography: Studies in the Earlier Middle Ages in Honour of Pauline Stafford, ed. by Janet L. Nelson, Susan Reynolds, and Susan M. Johns (London: Institute of Historical Research, 2012), pp. 101–14

Elina Screen, ‘Lothar I: the Man and his Entourage’, in De la mer du Nord à la Méditerranée : Francia Media, une région au cœur de l’Europe (c. 840-c. 1050), ed. by M. Gaillard, M. Margue, A. Dierkens and H. Pettiau (Luxembourg: CLUDEM, 2011), pp. 255–74

Eric J. Goldberg, Struggle for Empire: Kingship and Conflict under Louis the German, 817-876 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009), pp. 21–116 (esp. 86–116)

Donald A. Bullough, ‘Was There a Carolingian Anti-War Movement? ’, Early Medieval Europe, 12 (2004), 365–76

Karl Leyser, ‘Three Historians’, in Leyser, Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Carolingian and Ottonian Centuries, ed. by Timothy Reuter (London: Hambledon Press, 1994), pp. 19–26

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the Early Middle Ages c. 800-1056 (London: Longman, 1991), pp. 45–69

Patrick J. Geary, ‘Germanic Tradition and Royal Ideology in the Ninth Century: the Visio Karoli Magni ’, Frühmittelalterliche Studien, 21 (1987), 274–94, repr. in Geary, Living with the Dead in the Middle Ages (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994), pp. 49–76

Janet L. Nelson, ‘Legislation and Consensus in the Reign of Charles the Bald’, in Ideal and Reality in Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Society: Studies Presented to J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, ed. by Patrick Wormald, Donald A. Bullough and Roger Collins (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), pp. 202–27, repr. in Nelson, Politics and Ritual, as above, pp. 91–116

*Janet L. Nelson, ‘The Annals of St. Bertin’, in Charles the Bald: Court and Kingdom, ed. by Margaret Gibson and Nelson (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1981), pp. 15–36; repr. in Nelson, Politics and Ritual, as above, pp. 173–94, and in Charles the Bald: Court and Kingdom, ed. by Gibson and Nelson, 2nd edn. (Aldershot: Variorum, 1990), pp. 23–40

François-Louis Ganshof, ‘On the Genesis and Significance of the Treaty of Verdun (843)’, in Ganshof, The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy: Studies in Carolingian History, trans. by Janet Sondheimer (London: Longman, 1971), pp. 289–302

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Week 6 Lecture. The Route to the End of the Empire

Required reading

Timothy Reuter, ‘The End of Carolingian Expansion’, in Charlemagne's Heir: New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious (814-840), ed. by Peter Godman and Roger Collins (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), pp. 391–405, repr. in Reuter, Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, ed. by Janet L. Nelson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 251–67   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

Pierre Riché, The Carolingians: A Family who Forged Europe, trans. by Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1993), pp. 170–96 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 23/09/2019)   

Additional Reading

Janet L. Nelson, ‘The Frankish Kingdoms, 814–898: the West’, and Johannes Fried, ‘The Frankish Kingdoms, 817–911: the East and Middle Kingdoms’, both in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 2: c. 700- c. 900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 110–41 and 142–68 respectively

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Week 6 Tutorial. ‘They all brought forth kings from their guts’: 888 and aftermath

Was the Carolingian Empire in 888 a victim of sheer dynastic shortage, or was there something larger behind its sudden break-up? What challenges were there to imperial unity? And if Carolingian descent was worth so little, why did none of the new kings establish themselves (except Boso)?

Required reading

Primary material

Regino of Prüm, Chronicle, in History and Politics in Late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe: The Chronicle of Regino of Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg, ed. and trans. by Simon MacLean (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009), pp. 61–231 (132–202, years 842–88) 

Simon MacLean, Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 1–22  

Additional reading

Primary material

Abbo of St-Germain-des-Prés, War of the City of Paris, trans. by Nirmal Dass as Viking Attacks on Paris: the Bella Parisiacae urbis of Abbo of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris: Peeters, 2007)

Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. by Paul Edward Dutton, 2nd edn. (Peterborough ON: Broadview, 2005), 347–59, 374–95, 456–71, 479–88, 498–504 and 507–41 (nos 49, 50, 54–6, 60–2, 64–7, 70–3, 74–81, esp. 374–95 and 514–16, nos 54–6 and 76)

Secondary orientation

Simon Coupland, ‘Raiders, Traders, Worshippers and Settlers: The Continental Perspective’, in Silver Economies, Monetisation and Society in Scandinavia, AD 800-1100, ed. by James Graham-Campbell, Søren M. Sindbæk, and Gareth Williams (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2011), pp. 113–31: on the Viking factor

Christopher Carroll, ‘The Last Great Carolingian Church Council: The Tribur Synod of 895’, Annuarium historiae conciliorum, 33 (2001), 9–25

Simon Coupland, ‘The Frankish Tribute Payments to the Vikings and their Consequences’, Francia, 26 (1999), 57–75, http://www.perspectivia.net/publikationen/francia/francia-retro/bsb00016303/francia-026_1-1999-00067-00086, last modified not available as of 21 July 2016, repr. in Coupland, Carolingian Coinage and the Vikings: Studies on Power and Trade in the 9th Century (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), chapter XIV

Simon MacLean, 'Charles the Fat and the Viking Great Army: The Military Explanation for the End of the Carolingian Empire', War Studies Journal, 3 (1998), 74–95 https://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/4221

Karl Heidecker, The Divorce of Lothar II: Christian Marriage and Political Power in the Carolingian World, trans. by Tanis M. Guest (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010)

Stuart Airlie, ‘After Empire – Recent Work on the Emergence of Post-Carolingian Kingdoms’, Early Medieval Europe, 2 (1993), 153–61

*Janet L. Nelson, Charles the Bald (London: Longman, 1992), pp. 132–253

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the Early Middle Ages c. 800-1056 (London: Longman, 1991), pp. 70–147

Royalty and Royal Identity

Steven A. Stofferahn, ‘Lucky Bastards: Illegitimacy and Opportunity in Carolingian Europe’, The Heroic Age, 17 (2017) <http://www.heroicage.org/issues/17/stofferahn.php> [accessed 25 August 2018]

Fraser McNair, ‘Sub-Kingdoms and the Spectrum of Kingship on the Western Border of Charles the Bald’s Kingdom’, The Heroic Age, 17 (2017) <http://www.heroicage.org/issues/17/mcnair.php> [accessed 25 August 2018]

Simon MacLean, 'The Carolingian Response to the Revolt of Boso, 879–97', Early Medieval Europe, 10 (2001), 21–48

*Stuart Airlie, ‘The Nearly Men: Boso of Vienne and Arnulf of Bavaria’, in Nobles and Nobility in Medieval Europe: Concepts, Origins, Transformations, ed. by Anne Duggan (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000), pp. 25–41, repr. in Airlie, Power and its Problems in Carolingian Europe (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2012), chapter I

Regional Loyalty

Cullen J. Chandler, ‘Carolingian Catalonia: The Spanish March, 778–988’, The Heroic Age, 17 (2017) <http://www.heroicage.org/issues/17/chandler.php> [accessed 25 August 2018]

Simon MacLean, '"After his death a great tribulation came to Italy...": Dynastic Politics and Aristocratic Factions after the Death of Louis II, c. 870–c. 890', Millennium Jahrbuch, 4 (2007), 239–60 <http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/a/a147567.pdf> [last modified 31 July 2013 as of 26 September 2019]

*Matthew Innes, State and Society in the Early Middle Ages: The Middle Rhine Valley, 400-1000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 210–50

Contemporary Reactions

Charles West, ‘«Fratres, omni die videtis cum vadit istud regnum in perdicionem»: Abbo of Saint-Germain and the Crisis of 888’, Reti Medievali Rivista, 17.2 (2016), 301–17 <http://www.rmojs.unina.it/index.php/rm/article/view/5007> [last modified 16 January 2017 as of 14 August 2019]

Rob Meens, 'The Rise and Fall of the Carolingians: Regino of Prüm and his Conception of the Carolingian Empire', in Faire lien : Aristocratie, réseaux et échanges compétitifs. Mélanges en l'honneur de Régine Le Jan, ed. by Laurent Jégou, Sylvie Joye, Thomas Lienhard and Jens Schneider (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2015), pp. 315–24

