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HIST3001
Module Reading Lists

Conquest, Convivencia and Conflict: Christian and Muslim Spain, 711-1212, 2019/20, Semester 1, 2
Dr Jonathan Jarrett
TBC
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Online Resources

There are very few English-language resources available online for this subject except at the very lowest (i. e. bite-size history videos) and very highest (i. e. full academic) levels. (Obviously, there is a lot more in Spanish.) Bear in mind that at the former level, the makers of these things probably have little more expertise than you will have by the end of the module. Moreover, much of what is out there is either heavily politicised or just simplistic and/or wrong. The below is a curated list. If you find something else that is not here, I may well have found it and decided against!

Introductory Level

‘How the borders of Iberia changed in the Middle Ages’, Medievalists.net, 1 December 2018 <https://www.medievalists.net/2018/12/how-the-borders-of-iberia-changed-in-the-middle-ages/> [last modified 14 December 2019 as of 4 June 2020]

Samuel Magal, ‘Moorish Architecture in Spain’, The Magal Collection, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=38kmLyWc2iw> [last modified 26 November 2011 as of 9 July 2019]

Flash Point History have a large number of actually quite good videos on Islamic Spain but as the fact that most of them are in a series called ‘War of the Worlds’ shows, they hardly have a neutral standpoint, they just can’t make up their mind which one they have. The following list puts them into some kind of sensible order for this module. Most are about 15 minutes, but there are one or two longer ones. Please bear in mind that this is tertiary work, based on secondary reading like your own, and they make mistakes. Your task is to spot that, not to replicate it!

  1. Flash Point History, ‘The Journey to al-Andalus. War of the Worlds, Episode II’, Flash Point History, 16 August 2017 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYkn2KfYvFw> [last modified 16 August 2017 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 2
  2. Flash Point History, ‘The Moors of Andalusia: A Displaced People. War of the Worlds, Episode III, Part 1’, Flash Point History, 8 October 2017 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPXFzb3kk8Y> [last modified 8 October 2017 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 3
  3. Flash Point History, ‘The Tale of a Refugee and a Regent. War of the Worlds, Episode IV, Part 1’, Flash Point History, 27 November 2017 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nZgA_WLxkzk> [last modified 27 November 2017 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 3
  4. Flash Point History, ‘The Rise of Abd al Rahman I. War of the Worlds, Episode IV, Part 2’, Flash Point History, 29 November 2017 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1c4sOAE6SfM> [last modified 29 November 2017 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 3
  5. Flash Point History, ‘The Moors of Andalusia: A Frankish Affair. War of the Worlds, Episode III, Part 2’, Flash Point History, 8 October 2017 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Htp9jf96BYo> [last modified 8 October 2017 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 4
  6. Flash Point History, ‘Asturias. The Reconquísta, Part I’, Flash Point History, 21 December 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPXFzb3kk8Y> [last modified 21 December 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 5
  7. Flash Point History, ‘The Muslims Fight Against the Vikings. War of the Worlds, Episode IV, Part 3’, Flash Point History, 13 December 2017 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBOMsGyMvLA> [last modified 13 December 2017 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, week 6
  8. Flash Point History, ‘Tolerance in Islamic Spain, 750‒855 C. E. War of the Worlds, Episode VI, Part One’, Flash Point History, 8 April 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfH_fwQIGO4> [last modified 8 April 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 6
  9. Flash Point History, ‘The Calm Before the Storm. War of the Worlds, Episode IV, Part 4’, Flash Point History, 15 December 2017 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPwOhhBLYhw> [last modified 15 December 2017 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 6
  10. Flash Point History, ‘León. The Reconquísta, Part Two’, Flash Point History, 27 December 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wqh-f7pEAvU> [last modified 27 December 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 7
  11. Flash Point History, ‘Abd al Rahman III: Camelot and Catastrophe. War of the Worlds. Episode V, Part 1’, Flash Point History, 7 February 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5xJp9QM_vc> [last modified 7 February 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 8
  12. Flash Point History, ‘Expansion. War of the Worlds, Episode V, Part 2’, Flash Point History, 11 February 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLmIUAjNF0s> [last modified 11 February 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 8
  13. Flash Point History, ‘The Ornament of the World. War of the Worlds, Episode VI, Part Two’, Flash Point History, 13 April 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oqR8Ag6-P0Q> [last modified 13 April 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 9
  14. Flash Point History, ‘The Legacy of Abd Al Rahman & the History of Almanzor. War of the Worlds, Episode V, Part 3’, Flash Point History, 16 February 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHo17T8R8zo> [last modified 11 February 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 10
  15. Flash Point History, ‘The Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova. War of the Worlds, Episode V, Part 4’, Flash Point History, 21 February 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRa3gliik9I> [last modified 21 February 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 1, Week 11
  16. Flash Point History, ‘Navarra. The Reconquísta, Part Three’, Flash Point History, 3 January 2019 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ak7e5FLT_c> [last modified 3 January 2019 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 2
  17. Flash Point History, ‘Castile. The Reconquísta, Part Four’, Flash Point History, 9 January 2019 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kyYqno_K0m4> [last modified 13 January 2019 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 3
  18. Flash Point History, ‘The Ornament of the World. War of the Worlds, Episode VI, Part Three’, Flash Point History, 15 April 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfH_fwQIGO4> [last modified 15 April 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 4
  19. Flash Point History, ‘The Taifas and Almoravids. War of the Worlds, Episode VII, Part 1’, Flash Point History, 3 June 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJOj_qmiv6U> [last modified 3 June 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 4
  20. Flash Point History, ‘Aragon. The Reconquísta, Episode VI’, Flash Point History, 30 January 2019 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXqDuqh2jno> [last modified 30 January 2019 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 5
  21. Flash Point History, ‘The Taifas and Almoravids. War of the Worlds, Episode VII, Part 2’, Flash Point History, 17 June 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJOj_qmiv6U> [last modified 17 June 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 6
  22. Flash Point History, ‘Portugal. The Reconquísta, Episode V’, Flash Point History, 17 January 2019 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qd3pGq-wMZs> [last modified 17 January 2019 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 8
  23. Flash Point History, ‘The Almohads, Part 1. War of the Worlds, Episode VIII, Part 1’, Flash Point History, 11 September 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ps-NdXOl1o0> [last modified 11 September 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 10
  24. Flash Point History, ‘The Almohads, Part 2: Clash of Cross and Crescent. War of the Worlds, Episode VIII, Part 2’, Flash Point History, 21 September 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKWtAmowJUg> [last modified 21 September 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 10
  25. Flash Point History, ‘The Almohads, Part 3: The Great Philosophers. War of the Worlds, Episode VIII, Part 3’, Flash Point History, 25 September 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zEQ33EfjbvA> [last modified 25 September 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 10
  26. Flash Point History, ‘The Almohads, Part 4: las Navas de Tolosa. War of the Worlds, Episode VIII, Part 4’, Flash Point History, 15 October 2018 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p1RMtvWkQzg> [last modified 15 October 2018 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 10
  27. Flash Point History, ‘Granada: The Nasrid Dysnasty. Reconquísta: the Last Kingdom of Islam, Part 1’, 18 November 2019 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9EaSHupQSkI> [last modified 2 February 2020 as of 4 June 2020]: for Semester 2, Week 11

Most of these videos have been collated as podcasts at:

Nitin Sil, ‘Flash Point History’, History Podcasts <https://history-podcasts.com/flashpoint-history> [last modified not specified as of 4 June 2020]

Controversies

Wu Mingren, ‘Deciphering the Truth behind the Moors in Spain’, Ancient Origins, 2 June 2020 <https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-important-events/moors-spain-0013798> [last modified 2 June 2020 as of 4 June 2020]

Christine Civantos, ‘The Legacy of Medieval Muslim Spain’, HiMY SYeD, 9 October 2018 <https://youtu.be/dm9vaua5sj0> [last modified 9 October 2018 as of 4 June 2020]

Abdelkrim Sekkar with Saadane Benbali, ‘Lessons from the Golden Era of Andalusia’, alJazeera World, 2 August 2018 <https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/aljazeeraworld/2018/07/lessons-golden-era-andalusia-180730080323956.html> [last modified 2 August 2018 as of 4 June 2020]

Tom Burman, ‘A Rabbi, a Priest, and an Imam Walk into a Coffee Shop: Talking about Other People’s Religions in the Middle Ages’, Notre Dame College of Arts and Letters, 14 September 2017 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fahbkBCPyic> [last modified 14 September 2017 as of 4 June 2020]

*‘Medieval Convivencia’, Medieval Histories: Nature, History, Heritage, 21 November 2015 <https://www.medieval.eu/medieval-convivencia/> [last modified 24 January 2017 as of 4 June 2020]: a clear introduction to some of the key issues in the scholarship, with hyperlinked bibliography

Research Tools

Kyle C. Lincoln, American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain <https://aarhms.wildapricot.org/> [last modified not specified as of 4 June 2020]: a set of resources for academics and students

‘Selected Sources: Iberia’, ed. by Paul Halsall, Internet Medieval Sourcebook, 26 January 1996 <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/sbook1p.asp> [last modified 21 January 2020 as of 4 June 2020]

American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain, LIBRO: The Library of Iberian Resources Online, 2003 <https://libro.uca.edu/> [last modified 26 July 2012 as of 4 June 2020]

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General Secondary Works

There is no really adequate single-volume history of medieval Spain in English, but there are a number of series that deal with the period with which we are concerned in two or three volumes (usually fairly slim ones). There are also some notable syntheses for one part or another of the peninsula. The New Cambridge Medieval History is always a valuable fallback.

Single-volume studies

Thomas F. Glick, From Muslim Fortress to Christian Castle: Social and Cultural Change in Medieval Spain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995): good on social change but not much use for a narrative

Joseph F. O’Callaghan, A History of Medieval Spain (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975): something of a challenge and not very up-to-date

Bernard F. Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993): a better single-volume treatment, but accordingly slight

Part-works

Roger Collins, Early Medieval Spain: Unity in Diversity, 400-1000, 2nd edn. (Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1995) and Angus MacKay, Spain in the Middle Ages: From Frontier to Empire, 1000-1500 (London: Macmillan, 1977): classics

Roger Collins, The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710-797 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989); Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031 (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2012); Bernard F. Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992); Peter Linehan, Spain, 1157-1300: A Partible Inheritance (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2008); probably the best

Area or topical studies

Thomas N. Bisson, The Medieval Crown of Aragon: A Short History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986): extremely short, in fact

Brian A. Catlos, Kingdoms of Faith: A New History of Islamic Spain (New York City, NY: Basic Books, 2018)

Richard Fletcher, The Quest for El Cid (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991): brilliant, but limited in detail to a fairly short period

Richard Fletcher, Moorish Spain (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992): easy reading

Pierre Guichard, From the Arab Conquest to the Reconquest: The Splendour and Fragility of al-Andalus (Granada: Fundación El Legado Andalusī, 2006): massive but gorgeously illustrated

Richard Hitchcock, Muslim Spain Reconsidered: From 711 to 1502 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014): deliberately controversial?

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus (London: Longman, 1998): more detailed

Derek W. Lomax, The Reconquest of Spain (London: Longman, 1978): elderly, but still useful

Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain, ed. by Vivian B. Mann, Thomas F. Glick and Jerrilyn D. Dodds (New York City, NY: G. Braziller, 1992): art-historical, illustrated

Joseph F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002): out to make a point

David J. Wasserstein, The Rise and Fall of the Party-Kings: Politics and Society in Islamic Spain 1002-1086 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985): invaluable for its subject, but only available in print

Articles on Historiography and its Politics

R. A. Fletcher, ‘Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050-1150’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5, 37 (1987), 31–47

Alejandro García-Sanjuán, ‘Rejecting Al-Andalus, Exalting the Reconquista: Historical Memory in Contemporary Spain’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 10.1 (2018), 127–45

Alejandro García-Sanjuán, ‘Denying the Islamic Conquest of Iberia: A Historiographical Fraud’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 11.3 (2019), 306–22

J. N. Hillgarth, ‘Spanish Historiography and Iberian Reality’, History and Theory, 24.1 (1985), 23–43

Robert Portass, ‘Beyond the Reconquista: An Introductory Essay’, in Beyond the Reconquista: New Directions in the History of Medieval Iberia (711-1085): In Honour of Simon Barton, ed. by Simon Barton and Robert Portass (Leiden: Brill, 2020), pp. 1–15: about the book but makes good points

Geographical Reference

M. Angold, ‘The Expansion of Islam in the Mediterranean Area (7th–9th Centuries)’, T. S. Brown, ‘The Carolingian Empire under Charlemagne, 768–814’, D. Lomax, ‘The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest to c. 1140’, M. Angold, ‘The Second and Third Crusades’, D. Lomax, ‘The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest during the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, R. K. Rose, ‘Latin Episcopal Sees at the End of the Thirteenth Century’, M. González Jiménez, ‘The Thirteenth-Century Repopulation of Andalusia’, L. Bourdua, ‘Romanesque Europe’ and A. MacKay, ‘The Expansion of the Crown of Aragon’, all in Atlas of Medieval Europe, ed. by Angus MacKay and David Ditchburn (London: Routledge, 1997), pp. 14–16, 18‒20, 33–35, 87–88, 107–9, 110‒13, 142–44, 148–49 and 176‒77 respectively

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Primary sources in translation

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol.1, 711-1150, ed. by Colin Smith (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1988) and Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992): slight but really useful; be careful to note what the source actually is, though

Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain, trans. by Kenneth Baxter Wolf (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1990)

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd edn. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012); 1st edn. (1995) also OK

The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, ed. and trans. by Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000)

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Week 1. Introduction. The Córdoba Center and its Meanings: Owning Spain's Muslim Past

Required Readings (in chronological order)

Although normally the week’s reading for this course will consist of a primary source extract and two or three chapter-length secondary readings, in the first week as we all find our feet we’ll read a number of blog posts that will help expose some preconceptions of our own and of the world around us about the interactions of Christians and Muslims in medieval Spain. The focus is a controversy over the proposed erection of a Muslim community centre in downtown New York City in 2010.

The Cordoba Initiative, ‘Cordoba House – New York City’, Internet Archive Wayback Machine <https://web.archive.org/web/20100801075326/http://www.cordobainitiative.org/?q=content/cordoba-house-new-york-city> [captured 1 August 2010 as of 9 July 2018]; the page was first captured 12 May 2010 and was removed by 18 August 2010  

Newt Gingrich, ‘Newt Gingrich Statement on Proposed Mosque/Islamic Community Center near Ground Zero’, Internet Archive Wayback Machine <https://web.archive.org/web/20101221002217/http://www.newt.org/newt-direct/newt-gingrich-statement-proposed-mosqueislamic-community-center-near-ground-zero> [captured 21 December 2010 as of 9 July 2018]; the page was first captured 20 August 2010 and was removed between 21 December 2010 and 17 July 2011  

Carl Pyrdum, ‘Professor Newt’s Distorted History Lesson’, Got Medieval, 2 August 2010 <http://www.gotmedieval.com/2010/08/professor-newts-distorted-history-lesson.html> [last modified not specified as of 9 July 2018] 

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Cordoba: 1010, in the 20:20 of hindsight’, Cliopatria, 22 September 2010 <http://historynewsnetwork.org/blog/131559> [last modified not specified as of 9 July 2018] 

Thy Vo, ‘San Martin mosque and cemetery proposal stirs controversy’, The Mercury News, 22 May 2019, California News <https://www.mercurynews.com/2019/05/22/mosque-cemetery-proposal-stirs-controversy-in-san-martin/> [last modified 24 may 2019 as of 24 June 2020]: history repeating itself? 

Questions to Think About

What are your associations with the name Cordoba? Was it a wise choice of name? Leaving their actual politics aside, which side of the controversy was more guilty of distorting history? How have perceptions on such issues changed since 2010?

Further Reading

Further Journalistic or Internet Commentary (in order of publication)

Javier C. Hernández, ‘Planned Sign of Tolerance Bringing Division Instead’, New York Times, 13 July 2010 <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/14/nyregion/14center.html> [last modified 1 October 2014 as of 9 July 2018]

Charlie Brooker, ‘“Ground Zero Mosque”? The Reality is Less Provocative’, The Guardian, 23 August 2010 <https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/aug/23/charlie-brooker-ground-zero-mosque> [last modified 25 August 2010 as of 9 July 2018]

Academic Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Mariano Delgado, ‘From Acceptance to Religious Freedom: Considerations for Convivencia in Medieval Spain and Multireligious Coexistence Today’, in Contested Spaces, Common Ground: Space and Power Structures in Contemporary Multireligious Societies, ed. by Ulrich Winkler, Lidia Rodríguez Fernández, and Oddbjørn Leirvik, trans. by Martha M. Matesich (Leiden: Brill, 2017), pp. 225‒40    

Muneeza Shamsie, ‘Introduction: The Enduring Legacy of al-Andalus’, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 52.2 (2016), 127–35

Brad Erickson, ‘Utopian Virtues: Muslim Neighbors, Ritual Sociality, and the Politics of Convivència’, American Ethnologist, 38.1 (2011), 114–31

Ayman Talal Yousef, ‘Stereotyping Islam in Western Perceptions between Fundamentalism and Phobia: Analytical and Critical Reading’, Journal of Islamic Studies and Culture, 1 (2013), 12‒26 <http://jiscnet.com/journals/jisc/Vol_1_No_1_June_2013/2.pdf> [last modified 30 November 2013 as of 9 July 2018]

Ibrahim Kalin, ‘Roots of Misconception: Euro-American Perceptions of Islam Before and After September 11’, in Islam, Fundamentalism and the Betrayal of Tradition: Essays by Western Muslim Scholars, ed. by Joseph E. B. Lumbard, revised edn. (Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, 2009), pp. 143-87 <http://www.worldwisdom.com/public/viewpdf/default.aspx? article-title=Euro-American_Perceptions_of_Islam_Before_and_After_Sept_11.pdf> [last modified 13 October 2009 as of 27 June 2016]

Shahrough Akhavi, ‘Islam and the West in World History’, Third World Quarterly, 24 (2003), 545‒62

*María Rosa Menocal, The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain (New York City: Little, Brown & Co., 2002), pp. 53-100    

Nuha N. N. Khoury, ‘The Meaning of the Great Mosque of Cordoba in the Tenth Century’, Muqarnas, 13 (1996), 80–98

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Week 2. Islamic Conquest in Visigothic Spain; Thinking about Dissertations

This week’s class will be divided into two parts. In the first half, we will study the very beginning of Islamic Iberia, the invasion and collapse of the kingdom of the Visigoths. I will open this session with an example presentation to demonstrate the kind of role I would like the student presentations in following weeks to play.

In the second half of the class, we will begin discussion of the dissertation that most or all of you will be doing in parallel with this module. What kind of dissertations can be done with this module, what problems and possibilities are there, and what is the process for completing a dissertation in the School of History? Hopefully all these questions and more can be answered!

Required Reading

Primary Source

The Visigothic Code ( Forum Iudicum ), trans. by Samuel P. Scott (Boston, MA: Boston Book Co. 1910) <http://libro.uca.edu/vcode/visigoths.htm> [last modified 16 August 2000 as of 9 July 2016], pp. 305–19 (Book IX Title I) and pp. 380–409 (Book XII Title III); also have a look at the Contents to see what is covered that’s not hunting down deviants  

Ibn ‘Abd al-Hakem, History of the Conquest of al-Andalus, trans. as Ibn Abd-el-Hakem’s History of the Conquest of Spain Translated from the Arabic with a Historical Introduction: Inaugural Dissertation Addressed to the Philosophical Faculty of the Georgia Augusta University Göttingen on Promotion to the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, trans. by John Harris Jones (Göttingen: Dieterich’s University Press, 1858) <https://archive.org/details/dhikrfatalandal00jonegoog> [last modified 28 September 2008 as of 12 July 2016], pp. 18-43

Secondary Writing

Roger Collins, Visigothic Spain 409-711 (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), pp. 92–116; pp. 117–43 also relevant
   

Denise Keyes Filios, ‘A Good Story Well Told: Memory, Identity, and the Conquest of Iberia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 6.2 (2014), 127–47  

Questions to Think About

Is the success of the Muslim conquest to be explained by internal problems in the Visigothic kingdom, or is this how our later sources sought to explain the state’s failure? Do the Arabic sources help us understand the conquest, or make it harder? How much agency did the Caliph have in the conquest of his new province? And how far did the conquest upset the pre-existing social order?

Background and Orientation

Richard Fletcher, The Cross and the Crescent: The Dramatic Story of the Earliest Encounters between Christians and Muslims (London: Penguin, 2003), pp. 1-29  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019)  

Hugh Kennedy, ‘The Muslims in Europe’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History Volume II: c. 700-c. 900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 249–71

Paul Fouracre, The Age of Charles Martel (Harlow: Pearson, 2000), pp. 79-120  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019)  

*Roger Collins, The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710-797 (Oxford: Blackwells, 1989), pp. 23-96

Roger Collins, Early Medieval Spain: Unity in Diversity, 400-1000, 2nd ed. (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995), pp. 144-80

Further Reading

Primary Sources

The Chronicle of Moissac, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Monumenta Germaniae Historica (Scriptores in folio) tomus I, ed. Georg Heinrich Pertz (Hannover: Hahn, 1826), pp. 280-313 (285-97) <http://www.mgh.de/dmgh/resolving/MGH_SS_1_S._289> [last modified 4 April 2011 as of 12 July 2016]

Govert Westerveld, ‘The Treaty of Orihuela’, History of Murcia (Tudmir), 2016 <https://historyofmurcia.blogspot.com/2016/08/the-treaty-of-orihuela.html> [accessed 13 November 2018]

Yves Gleize, Fanny Mendisco, Marie-Hélène Pemonge, Christophe Hubert, Alexis Groppi, Bertrand Houix, Marie-France Deguilloux, Jean-Yves Breuil, ‘Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence’, PLoS ONE, 11 (2016), 1-13

The Chronicle of 754, trans. by Kenneth Baxter Wolf in Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain, ed. by Wolf, 2nd edn. (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999), pp. 111-60, chapters 1-55; also in 1st edn. (1990)

Secondary Writing

The Visigothic Kingdom and its Problems

Javier Arce Martínez, ‘The Visigoths in Spain: Old and New Historical Problems’, in Der frühmittelalterliche Staat: europäische Perspektiven, ed. by Walter Pohl and Veronika Wieser (Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2009), pp. 31‒42 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 23/09/2019)  

Pablo de la Cruz Díaz Martínez and María del Rosario Valverde Castro, ‘The Theoretical Strength and Practical Weakness of the Visigothic Monarchy of Toledo’, in Rituals of Power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Franz Theuws and Janet L. Nelson (Leiden: Brill, 2000), pp. 59-93   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 08/06/2020) 

*Peter Linehan, History and the Historians of Medieval Spain (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), pp. 51-94

Pierre Bonnassie, ‘Society and Mentalities in Visigothic Spain’, in From Slavery to Feudalism in South-Western Europe, by Pierre Bonnassie, trans. by Jean Birrell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 60-103

Jews in Visigothic Iberia

Erica Buchberger, ‘Gothic Identity and the “Othering” of Jews in Seventh-Century Spain’, in Inclusion and Exclusion in Mediterranean Christianities, 400-800, ed. by Yaniv Fox and Erica Buchberger (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 199–216

Rachel L. Stocking, ‘Early Medieval Christian Identity and Anti-Judaism: The Case of the Visigothic Kingdom’, Religion Compass, 2 (2008), 642-58

Norman Roth, Jews, Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994), pp. 7-40

Norman Roth, ‘The Jews and the Muslim Conquest of Spain’, Jewish Social Studies, 38 (1976), 145-58

On Writing about the Islamic Conquests, Old and New

Alejandro García-Sanjuán, ‘Denying the Islamic Conquest of Iberia: A Historiographical Fraud’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 11.3 (2019), 306–22

Nicola Clarke, The Muslim Conquest of Iberia: Medieval Arabic Narratives (London: Routledge, 2013)

Elizabeth Drayson, ‘Ways of Seeing: The First Medieval Islamic and Christian Depictions of Roderick, Last Visigothic King of Spain’, al-Masāq, 18 (2006), 115-28

Conquest and Settlement

Ann Christys, ‘The Transformation of Hispania after 711’, in Regna and Gentes: The Relationship between Late Antique and Early Medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the Transformation of the Roman World, ed. by Hans-Werner Goetz, Jörg Jarnut, and Walter Pohl (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 219–41

María Jesús Viguera Molins, ‘The Muslim Settlement of Spania/al-Andalus’, in The Formation of al-Andalus, 1: History and Society, ed. by Manuela Marín (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 15-38

Ann Christys, ‘How the Royal House of Witiza Survived the Islamic Conquest of Spain’, in Integration und Herrschaft: ethhnische Identitäten und soziale Organisation im Frühmittelalter, ed. by Walter Pohl and Maximilien Diesenberger (Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2002), pp. 233-46   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 08/06/2020) 

*‘Abdulwāhid Dhanūn Tāha, The Muslim Conquest and Settlement of North Africa and Spain (London: Routledge, 1989, reprinted 2016), pp. 1-182: more detail than most accounts—ask yourself why!

Miquel Barceló, ‘Some Commentaries on “The Earliest Muslim Invasion of Spain”’, Islamic Studies, 9.2 (1970), 183–90 <http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/gsdl/collect/islamics/import/v9i25.pdf> [accessed 6 June 2018]

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Dissertation Workshop 1: Choosing a Topic

In the course of Week 3 there will be a 1-hour workshop where we can discuss what makes a topic workable, possible or interesting and how to handle these requirements within the specific space of the topics you’re thinking about (which may not necessarily belong to this module). No special preparation is required for this workshop, but look through the handbook for possible areas of research—use the ‘questions to think with’ as a guide—and come armed with at least one possible topic. Two is better! 

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Dissertation Tutorials

There will be tutorials scheduled in Week 3, in which we can discuss potential dissertation topics and how to start on them on a one-to-one basis. These will be arranged by distribution of a sign-up sheet in the Week 2 class.

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Week 3. East to West: Migration and Secession in al-Andalus

Required Readings

Primary Source

The Chronicle of 754, trans. by Kenneth Baxter Wolf, in Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain, ed. by Wolf, 2nd edn. (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999), pp. 111-60 (145-56, chapters 80-91) 

Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari, Complete History, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Ibn el-Athir, Annales du Maghreb et de l’Espagne, trans. by Edmond Fagnan (Alger: Alphonse Jourdan, 1901) <http://нэб.рф/catalog/000199_000009_004487629/viewer/> (download link at top right of window) [last modified 31 December 2009 as of 23 July 2016], pp. 91-136: translation on Minerva     

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Roger Collins, Early Medieval Spain: Unity in Diversity, 400-1000, 2nd edn. (Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1995), pp. 181-221   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Miguel Cruz Hernández, ‘The Social Structure of al-Andalus during the Muslim Occupation (711-55) and the Foundation of the Umayyad Monarchy’, in The Formation of al-Andalus, 1: History and Society, ed. by Manuela Marín (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), pp. 51-83 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019) 

Questions to Think About

How far was al-Andalus under the control of the caliphs in Baghdad? Was the Muslim population of al-Andalus united or divided, and if divided, by what? How was ‘Abd al-Raḥmān I able to take power in al-Andalus? How effective was the initial Umayyad rule in al-Andalus, and how far was that down to the rulers?

Background and Orientation

Richard Hitchcock, Muslim Spain Reconsidered: From 711 to 1502 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014), pp. 1-39

Pierre Guichard, From the Arab Conquest to the Reconquest: The Splendour and Fragility of Al-Andalus (Granada: Fundación el Legado Andalusí, 2006), pp. 47-65

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 30-65 

Roger Collins, The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710-797 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1989), pp. 81-140 

Hugh Kennedy, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century, 2nd edn. (London: Longman, 2004), pp. 123-55: on the Middle East 

‘Abdulwāhid Dhanūn Tāha, The Muslim Conquest and Settlement of North Africa and Spain (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. 183-233: much more detailed than most! Ask yourself why...

Further Reading

Primary Sources (of various kinds)

María Regueiro, Ralph Garcia-Bertrand, Karima Fadhloui-Zid, Joseph Álvarez and Rene J. Herrera, ‘From Arabia to Iberia: A Y Chromosome Perspective’, Gene, 564, (2015), 141–52

Collected Accounts, trans. in David James, A History of Early al-Andalus: the Akhbār majmū‘a. A Study of the Unique Arabic Manuscript in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, with a Translation, Notes and Comments (London: Routledge, 2012), pp. 43-112

Muḥammad Ibn 'Umar Ibn 'Abd al-Azīz ibn Ibrāhīm ibn 'Isa ibn Mazāhim Ibn al-Qūtīyya, History of the Conquest of al-Andalus, trans. as Early Islamic Spain: The History of Ibn al-Qutiyah, trans. by David James (London: Routledge, 2011), pp. 67-133

Christians and Moors in Spain: vol. 3, Arabic sources (711–1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 22–23 (no. 77)

George C. Miles, The Coinage of the Umayyads of Spain (New York City, NY: The American Numismatic Society, 1950)

Secondary Reading

*María Jesús Viguera Molins, ‘The Muslim Settlement of Spania/al-Andalus’, Eduardo Manzano Moreno, ‘The Settlement of the Syrian junds in al-Andalus’, and Pierre Guichard, ‘The Population of the Region of Valencia during the First Two Centuries of Muslim Domination’, all in Marín, Formation of al-Andalus, 1, as above, pp. 15–38, pp. 85–114 and pp. 129–81, respectively

Arabs, Berbers and Locals

Jessica Coope, The Most Noble of People: Religious, Ethnic, and Gender Identity in Muslim Spain (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2017)

Nicola Clarke, ‘“They Are the Most Treacherous of People”: Religious Difference in Arabic Accounts of Three Early Medieval Berber Revolts’, EHumanista, 24 (2013), 510–25

Ramzi Rouighi, ‘The Andalusi Origins of the Berbers?’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 2.1 (2010), 93–108

*Jessica A. Coope, ‘Marriage, Kinship, and Islamic Law in Al-Andalus: Reflections on Pierre Guichard's Al-Andalus’, al-Masāq, 20 (2008), 161-78

María Isabel Fierro Bello, ‘Genealogies of Power in Al-Andalus: Politics, Religion and Ethnicity during the Second/Eighth-Fifth/Eleventh Centuries’, Annales Islamologiques, 42 (2008), 29-55 <http://www.ifao.egnet.net/anisl/42/03/> [last modified 12 November 2017 as of 9 July 2018]

Ann Christys, ‘The “History” of Ibn Habib and Ethnogenesis in al-Andalus’, in The Construction of Communities in the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Richard Corradini, Maximilian Diesenberger and Helmut Reimitz (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 323–50

*Pierre Guichard, ‘The Social History of Muslim Spain from the Conquest to the End of the Almohad Régime (Early 2nd/8th – Early 7th/13th Centuries)’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma K. Jayyusi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 679-708 (681-93)   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 08/06/2020) 

Roberto Marín-Guzmán, ‘Ethnic Groups and Social Classes in Muslim Spain’, Islamic Studies, Muslim Heritage in Spain, 30.1/2 (1991), 37–66

Effects: Changes in Society and Settlement

Sonia Gutiérrez Lloret, ‘Early al-Andalus: an Archaeological Approach to the Process of Islamization in the Iberian Peninsula (7th to 10th centuries)’, in New Directions in Early Medieval European Archaeology: Spain and Italy Compared. Essays for Riccardo Francovich, ed. by Sauro Gelichi and Richard Hodges (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015), pp. 43–86    

José Cristobal Carvajal López, Julio M. Román Punzón, Miguel Jiménez Puertas and Javier Martínez Jiménez, ‘When the East Came to the West: The Seventh Century in the Vega of Granada (South-East Spain): Visigoths, Byzantines and Muslims’, in The Long Seventh Century: Continuity and Discontinuity in an Age of Transition, ed. by Alessandro Gnasso (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 135–62

David Peterson, ‘The Men of Wavering Faith: On the Origins of Arabic Personal and Place Names in the Duero Basin’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 3.2 (2011), 219–46

*Richard Hitchcock, Mozarabs in Medieval and Early Modern Spain: Identities and Influences (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 7–23

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Week 4. The Frankish Intervention

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Einhard, Life of Charles, trans. in Two Lives of Charlemagne: Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, ed. by David Ganz (London: Penguin, 2009), pp. 17-44 (21-31, chapters 4-17)  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019) 

Ermold the Black, ‘In Praise of Louis’, trans. by Thomas F. X. Noble, in Charlemagne and Louis the Pious: The Lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, ed. by Noble (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2009), pp. 127-86 (130-41, Book I)  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019) 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Cullen J. Chandler, ‘Carolingian Catalonia: The Spanish March, 778–988’, The Heroic Age, 17 (2017) <http://www.heroicage.org/issues/17/chandler.php> [accessed 25 August 2018]  

*Jonathan P. Conant, ‘Louis the Pious and the Contours of Empire’, Early Medieval Europe, 22 (2014), 336-60  

Questions to Think About

What were the Carolingian rulers trying to achieve by intervening over the Pyrenees? Why do the sources differ on who was responsible? What difference did their intervention make for the populations whose control they assumed? And how long did that difference last?

Background and Orientation

Cullen J. Chandler, Carolingian Catalonia: Politics, Culture, and Identity in an Imperial Province, 778–987 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019): brand new!

Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-103 (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2012), pp. 205-37

Julia M. H. Smith, ‘"Fines Imperii”: The Marches’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 2, c. 700- c. 900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 169-89

Thomas F. X. Noble, ‘Louis the Pious and the Frontiers of the Frankish Realm’, in Charlemagne's Heir: New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious (814-840), ed. by Peter Godman and Roger Collins (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), pp. 333-47  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (KR 19/12/2018)  

Roger Collins, The Basques, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990), pp. 99-179

Thomas Noel Bisson, The Medieval Crown of Aragon: A Short History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), pp. 5-30

Further Reading

Primary Sources

‘Constitution for the Hispani ’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Catalunya Carolíngia II: els diplomes carolingis a Catalunya, ed. by Ramon d’Abadal i de Vinyals (Barcelona: Institute d’Estudis Catalans, 1926-50, repr. 2007), appendix III: on Minerva

The Life of Emperor Louis, trans. in Noble, Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, as above, pp. 226-303 (esp. 235-62)

Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories, trans. by Bernhard Walter Scholz with Barbara Rogers (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1970), pp. 55-125 (years 777-829): look for Spanish events but notice the wider context too

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

The Carolingians, their Empire and their Motives

Thomas Freudenhammer, ‘Rafica: Early Medieval Caravan Trade between the West Frankish Kingdom and al-Andalus’, Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 105.3 (2018), 391–406 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019) 

Samuel Ottewill-Soulsby, ‘“Those Same Cursed Saracens”: Charlemagne’s Campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula as Religious Warfare’, Journal of Medieval History, 42.4 (2016), 405–28

Daniel G. König, ‘Charlemagne’s ›Jihād‹ Revisited: Debating the Islamic Contribution to an Epochal Change in the History of Christianization’, Medieval Worlds, 3 (2016), 3–40; contra Hen, below

Peter C. M. Hoppenbrouwers, ‘ Leges nationum and Ethnic Personality of Law in Charlemagne’s Empire’, in Law and Empire: Ideas, Practices, Actors, ed. by Jeroen Duindam, Jill Harries, Caroline Humfress and Nimrod Hurvitz (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 251-74; cf. Chandler, ‘Court and Counts’, below

Yitzhak Hen, ‘Charlemagne’s Jihad’, Viator, 37 (2006), 33–51; cf. König and Ottewill-Soulsby above!