Simon MacLean, ‘Insinuation, Censorship and the Struggle for Late Carolingian Lotharingia in Regino of Prüm's Chronicle ’, English Historical Review, 124 (2009), 1–28

Stuart Airlie, '"Sad Stories of the Deaths of Kings": Narrative Patterns and Structures of Authority in Regino of Prüm's Chronicon', in Narrative and History in the Early Medieval West, ed. by Elizabeth M. Tyler and Ross Balzaretti (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), pp. 105–31

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Week 7 Lecture. Government and Money

Required reading

Primary material

‘The Capitulary of Frankfurt’, in Charlemagne: Translated Sources, trans. by P. D. King (Kendal: P. D. King, 1986), pp. 224–30   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 23/09/2019) 

Secondary orientation

Mark Blackburn, ‘Money and Coinage’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 2: c. 700- c. 900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 538–59     

Simon Coupland, ‘The Medieval Euro’, History Today, 52, no. 6 (2002), 18–19 <https://www.academia.edu/8193474/_The_Medieval_Euro_the_single_European_currency_of_Louis_the_Pious_History_Today_June_2002_pp._18-19> [last modified not available as of 13 October 2015]  

There is no Tutorial in Week 7. The following may be useful for essays or the exam.

Additional Reading

Primary material

‘The Edict of Pîtres’, trans. by Simon Coupland <http://www.academia.edu/6680741/The_Edict_of_Pîtres_-_translation> [last modified 7 April 2014 as of 13 October 2015]

Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. by Paul Edward Dutton, 2nd ed. (Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2005), pp. 65–92 (no. 13)

Philip Grierson and Mark Blackburn, Medieval European Coinage, with a Catalogue of the Coins in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1: The Early Middle Ages (5th–10th centuries) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 190–266 and plates 33–47

The Reign of Charlemagne: Documents on Carolingian Government and Administration, ed. and trans. by Henry R. Loyn and John Percival (London: Edward Arnold, 1975)

Secondary orientation

Government (sometimes including money):

Jennifer R. Davis, Charlemagne’s Practice of Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

Stuart Airlie, ‘The Palace Complex’, in Diverging Paths? The Shapes of Power and Institutions in Medieval Christendom and Islam, ed. by John Hudson and Ana Rodríguez López (Leiden: Brill, 2014), pp. 255–90

Matthew Innes, ‘Rituals, Rights and Relationships: Some Gifts and Their Interpretation in the Fulda Cartulary, c. 827’, Studia Historica: Historia Medieval, 31 (2013), 25–50 <https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=4611933> [accessed 12 June 2014]

*Carine van Rhijn, ‘Charlemagne and the Government of the Frankish Countryside’, and Peter C. M. Hoppenbrouwers, ‘ Leges nationum and Ethnic Personality of Law in Charlemagne’s Empire’, in Law and Empire: Ideas, Practices, Actors, ed. by Jeroen Duindam, Jill Harries, Caroline Humfress and Nimrod Hurvitz (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 157–76 and 251–74

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Comparing the Earliest Documentary Culture in Carolingian Catalonia’, in Problems and Possibilities of Early Medieval Charters, ed. by Jarrett and Allan Scott McKinley (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 89–128: N. B. the press swapped two of the charts round by mistake!

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘A King on the Move: The Place of an Itinerant Court in Charlemagne's Government’, in Royal Courts in Dynastic States and Empires: A Global Perspective, ed. by Jeroen Duindam, Tülay Artin and I. Metin Kunt (Leiden: Brill, 2011), pp. 145–70

Christina Pössel, ‘Authors and Recipients of Carolingian Capitularies, 779–829’, in Texts and Identities in the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Richard Corradini, Rob Meens, Pössel and Richard Shaw (Wien: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2006), pp. 253–76

*Matthew Innes, ‘Charlemagne’s Government’, in Charlemagne: Empire and Society, ed. by Joanna Story (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005), pp. 71–89

Matthew Innes, ‘People, Places and Power in Carolingian Society’, in Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Mayke de Jong, Frans Theuws, and Carine van Rhijn, The Transformation of the Roman World, 6 (Leiden: Brill, 2001), pp. 397–407