Frank Riess, ‘From Aachen to al-Andalus: The Journey of Deacon Bodo (823–76)’, Early Medieval Europe, 13.2 (2005), 131–57: on a fascinating diplomatic and religious episode

Cullen J. Chandler, ‘Heresy and Empire: The Role of the Adoptionist Controversy in Charlemagne’s Conquest of the Spanish March’, International History Review, 24.3 (2002), 505–27

Abdurrahman A. El-Hajji, ‘Andalusian Diplomatic Relations with the Franks during the Umayyad Period’, Islamic Studies, Muslim Heritage in Spain, 30.1/2 (1991), 241–62

Catalonia specifically

Cullen J. Chandler, ‘Carolingian Catalonia: The Spanish March and the Franks, c.750-c.1050’, History Compass, 11.9 (2013), 739–50: historiographical review

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Comparing the Earliest Documentary Culture in Carolingian Catalonia’, in Problems and Possibilities of Early Medieval Charters, ed. by Jonathan Jarrett and Allan Scott McKinley (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 89-128: N. B. charts printed wrongly

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Settling the Kings’ Lands: Aprisio in Catalonia in Perspective’, Early Medieval Europe, 18 (2010), 320-41: a response to Chandler, ‘Court and Counts’, below

Cullen Chandler, ‘Between Court and Counts: Carolingian Catalonia and the Aprisio Grant, 778-897’, Early Medieval Europe, 11 (2002), 19-44; cf. Jarrett, ‘Settling the Kings’ Lands’, and Hoppenbrouwers, both above

Roger Collins, ‘Charles the Bald and Wifred the Hairy’, in Charles the Bald: Court and Kingdom. Papers Based on a Colloquium held in London in April 1979, ed. by Margaret Gibson, Janet L. Nelson and David Ganz (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1981), pp. 169-89, reprinted in Law, Culture and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain, by Roger Collins (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1992), chapter XIII    

The Basque Country and Aragón specifically

Juan José Larrea and Jesús Lorenzo, ‘Barbarians of Dâr al-Islâm: The Upper March of al-Andalus and the Pyrenees in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries’, in La Transgiordania Nei Secoli XII–XIII e Le ‘Frontiere’ Del Mediterraneo Medievale. Trans-Jordan in the 12th and 13th Centuries and the ‘Frontiers’ of the Medieval Mediterranean, ed. by Guido Vannini and Michele Nucciotti (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2012), pp. 277–88

Roger Collins, ‘The Basques in Aquitaine and Navarre: Problems of Frontier Government’, in War and Society in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of J. O. Prestwich, ed. by John Gillingham and James Holt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 3-17, repr. in Collins, Law, Culture and Regionalism, as above, chapter VIII

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Week 5. The Northern Resistance and its Legends

This will be another two-part class. In the first half we will look at the beginnings of Christian autonomy in the post-conquest Peninsula in the form of the legends around the beginnings of the kingdom of Asturias. In the second, we will focus on the gobbet questions that make up an important part of this module’s assessment (the 10% element, but also one-third of the exam). Learning how to extract quickly from a source extract what its key point is and how to connect it to historiographical debates and the other sources that inform them are key to doing well at these, and the skill is not hard to learn. Because of the preparation for this, explained below, other required reading for this week is slightly reduced.

The gobbets section of the class will be based around a mock paper composed of five short extracts taken from the required primary readings from Weeks 2‒5, as well as another chosen from the additional primary readings from those weeks. This paper will be distributed at the previous week’s seminar and will also be made available on Minerva as soon as it is created. Please bring to the workshop short notes on what you would want to mention in each of the first four answers. We will compare notes, suggest strategies and then use these findings to look at the remaining two gobbets.

Below, please find the preparation for the first part of the class.

Required Readings

Primary Source

The Chronicle of Alfonso III, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Chroniques asturiennes : (fin IXe siècle), avec édition critique, traduction et commentaire, ed. and trans. by Yves Bonnaz (Paris: C. N. R. S., 1987): read my introduction pp. 1‒2 and then compare the two texts from their beginnings up to the year 737 (pp. 3‒12)
   

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Roger Collins, ‘Spain: The Northern Kingdoms and the Basques, 711-910’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 2: c. 700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 272-89 

Stanley G. Payne, ‘Visigoths and Asturians Reinterpreted: The Spanish Grand Narrative Restored?’, in Medieval Iberia: Changing Societies and Cultures in Contact and Transition, ed. by Ivy A. Corfis and Ray Harris-Northall (Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2007), pp. 47–56  

Questions to Think About

Who is it that has left us the Christian traditions of the creation of the kingdom of Asturias-León? Why do our accounts differ so much? What is the rôle of the Goths in the narratives? And have we any hope of working out what really happened?

Background and Orientation

Roger Collins, The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710-797 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1989), pp. 141-67

 Thomas F. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the early Middle Ages: Comparative Perspectives on Social Cultural Formation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979) <http://libro.uca.edu/ics/emspain.htm> last modified 16 August 2000 as of 18 July 2016, pp. 19-50, or 2nd edn. (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 3-41 

Further Reading

Primary Sources

The Chronicle of Albelda, ‘Order of the Kings of the Goths’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Chroniques asturiennes, ed. by Bonnaz, as above, pp. 22-5: translation on Minerva, the relevant extract for this week is cc. 30–38

Christians and Moors in Spain: vol. 3, Arabic sources (711‒1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 18‒21 (no. 76)

Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories, trans. by Bernhard Walter Scholz with Barbara Rogers (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1970), pp. 76-77 (annal for 798)

Secondary Writing

Trouble with the Texts

Lucy K. Pick, ‘Islam Concealed and Revealed: The Chronicle of 754 and Beatus of Liébana’s Commentary on the Apocalypse’, in Beyond the Reconquista: New Directions in the History of Medieval Iberia (711-1085): In Honour of Simon Barton, ed. by Simon Barton and Robert Portass (Leiden: Brill, 2020), pp. 257–82

Julia Montenegro and Arcadio del Castillo, ‘The Alfonso II Document of 812, the Annales Portugalenses Veteres and the Continuity of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo as the Kingdom of Asturias’, Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire, 87 (2009), 197-215 <http://www.persee.fr/doc/rbph_0035-0818_2009_num_87_2_7671> [last modified 25 May 2016 as of 9 July 2018]

Xenia Bonch-Bruevich, ‘Ideologies of the Spanish Reconquest and Isidore’s Political Thought’, Mediterranean Studies, 17 (2008), 27–45

David Hook, ‘From the Persians to Pelayo: Some Classical Complications in the Covadonga Complex’, in From Orosius to the Historia silense: Four Essays on the Late Antique and Early Medieval Historiography of the Iberian Peninsula, ed. by David Hook (Bristol: HIPLAM, 2005), pp. 51-96

Peter Linehan, History and the Historians of Medieval Spain (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), pp. 95-127  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019)  

Israel Burshatin, ‘Narratives of Reconquest: Rodrigo, Pelayo, and the Saints’, in Saints and their Authors: Studies in Medieval Hispanic Hagiography in Honor of John K. Walsh, ed. by Jane E. Connolly, Alan Deyermond and Brian Dutton (Madison, WI: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1990), pp. 13-26

Society in the Post-Visigothic North

Robert Portass, The Village World of Early Medieval Northern Spain: Local Community and the Land Market (Woodbridge: Boydell Press for the Royal Historical Society, 2017), pp. 1–48 and 117–32

Miguel Ángel de Blas Cortina, ‘Megaliths and Holy Places in the Genesis of the Kingdom of Asturias (North of Spain, AD 718-910)’, in The Lives of Prehistoric Monuments in Iron Age, Roman and Medieval Europe, ed. by Marta Díaz-Guardamino, Leonardo García Sanjuan and David Wheatley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 205-24

José Carlos Sánchez Pardo, ‘Power and Rural Landscapes in Early Medieval Galicia (400–900 AD): Towards a Re-Incorporation of the Archaeology into the Historical Narrative’, Early Medieval Europe, 21.2 (2013), 140–68

Alfonso Vigil-Escalera Guirado and Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, ‘Early Medieval Rural Societies in North-Western Spain: Archaeological Reflections of Fragmentation and Convergence’, in Scale and Scale Change in the Early Middle Ages: Exploring Landscape, Local Society, and the World Beyond, ed. by Julio Escalona and Andrew Reynolds (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), pp. 33–60

Luis Caballero Zoreda, ‘Observations on Historiography and Change from the Sixth to Tenth Centuries in the North and West of the Iberian Peninsula’, in The Archaeology of Iberia: The Dynamics of Change, ed. by Margarita Díaz-Andreu García (London: Routledge, 1997), pp. 235-64   

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Week 6. Mozarabs, Muwalladūn and Martyrs

Required Readings

Primary Sources

The Chronicle of Alfonso III, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Chroniques asturiennes : (fin IXe siècle), avec édition critique, traduction et commentaire, ed. and trans. by Yves Bonnaz (Paris: C. N. R. S., 1987), pp. 21-23 of the English translation: to whose side did Mūsā ibn Mūsā and his family belong?  

Eulogius of Córdoba, A Record of the Saints, partially trans. by Colin Smith as ‘The Martyrdom of Isaac de Tábanos (851)’, in Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 1, 711-1150, ed. by Colin Smith (Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1988), pp. 42-7 (no. 10)  

Samson of Córdoba, Apology against the Perfidious, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Corpus Scriptorum Mvzarabicorum, ed. by Juan Gil, 2 vols (Madrid: Instituto Antonio de Nebrija, 1973), ii, 505-658 (pp. 547-55, II.Præfatio): on Minerva   

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Kati Ihnat, ‘The Martyrs of Córdoba: Debates around a Curious Case of Medieval Martyrdom’, History Compass, 18.1 (2020), e12603  

Richard Fletcher, Moorish Spain (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1992), pp. 35-51   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019) 

Questions to Think About

What provoked the sudden outburst of martyrdoms in mid-ninth-century Córdoba? Did Eulogius represent a wider feeling or were he and his fellows a lunatic fringe? How, in general, were Christians treated in 9th-century al-Andalus, and was Córdoba typical in this respect? And what was the status of those who had converted within the Islamic community?

Background and Orientation

Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031 (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2012), pp. 83–120

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 30–63

Thomas F. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages: Comparative Perspectives on Social Cultural Formation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979) <http://libro.uca.edu/ics/emspain.htm> [last modified 16 August 2000 as of 18 July 2016], pp. 165–93, or 2nd edn. (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 184–219

Further Reading

Primary Sources

*The Eulogius Corpus, trans. by Kenneth Baxter Wolf (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2019): invaluable new assemblage of the Life of Eulogius and all Eulogius’s own writings

Collected Accounts, trans. in David James, A History of Early al-Andalus: the Akhbār majmūa. A Study of the Unique Arabic Manuscript in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, with a Translation, Notes and Comments (London: Routledge, 2012), pp. 113–33

*Christians and Moors in Spain: vol. 3, Arabic sources (711–1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 28–31 (no. 79)

Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn Anas al-‘Udrī, Accepted Meanings from Spain in a Book of Collection of Traditions, in partial unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from ‘La Marca Superior en la Obra de al-’Udrí’, trans. by Fernando de la Granja, Estudios de la Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón, 8 (1967), 447–545 <https://www.condadodecastilla.es/articulos-de-investigacion/la-marca-superior-la-obra-al-udri/> [accessed 26 November 2015], pp. 468‒89 (cc. 27‒89): the Banū Qāsī  

The Chronicle of Albelda, ‘Order of the Kings of the Goths’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Chroniques asturiennes, ed. by Bonnaz, as above, pp. 4 and 6‒7 (cc. 46 and 47.7‒9)  

Secondary Writing

The Martyr Movement

Andrew Sorber, ‘Prophetic Resistance to Islam in Ninth-Century Córdoba: Paulus Alvarus and the Indiculus Luminosus’, Medieval Encounters, 25.5–6 (2019), 433–56

*Kenneth Baxter Wolf, ‘Eulogius of Córdoba and His Understanding of Islam’ <http://www.academia.edu/20312136/Eulogius_of_Córdoba_and_His_Understanding_of_Islam> [last modified 16 January 2016 as of 9 July 2018]  

Adriano Duque, ‘Claiming Martyrdom in the Episode of The Martyrs of Córdoba’, Collectanea Christiana Orientalia, 8 (2011), 23-48 <http://www.uco.es/investiga/grupos/hum380/collectanea/sites/default/files/8_1.pdf> [last modified 21 February 2014 as of 29 July 2016]

Richard Hitchcock, Mozarabs in Medieval and Early Modern Spain: Identities and Influences (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 25-52

Ann Christys, Christians in al-Andalus, 711-1000 (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 52-107      

*Jessica A. Coope, The Martyrs of Córdoba: Community and Family Conflict in an Age of Mass Conversion (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1995)

Kenneth Baxter Wolf, Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988) <http://libro.uca.edu/martyrs/martyrs.htm> [last modified 16 August 2000 as of 9 July 2018]

Conversion Rates

Richard W. Bulliet, ‘The Conversion Curve Revisited’, in Islamisation: Comparative Perspectives from History, ed. by A. C. S. Peacock (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017), pp. 1–11  

David J. Wasserstein, ‘Where Have All the Converts Gone? Difficulties in the Study of Conversion to Islam in al-Andalus’, al-Qanțara, 33.2 (2012), 325–42

*Alwyn Harrison, ‘Behind the Curve: Bulliet and Conversion to Islam in al-Andalus Revisited’, al-Masāq, 24.1 (2012), 35–51

Jessica A. Coope, ‘Religious and Cultural Conversion to Islam in Ninth-Century Umayyad Córdoba’, Journal of World History, 4 (1993), 47–68

Integration of Converts into Islam

Juan José Larrea and Jesús Lorenzo, ‘Barbarians of Dâr al-Islâm: The Upper March of al-Andalus and the Pyrenees in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries’, in La Transgiordania Nei Secoli XII–XIII e Le ‘Frontiere’ Del Mediterraneo Medievale. Trans-Jordan in the 12th and 13th Centuries and the ‘Frontiers’ of the Medieval Mediterranean, ed. by Guido Vannini and Michele Nucciotti (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2012), pp. 277–88   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 08/06/2020) 

Roberto Marin-Guzman, ‘Political Turmoil in Al-Andalus in the Time of the Amīr ’Abd Allah (888-912): Study of the Revolt of Daysūm Ibn Isḣaq, Lord of Murcia and Lorca and the Role of ’Umar Ibn Ḣafṣūn’, The Muslim World, 96.1 (2006), 145–74

Maribel Fierro, ‘Mawāḷī and Muwalladūn in al-Andalus’, in Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam, ed. by Monique Bernards and John Abdallah Nawas (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 195–245   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 15/06/2020) 

David J. Wasserstein, ‘Inventing Tradition and Constructing Identity: The Genealogy of ꜥUmar Ibn Ḥafṣūn between Christianity and Islam’, al-Qanțara, 23.2 (2002), 269–98

Janina M. Safran, ‘Identity and Differentiation in Ninth-Century al-Andalus’, Speculum, 76 (2001), 573-98

María Isabel Fierro Bello, ‘Four Questions in Connection with Ibn Hafsun’, in The Formation of al-Andalus, 1: History and Society, ed. by Manuela Marín (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 291–328

Christianity and Tolerance in al-Andalus in the Ninth Century

Kenneth Baxter Wolf, ‘Convivencia as Persecution in Ninth-Century Córdoba’, in Convivencia and Medieval Spain: Essays in Honor of Thomas F. Glick, ed. by Mark T. Abate (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019), pp. 145–57    

Ann R. Christys, ‘Muslims and Christians in Umayyad Cordoba: The Formation of a Tolerant Society? ’, Rivista di Storia del Cristianesimo, 4 (2007), 29-48 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019)  

Hanna E. Kassis, ‘Some Aspects of the Legal Position of Christians under Maliki Jurisprudence in al-Andalus’, in Actes du 5e Congrès international d’études arabes chrétiennes, Lund, Août, 1996, ed. by Samir Kalil Samir (Kaslik: Faculté Pontificale de Théologie de l’USEK, 1999), i, 113–28 <http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/35314> [accessed 31 October 2018]

Kenneth Baxter Wolf, ‘Muhammad as Antichrist in Ninth-Century Cordoba’, in Medieval and Early Modern Spain: Interaction and Cultural Change, ed. by Mark D. Meyerson and Edward D. English, (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1999), pp. 3–19

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Dissertation Workshop 2: Reviewing the Literature and the Project Proposal Form

In the course of Week 6 we will have a 1-hour workshop where we can discuss how to find out what’s been written on your chosen subject, how to get at it once you’ve found it and how to approach it so to identify your own ‘research gap’. A lot of this will be your tutor explaining library arcana to you and demystifying the proposal form, but please try before the workshop to write down what the key theme that interests you in your prospective topic is, who has written about it that you so far know about, and what it is that you feel they haven’t explained to you!

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Week 7. Asturias Ascendant: Alfonso III and his Successors

Required Readings

Primary Source

‘The Prophetic Chronicle’, transl. by Kenneth Baxter Wolf, Medieval Texts in Translation <https://sites.google.com/site/canilup/chronica_prophetica> [last modified 2008 as of 9 July 2018]  

The Chronicle of Albelda, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Chroniques asturiennes (fin IXe siècle), avec édition critique, traduction et commentaire, ed. and trans. by Yves Bonnaz (Paris: C. N. R. S., 1987), pp. 22-30  

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031: (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2012), pp. 50-82  

Julio Escalona, ‘Family Memories: Inventing Alfonso I of Asturias’, in Building Legitimacy: Political Discourses and Forms of Legitimation in Medieval Societies, ed. by María Isabel Alfonso Antón, Julio Escalona Monge and Hugh Kennedy (Leiden: Brill, 2004), pp. 223-62  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 11/06/2020) 

Questions to Think About

How seriously were notions of reconquest entertained at Alfonso III’s court, and how extensive were their ambitions? How close can we get to the politics of the time when the court itself created so many of our sources? What other methods was this kingdom using to construct itself in its territory? Was it now indeed the ‘second kingdom of Hispania’, and what did that mean for its people?