Money (sometimes including government):

Simon Coupland, ‘The Formation of a European Identity: Revisiting Charlemagne’s Coinage’, in Writing the Early Medieval West: Studies in Honour of Rosamond McKitterick, ed. by Elina Screen and Charles West (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), pp. 213–29

Ildar Garipzanov, ‘Regensburg, Wandalgarius, and the novi denarii: Charlemagne’s Monetary Reform Revisited’, Early Medieval Europe, 24 (2016), 58–73

There are short studies of the coinages of several Carolingian rulers by Simon Coupland, as follows:

‘Charlemagne’s Coinage: Ideology and Economy’ in Charlemagne, ed. by Story, as above, pp. 211–29

*‘Money and Coinage under Louis the Pious’, Francia, 17 (1990), 23–54 <http://francia.digitale-sammlungen.de/Blatt_bsb00016293,00033.html> [last modified 16 June 2015 as of 18 September 2015]

‘The Coinages of Pippin I and II of Aquitaine’, Revue numismatique, Sèrie 6, 31 (1989), 194–222 <https://www.persee.fr/doc/numi_0484-8942_1989_num_6_31_1945> [last modified 12 April 2016 as of 14 August 2019]

‘The Coinage of Lothar I (840–855)’, Numismatic Chronicle, 161 (2001), 157–98

‘The Early Coinage of Charles the Bald, 840–64’, Numismatic Chronicle, 151 (1991), 121–58

All these are repr. in Coupland, Carolingian Coinage and the Vikings: Studies on Power and Trade in the 9th Century (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), chapters I, III, VIII, VII and IX respectively

*Peter Spufford, Money and its Use in Medieval Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 27–73

The Broader Economy (sometimes including government or money)

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Outgrowing the Dark Ages: Agrarian Productivity in Carolingian Europe Re-Evaluated’, Agricultural History Review, 67.2 (2019), 1–28

Thomas Freudenhammer, ‘Rafica: Early Medieval Caravan Trade between the West Frankish Kingdom and al-Andalus’, Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 105.3 (2018), 391–406 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

Simon Coupland, ‘Carolingian Single Finds and the Economy of the Early Ninth Century’, Numismatic Chronicle, 170 (2010), 287–319

Matthew Innes, ‘Framing the Carolingian Economy’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 9.1 (2009), 42–58

Adriaan E. Verhulst, The Carolingian Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002)

Chris Wickham, ‘Rural Society in Carolingian Europe’, in McKitterick, New Cambridge Medieval History 2, as above, pp. 510–37

*Timothy Reuter, 'Plunder and Tribute in the Carolingian Empire', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th Series, 35 (1985), 75-94, repr. in Reuter, Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, ed. by Janet L. Nelson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 231-50, or in Warfare in the Dark Ages, ed. by John France and Kelly DeVries (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), chapter XV

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Week 8 Lecture. The Carolingian Renaissance

Required reading

Giles Brown, ‘Introduction: The Carolingian Renaissance’, in Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 1–46   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 25/09/2019) 

Janet L. Nelson, ‘On the Limits of the Carolingian Renaissance’, in Renaissance and Renewal in Christian History, ed. by Derek Baker (= Studies in Church History, 14 (1977)), 51–69, repr. in Nelson, Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London: Hambledon, 1986), pp. 49–67 

Additional Reading

John J. Contreni, ‘The Carolingian Renaissance’, in Renaissances before the Renaissance: Cultural Revivals of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, ed. by Warren T. Treadgold (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984), pp. 59–74

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Charlemagne's missi and their Books’, in Early Medieval Studies in Memory of Patrick Wormald, ed. by Stephen Baxter, Catherine E. Karkov, Janet L. Nelson and David Pelteret (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009), pp. 253–68

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Week 8 Tutorial. The Impacts of Carolingian Cultural Reform

Why did the Carolingians pour so much effort into a cultural program? What spheres were most important in that program, and which ignored? Is it accurate to call it a ‘renaissance’? And how deep-seated, wide-ranging or long-lasting were its effects?