Background and Orientation

Roger Collins, ‘The Spanish Kingdoms’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History volume 3: c.900–c.1024, ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 670–91 

Eduardo Manzano Moreno, ‘The Creation of a Medieval Frontier: Islam and Christianity in the Iberian Peninsula, Eighth to Twelfth Centuries’, Frontiers in Question: Eurasian Borderlands, 700-1700, ed. by Naomi Standen and Daniel Power (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 1999), pp. 32-52

Abdurrahman Ali el-Hajji, ‘Political Relations between the Andalusian Rebels and Christian Spain during the Umayyad Period (A.H. 138-366/a.d. 755-976)’, The Islamic Quarterly, 10 (1966), 84-94

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Muḥammad Ibn 'Umar Ibn 'Abd al-Azīz ibn Ibrāḥīm ibn 'Isa ibn Mazāḥim Ibn al-Qūtīyya, History of the Conquest of al-Andalus, trans. as Early Islamic Spain: The History of Ibn al-Qutiyah, trans. by David James (London: Routledge, 2011), pp. 109-39

*The Silos History, trans. as ‘The Historia Silense’, in The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, trans. by Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 9-64 (pp. 24-36, chapters 1-68)

The Art of Medieval Spain, A. D. 500-1200, ed. by John P. O’Neill, Kathleen Howard and Ann M. Lucke (New York City, NY: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/The_Art_of_Medieval_Spain_AD_500_1200> [last modified 1st June 2012 as of 9 July 2018], pp. 113-63: actual stuff made in the kingdom

Christians and Moors in Spain: vol. 3, Arabic sources (711–1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 32–37 (no. 80)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

State Formation

Julio Escalona, ‘Dense Local Knowledge: Grounding Local to Supralocal Relationships in Tenth-Century Castile’, in Polity and Neighbourhood in Early Medieval Europe, ed. by Julio Escalona, Orri Vésteinsson, and Stuart Brookes (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 351–79

Iñaki Martín Viso, ‘Authority and Justice in the Formation of the Kingdom of Asturias-León’, al-Masāq, 25 (2017), 114–32

Álvaro Carvajal Castro, ‘The Monarchy and the Elites in Early Medieval León (Ninth-Eleventh Centuries)’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 7 (2015), 232-48

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Engaging Élites: Counts, Capital and Frontier Communities in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, in Catalonia and Elsewhere’, Networks and Neighbours, 2.2 (2014), 202–30 <https://nnthejournal.files.wordpress.com/2018/05/nn-2-2-jarrett-engaging-elites1.pdf> [accessed 12 April 2019]: partly written to argue with Escalona and Reyes below

Robert Portass, ‘All Quiet on the Western Front? Royal Politics in Galicia from c.  800 to c. 950’, Early Medieval Europe, 21 (2013), 283-306

Julio Escalona and Francisco Reyes, ‘Scale Change on the Border: The County of Castile in the Tenth Century’, in Scale and Scale Change in the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Julio Escalona and Andrew Reynolds (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), pp. 153–83

The Sources and their Difficulties

*Julio Escalona and Iñaki Martín Viso, ‘The Life and Death of an Historiographical Folly: The Early Medieval Depopulation and Repopulation of the Duero Basin’, in Beyond the Reconquista: New Directions in the History of Medieval Iberia (711-1085): In Honour of Simon Barton, ed. by Simon Barton and Robert Portass (Leiden: Brill, 2020), pp. 21–51

David G. Pattinson, ‘The Reign of Ordoño II in a New Chronicle Manuscript: More Light on the Alphonsine Borrador’, Medium aevum, 60 (1991), 268-73

Ideas of Reconquest

Ksenia Bonch Reeves, ‘Visigothic Law and the Adversarial Realm in the Kingdom of Asturias: Muslims as the New Jews’, Visigothic Symposium, 1 (2016), 95–109

Joseph F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2003), pp. 1-22

*Peter Linehan, History and the Historians of Medieval Spain (Oxford: Clarendon, 1993), pp. 95-170

Local Élites and Social Structures

Wendy Davies, ‘Counts in Ninth- and Tenth-Century Iberia’, in Beyond the Reconquista: New Directions in the History of Medieval Iberia (711-1085): In Honour of Simon Barton, ed. by Simon Barton and Robert Portass (Leiden: Brill, 2020), pp. 143–68

Álvaro Carvajal Castro and Julio Escalona, ‘The Value of Status: Monetary Penalties in the Charters from León (854–1037)’, Journal of Medieval History, 46.1 (2020), 23–49

Margarita Fernández Mier, ‘Peasant Communities and Landscape Change in North-West Iberia’, in Polity and Neighbourhood, ed. by Escalona and others, as above, pp. 57–82

Robert Portass, The Village World of Early Medieval Northern Spain: Local Community and the Land Market (Woodbridge: Boydell Press for the Royal Historical Society, 2017)

Robert Portass, ‘The Middling Sort at Court in Early Medieval Christian Iberia’, al-Masāq, 29.2 (2017), 99–113

Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, ‘Early and High Medieval “Incastellamento” in Northern Iberia: Fortified Settlements in the Basque Country and Upper Ebro Valley (9th–12th Centuries)’, in Fortified Settlements in Early Medieval Europe: Defended Communities of the 8th–10th Centuries, ed. by Neil Christie and Hajnalka Herold (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2016), pp. 192–204

Wendy Davies, ‘Where Are the Parishes? Where Are the Minsters? The Organization of the Spanish Church in the Tenth Century’, in England and the Continent in the Tenth Century: Studies in Honour of Wilhelm Levison (1876–1947), ed. by David Rollason, Conrad Leyser, and Hannah Williams (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), pp. 379–97

*Richard Hitchcock, Mozarabs in Medieval and Early Modern Spain: Identities and Influences (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 53-68

Economy and Social Practice

Iñaki Martín Viso, ‘Unequal Small Worlds: Social Dynamics in Tenth-Century Leonese Villages’, in Social Inequality in Early Medieval Europe: Local Societies and Beyond, ed. by Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo (Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2020), pp., pp. 255–80

Álvaro Carvajal Castro, ‘Local Meetings and Meeting Places in Early Medieval León’, Early Medieval Europe, 25.2 (2017), 186–207

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Bovo Soldare: A Sacred Cow of Spanish Economic History Re-Evaluated’, in Early Medieval Monetary History: Studies in Memory of Mark Blackburn, ed. by Rory Naismith, Martin Allen and Elina Screen (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 187–204

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Week 8. The New Caliphate in the West

Required Reading

Primary Sources

Jerrilynn D. Dodds, ‘The Great Mosque of Córdoba’, Antonio Vallejo Triano, ‘Madīnat al-Zahrā’: The Triumph of the Islamic State’ and Renate Holod, ‘Luxury Arts of the Caliphal Period’, all in Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, ed. by Jerrilynn D. Dodds (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Al_Andalus_The_Art_of_Islamic_Spain> [last modified 24 December 2016 as of 24 December 2016, pp. 11‒25, 26‒39 and 40‒47 

Anonymous Chronicle of ‘Abd al-Rahmān al-Nasir, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Una Crónica anónima de Abd Al-Rahman III Al-Nasir, ed. and trans. by Évariste Lévi-Provençal and Emilio García Gómez (Madrid: Maestre, 1950), pp. 126-55 (chapters 28-60): on Minerva   

Secondary Reading

Miquel Barceló, ‘The Manifest Caliph: Umayyad Ceremony in Córdoba, or, The Staging of Power’, in The Formation of al-Andalus, 1: History and Society, ed. by Manuela Marín (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 425-55 

Questions to Think About

Why, after so long in the ‘Abbāsid shadow, did an Andalusi Umayyad decide that the Caliphate belonged to them again? How did this new caliphate achieve such splendour and power so quickly? How much power did it really have? And is its reputation as an intellectual’s paradise at all justified?

Background and Orientation

Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031 (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2012), pp. 121-37 and 166-204

Maribel Fierro, Abd al-Rahmān III: The First Cordoban Caliph (Oxford: Oneworld, 2005): handy

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 63-108

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Collected Accounts, trans. as A History of Early al-Andalus: the Akhbār majmūa. A Study of the Unique Arabic Manuscript in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, with a Translation, Notes and Comments, trans. by David James (London: Routledge, 2012), pp. 134-42

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 1st ed. (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1997), pp. 56-74 (nos 13 & 14)

Christians and Moors in Spain: vol. 3, Arabic sources (711‒1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 3855 (nos 8183)

Secondary Reading

Politics: fitna and the Caliphate

Ana Miranda, ‘Al-Dalfa’ and the Political Role of the Umm al-Walad in the Late Umayyad Caliphate of al-Andalus’, in A Companion to Global Queenship, ed. by Elena Woodacre (Leeds: ARC Humanities Press, 2018), pp. 171–82 <http://hdl.handle.net/10451/38140> [accessed 18 May 2020]

Janina M. Safran, The Second Umayyad Caliphate: The Articulation of Caliphal Legitimacy in al-Andalus (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000)

Janina M. Safran, ‘Ceremony and Submission: The Symbolic Representation and Recognition of Legitimacy in Tenth-Century al-Andalus’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 58.3 (1999), 191–201

Janina Safran, ‘The Command of the Faithful in Al-Andalus: A Study in the Articulation of Caliphal Legitimacy’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 30.2 (1998), 183–98

Maribel Fierro, ‘On Political Legitimacy in Al-Andalus: A Review Article’, Der Islam, 73 (1996), 138–50

Roberto Marín-Guzmán, ‘Rebellions and Political Fragmentation of Al-Andalus: A Study of the Revolt of ’Umar Ibn Ḥafṣūn in the Period of the Amir ’Abd Allāh (888-912)’, Islamic Studies, 33.4 (1994), 419–73

Culture and Caliphal Politics

Sophie Makariou, ‘The Al-Mughīra Pyxis and Spanish Umayyad Ivories: Aims and Tools of Power’, in Umayyad Legacies: Medieval Memories from Syria to Spain, ed. by Antoine Borrut and Paul M. Cobb (Leiden: Brill, 2010), pp. 313–35

Janina M. Safran, ‘The Politics of Book Burning in Al-Andalus’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 6.2 (2014), 148–68

David Wasserstein, ‘The Library of al-Hakam II al-Mustansir and the Culture of Islamic Spain’, in Education and Learning in the Early Islamic World, ed. by Claude Gilliot (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2012), pp. 375‒82

Antonio Vallejo Triano, ‘Madinat al-Zahra': Transformation of a Caliphal City’ and Antonio Almagro, ‘The Dwellings of Madīnat al-Zahrā’: A Methodological Approach’, both in Revisiting al-Andalus: Perspectives on the Material Culture of Islamic Iberia and Beyond, ed. by Glaire D. Anderson (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2007), pp. 3‒26, 27‒52 and pp. 99‒114

Nuha N. N. Khoury, ‘The Meaning of the Great Mosque of Cordoba in the Tenth Century’, Muqarnas, 13 (1996), 80–98

Religious Control

Maribel Fierro, ‘Holy Places in Umayyad Al-Andalus’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 78.1 (2015), 121–33

Maribel Fierro, ‘Heresy in Al-Andalus’, and Manuela Marín, ‘Muslim Religious Practices in Al-Andalus (2nd/8th - 4th/10th Centuries)’, both in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma K. Jayyusi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 878–894 and 895‒908

The Caliphate and Outsiders

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Nests of Pirates? “Islandness” in the Balearic Islands and La-Garde-Freinet’, al-Masāq, 31.2 (2019), 196–222

Mohammad Ballan, ‘Fraxinetum: An Islamic Frontier State in Tenth-Century Provence’, Comitatus, 41 (2010), 23–76

Virgilio Martínez Enamorado, ‘Fātimid Ambassadors in Bobastro: Changing Religious and Political Allegiances in the Islamic West’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 52.2 (2009), 267–300

Amira K. Bennison, ‘The Peoples of the North in the Eyes of the Muslims of Umayyad al-Andalus (711–1031)’, Journal of Global History, 2 (2007), 157-74

Sato Kentaro, ‘Slave Elites and the Saqaliba in al-Andalus in the Umayyad Period’, in Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative Study, ed. by Miura Toru and John Edward Phillips (London: Kegan Paul International, 2000), pp. 25–40

Abdurrahman Ali El-Hajji, Andalusian Diplomatic Relations with Western Europe during the Umayyad period (A.H. 138 - 366/A.D. 755 - 976): An Historical Survey (Beirut: Dar al-Ishad, 1970)

Samuel M. Stern, ‘Letter of the Byzantine Emperor to the Court of the Spanish Umayyad Caliph al-Hakam’, al-Andalus, 26 (1961), 37-42

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Week 9. Convivencia during the Caliphate

Required Readings

Primary Sources

John of St-Arnoul, Life of John of Gorze, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from ‘Vita Iohannis Abbatis Gorziensis auctore Iohanne Abbate S. Arnulfi’, ed. by Georg Heinrich Pertz, in Monumenta Germaniae Historica… Scriptorum Tomus IV, ed. by Georg Heinrich Pertz with Georg Waitz (Hannover: Hahn, 1841) <http://www.mgh.de/dmgh/resolving/MGH_SS_4_S._V> [last modified 4 April 2011 as of 4 January 2020], pp. 335‒77; my English version is on Minerva, but there is another translation of most of the text in Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 1, 711-1150, ed. by Colin Smith (Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1988), pp. 62‒75 (no. 14)    

Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Maqqarī, The Breath of Perfume from the Branch of Green al-Andalus and Memorials of its Vizier Lisan al-Dīn ibn al-Khatīb, trans. as The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, extracted from the Nafhu-t-tíb min ghosni-l-Andalusi-r-rattíb wa táríkh lisánu-d-dín Ibni-l-Khattíb, trans. by Pascual de Gayangos, 2 vols (London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1840), i, <https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vJZTAAAAcAAJ> [last modified 23 October 2012 as of 9 June 2020], 241‒49  

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

María Rosa Menocal, The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain (New York City: Little, Brown & Co., 2002), pp. 79‒90 

*Anna Akasoy, ‘Convivencia and its Discontents: Interfaith Life in al-Andalus’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 42.3 (2010), 489–99

Questions to Think About

On what does the Umayyad Caliphate’s reputation for tolerance and inclusion actually rest? Were certain sorts of non-Muslim better off than others under this régime? How did the caliphs relate to non-Muslims outwith their dominions? And how did any of this change over time?

Background and Orientation (see also previous week)

Jessica Coope, The Most Noble of People: Religious, Ethnic, and Gender Identity in Muslim Spain (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2017)

Mark T. Abate, ‘Islamic Spain: Al-Andalus and the Three Cultures’, in Handbook of Medieval Culture: Fundamental Aspects and Conditions of the European Middle Ages , ed. by Albrecht Classen, 3 vols (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015), II, pp. 740–71

Pierre Guichard, From the Arab Conquest to the Reconquest: The Splendour and Fragility of al-Andalus (Granada: Fundación El Legado Andalusī, 2006), pp. 89–115

Menocal, Ornament of the World, as above

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Julia Perratore, ‘Artistic Interaction among Cultures in Medieval Iberia’, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, September 2016 <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ccmi/hd_ccmi.htm> [last modified not specified as of 9 June 2020]

Christians and Moors in Spain: vol. 3, Arabic sources (711–1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 38–43 (no. 81)

Secondary Reading

Córdoba and the Intellectual Environment

Sigrid Rettenbacher, ‘Hagia Sophia and the Third Space: An Enquiry into the Discursive Construction of Religious Sites’, in Contested Spaces, Common Ground: Space and Power Structures in Contemporary Multireligious Societies, ed. by Ulrich Winkler, Lidia Rodríguez Fernández, and Oddbjørn Leirvik (Leiden: Brill, 2017), pp. 95–112

Martin-Samuel Behloul, ‘The Testimony of Reason and the Historical Reality: Ibn Ḥazm’s Refutation of Christianity’, in Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker, ed. by Camilla Adang, Maria Isabel Fierro, and Sabine Schmidtke (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 457–84

David Wasserstein, ‘The Library of al-Hakam II al-Mustansir and the Culture of Islamic Spain’, in Education and Learning in the Early Islamic World, ed. by Claude Gilliot (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2012), pp. 375–82  

Robert Hillenbrand, ‘“The Ornament of the World”: Medieval Córdoba as a Cultural Centre’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994), pp. 112–35

The Debate over Tolerance (see also Semester 2, Week 9 specifically for the Jewish situation)

Mark T. Abate, ‘Ever Since Castro: Thomas F. Glick, Medieval Spain, and Convivencia’, in Convivencia and Medieval Spain: Essays in Honor of Thomas F. Glick, ed. by Mark T. Abate (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019), pp. 1–61

S. J. Pearce, ‘Paradise Lost’, S.J. Pearce, 17 March 2017 <https://wp.nyu.edu/sjpearce/2017/03/17/paradise-lost/> [last modified not specified as of 4 June 2020]: critical review of Fernández-Morera below

Dario Fernández-Morera, The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise: Muslims, Christians, and Jews under Islamic Rule in Medieval Spain (Wilmington, DW: ISI Books, 2016): the case against! Cf. Menocal

Mark T. Abate, ‘Convivencia: Conquest and Coexistence in Medieval Spain’, in Classen, Handbook of Medieval Cultureas above, i, 232–77

Janina M. Safran, Defining Boundaries in al-Andalus: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Islamic Iberia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2015), esp. pp. 125–67   

Maya Soifer Irish, ‘Beyond "Convivencia": Critical Reflections on the Historiography of Interfaith Relations in Christian Spain’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 1 (2009), 19-35

Denise K. Filios, ‘Expulsion from Paradise: Exiled Intellectuals and Andalusi Tolerance’, in In the Light of Medieval Spain: Islam, the West, and the Relevance of the Past, ed. by Simon R. Doubleday and David Coleman (New York City, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 91–113

John W. Fox, Nada Mourtada-Sabbah & Sulayman N. Khalaf, ‘Ethnography and the Culture of Tolerance in al-Andalus’, Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review, 7 (2006), 146-71 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019)

The Christian Experience in al-Andalus

Charles Lowell Tieszen, Christian Identity amid Islam in Medieval Spain (Leiden: Brill, 2013)

Torki Fahad R. Al-Saud, ‘Notes on the Methodology of Studying the History of the Dhimmis’, in Convivencia and Medieval Spain, ed. by Abate, as above, pp. 131–43

Hanna Kassis, ‘Arabic-Speaking Christians in Al-Andalus in an Age of Turmoil (Fifth/Eleventh Century until A.H. 478/A.D. 1085)’, and Peter Sjoerd van Koningsveld, ‘Christian-Arabic Manuscripts from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa: A Historical Interpretation’, both in al-Qanṭara, 15.2 (1994), 401–22 and 423–51 respectively    

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Week 10. Gold, Slaves and Trade

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Tawfiq Ibrahim and Sebastian Gasparío, Coins of al-Andalus Tonegawa Collection <http://www.andalustonegawa.50g.com/index.htm> [last modified 11 November 2017 as of 26 July 2018]: a huge site! Obviously the coins are lettered in Arabic and are all quite similar, so try just to get a sense of changes over time that people would notice easily. Don’t view every single coin!  

Ibn Hawqal, Configuration of the Earth, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Ibn Hauqal, Configuration de la terre (Kitab surat al-Ard): Introduction et traduction, avec index, ed. by J. H Kramers, trans. by G. Wiet, 2 vols (Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 1964), I, pp. 107‒17    

Secondary Reading

Miquel Crusafont, Anna M. Balaguer and Philip Grierson, Medieval European Coinage, with a Catalogue of the Coins in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 6: The Iberian Peninsula (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 54–65  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 24/09/2019) 

Francisco Franco-Sánchez, ‘The Andalusian Economy in Times of Almanzor: Administrative Theory and Economic Reality through Juridical and Geographic Sources’, Imago Temporis: Medium Aevum, 2 (2008), pp. 83–112 <http://www.raco.cat/index.php/ImagoTemporis/article/view/207048> [last modified 16 January 2012 as of 20 October 2016]    

Questions to Think About

Clearly the splendour of the Caliphate rested on a considerable fiscal base. How was this resource generated and collected, and where did it come from? How come the Caliphate could strike Europe’s only gold coinage of the time? And did the other areas of the peninsula get to share this prosperity?

Background and Orientation

Pedro Chalmeta, ‘An Approximate Picture of the Economy of al-Andalus’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 741–58: handle with care!

*S. M. Imamuddin, The Economic History of Spain ( under the Umayyads, 711–1031 A.D. ) (Dacca: Asiatic Society of Pakistan, 1963) <https://archive.org/details/TheEconomicHistoryOfSpain> [accessed 1 January 2020]

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Almudena Ariza Armada, ‘The Coinage of al-Andalus’, Shedet, 4 (2017), 68–90

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 1st ed. (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1997), pp. 73‒74 (no. 14)

George C. Miles, The Coinage of the Umayyads of Spain, 2 vols (New York City, NY: American Numismatic Society, 1960): the standard English-language reference catalogue, for now

Secondary Writing

Trade

Magdalena Valor Piechotta, ‘Trade, Transport and Travel in Al-Andalus’, in The Archaeology of Medieval Spain, 1100-1500, ed. by Magdalena Valor Piechotta and José Avelino Gutiérrez González (Sheffield: Equinox, 2014), pp. 117‒33  

Florin Curta, ‘Markets in Tenth-Century al-Andalus and Volga Bulgharia: Contrasting Views of Trade in Muslim Europe’, al-Masāq, 25 (2013), 305‒30

Olivia Remie Constable, Trade and Traders in Muslim Spain: The Commercial Realignment of the Iberian Peninsula, 900‒1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) <https://archive.org/details/Tokyo.Elektro_20170811> [accessed 20 July 2019]

Olivia Remie Constable, ‘Muslim Merchants in Andalusi International Trade’, in Jayyusi, The Legacy of Muslim Spain, as above, pp. 759‒66

Social and Religious Aspects, including Slavery

Alfonso Vigil-Escalera Guirado, ‘Meeting Places, Markets, and Churches in the Countryside between Madrid and Toledo, Central Spain (c. AD 500-900)’, in Polity and Neighbourhood in Early Medieval Europe, ed. by Julio Escalona, Orri Vésteinsson, and Stuart Brookes (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 173–202

Adam Gaiser, ‘Slaves and Silver Across the Strait of Gibraltar: Politics and Trade between Umayyad Iberia and Khārijite North Africa’, in Spanning the Strait: Studies in Unity in the Western Mediterranean , ed. by Yuen-Gen Liang, Abigail Krasner Balbale, Andrew Devereux and Camillo Gómez-Rivas (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 41–70   

Ana María Carballeira Debasa, ‘Forms and Functions of Charity in Al-Andalus’, in Charity and Giving in Monotheistic Religions, ed. by Miriam Frenkel and Yaacov Lev (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2009), pp. 203–16

Olivia Remie Constable, ‘Muslim Spain and Mediterranean Slavery: The Medieval Slave Trade as an Aspect of Muslim-Christian Relations’, in Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, ed. by Scott L. Waugh and Peter Diehl (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 264–84 

Stephen P. Bensch, ‘From Prizes of War to Domestic Merchandise: The Changing Face of Slavery in Catalonia and Aragon, 1000-1300’, Viator, 25 (1994), 63–94

Avraham Grossman, ‘The Economic and Social Background of Hostile Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ninth and Tenth Century Muslim Caliphate’, in Antisemitism through the Ages, ed. by Shmuel Almog, trans. by Nathan H. Reisner (New York: Pergamon Press, 1988), pp. 171–87

Money and the Fisc

Eduardo Manzano Moreno and Alberto Canto, ‘The Value of Wealth: Coins and Coinage in Iberian Early Medieval Documents’, in Beyond the Reconquista: New Directions in the History of Medieval Iberia (711-1085). In Honour of Simon Barton, ed. by Simon Barton and Robert Portass (Leiden: Brill, 2020), pp. 169–97

Miguel Barceló, ‘Why and How Did Andalusian Coins Travel to Europe during the Emirate and the Caliphate from 98/716-7 to 403/1012-3?’, Revue de l'Occident Musulmane et de la Méditerranée, 36 (1983), 518

The Economy in the Christian Kingdoms

Álvaro Carvajal Castro, ‘The Use of the Term Uilla in Early Medieval León: A Review of the Economic Base of the Astur-Leonese Monarchy (Ninth-Eleventh Centuries)’, in Polity and Neighbourhood in Early Medieval Europe, ed. by Julio Escalona, Orri Vésteinsson, and Stuart Brookes (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 325–58

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Bovo Soldare: A Sacred Cow of Spanish Economic History Re-Evaluated’, in Early Medieval Monetary History: Studies in Memory of Mark Blackburn, ed. by Rory Naismith, Martin Allen and Elina Screen (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 187–204

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Currency Change in Pre-Millennial Catalonia: Coinage, Counts and Economics’, Numismatic Chronicle, 169 (2009), 217–43

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Week 11. The Collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Abū'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Idhāri al-Marrākushi, Book of the Amazing Story of the History of the Kings of al-Andalus and Maghreb, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from ‘Córdoba de la primera a la segunda conquista de la ciudad por los berberiscos (Nov. 1009–May. 1013) según al-Bayān al-Mugrib de Ibn ‘Idārī«’, trans. by Giorgio Levi della Vida, ed. by Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz and trans. by Iñigo Arias, Cuadernos de Historia de España, 5 (1946), 148–69: translation on Minerva   

Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Maqqarī, The Breath of Perfume from the Branch of Green al-Andalus and Memorials of its Vizier Lisan al-Dīn ibn al-Khatīb, trans. as The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, Extracted from the Nafhu-t-tíb min ghosni-l-Andalusi-r-rattíb wa táríkh lisánu-d-dín Ibni-l-Khattíb, trans. by Pascual de Gayangos, 2 vols (London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1840), II <https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_Ie7TAAAAMAAJ> [last modified 10 December 2014 as of 23 July 2016], pp. 175–244: if necessary, skip pp. 199–220, which are about intellectual life

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Pierre Guichard, From the Arab Conquest to the Reconquest: The Splendour and Fragility of al-Andalus (Granada: Fundación El Legado Andalusī, 2006), pp. 107–32    

Simon Barton, ‘Spain in the Eleventh Century’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV: c. 1024–1198, ed. by David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), ii, 54–90 

Questions to Think About

Between around 970 and 1000 al-Andalus was a power in the Iberian Peninsula like never before, with yearly raids on the Christian north that shook those kingdoms to their foundations. Yet by 1010 the armies of Castile and Barcelona were fighting in the suburbs of Córdoba itself. How had such strength so quickly become such weakness? What were the divisions and who exploited them?

Background and Orientation

Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings: Spain, 796-1031 (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2012), pp. 166–204

Hugh Kennedy, ‘Muslim Spain and Portugal: al-Andalus and its Neighbours’, in Luscombe and Riley-Smith, New Cambridge Medieval History 4, as above, i, 599–622

Hugh Kennedy, ‘Sicily and al-Andalus under Muslim Rule’, and Roger Collins, 'The Spanish Kingdoms', in The New Cambridge Medieval History volume 3, c. 900–c. 1024, ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 646–69 and 670–91 respectively

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 109–29

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Charter of the monastery of Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, 26 July 1012, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Cartulario [del Monasterio] de «Sant Cugat» del Vallés, ed. by José Rius [Serra], 4 vols (Barcelona: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1945‒49, and Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, Dirección General de Bellas Artes, Archivos y Bibliotecas, Subdirección General de Archivos, 1981), ii <https://libro.uca.edu/santcugat2/default.html> [accessed 6 October 2013], pp. 94‒96 (no. 449): up to the appearance of Hisnabert  

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), pp. 252‒59 (no. 44)

Christians and Moors in Spain: vol. 3, Arabic sources (711‒1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 56‒59 (no. 84)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol.1, 711-1150, ed. by Colin Smith (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1988), pp. 76–9

Secondary Writing

Specific Analyses

Peter C. Scales, The Fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba: Berbers and Andalusis in Conflict (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994): the most comprehensive treatment

David Wasserstein, The Rise and Fall of the Party-Kings: Politics and Society in Islamic Spain 1002-1086 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), pp. 55–82

Gabriel Martínez-Gros, ‘The Fall of the Umayyads of Cordova: The End of the Arab Caliphate’, Mediterranean Historical Review, 5 (1990), 117–49     OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 15/06/2020) 

Various Aspects

Simon Barton, ‘Marriage across Frontiers: Sexual Mixing, Power and Identity in Medieval Iberia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 3 (2011), 1–25: touches on 'Amīrid foreign policy

Olivia Remie Constable, ‘Perceptions of the Umayyads in Spanish Christian Chronicles’, in Umayyad Legacies: Medieval Memories from Syria to Spain, ed. by Antoine Borrut and Paul M. Cobb (Leiden: Brill, 2010), pp. 105–30

Mariam S. A. Rosser-Owen, ‘Poems in Stone: the Iconography of 'Amirid Poetry, and its 'Petrification' on 'Amirid Marbles’, in Revisiting al-Andalus: Perspectives on the Material Culture of Islamic Iberia and Beyond, ed. by Glaire D. Anderson (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2007), pp. 83–98

Janice Mann, ‘A New Architecture for a New Order: The Building Projects of Sancho el Mayor (1004–1035)’, in The White Mantle of Churches: Architecture, Liturgy, and Art around the Millennium, ed. by Nigel Hiscock (Turnhout: Brepols, 2003). pp. 233–48

Roger Collins, The Basques, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990), pp. 180–210  

George C. Miles, ‘The Year 400 A.H./1009-1010 A.D. at the Mint of Cordoba’, Nvmisma, 84–9 (1967), 9–25: another way to get at the governmental problems

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Semester 2

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Week 1. The Transformation of the Year 1000 and the Iberian Peninsula

Required Readings

Primary Sources

This seminar will be based around a source-pack of translated documents available on Minerva.

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Pierre Bonnassie, ‘From the Rhône to Galicia: Origins and Modalities of the Feudal Order’, in Pierre Bonnassie, From Slavery to Feudalism in South-Western Europe, trans. by Jean Birrell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 104–30  

Adam Kosto, ‘What about Spain? Iberia in the Historiography of Medieval European Feudalism’, in Feudalism: New Landscapes of Debate, ed. by Sverre Bagge, Michael Gelting and Thomas Lindkvist (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), pp. 135–58 

Questions to Think About

What about the societies of the Iberian Peninsula could be called ‘feudal’ on either side of the year 1000? Were these phenomena shared by other areas or was there something uniquely ‘Spanish’ about them? What does the term ‘feudal’ even describe? And was this situation in flux or stable?

Background and Orientation

Simon Barton, ‘Spain in the Eleventh Century’, and Peter Linehan, ‘Spain in the Twelfth Century’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History volume 4: c. 1024-c. 1198, ed. by David Luscombe & Jonathan Riley-Smith, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), i, 154-90 and ii, 475-509, respectively

Michel Zimmermann, ‘Western Francia: The Southern Principalities’, and Roger Collins, ‘The Spanish Kingdoms’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History volume 3: c. 900–c. 1024, ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 420–56 and 670–91, respectively

Thomas F. Glick, From Muslim Fortress to Christian Castle: Social and Cultural Change in Medieval Spain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995), pp. 92–124  

Further Reading

Primary Sources

‘Historia Roderici’, in The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest: Selected Sources Translated and Annotated, ed. and trans. by Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 90-147

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Debates over Power and Government in the Millennial Iberian Peninsula

Álvaro Carvajal Castro, ‘Collective Action and Local Leaderships in Early Medieval North-Western Iberia: Ninth-Eleventh Centuries’, in Social Inequality in Early Medieval Europe: Local Societies and Beyond, ed. by Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo (Turnhout: Brepols, 2020), pp. 281–300

Álvaro Carvajal Castro, ‘The Monarchy and the Elites in Early Medieval León (Ninth-Eleventh Centuries)’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 7 (2015), 232-48

Flocel Sabaté i Curull, ‘The Catalonia of the 10th to 12th Centuries and the Historiographic Definition of Feudalism’, Catalan Historical Review, 3 (2010), 31–53 <http://revistes.iec.cat/index.php/CHR/article/viewFile/40560/40461> [last modified 25 October 2010 as of 9 March 2014]

Subphenomena

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘A Likely Story: Purpose in Narratives from Charters of the Early Medieval Pyrenees’, in Beyond the Reconquista: New Directions in the History of Medieval Iberia (711–1085). In Honour of Simon Barton, ed. by †Simon Barton and Robert Portass (Leiden: Brill, 2020), pp. 123–42: on the documents and how they work

Álvaro Carvajal Castro and Julio Escalona, ‘The Value of Status: Monetary Penalties in the Charters from León (854–1037)’, Journal of Medieval History, 46.1 (2020), 23–49

Álvaro Carvajal Castro and Josu Narbarte Hernández, ‘Royal Power and Proprietary Churches in the Eleventh-Century Kingdom of Pamplona’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 11.2 (2019), 115–34

Álvaro Carvajal Castro, ‘Assembly Politics and Conflicting Discourses in Early Medieval Leon (10th-11th c.)’, in Premodern Rulership and Contemporary Political Power: The King’s Body Never Dies, ed. by Karolina Anna Mroziewicz and Aleksander Sroczyñski (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2017), pp. 21–46    

Julio Escalona, ‘In the Name of a Distant King: Representing Royal Authority in the County of Castile, c. 900–1038’, Early Medieval Europe, 24 (2016), 74–102

Wendy Davies, ‘Summary Justice and Seigneurial Justice in Northern Iberia on the Eve of the Millennium’, The Haskins Society Journal, 22 (2010), 43–58

*Peter Linehan, ‘The Church and Feudalism in the Spanish Kingdoms in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’, in Chiesa e mondo feudale nei secoli X-XII (Milano: Vita e Pensiero, 1995), pp. 303–31, reprinted in Linehan, The Processes of Politics and the Rule of Law: Studies on the Iberian Kingdoms and Papal Rome in the Middle Ages (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), chapter I  

Paul H. Freedman, The Origins of Peasant Servitude in Medieval Catalonia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 1–118 (esp. pp. 56–118)

The ‘Feudal Transformation’ Elsewhere

Wendy Davies, ‘Free Peasants and Large Landowners in the West’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 90 (2012), 361–80 <http://www.persee.fr/doc/rbph_0035-0818_2012_num_90_2_8329> [last modified 28 May 2016 as of 26 November 2016]

Richard Abels, ‘The Historiography of a Construct: “Feudalism” and the Medieval Historian’, History Compass, 7.3 (2009), 1008–31: historiographical round-up

There is also an extremely illustrative five-way debate in Past and Present, of which Bisson's first piece and especially Barthélemy's and Reuter's responses are the most useful here (cited in chronological order):

• *Thomas N. Bisson, ‘The Feudal Revolution’, Past and Present, 142 (1994), 6–42;

• Dominique Barthélemy, 'Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”. I', trans. by Jean Birrell, Past and Present, 152 (1996), 196–205;

• Stephen D. White, ‘Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”, II’, Past and Present, 152 (1996), 205–23, reprinted as ‘The “Feudal Revolution”: Comment’, in Feuding and Peace-Making in Eleventh-Century France, by Stephen D. White (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), chapter II;

• Timothy Reuter, ‘Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”. III’, Past and Present, 155 (1997), 177–95, repr. as ‘Debating the “Feudal Revolution”’, in Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, by Timothy Reuter, ed. by Janet L. Nelson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 72–88;

• Chris Wickham, ‘Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”. IV’, Past and Present, 155 (1997), 197–208;

• Bisson, ‘Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”. Reply’, Past and Present, 155 (1997), 208–34.

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Week 2. La Frontera and Christian Expansion

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Muḥammad Ibn 'Umar Ibn 'Abd al-Azīz ibn Ibrāhīm ibn 'Isa ibn Mazāhim Ibn al-Qūtīyya, History of the Conquest of al-Andalus, trans. as Early Islamic Spain: The History of Ibn al-Qutiyah, trans. by David James (London: Routledge, 2011), pp. 118–25 

The Fuero of Sepúlveda, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Fuero de Sepúlveda, ed. by Feliciano Callejas (Madrid: Imprenta del Boletín de Jurisprudencía, 1857) <https://archive.org/details/fuerodeseplveda00callgoog> [last modified 3 November 2007 as of 15 February 2017], pp. 7–14   

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Eduardo Manzano Moreno, ‘Christian-Muslim Frontier in al-Andalus: Idea and Reality’, in The Arab Influence in Medieval Europe, ed. by Dionisius Agius & Richard Hitchcock (Reading: Ithaca Press, 1994), pp. 83-96   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 15/06/2020) 

William T. Strong, ‘The Fueros of Northern Spain’, Political Science Quarterly, 8 (1893), 317–34  

Questions to Think About

Who, if anyone, controlled the frontier zones between Christian and Muslim territory? Who settled in frontier zones, and why (and when)? What were the strengths and weaknesses of frontier lords like the Banū Qāsī or al-Jillīqī? And how did rulers on either side of it secure obedience on the frontier?

Background and Orientation

Eduardo Manzano Moreno, ‘The Creation of a Medieval Frontier: Islam and Christianity in the Iberian Peninsula, Eighth to Twelfth Centuries’, Frontiers in Question: Eurasian Borderlands, 700-1700, ed. by Naomi Standen and Daniel Power (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 1999), pp. 32–52

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 30–63: for the various ninth-century frontier warlords

Bernard F. Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 90–138

Manuel González Jiménez, ‘Frontier and Settlement in the Kingdom of Castile (1085–1350)’, in Medieval Frontier Societies, ed. by Robert Bartlett and Angus MacKay (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), pp. 49–74

Further Reading

This is my most active research area so I have found it hard to keep this bibliography short. Choose the area that interests you most to explore!