Required reading

Primary material

Theodulf of Orléans, ‘Precepts to the Priests of his Diocese’, trans. G. E. McCracken and Allan Cabaniss, in Early Medieval Theology, ed. McCracken and Cabaniss (London: SCM Press, 1957), pp. 382–99, or in Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. by Paul Edward Dutton (Peterborough, ON: Broadview, 2005), pp. 106–20 (no. 19)     OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 25/09/2019) 

Secondary orientation

Carine van Rhijn, ‘Manuscripts for Local Priests and the Carolingian Reforms”, in Men in the Middle: Local Priests in Early Medieval Europe, ed. by Steffen Patzold and van Rhijn (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016), pp. 177-98

Additional reading

Primary material

Alcuin, Letters, trans. Stephen Allott as Alcuin of York, c. AD 732 to 804: His Life and Letters (York: Ebor Press, 1974), partially repr. in  Carolingian Civilization, ed. by Dutton, as above, pp. 120–30 (no. 20); see also his poems at pp. 131–39 (no. 21)

Dhuoda, Handbook, trans. as Dhuoda. Handbook for her Warrior Son: Liber manualis, trans. by Marcelle Thiébaux (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), or partially in Carolingian Civilization, ed. by Dutton, as above, pp. 336–44 (no. 48)

Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance, trans. by Peter Godman (London: Duckworth, 1985): esp. Theodulf, some of whose repr. in Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp. 100–06 (nos 17–18)

Secondary orientation

General

Rachel Stone, Morality and Masculinity in the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012)

*Lay Intellectuals in the Carolingian World, ed. by Patrick Wormald and Janet L. Nelson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), esp. Thomas F. X. Noble, ‘Secular Sanctity: Forging an Ethos for the Carolingian Nobility’, pp. 8–36, Stuart Airlie, ‘The World, the Text and the Carolingian: Royal, Aristocratic and Masculine Identities in Nithard’s “Histories” ’, pp. 51–76 (repr. in Airlie, Power and its Problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter IX), and Paul Kershaw, ‘Eberhard of Friuli, a Carolingian Lay Intellectual’, pp. 77–105

*Carine van Rhijn, ‘Priests and the Carolingian Reforms: The Bottle-Necks of Local correctio ’, in Texts and Identities in the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Richard Corradini, Rob Meens, Christina Pössel and Richard Shaw (Wien: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2006), pp. 219–37 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘The Carolingian Renaissance of Culture and Learning’, in Charlemagne: Empire and Society, ed. by Joanna Story (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005), pp. 151–66

Steven A. Stofferahn, ‘Changing Views of Carolingian Women’s Literary Culture: The Evidence from Essen’, Early Medieval Europe, 8.1 (1999), 69–97

Paul Fouracre, ‘Carolingian Justice: The Rhetoric of Improvement and Contexts of Abuse’, in La giustizia nell'alto Medioevo (secoli V-VIII) (= Settimane di Studio de Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, 42 (1995)), 771–803, repr. in Fouracre, Frankish History: Studies in the Construction of Power (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter XI

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Unity and Diversity in the Carolingian Church’, in Unity and Diversity in the Church, ed. by R. N. Swanson (= Studies in Church History, 33 (1996)), 59–82

*Carolingian Culture, ed. by McKitterick, as above

*Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Royal Patronage of Culture in the Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians: Motives and Consequences’, in Committenti e produzione artistico-letteraria nell'alto medioevo occidentale (= Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull'alto Medioevo, 39 (1992)), 93–129, repr. in McKitterick, The Frankish Kings and Culture in the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1995), chapter VII

Art and Architecture

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Text and Image in the Carolingian World’, in The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe, ed. by McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 297–318, repr. in McKitterick, The Frankish Kings and Culture in the Early Middle Ages, as above, chapter VIII

Richard Hodges, ‘San Vincenzo al Volturno and the Plan of St Gall’, in San Vincenzo al Volturno 2: The 1980–86 Excavations, Part II, ed. by Hodges (London: British School at Rome, 1995), pp. 153–75, repr. in Hodges, Goodbye to the Vikings? Re-Reading Early Medieval Archaeology (London: Duckworth, 2006), pp. 80–116

Writing

Thomas Faulkner, Law and Authority in the Early Middle Ages: The Frankish leges in the Carolingian Period (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016)