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 162–73 (nos 27–29, esp. no. 27) or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 123–32 (nos 22–24, esp. no. 22)

The Code of Cuenca: Municipal Law on the Twelfth-Century Castilian Frontier, trans. by James F. Powers (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 124–27 (no. 99)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

On the frontier and frontier relations (there is a lot of duplication between these; be selective)

Richard Hitchcock, ‘Reflections on the Frontier in Early Medieval Iberia’, in The Making of Medieval History, ed. by G. A. Loud and Martial Staub (Woodbridge: York Medieval Press, 2017), pp. 155–96

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Before the Reconquista: Frontier Relations in Medieval Iberia, 718-1031’, in The Routledge Companion to Iberian Studies, ed. by Javier Muñoz-Bassols, Laura Lonsdale and Manuel Delgado Morales (London: Routledge, 2017), pp. 27–40

Peter Linehan, ‘At The Spanish Frontier’, in The Medieval World, ed. by Peter Linehan and Janet L. Nelson (London: Routledge, 2001), pp. 37–59

Ann Christys, ‘Christian-Muslim Frontiers in Early Medieval Spain’, Bulletin of International Medieval Research, 5 (1999), 1–19

Frontier control after the Umayyad Caliphate

Pascal Buresi, ‘The Appearance of the Frontier Concept in the Iberian Peninsula: At the Crossroads of Local, National and Pontifical Strategies (11th-13th Centuries)’, Quaestiones Medii Aevi Novae, Frontiers and Borderlands, 16 (2011), 81–100

Fernando Luis Corral, ‘The Christian Frontier against al-Andalus (Muslim Spain): Concept and Politics during the Reigns of King Fernando I of Castile and Leon and his Successors until 1230’, in Walls, Ramparts, and Lines of Demarcation: Selected Studies from Antiquity to Modern Times, ed. by Natalie M. Fryde and Dirk Reitz (Berlin: Lit, 2009), 67–84

Enrique Rodríguez-Picavea Matilla, ‘The Kingdom of Castile (1157–1212): Towards a Geography of the Southern Frontier’, Mirator, 7 (2005), 1–18 <http://www.glossa.fi/mirator/pdf/frontiersofcastile.pdf> [last modified 27 March 2007 as of 23 December 2016]

Enrique Rodríguez-Picavea Matilla, ‘The Frontier and Royal Power in Medieval Spain: A Developmental Hypothesis’, Medieval History Journal, 8 (2005), 273–301

Theresa M. Vann, ‘Twelfth-Century Castile and its Frontier Strategies’, in The Circle of War in the Middle Ages: Essays on Medieval Military and Naval History, ed. by Donald J. Kagay and L. J. Andrew Villalon (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1999), pp. 21–31

Settlers and settlement

Thomas W. Barton, ‘Lords, Settlers and Shifting Frontiers in Medieval Catalonia’, Journal of Medieval History, 36 (2010), 204–52

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Settling the Kings’ Lands: Aprisio in Catalonia in Perspective’, Early Medieval Europe, 18 (2010), 320–41

W. Clayton Stalls, ‘The Relationship between Conquest and Settlement on the Aragonese Frontier of Alfonso I’, in Iberia and the Mediterranean World of the Middle Ages: Studies in Honor of Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed. by Larry Simon and Paul E. Chevedden, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 1995–96), i, 216–31

W. Clayton Stalls, Possessing the Land: Aragon's Expansion into Islam's Ebro Frontier under Alfonso the Battler, 1104-1134 (Leiden: Brill, 1995)

Lawrence J. McCrank, ‘The Frontier of the Spanish Reconquest and the Land Acquisitions of the Cistercians of Poblet 1150–1276’, Analecta Cisterciensia, 29 (1973), 57–78, reprinted in McCrank, Medieval Frontier History in New Catalonia (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1996), chapter V

Law and Fueros

Liam Moore, ‘By Hand and by Voice: Performance of Royal Charters in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century León’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 5.1 (2013), 18–32

James William Brodman, ‘Municipal Ransoming Law on the Medieval Spanish Frontier’, Speculum, 60 (1985), 318–30

James F. Powers, ‘Frontier Competition and Legal Creativity: A Castilian-Aragonese Case Study Based on Twelfth-Century Municipal Military Law’, Speculum, 52 (1977), 465–87

Heath Portman Dillard, ‘Women in Reconquest Castile: the Fueros of Sepúlveda and Cuenca’, in Women in Medieval Society, ed. by Susan Mosher Stuard (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977), 71–94

Other Specific Questions

José C. Sánchez-Pardo, Rebeca Blanco-Rotea, and Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez, ‘The Church of Santa Comba de Bande and Early Medieval Iberian Architecture: New Chronological Results’, Antiquity, 91.358 (2017), 1011–26

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Engaging Élites: Counts, Capital and Frontier Communities in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, in Catalonia and Elsewhere’, Networks and Neighbours, 2.2 (2014), 202–30 <https://nnthejournal.files.wordpress.com/2018/05/nn-2-2-jarrett-engaging-elites1.pdf> [accessed 12 April 2019]

Simon Barton, ‘Marriage across Frontiers: Sexual Mixing, Power and Identity in Medieval Iberia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 3.1 (2011), 1–25

Ann Christys, ‘Crossing the Frontier of Ninth-Century Hispania’, in Medieval Frontiers: Concepts and Practices, ed. by David Abulafia and Nora Berend (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), pp. 35–53

Aziz al-Azmeh, ‘Mortal Enemies, Invisible Neighbours: Northerners in Andalusī Eyes’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994), pp. 259–72

James William Brodman, ‘Charity and Captives on the Medieval Spanish Frontier’, Anuario Medieval, 1 (1989), 25–36 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

James F. Powers, A Society Organized for War: The Iberian Municipal Militias in the Central Middle Ages, 1000-1284 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988) <https://libro.uca.edu/socwar/war.htm> [accessed 29 July 2018]

Charles Julian Bishko, ‘Salvus of Albelda and Frontier Monasticism in Tenth Century Navarre’, in Studies in Medieval Spanish Frontier History, by Charles Julian Bishko (London: Variorum, 1980) <https://libro.uca.edu/frontier/spanfrontier.htm> [accessed 12 July 2018], chapter I

Charles Julian Bishko, ‘The Castilian as Plainsman: The Medieval Ranching Frontier in La Mancha and Extremadura’, in The New World Looks at its History: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Historians of the United States and Mexico, ed. by Archibald R. Lewis and Thomas F. McGann (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1963), pp. 47–69, repr. in Bishko, Medieval Spanish Frontier History, as above, chapter IV

Abdurrahman Ali el-Hajji, ‘Political Relations between the Andalusian Rebels and Christian Spain during the Umayyad Period (A.H. 138-366/A.D. 755-976)’, The Islamic Quarterly, 10 (1966), 84–94

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Week 3. ‘Party Kings’ and Parias

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Historia Silense, trans. in The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, trans. by Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 9–64 (pp. 41–56, chapters 76–96)   Available online   

Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari, Complete History, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Ibn el-Athir, Annales du Maghreb et de l’Espagne, trans. by Edmond Fagnan (Alger: Alphonse Jourdan, 1901) <https://archive.org/details/ibnelathirannale00ibna> [last modified 25 April 2017 as of 6 February 2019], pp. 435–46): translation on Minerva   

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 130–53  

Anna M. Balaguer, ‘“Parias” and the Myth of the “Mancus”’, in Problems of Medieval Coinage in the Iberian Area 3 : A Symposium held by the Instituto Numismatica Scabitana and the Instituto de Sintra on 46-8 October, 1988, ed. by Mario Gomes Marques and D. M. Metcalf (Santárem: Sociedad Numismática Scalabitana, 1988), pp. 499–545  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019)   

Questions to Think About

Why were so many princedoms ready to emerge at the collapse of the Andalusi Caliphate? Were they as weak as they are depicted, and if so, how did they last so long? How did they muster the wealth with which to keep the Christian kingdoms at bay and what effects did the transfer of that wealth northwards have? And what kind of life would someone living in a taifa state have enjoyed?

Background and Orientation

Pierre Guichard, From the Arab Conquest to the Reconquest: The Splendour and Fragility of al-Andalus (Granada: Fundación El Legado Andalusī, 2006), pp. 133–54

Hugh Kennedy, ‘Muslim Spain and Portugal: al-Andalus and its Neighbours’, and Simon Barton, ‘Spain in the Eleventh Century’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History volume 4: c.1024–c.1198, ed. by David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), i, 599–622 and ii, 154–90, respectively

Richard Fletcher, Moorish Spain (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1992), pp. 79–104

*David J. Wasserstein, The Rise and Fall of the Party-Kings: Politics and Society in Islamic Spain 1002-1086 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985): the most thorough treatment

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1999), pp. 75–108 (nos 15–19)

Cynthia Robinson, ‘Arts of the Taifa Kingdoms’, in Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, ed. by Jerrilynn D. Dodds (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Al_Andalus_The_Art_of_Islamic_Spain> [accessed 24 December 2016], pp. 48–61

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 66–85 (nos 86–90)

Anonymous Chronicle of the Taifa Kings, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Crónica anónima de los Reyes de Taifa, trans. by Felipe Maíllo Salgado (Madrid: Akal, 1991), pp. 17–75

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol.1, 711-1150, ed. by Colin Smith (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1988), pp. 84–7 (no. 17)

‘Abd Allāh ibn Buluggīn, Tibyān, trans. as The Tibyān: Memoirs of ‘Abd Allāh B. Buluggīn, Last Zīrid Amīr of Granada, trans. by Amin T. Tibi (Leiden: Brill, 1986)

The Poems of Mu’tamid, King of Seville, trans. by Dulcie Lawrence Smith (London: John Murray, 1915) <https://archive.org/details/poemsofmutamidk00muta> [last modified 15 December 2010 as of 06 December 2016]

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Political Legitimacy after the Caliphate

Maribel Fierro, ‘On Political Legitimacy in Al-Andalus: A Review Article’, Der Islam, 73 (1996), 138–50

Maribel Fierro, ‘The Qāḍī as Ruler’, in Saber religioso y poder político en el Islam (Madrid: Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional, 1994), pp. 71–116 <http://hdl.handle.net/10261/12303> [accessed 10 June 2020]

Mohammad Benaboud, ‘Asabiyya and Social Relations in al-Andalus during the Period of the Taifa States’, Hespéris: Talmuda, 19 (1981), 5–46

Particular Kingdoms

Travis Bruce, ‘The Taifa of Denia and the Jewish Networks of the Medieval Mediterranean: A Study of the Cairo Geniza and Other Documents’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 10.2 (2018), 147–66

Travis Bruce, ‘Piracy as Statecraft: The Mediterranean Policies of the Fifth/Eleventh-Century Taifa of Denia’, al-Masāq, 22 (2010), 235–48

David J. Wasserstein, ‘The Emergence of the Taifa Kingdom of Toledo’, al-Qantara, 21 (2000), 17–56

Jan P. Hogendijk, ‘Al-Mu'Taman Ibn Hud: 11th Century King of Saragossa and Brilliant Mathematician’, Historia Mathematica, 22 (1995), 1–18

Andrew Handler, The Zirids of Granada (Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press, 1974)

Douglas M. Dunlop, ‘The Dhunnunids of Toledo’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2 (1942), 77–96

Christian-Muslim Relations in the Taifa Era

Diego Sarrió Cucarella, ‘Corresponding across Religious Borders: Al-Bājī’s Response to a Missionary Letter from France’, Medieval Encounters, 18.1 (2012), 1–35

*Travis Bruce, ‘An Intercultural Dialogue between the Muslim Taifa of Denia and the Christian County of Barcelona in the Eleventh Century’, Medieval Encounters, 15 (2009), 1–34

Felipe Fernández-Arnesto, ‘The Survival of a Notion of Reconquista in Late Tenth- and Eleventh-Century León’, in Warriors and Churchmen in the High Middle Ages: Essays presented to Karl Leyser, ed. by Timothy Reuter (London: Hambledon, 1992), pp. 123–43

*Hanna E. Kassis, ’Roots of Conflict: Aspects of Christian-Muslim Confrontation in Eleventh-Century Spain’, in Conversion and Continuity: Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands, Eighth to Eighteenth centuries, ed. by Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990), pp. 151–60

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Dissertation Workshop 3: Research and Analysis

In the course of Week 3 we will schedule a 1-hour workshop where we can check in with each other about how things are going with dissertations. In the previous workshop, all that time ago, we were focused on questions that needed answering: now we will see how we are all going about answering them, and how much further the answers can be developed!

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Week 4. Love and Gender in Christian and Muslim Spain

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Ibn Hazm, The Ring of the Dove, trans. as Ibn Hazam, The Ring of the Dove: A Treatise on the Art and Practice of Arab Love, trans. by A. J. Arberry (London: Luzac & Co., 1925) <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html> [last modified 4 January 2008 as of 10 July 2018]: as much as you like but esp. ‘On Falling in Love at First Sight’, <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch4>, ‘On Falling in Love After Long Association’ <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch5> and ‘Of the Vileness of Sinning’ <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch28>; ‘On Forgetting’ <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch26> also has some interesting details  

Cynthia Robinson, Medieval Andalusian Courtly Culture in the Mediterranean: Hadith Bayad wa Riyad (London: Routledge, 2007), pp. 24–35 (‘The Tale of Bayad and Riyad’, trans. by Cynthia Robinson), repr. in Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World, ed. by Barbara H. Rosenwein, 3rd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018), pp. 344–50    

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Simon Barton, ‘Marriage across Frontiers: Sexual Mixing, Power and Identity in Medieval Iberia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 3 (2011), 1‑25  

Kamila Shamsie, ‘Librarians, Rebels, Property Owners, Slaves: Women in al-Andalus’, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 52 (2016), 178–88 

Questions to Think About

What was the social standing of women in al-Andalus? How did the northern kingdoms compare? What spheres of action did women have in these cultures? And were relations between the sexes in any ways equally balanced?

Background and Orientation

Lucy K. Pick, Her Father’s Daughter: Gender, Power, and Religion in the Early Spanish Kingdoms (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2017)

Simon Barton, Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015)

Ragnhild Johnsrud Zorgati, Pluralism in the Middle Ages: Hybrid Identities, Conversion, and Mixed Marriages in Medieval Iberia (London: Routledge, 2012)

Manuela Marín, ‘Marriage and Sexuality in Al-Andalus’, in Marriage, Love and Sexuality in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia, ed. by Eukene Lacarra Lanz (London: Routledge, 2002), 3–20

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 103–6 (no. 18; also in 1st ed., pp. 77–80, no. 15) and pp. 172–73 (no. 29; also in 1st ed., pp. 131–32, no. 24)

Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih, The Unique Necklace: Al-Iqd al-farid, trans. by Isa J. Boullata, rev. by Roger M. A. Allen, 3 vols (Reading: Garnet, 2006): examples of love poetry dotted throughout

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order by section)

*Jessica Ann Coope, ‘An Etiquette for Women: Women's Experience of Islam in Muslim Spain’, Essays in Medieval Studies, 29 (2013), 75–83

Ibtissam Bouachrim, ‘In the Absence of Men: Representing Andalusi Women’s Sexuality in the Context of Military Conflict’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 4 (2012), 77–81

David Nirenberg, ‘Love between Muslim and Jew in Medieval Spain: A Triangular Affair’, in Jews, Muslims, and Christians in and around the Crown of Aragon: Essays in Honour of Professor Elena Lourie, ed. by Harvey J. Hames (Leiden: Brill, 2004), pp. 127–55   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 15/06/2020) 

Nadia Lachiri, ‘Andalusi Proverbs on Women’, María Luisa Avila Navarro, ‘Women in Andalusi Biographical Sources’, María Jesús Viguera Molins, ‘A Borrowed Space: Andalusi and Maghribi Women in Chronicles’, and Maribel Fierro, ‘Women as Prophets in Islam’, in Writing the Feminine: Women in Arab Sources, ed. by Manuela Marín and Randi Deguilhem (London: I.B. Tauris, 2002), pp. 41–48, 149–63, 165–80 and 183–98

María Jesús Viguera Molins, ‘Asluhu li'l-ma'ali on the Social Status of Andalusi Women’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 709–24

Women's Voices and Actions

Jeffrey Bowman, ‘Record, Chronicle and Oblivion: Remembering and Forgetting Elite Women in Medieval Iberia’, in Beyond the Reconquista: New Directions in the History of Medieval Iberia (711-1085), ed. by †Simon Barton and Robert Portass (Leiden: Brill, 2020), pp. 201–31

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Nuns, Signatures, and Literacy in Late-Carolingian Catalonia’, Traditio, 74 (2019), 125–52

María Elena Jorge Díez, ‘Women and the Architecture of al-Andalus (711 – 1492): a Historiographical Analysis’, in Reassessing the Roles of Women as 'Makers' of Medieval Art and Architecture, ed. by Therese Martin, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 2012), i, 479‒521

Cristina Cuadra García, ‘Religious Women in the Monasteries of Castile-León (VIth-XIth Centuries)’, and Mercedes Vaquero, ‘Women in the Chartularies of Toledo (1101‒1291)’, in Women at Work in Spain, from the Middle Ages to Early Modern Times, ed. by Marilyn Stone and Carmen Benito-Vessels (New York City, NY: Lang, 1998), pp. 33‒63 and 121‒46 respectively

*Nada Mourtada-Sabbah and Adrian Gully, ‘“I am, by God, fit for high positions”: on the Political Role of Women in al-Andalus’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 30 (2003), 183‒209

Lourdes María Álvarez, ‘“This Still Flickering Light”: Reading and Teaching the Women Poets of Al-Andalus’, La corónica, 32 (2003), 79‒88

Asma Afsaruddin, ‘Poetry and Love: The Feminine Contribution in Muslim Spain’, Islamic Studies, 30.1/2 (1991), 157‒69: little more than a list from another work but useful for that at least OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

Marriage and the Law

Ana Miranda, ‘Al-Dalfa’ and the Political Role of the Umm al-Walad in the Late Umayyad Caliphate of al-Andalus’, in A Companion to Global Queenship, ed. by Elena Woodacre (Leeds: ARC Humanities Press, 2018), pp. 171–82

María Isabel Fierro, ‘Ill-Treated Women Seeking Divorce: the Qur'anic Two Arbiters and Judicial Practice among the Malikis in al-Andalus and North Africa’, and David S. Powers, ‘Four Cases relating to Women and Divorce in al-Andalus and the Maghrib, 1100‒1500’, both in Dispensing Justice in Islam: Qadis and their Judgements, ed. by Muhammad Khalid Masud (Leiden: Brill, 2006), pp. 323‒48 and 383‒410, the latter reprinted in Powers, The Development of Islamic Law and Society in the Maghrib (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011), chapter VI

Maya Shatzmiller, ‘Women and Property Rights in al-Andalus and the Maghrib: Social Patterns and Legal Discourse’, Islamic Law and Society, 2 (1995), 219–57

Heath Dillard, ‘Women in Reconquest Castile: The Fueros of Sepúlveda and Cuenca’, in Women in Medieval Society, ed. by Susan Mosher Stuard (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1976), pp. 71–94

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Week 5. The Crown of Catalonia-Aragón: Pacts and Provence

Required Readings

Primary Sources

‘Two Charters from the Liber Feudorum Maior of the Counts of Barcelona’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Liber feudorum maior: Cartulario real que se conserva en el Archivo de la Corona de Aragón, ed. by Francisco Miquel Rosell, 2 vols (Barcelona: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1945–47), ii, 298–300 (nos 815 & 816): on Minerva   

‘Deeds of the Counts of Barcelona’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett and Wolfgang von Chmielewski, from Gesta comitum Barcinonensium, ed. and trans. by Lucien Barrau-Dihigo and Jaume Massó Torrents (Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans, 1925), pp. 3‒5 (cc. 1 and 2) and Les Gesta Comitum Barchinonensium (versió primitiva), la Brevis Historia i altres textos de Ripoll, ed. by Stefano Maria Cingolani (València: Universitat de València, 2012), pp. 126–41 (cc. VI–XI)   

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Thomas N. Bisson, The Medieval Crown of Aragon: A Short History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), pp. 31–57  

Benjamin Wood Westervelt, ‘The Power to Take and the Authority to Hold: Fabrications of Dynastic Legitimacy in Twelfth-Century Catalonia’, The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 29 (1999), 227–52

Questions to Think About

Where were the priorities of the rulers of Barcelona in the period after the collapse of the Andalusi Caliphate? What processes were at work to unify Catalonia and join it to Aragón given their fragmentary beginnings? Was this area differently governed from its neighbours, and if so, why? And how did the count-kings achieve such a foothold in the south of what is now France, and indeed beyond?