Amy K. Bosworth, ‘Learning from the Saints: Ninth-Century Hagiography and the Carolingian Renaissance’, History Compass, 8 (2010), 1055–66

Michael A. Claussen, ‘Fathers of Power and Mothers of Authority: Dhuoda and the Liber Manualis ’, French Historical Studies, 19 (1996), 785–809

Peter Godman, Poets and Emperors: Frankish Politics and Carolingian Poetry (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987)

Music

Karl F. Morrison, ‘“Know Thyself”: Music in the Carolingian Renaissance’, in Committenti e produzione artistico-letteraria, as above, 369–479

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Week 9 Lecture. The Last Carolingians

Required reading

Geoffrey Koziol, ‘Political Culture’, in France in the Central Middle Ages: 900-1200, ed. by Marcus Bull (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 43–76  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 25/09/2019)  

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751-987 (London: Longman, 1983), pp. 305–39  

Additional Reading

Fraser McNair, ‘After Soissons: The Last Years of Charles the Simple (923-929)’, Reti Medievali Rivista, 18.2 (2017), 29–48 <http://www.rmojs.unina.it/index.php/rm/article/view/5165> [last modified 9 October 2017 as of 14 August 2019]

Jean Dunbabin, ‘West Francia: The Kingdom’, David Bates, ‘West Francia: The Northern Principalities’, and Michel Zimmermann, ‘West Francia: The Southern Principalities’, all in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 3: c. 900- c. 1024, ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 372–97, 398–419 and 420–55 respectively

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Week 9 Tutorial. Hugh the Great and the rise of the Capetians

Obviously there is room for more than one opinion about the political power and acumen of the last Carolingians! What do you think about them? Did they ever really control their kingdoms, and what limits did their authority have? Why did Carolingians keep returning to the throne for so long, and after being replaced twice? And what changed in 987 that meant they did so no longer?

Required reading

Primary material

Richer of Saint-Rémi, Histories, ed. and trans. by Justin Lake (Washington DC, 2011), 2 vols, II, pp. 197–229 (IV.1–14; the book has Latin and facing English translation; you only need the English!)  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 25/09/2019)  

Secondary orientation

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Caliph, King, or Grandfather: Strategies of Legitimization on the Spanish March in the Reign of Lothar III’, The Mediaeval Journal, 1.2 (2011), 1–22   

Additional reading

Primary material

The Letters of Gerbert with his Papal Privileges as Sylvester II, trans. by Harriet Lattin (New York City, NY: Columbia University Press, 1961)

Rodolfus Glaber, Five Books of Histories, ed. and trans. by John France, in Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum libri quinque: The Five Books of the Histories, Rodulfus Glaber. Eiusdem auctoris Vita domni Willelmi abbatis: The life of St William, ed. and trans. by John France and Neithard Bulst (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989)

Secondary orientation

Fraser McNair, ‘The Young King and the Old Count: Around the Flemish Succession Crisis of 965’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 95.2 (2017), 145–62

Edward Roberts, ‘Flodoard, the Will of St Remigius and the See of Reims in the Tenth Century’, Early Medieval Europe, 22 (2014), 201–30

*Dominique Barthélemy, ‘Feudal War in Tenth-Century France’, in Vengeance in the Middle Ages: Emotion, Religion and Feud, ed. by Susanna A. Throop and Paul Hyams (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), pp. 105–14

Simon MacLean, ‘Making a Difference in Tenth-Century Politics: King Athelstan's Sisters and Frankish Queenship’, in Frankland: The Franks and the World of the Early Middle Ages. Essays in Honour of Dame Jinty Nelson, ed. by Paul Fouracre and David Ganz (Manchester; Manchester University Press, 2008), pp. 167–90

*Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: Kings of France, 987-1328 (London: Continuum, 2007), pp. 1–66

Geoffrey Koziol, ‘Charles the Simple, Robert of Neustria, and the Vexilla of Saint-Denis’, Early Medieval Europe, 14.4 (2006), 355–90

*Geoffrey Koziol, 'Is Robert I in Hell? The Diploma for Saint-Denis and the Mind of a Rebel King (Jan. 25, 923)', Early Medieval Europe, 14.2 (2006), 233–67: question more meaningful than it seems!

Bernd Schneidmüller, ‘Constructing Identities of Medieval France’, in France in the Central Middle Ages, ed. Bull, as above, pp. 15–42

Pierre Bonnassie, ‘From One Servitude to Another: The Peasantry of the Frankish Kingdom at the Time of Hugh Capet and Robert the Pious (987–1031)’, in Bonnassie, From Slavery to Feudalism in South Western Europe, trans. by Jean Birrell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 288–313

Jean Dunbabin, France in the Making 843-1180, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 17–123

Pierre Riché, The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. by Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1993), pp. 239–80

Elizabeth Hallam and Charles West, Capetian France 987-1328, 3rd ed. (London: Routledge, 2019), chapter 1
 

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Week 10 Lecture. The Legend of Charlemagne

Required reading

Matthias Becher, Charlemagne, trans. by David S. Bachrach (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993), pp. 135–49 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 25/09/2019)   

Michael McGrade, ‘ "O rex mundi triumphator”: Hohenstaufen Politics in a Sequence for Saint Charlemagne’, Early Music History, 17 (1998), 183–219  

Additional Reading

*Anne W. Latowsky, Emperor of the World: Charlemagne and the Construction of Imperial Authority, 800-1229 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013)

Sverre Bagge, ‘The Model Emperor: Einhard's Charlemagne in Widukind and Rahewin’, Viator, 43 (2012), 49–78

Florin Curta and Jace Stuckey, ‘Charlemagne in Medieval East Central Europe ( ca. 800 to ca. 1200)’, Canadian Slavonic Papers, 53 (2011), 181–208

Matthew Gabriele, An Empire of Memory: The Legend of Charlemagne, the Franks, and Jerusalem before the First Crusade (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

* The Legend of Charlemagne in the Middle Ages: Power, Faith, and Crusade, ed. by Matthew Gabriele and Jace Stuckey (New York City, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008): Thomas F. X. Noble, ‘Greatness Contested and Confirmed: The Raw Materials of the Charlemagne Legend’, pp. 3–21, Paul Edward Dutton, ‘ Karolus Magnus or Karolus Felix: The Making of Charlemagne's Reputation and Legend’, pp. 23–37, and Elizabeth Carson Pastan, ‘Charlemagne as Saint? Relics and the Choice of Window Subjects at Chartres Cathedral’, pp. 97–135

Matthew Gabriele, ‘Otto III, Charlemagne and Pentecost AD 1000: A Reconsideration using Diplomatic Evidence’, in The Year 1000: Religious and Social Response to the Turning of the First Millennium, ed. by Michael Frassetto (New York City, NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2002), pp. 111–32

Amy Remensnyder, ‘Legendary Treasure at Conques: Reliquaries and Imaginative Memory’, Speculum, 71 (1996), 884–906

Robert Morrissey, Charlemagne and France: A Thousand Years of Mythology, trans. Catherine Tihanyi (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993)

Gabrielle M. Spiegel, 'The Reditus Regni ad stirpem Karoli Magni: A New Look', French Historical Studies, 1 (1970), 145–74, repr. in Spiegel, The Past As Text: The Theory and Practice of Medieval Historiography (Baltimore, MI: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), pp. 111–37

There is no Tutorial in Week 10.

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Week 11 Lecture. Father of Europe?

Required reading (in suggested order)

Donald Bullough, ‘"Europae Pater": Charlemagne and his Achievement in the Light of Recent Scholarship’, English Historical Review, 85 (1970), pp. 59–105  

Janet L. Nelson, ‘Charlemagne: “Father of Europe"? ’, Quaestiones Medii Aevi Novae, 7 (2002), 3–20, repr. in Nelson, Courts, Elites, and Gendered Power in the Early Middle Ages: Charlemagne and Others (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), chapter XVII  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 25/09/2019)  

Additional Reading

Alessandro Barbero, Charlemagne: Father of a Continent (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004)

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Week 11 Tutorial. Charlemagne the Crusader

Charlemagne’s achievements were considerable but they were nothing to those that later centuries would attribute to him. Why did he, and not some more recent or historically-relevant figure, attract such stories of crusading heroism and wisdom? What foundations did such legend-makers build on? What uses were (and are) such legends put to? And is his reputation still part-legendary today?