Background and Orientation

Bernard F. Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995), pp. 147–80

W. Clayton Stalls, Possessing the Land: Aragon's Expansion into Islam's Ebro Frontier under Alfonso the Battler, 1104-1134 (Leiden: Brill, 1995)

Stephen P. Bensch, Barcelona and its Rulers, 1096-1291 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Pere Albert, The Customs of Catalonia between Lords and Vassals by the Barcelona Canon, Pere Albert: A Practical Guide to Castle Feudalism in Medieval Spain, trans. by Donald J. Kagay (Chicago, IL: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2002)

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 157–61 (no. 26) and 166–71 (no. 28) or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 118–25 (no. 21), 127–30 (no. 23) and 239–49 (no. 43)

The Usatges of Barcelona: The Fundamental Law of Catalonia, ed. by Donald J. Kagay (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994) <http://libro.uca.edu/usatges/usatges.htm> [last modified 7 June 2006 as of 11 July 2018]

A Source Book for Mediaeval History: Selected Documents Illustrating the History of Europe in the Middle Age, ed. by Oliver Thatcher and Edgar Holmes McNeal (New York City, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1905) <https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/thatcher-a-source-book-for-mediaeval-history-selected-documents> [accessed 6 April 2020], no. 71

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Politics and Society

*The Crown of Aragon: A Singular Mediterranean Empire, ed. by David Abulafia and Flocel Sabaté Curull (Leiden: Brill, 2017): esp. Jesús Brufall Sucarrat, ‘The Northeast Iberian Peninsula and its Muslim Rulers’, pp. 37‒69, Adam J. Kosto, ‘Aragon and the Catalan Counties Before the Union’, pp. 70‒91, and Isabel Grifoll, ‘The Culture (Ninth‒Twelfth Centuries): Clerics and Troubadours’, pp. 125‒49

Flocel Sabaté i Curull, ‘The Catalonia of the 10th to 12th Centuries and the Historiographic Definition of Feudalism’, Catalan Historical Review, 3 (2010), 31–53 <http://revistes.iec.cat/index.php/CHR/article/viewFile/40560/40461> [last modified 25 October 2010 as of 9 March 2014]

Josep David Garrido Valls, ‘Enemies and Allies: The Crown of Aragon and al-Andalus in the Twelfth Century’, in Crusaders, Condottieri, and Cannon: Medieval Warfare in Societies around the Mediterranean, ed. by Donald J. Kagay and L. J. Andrew Villalon (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 175–91  

W. Clayton Stalls, ‘Custom, Authority and Community in the Middle Ages: Aragon and Navarre in the Twelfth Century’, in Medieval Iberia: Essays on the History and Literature of Medieval Spain, ed. by Donald J. Kagay and Joseph Thomas Snow (New York City, NY: Lang, 1997), pp. 27–41  

Stephen Bensch, ‘From Prizes of War to Domestic Merchandise: The Changing Face of Slavery in Catalonia and Aragon, 1000–1300’, Viator, 25 (1994), 63–94 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

Thomas N. Bisson, ‘The Rise of Catalonia: Identity, Power, and Ideology in a Twelfth-Century Society’, in Bisson, Medieval France and her Pyrenean Neighbours: Studies in Early Institutional History (London: Hambledon, 1989), pp. 125–52  

Fredric L. Cheyette, ‘The "Sale" of Carcassonne to the Counts of Barcelona (1067-1070) and the Rise of the Trencavels’, Speculum, 63 (1988), 826–64

Stephen Weinberger, ‘Aristocratic Families and Social Stability in Eleventh-Century Provence’, Journal of Medieval History, 8.2 (1982), 149–57  

Elena Lourie, ‘The Will of Alfonso I, "El Batallador," King of Aragon and Navarre: A Reassessment’, Speculum, 50 (1975), 635–51, repr. in Lourie, Crusade and Colonisation: Muslims, Christians and Jews in Medieval Aragon (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1990), chapter III

Tools of Government

Josep Maria Sans i Travé, ‘The Military Orders in Catalonia’, Catalan Historical Review, 4 (2011), 53–82 <http://revistes.iec.cat/index.php/CHR/article/view/54340> [last modified 13 October 2011 as of 23 June 2020]

Travis Bruce, ‘An Intercultural Dialogue between the Muslim Taifa of Denia and the Christian County of Barcelona in the Eleventh Century’, Medieval Encounters, 15.1 (2009), 1–34

Tomas de Montagut, ‘Barcelona, a Society and its Law: 11th–13th Centuries’, Catalan Historical Review, 1 (2008), 35–46 <http://revistes.iec.cat/index.php/CHR/article/viewFile/40577/40476> [last modified 18 April 2009 as of 23 December 2016]

Adam J. Kosto, ‘The Limited Impact of the Usatges de Barcelona in Twelfth-Century Catalonia’, Traditio, 56 (2001), 53–88

Adam J. Kosto, ‘The Liber feudorum maior of the Counts of Barcelona: The Cartulary as an Expression of Power’, Journal of Medieval History, 27 (2001), 1–22

Adam J. Kosto, Making Agreements in Medieval Catalonia: Power, Order, and the Written Word, 1000-1200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Adam J. Kosto, ‘The «Convenientiae» of the Catalan Counts in the Eleventh Century: A Diplomatic and Historical Analysis’, Acta Historica et Archaeologica Mediaevalia, 19 (1998), 191–228 <http://www.raco.cat/index.php/ActaHistorica/article/view/193942/288141> [last modified 27 June 2010 as of 11 July 2018]

W. Clayton Stalls, ‘Queenship and Royal Patrimony in Twelfth-Century Iberia: The Example of Petronila de Aragón’, in Queens, Regents and Potentates, ed. by Theresa M. Vann (Dallas, TX: University of Texas Press, 1993), pp. 49–61

Thomas N. Bisson, ‘Ramon de Caldes, c. 1135- c. 1200: Dean of Barcelona and King's Minister’, in Law, Church, and Society: Essays in Honor of Stephan Kuttner, ed. by Kenneth Pennington and Robert Somerville (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977), pp. 281–92, repr. in Bisson, Medieval France, as above, pp. 187–98

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Week 6. The Legend of el Cid

Required Readings

Primary Source

‘Historia Roderici’, trans. in The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, ed. by Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 90–147   Available online 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Bernard Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 90–128 

Richard Fletcher, ‘Reconquest and Crusade in Spain’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th Series, 37 (1987), 31–47, repr. in The Crusades: Essential Readings, ed. by Thomas F. Madden (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 52–67 and in Spain, Portugal and the Atlantic Frontier of Medieval Europe, ed. by José-Juan López-Portillo (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 69–86   

Simon Barton, ‘El Cid, Cluny and the Medieval Spanish Reconquista’, English Historical Review, 126 (2011), 517–43

Questions to Think About

Was Rodrigo Díaz’s career in any way usual, and if not, what made him so outstandingly successful? Was he motivated by anything other his own self-advancement? How far are treatments of him as a Christian hero missing the point? And why has his legend become so politically powerful?

Background and Orientation

Joseph F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), pp. 1–49

Bernard F. Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995), pp. 74–125

Derek W. Lomax, The Reconquest of Spain (London: Longman, 1978), pp. 68–93   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 15/06/2020) 

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

‘Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris’, in Barton and Fletcher, The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, as above, pp. 148–263

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 86–109 (nos 91–95)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 1, 711-1150, ed. by Colin Smith (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1988), pp. 98–133 (nos 20–26)

‘Abd Allāh ibn Buluggīn, Tibyān, trans. as The Tibyān: Memoirs of ‘Abd Allāh B. Buluggīn, Last Zīrid Amīr of Granada, trans. by Amin T. Tibi (Leiden: Brill, 1986)

The Poem of My Cid, ed. and trans. by Peter Such and John Hodgkinson (Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1987), or otherwise the older The Lay of the Cid, trans. by R. Selden Rose and Leonard Bacon (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1919), ed. by Roy Tennant <http://mcllibrary.org/Cid/> [last modified 4 May 1997 as of 4 November 2016]

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Mikel de Epalza, ‘Islamic Social Structures in Muslim and Christian Valencia’, in Iberia and the Mediterranean World of the Middle Ages: Studies in Honor of Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed. by Larry J. Simon and Paul Chevedden, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 1995–96), ii, 179–90

The Cid and his Legend

Helen Nader, ‘Encountering the Cid’, in The Middle Ages in Texts and Texture: Reflections on Medieval Sources, ed. by Jason Glenn (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011), pp. 177–88

Meirion J. Trow, El Cid: The Making of a Legend (Stroud: Sutton, 2007)

*Richard Fletcher, The Quest for El Cid (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991)

Colin Smith, ‘Two Historians Reassess the Cid’, Anuario Medieval, 2 (1990), 155–71 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

History and Poetry

Michael Harney, ‘The Cantar de Mio Cid as Pre-War Propaganda’, Romance Quarterly, 60 (2013), 74–88

Francisco García Fitz, ‘War in The Lay of the Cid’, Journal of Medieval Military History, 10 (2012), 61–87

Joseph J. Duggan, ‘The Interface between Oral and Written Transmission of the Cantar de mio Cid ’, La corónica, 33 (2005), 51–64

Simon Barton, ‘Reinventing the Hero: The Poetic Portrayal of Rodrigo Díaz, the Cid, in its Political Context’, in Textos épicos castellanos: problemas de edición y crítica, ed. by David G. Pattinson (London: Queen Mary University of London, 2000), pp. 65–84  

Elena Lourie, ‘Black Women Warriors in the Muslim Army Besieging Valencia and the Cid's Victory: A Problem of Interpretation’, Traditio, 55 (2000), 181–209

Derek W. Lomax, ‘The Date of the “Poema del Mio Cid”’, and Geoffrey West, ‘King and Vassal in History and Poetry: A Contrast between the "Historia Roderici" and the "Poema de Mio Cid"’, in "Mio Cid" Studies, ed. by Alan Deyermond (London: Támesis, 1977), pp. 73–81 and pp. 195–208    

Politics and Writing about el Cid

Nora Berend, ‘“The Medieval Origins of Modern Nationalism”? Stephen of Hungary and el Cid of Spain’, in The Creation of Medieval Northern Europe: Christianisation, Social Transformations, and Historiography: Essays in Honour of Sverre Bagge, ed. by Leidulf Melve and Sigbjørn Sønnesyn (Oslo: Dreyer, 2012), pp. 219–45

John Aberth, A Knight at the Movies: Medieval History on Film (London: Routledge, 2003), pp. 63-148

Ramon Menéndez Pidal, The Cid and his Spain, trans. by Harold Sunderland (London: Cass, 1971, reprinted London: Routledge, 2016)

El Cid, dir. by Anthony Mann (Universal Pictures, 1961) <http://www.veoh.com/watch/v203705417FXtwGGp> [last modified 23 August 2010 as of 11 July 2018]: the full three-hour version!

Ideas of Reconquista from Outside

Lucy K. Pick, ‘Rethinking Cluny in Spain’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 5.1 (2013), 1–17

John Williams, ‘Cluny and Spain’, Gesta, 27.1/2 (1988), 93–101

Vicente Cantarino, ‘The Spanish Reconquest: A Cluniac Holy War Against Islam?’, in Islam and the Medieval West: Aspects of Intercultural Relations. Papers Presented at the Ninth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton, ed. by Khalil I. Semaan (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1980), pp. 82-109

Charles Julian Bishko, ‘Fernando I and the Origins of the Leonese-Castilian Alliance with Cluny’, in Bishko, Studies in Medieval Spanish Frontier History (London: Variorum, 1980) <http://libro.uca.edu/frontier/spanfrontier.htm> [last modified 19 December 2003 as of 6 December 2016], chapter II

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Week 7. The Berbers Strike Back: The Almoravid Takeover

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Abd Allāh ibn Buluggīn, Tibyān, printed as The Tibyān: Memoirs of 'Abd Allāh B. Buluggīn, Last Zīrid Amīr of Granada, ed. and trans. by Amin T. Tibi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 113–35 (chapters 7–9), of which pp. 113–23 (chapter 7) repr. as ‘Warfare in Eleventh-Century Spain (Al-Andalus), according to The Tibyan’, ed. by De Re Militari, De Re Militari <http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/SOURCES/tibyan.htm> [last modified 6 March 2012 as of 24 December 2016]  

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 92–9 (no. 93) 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Bernard Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), pp. 99–125  

Amira K. Bennison, The Almoravid and Almohad Empires  (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), pp. 24–62 

Questions to Think About

Why did the Almoravids answer the call of the taifa kings to save al-Andalus? Did they represent an ideologically different government from those that Muslim Spain had known before? How serious a chance did they have of reversing the Christian dominance in the Peninsula? And why in the end did they fail?

Background and Orientation

*Roland A. Messier, The Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio, 2010), esp. pp. 93–172

Pierre Guichard, From the Arab Conquest to the Reconquest: The Splendour and Fragility of al-Andalus (Granada: Fundación El Legado Andalusī, 2006), pp. 167–93

Chris Lowney, A Vanished World: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Medieval Spain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 103–42

Bernard F. Reilly, The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI, 1065–1109 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988) <http://libro.uca.edu/alfonso6/alfonso.htm> [last modified 16 August 2000 as of 24 December 2016], pp. 161–363  

Richard Fletcher, Moorish Spain (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), pp. 105–30

Further Reading

Primary Sources

‘Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris’, in Barton and Fletcher, The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, as above, pp. 148–263

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 106–33 (nos 95–100)

Manuel Casamar Pérez, ‘The Almoravids and Almohads: An Introduction’, in Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, ed. by Jerrilyn Dodds (New York City, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992) <http://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Al_Andalus_The_Art_of_Islamic_Spain> [last modified not specified as of 24 December 2016], pp. 74–83; see also pp. 84–126

Abd Allāh ibn Buluggīn, The Tibyān, as above

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

William Granara, ‘The Battle of Zallaqa Between Mythos to Logos’, in Convivencia and Medieval Spain: Essays in Honor of Thomas F. Glick, ed. by Mark T. Abate (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019), pp. 253–75

Almoravid Ideology and Culture

Alejandro García Sanjuan, ‘Jews and Christians in Almoravid Seville as Portrayed by the Islamic Jurist Ibn Abdun’, Medieval Encounters, 14 (2008), 78–98

*Rachid El Hour, ‘The Andalusian Qadi in the Almoravid Period: Political and Judicial Authority’, Studia Islamica, 91 (2000), 67–84

María Isabel Fierro Bello, ‘Christian Success and Muslim Fear in Andalusi Writings during the Almoravid and Almohad Periods’, in Dhimmis and Others: Jews and Christians and the World of Classical Islam, ed. by Uri Rubin and David J. Wasserstein (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997), pp. 155–78, reprinted in The Almohad Revolution: Politics and Religion in the Islamic West during the Twelfth-Thirteenth Centuries, by Maribel Fierro (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter XI

The Almoravids in Africa

Amira K. Bennison, ‘Liminal States: Morocco and the Iberian Frontier between the Twelfth and Fourteenth Centuries’, James A. Miller, ‘Trading Through Islam: The Interconnections of Sijilmasa, Ghana and the Almoravid Movement’, and Roland A. Messier, ‘Rethinking the Almoravids, Rethinking Ibn KhaldÅ«n’, all Journal of North African Studies, 6 (2001), 11–28, 29–58 and 59–80, and all reprinted in North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World, from the Almoravids to the Algerian War, ed. by Julia-Ann Clancy-Smith (London: Frank Cass, 2001), pp. 11–28, 29–58 and 59–80

Roland A. Messier, ‘The Almoravids: West African Gold and the Gold Currency of the Mediterranean Basin’, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 17 (1974), 31–42

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Week 8. The Creation of Portugal

Required Readings

Primary Sources

On the Capture of Lisbon, printed as ‘De expugnatione Lyxbonensi’, in Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I, ed. by William Stubbs (London: Longmans, 1864), pp. clv–clvi, clx–clxi, clxiv, clxvi, clxxviii–clxxx and 20-23, partially trans. in The Crusades: A Documentary History, ed. by James Brundage (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962), pp. 97–104, ed. as ‘Medieval Sourcebook: Osbernus: De expugnatione Lyxbonensi, 1147 [The Capture of Lisbon]’ by Paul Halsall, Internet Medieval Sourcebook <http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/cap-lisbon.asp> [last modified December 1997 as of 11 July 2018]  

Pope Alexander III, ‘Manifestis Probatum’, printed in Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, ed. by Philip Jaffé (Berlin: Veit, 1851), p. 786, trans. in ‘Manifestis Probatum’, Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifestis_Probatum> [last modified 2 April 2016 as of 11 July 2018]  

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

A. R. Disney, A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire, from Beginnings to 1807, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009–12), volume 1: Portugal, pp. 70–94  

Bernard F. Reilly, ‘Alfonso VII of León-Castilla, the House of Trastámara, and the Emergence of the Kingdom of Portugal’, Mediaeval Studies, 63 (2001), 193–222  

Questions to Think About

Why was the population of what became Portugal so ready to be governed apart from the kingdom of Castile-León? Why did that kingdom fail to prevent the breakaway of this new would-be kingdom? Which of the various agencies which historians have given a rôle in the process of independence—kingdom, counts, Templars, and so on—actually deserve the credit? And was there anything distinctive about Portuguese society at so early a stage?