Required reading

Primary material

The Song of Roland, trans. by Glyn S. Burgess (London: Penguin, 1990), pp. 29–156 and intro if you like. The older translation The Song of Roland, trans. by Charles Scott Moncrief (London: Chapman and Hall, 1919), is online, ed. by Douglas B. Killings and R. J. Maley <http://mcllibrary.org/Roland/> [last modified not specified as of 21 October 2015], but Burgess explains a lot more of the text’s references and language 

Secondary orientation

Jace Stuckey, ‘Charlemagne as Crusader? Memory, Propaganda, and the Many Uses of Charlemagne's Legendary Expedition to Spain’, in The Legend of Charlemagne in the Middle Ages: Power, Faith, and Crusade, ed. by Matthew Gabriele and Stuckey (New York City: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 137–52  

Additional reading

Primary material

The Journey of Charlemagne to Jerusalem, and His Adventure with Hu Gadarn, ed. and trans. Robert Williams, in Selections from the Hengwrt MSS preserved in the Peniarth Library, ed. by Williams (London: Richards, 1892), ed. by Mary Jones <http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/charlemagne2.html> [last modified not available as of 21 October 2015]

Secondary orientation

*Anne W. Latowsky, Emperor of the World: Charlemagne and the Construction of Imperial Authority, 800-1229 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013)

Matthew Gabriele, ‘The Provenance of the Descriptio qualiter Karolus Magnus: Remembering the Carolingians in the Entourage of King Philip I (1060–1108) before the First Crusade’, Viator, 39 (2009), 93–118

William J. Purkis, Crusading Spirituality in the Holy Land and Iberia, c. 1095- c. 1187 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2008), pp. 150–65

The Legend of Charlemagne in the Middle Ages: Power, Faith, and Crusade, ed. by Gabriele and Stuckey, as above: Daniel F. Callahan, ‘Al-Hakim, Charlemagne, and the Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem in the Writings of Ademar of Chabannes’, pp. 41–57, and Jay Rubinstein, ‘Godfrey of Bouillon versus Raymond of Saint-Gilles: How Carolingian Kingship Trumped Millenarianism at the End of the First Crusade’, pp. 59–75

Approaches to Teaching the Song of Roland, ed. by William W. Kibler and Lesley Zarker Morgan (New York City, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2006): Joel T. Rosenthal, ‘Will the Real Charlemagne Please Stand Up? ’, pp. 47–52, William W. Kibler, ‘Rencesvals: the Event’, pp. 53–6, Philip E. Bennett, ‘Origins of the French Epic: The Song of Roland and Other French Epics’, pp. 57–65; Joseph J. Duggan, ‘Beyond the Oxford Text: The Songs of Roland’, pp. 66–72; and George T. Beech, ‘Feudalism in The Song of Roland ’, pp. 73–6, plus the CD-ROM of performances of the Song if you like!

*Matthew Gabriele, ‘Asleep at the Wheel? Apocalypticism, Messianism and Charlemagne’s Passivity in the Oxford Chanson de Roland ’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 43 (2003), 46–72

Andrew Taylor, ‘Was there a Song of Roland? ’, Speculum, 76 (2001), 28–65: on its performance, or not

Eugene Vance, ‘Semiotics and Power: Relics, Icons, and the Voyage de Charlemagne à Jérusalem et à Constantinople ’, Romanic Review, 79 (1988), 164–83, repr. in The New Medievalism, ed. by Marina S. Brownlee, Kevin Brownlee and Stephen G. Nichols (New York City: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991), pp. 226–49

Aryeh Graboïs, ‘Charlemagne, Rome and Jerusalem’, Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, 59 (1981), pp. 792–809 <http://www.persee.fr/doc/rbph_0035-0818_1981_num_59_4_3349> [last modified 3 July 2015 as of 21 October 2015]

J. D. Niles, ‘The Ideal Depiction of Charlemagne in “La Chanson de Roland”’, Viator, 7 (1976), 123–39

 

 

 

This list was last updated on 04/10/2019