Background and Orientation

*Stephen Lay, The Reconquest Kings of Portugal: Political and Cultural Reorientation on the Medieval Frontier (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009), pp. 60–170

James Maxwell Anderson, The History of Portugal (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000), pp. 27–38

Peter Linehan, ‘Castile, Portugal and Navarre’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History Volume V c. 1198-c. 1300, ed. by David Abulafia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 668–99

Further Reading

Primary Sources

Afonso Don Henriques, ‘Chronicle’, trans. in Hugh Reilly, ‘The Miracle of Ourique and the Birth of Portugal’, Tradition in Action <http://www.traditioninaction.org/History/A_014_BirthPortugal.htm> [last modified 7 March 2016 as of 11 July 2018]

On the Capture of Lisbon, printed as Osbern and Raol, De expugnatione LyxbonensiThe Conquest of Lisbon, edited from the Unique Manuscript in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, with a Translation into English, ed. and trans. by Charles Wendell David (New York City, NY: Columbia University Press, 1936, repr. with foreword by Jonathan Phillips, 2001)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Crusading and Conquest

Kurt Villads Jensen, Crusading at the Edges of Europe: Denmark and Portugal, c. 1000-c. 1250 (London: Routledge, 2017), esp. pp. 130–85

Luis Adão da Fonseca, ‘The Idea of Crusade in Medieval Portugal. Political Aims and Ideological Framing’, in Crusading on the Edge: Ideas and Practice of Crusading in Iberia and the Baltic Region, 1100-1500 , ed. by Torben K. Nielsen and Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt (Turnhout: Brepols, 2016), pp. 177–98  

Stephen Lay, ‘Miracles, Martyrs and the Cult of Henry the Crusader in Lisbon’, Portuguese Studies, 24.1 (2008), 7–31

Social and Territorial Identity

Catarina Tente, ‘Social Complexity in Local Communities during the Tenth Century in Central-Northern Portugal: Negotiation and Opposition’, in Social Inequality in Early Medieval Europe: Local Societies and Beyond, ed. by Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo (Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2020), pp. 149–64

Abdoolkarim Vakil, ‘From the Reconquista to Portugal islámico: Islamic Heritage in the Shifting Discourses of Portuguese Historiography and National Identity’, Arqueología medieval, 8 (2003), 5–15 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019)

Dan Stanislawski, The Individuality of Portugal: A Study in Historical-Political Geography (Austin, TX: Texas University Press, 1959) <http://libro.uca.edu/stanislawski/portugal.htm> [last modified 25 August 2012 as of 26 December 2016], pp. 137–82

The Origins Question

José Augusto de Sottomayor-Pizarro, ‘Political Origins of Portugal: From County to Kingdom (1096-1143/1157)’, in Catalonia and Portugal: The Iberian Peninsula from the Periphery, ed. by Flocel Sabaté Curull and Luís Adão de Fonseca (Bern: Peter Lang, 2015), 165–204  

Jose M. Valente, ‘The New Frontier: The Role of the Knights Templar in the Establishment of Portugal as an Independent Kingdom’, Mediterranean Studies, 7 (1998), 49–65

James F. Powers, ‘The Creative Interaction between Portuguese and Leonese Municipal Military Law, 1055 to 1279’, Speculum, 62 (1987), 53–80

Charles Julian Bishko, ‘Count Henrique of Portugal, Cluny, and the Antecedents of the Pacto Sucessório’, Revista Portuguesa da História, 13 (1971), 155–88, repr. in Bishko, Spanish and Portuguese Monastic History, 600-1300 (London: Variorum, 1984) <http://libro.uca.edu/monastic/monastic.htm> [last modified 4 February 2004 as of 11 July 2018], chapter IX

On the Capture of Lisbon

*Jonathan Wilson, ‘Enigma of the De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 9.1 (2017), 99–129

Matthew Bennett, ‘Military Aspects of the Conquest of Lisbon, 1147’, in The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences, ed. by Jonathan Phillips and Martin Hoch (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001), pp. 71–89

Jonathan Phillips, ‘Ideas of Crusade and Holy War in De expugnatione Lyxbonensi (The conquest of Lisbon)’, in The Holy Land, Holy Lands, and Christian History, ed. by Robert Swanson (= Studies in Church History, 36 (2000)), 123–41

Susan B. Edgington, ‘The Lisbon Letter of the Second Crusade’, Historical Research, 69 (1996), 328–39

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Dissertation Workshop 4: Structuring the Dissertation and Writing Up

In the course of Week 8 we will have a 1-hour workshop to talk over how to write up the dissertations that you will now be well advanced upon. Whereas at the beginning you will have been wondering how you would ever write something so long, by now if you are typical you will be grieving over what you have that will already clearly not fit inside the word limit. How can all the content you have be filtered and focused? There will be no other agenda or preparation for this discussion; it’s just to share problems and, hopefully, solutions to these and any other dilemmas you’re facing.

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Week 9. The Third Culture: Jews and Tolerance in Medieval Iberia

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), pp. 110‒30 (nos 20 and 21) or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 84‒102 (nos 17 and 18)  

‘Jews and Christians in Teruel: The Fuero of Teruel, 1176 CE’, trans. by Elka Klein, in Internet Medieval Sourcebook, ed. by Paul Halsall <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/1276teruel.asp> [last modified September 1999 as of 9 August 2019]  

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Mark R. Cohen, ‘The “Golden Age” of Jewish-Muslim Relations: Myth and Reality’, in A History of Muslim-Jewish Relations, ed. by Abdelwahab Meddeb and Benjamin Stora (Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2014) <http://assets.press.princeton.edu/chapters/p10098.pdf> [accessed 8 August 2019]  

David J. Wasserstein, ‘Jewish Élites in al-Andalus’, in The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society and Identity, ed. by Daniel H. Frank (Leiden: Brill, 1995), pp. 101–10  

Questions to Think About

How important were Jews in Muslim and Christian Iberian societies, and how did that change over time? Is our élite-level information misleading, or should it provide us with a further basis for believing in convivencia? How much difficulty did Jews ordinarily encounter from Christian and Muslim communities of the Peninsula? What agendas are at work in the Jewish historiography?

Background and Orientation

Jonathan Ray, ‘Images of the Jewish Community in Medieval Iberia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 1.2 (2009), 195–211

Raymond P. Scheindlin, ‘The Jews in Muslim Spain’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992), pp. 188–200

Jane S. Gerber, The Jews of Spain: A History of the Sephardic Experience (New York City, NY: Free Press, 1992), pp. 1–114

Eliyahu Ashtor, The Jews of Moslem Spain, trans. by Aaron Klein and Jenny Machlowitz Klein, 3 vols (Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1973–84): fundamental but huge work, to which too many people resort rather than identify their primary sources!

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

Constable, Medieval Iberia, as above, 2nd ed., pp. 81–86 (no. 14B), 91–92 (no. 16), 172–73 (no. 29) and 227–31 (no. 39) or 1st ed., pp. 71–74 (nos 13B and 14), 131–32 (no. 24) and 175–79 (no. 32)

The Dream of the Poem: Hebrew Poetry from Muslim and Christian Spain 950 – 1492, ed. by Peter Cole (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), pp. 21–170: some great stuff in here

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 78–79 (no. 89)

Maimonides, ‘Letter to Ibn Djabir’, ‘Letter to Samuel ibn Tibbon’, and ‘On Art and Charity’, all in The Jew in the Medieval World: A Sourcebook, 3151791, ed. by Jacob R. Marcus (Cincinatti, OH: The Sinai Press, 1938) <https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015046330851> [last modified not specified as of 9 August 2019], pp. 306–10 and 364–66

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Arguments over Tolerance (see also the Seminar 1 Week 9 bibliography on Convivencia)

Ernest Schonfield, ‘Heine and Convivencia: Coexistence in Muslim Spain’, Oxford German Studies, 47.1 (2018), 35–50

Jonathan Ray, ‘Whose Golden Age? Some Thoughts on Jewish-Christian Relations in Medieval Iberia’, Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations, 6.1 (2011), Ray CP1–11

David J. Wasserstein, ‘The Muslims and the Golden Age of the Jews in Al-Andalus’, in Dhimmis and Others: Jews and Christians and the World of Classical Islam, ed. by Uri Rubin and David J. Wasserstein (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997), pp. 179–96

Detail Cases

Travis Bruce, ‘The Taifa of Denia and the Jewish Networks of the Medieval Mediterranean: a Study of the Cairo Geniza and Other Documents’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 10.2 (2018), 147–66

Sarah Stroumsa, ‘Between Acculturation and Conversion in Islamic Spain: The Case of the BanÅ« Ḥasday’, Mediterranea, 1 (2016), 9–36 <https://www.uco.es/ucopress/ojs/index.php/mediterranea/article/view/5171> [accessed 8 August 2019]

*Mordechai A. Friedman, ‘Sending Funds to Judah Ha-Levi’, in Pesher Naḥum: Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature from Antiquity through the Middle Ages Presented to Norman (Nahum) Golb, ed. by Joel L. Kraemer and Michael G. Wechsler (Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2012), pp. 75–81 <https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/publications/saoc/pesher-nahum-texts-and-studies-jewish-history-and-literature-antiquity> [accessed 7 May 2019]

*Norman Golb, ‘The Caliph’s Favorite: New Light from Manuscript Sources on Hasdai ibn Shaprut of Cordova’ (The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2011) <https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/the_caliph%27s_favorite.pdf> [accessed 7 May 2019]

Harvey J. Hames, A Jew amongst Christians and Muslims: Introspection in Solomon Ibn Adret’s Response to Ibn Hazm’, Mediterranean Historical Review, 25.2 (2010), 203–19

Alejandro García-Sanjuán, ‘Jews and Christians in Almoravid Seville as Portrayed by the Islamic Jurist Ibn ’Abdūn’, Medieval Encounters, 14.1 (2008), 78–98

Mariano Gómez Aranda, ‘Border Crossing and Identity Consciousness in the Jews of Medieval Spain’, in Border Interrogations: Questioning Spanish Frontiers, ed. by Benita Sampedro and Simon R. Doubleday (New York City, NY: Berghahn Books, 2008), pp. 228–45

David Nirenberg, ‘Love between Muslim and Jew in Medieval Spain: A Triangular Affair’, and Thomas F. Glick, ‘“My Master, the Jew”: Observations on Interfaith Scholarly Interaction in the Middle Ages’, both in Jews, Muslims, and Christians in and around the Crown of Aragon: Essays in Honour of Professor Elena Lourie, ed. by Harvey J. Hames (Leiden: Brill, 2004), pp. 127–55 and 157–82

*The Jews in Cordoba (X–XII Centuries), ed. by Jesús Peláez del Rosal and trans. by Patricia A. Sneesby (Córdoba: Ediciones El Almendro, 1987), esp. Jesés Peláez del Rosal, ‘Hasdai ibn Shaprut in the Court of Abd-Ar-Rahman III’, pp. 61–77

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Week 10. Reconquer and Repeat: The Road to las Navas de Tolosa

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Ibn al-Kardabūs, History of al-Andalus, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Ibn al-Kardabūs, Historia de al-Andalus: Estudio, Traducción y Notas, ed. and trans. by Felipe Maíllo Salgado (Madrid: Akal, 1986), pp. 145–50 (cc. 84–8): on Minerva 

First Annals of Toledo, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Enrique Flórez, Pablo Risco and Ángel González Palencia, España sagrada: Theatro geographico-histórico de la Iglesia de España, 52 vols (Madrid: Marín, 1747–1918), XXIII <https://books.google.ca/books? id=zHMOAAAAQAAJ> [last modified 21 Nov 2007 as of 11 July 2018], pp. 381–400: on Minerva 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Joseph F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), pp. 50–77  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Adam J. Kosto, ‘Reconquest, Renaissance, and the Histories of Iberia, ca. 1000-1200’, in European Transformations: The Long Twelfth Century, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble and John van Engen (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2012), pp. 93–116 

Martín Alvira Cabrer, ‘Las Navas de Tolosa: The Beginning of the End of the “Reconquista”? The Battle and its Consequences according to the Christian Sources of the Thirteenth Century’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 4 (2012), 45–51  

Questions to Think About

Did the transition from Almoravid rule to the Almohad Caliphate in Spain cause any serious change to the peninsular situation? Are the ideas of Reconquista or ‘crusade’ that attach to the renewal of Christian campaigns of conquest in this period appropriate or helpful? Were either of them what finally brought the Christian powers of the Peninsula into cooperation at las Navas de Tolosa? And was that battle really the end of Muslim political hope in the Peninsula?

Background and Orientation

María Isabel Fierro, ‘The Islamic West in the Time of Maimonides: The Almohad Revolution’, in "Höre die Wahrheit, wer sie auch spricht": Stationen des Werks von Moses Maimonides vom islamischen Spanien bis ins moderne Berlin (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 2014), pp. 21–31

Amira K. Bennison, The Almoravid and Almohad Empires (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), pp. 63–117

David Abulafia, ‘The Rise of Aragon-Catalonia’, and Peter Linehan, ‘Castile, Portugal and Navarre’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History Volume V c. 1198-c. 1300, ed. by David Abulafia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 644–67 and 668–99 respectively

Bernard Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 129–59

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

A German Third Crusader's Chronicle of his Voyage and the Siege of Almohad Silves, 1189 AD/Muwahid Xelb, 585 AH: De itinere navali, trans. by Dana Cushing (Tuscon, AZ: Antimony, 2013)

Manuel Casamar Pérez, ‘The Almoravids and Almohads: An Introduction’, in Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, ed. by Jerrilyn Dodds (New York City, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992) <http://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Al_Andalus_The_Art_of_Islamic_Spain> [last modified as of 24 December 2016], pp. 84–126

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 134–48 (nos 101 and 102)

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 239–70 (nos 42–47), or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 85–206 (nos 34–37)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Almohad Spain

Anthony Minnema, ‘A Ṭā’ifa in Exile: Sayf al-Dawla and the Survival of the Banū Hūd’, al-Masāq, 31.1 (2019), 1–19

Josep Torró, ‘The Eastern Regions of al-Andalus before the Conquest by Catalonia-Aragon: An Overview’, Catalan Historical Review, 5 (2012), 11–27

María Isabel Fierro, ‘Conversion, Ancestry and Universal Religion: The Case of the Almohads in the Islamic West (Sixth/Twelfth-Seventh/Thirteenth Centuries)’, Eva Lapiedra Gutiérrez, ‘Christian Participation in Almohad Armies and Personal Guards’, David Abulafia, ‘Christian Merchants in the Almohad Cities’, and David Corcos, ‘The Nature of the Almohad Rulers' Treatment of the Jews’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 2 (2010), 155–73, 235–50, 251–57, and 259–85 respectively

Derek W. Lomax, ‘Heresy and Orthodoxy in the Fall of Almohad Spain’, in God and Man in Medieval Spain: Essays in Honour of J. R. L. Highfield, ed. by Derek W. Lomax and David Mackenzie (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1989), pp. 37–48

Reconquista and Historiography

Alejandro García-Sanjuán, ‘Rejecting al-Andalus, Exalting the Reconquista: Historical Memory in Contemporary Spain’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 10 (2018), 127–45

Jonathan Ray, ‘Beyond Tolerance and Persecution: Reassessing Our Approach to Medieval “Convivencia’, Jewish Social Studies, 11.2 (2005), 1–18

Contemporary Approaches to Renewed Conquest

Michael Harney, ‘The Cantar de Mio Cid as Pre-War Propaganda’, Romance Quarterly, 60 (2013), 74–88

Jace Stuckey, ‘Charlemagne as Crusader? Memory, Propaganda, and the Many Uses of Charlemagne’s Legendary Expedition to Spain’, in The Legend of Charlemagne in the Middle Ages: Power, Faith, and Crusade, ed. by Matthew Gabriele and Jace Stuckey (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 137–52

Noel Fallows, ‘Against the Arabs: Propaganda and Paradox in Medieval Castile’, in Medieval Iberia: Changing Societies and Cultures in Contact and Transition, ed. by Ivy A. Corfis and Ray Harris-Northall (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007), pp. 57–69

François Soyer, ‘Muslim Freedmen in León, Castile and Portugal (1100-1300)’, al-Masāq, 18 (2006), 129–44

Simon Barton, ‘Traitors to the Faith? Christian Mercenaries in al-Andalus and the Maghreb, c.1100–1300’, in Medieval Spain: Culture, Conflict, and Coexistence: Studies in Honour of Angus MacKay, ed. by Roger Collins and Anthony Goodman (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), pp. 23–45

Las Navas de Tolosa and its Consequences

Jonathan Ray, ‘The Reconquista and the Jews: 1212 from the Perspective of Jewish History’, Journal of Medieval History, 40 (2014), 159–75

David Cantor Echols, ‘Kingship, Crusade, and the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Chronica Latina Regum Castellae ’, Romance Quarterly, 60 (2013), 102–13

The first issue of Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 4 (2012), was a commemorative one for las Navas de Tolosa, and has a number of directly relevant articles, of which some are:

• Francisco García Fitz, ‘Was Las Navas a Decisive Battle? ’, 5–9

• Miguel Gómez, ‘Las Navas de Tolosa and the Culture of Crusade in the Kingdom of Castile’, 11–14

• Josep Torró, ‘Was the Christian Conquest of al-Andalus Irreversible? ’, 59–65, and

• Bernard Reilly, ‘Las Navas de Tolosa and the Changing Balance of Power’, 83–7

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Week 11. Granada and Aftermath

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Maqqarī, The Breath of Perfume from the Branch of Green al-Andalus and Memorials of its Vizier Lisan al-Dīn ibn al-Khatīb, trans. as The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain: extracted from the Nafhu-t-tíb min ghosni-l-Andalusi-r-rattíb wa táríkh lisánu-d-dín Ibni-l-Khattíb, trans. by Pascual de Gayangos, 2 vols (London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1840), ii <https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_Ie7TAAAAMAAJ>, last modified 10 December 2014 as of 9 July 2018, 339–53 (Book II chapter V)  

Washington Irving, Tales of The Alhambra, rev. ed. (Paris: Baudry’s European Library, 1832), pp. 127–54 (‘Legend of the Arabian Astrologer’)  

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Salah Zaimeche, ‘Granada – The Last Refuge of Mulsims in Spain’, Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization <http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/Granada.pdf> [last modified 20 December 2004 as of 11 July 2018]  

Serafin Fanjul, ‘Uses of a Myth: al-Andalus’, Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature, 33 (2009), 227–47 <http://newprairiepress.org/sttcl/vol33/iss2/3/> [last modified 3 July 2014 as of 27 July 2018] 

Questions to Think About

If the fall of Muslim Spain was inevitable after 1212, why did Muslim rule in the peninsula last until 1492? What was there about the survivor state in Granada that made it so long-lasting? Why has it become a site of such legends and fables? And how far is the reputation that it has bequeathed to Muslim Spain as a whole fair or adequate?

Background and Orientation

*David S. Abulafia, ‘The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History Volume 5: c.1198-c.1300, ed. by David S. Abulafia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 636–43

Bernard Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 190–209

Richard Fletcher, Moorish Spain (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), pp. 157–76

*L. P. Harvey, Islamic Spain, 1250-1500 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1990)

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 435–523 (nos 74–85), or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 315–70 (nos 56–63)

Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, ed. by Jerrilynn D. Dodds (New York City, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Al_Andalus_The_Art_of_Islamic_Spain> [last modified 24 December 2016 as of 11 July 2018], pp. 126–71 (the Alhambra) and 264–391 (objects)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘Ubaydlī (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 142–91 (nos 103–12)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Nasrid Politics and Government

Adela Fábregas, ‘Agents of Local Power in the Nasrid Kingdom: Their Influence on Social Networks and Leadership’ and Alberto García Porras, ‘Nasrid Frontier Fortresses and Manifestations of Power: The Alcazaba of Moclín Castle as Revealed by Recent Archaeological Research’ and, both in Power and Rural Communities in al-Andalus: Ideological and Material Representations , ed. by Adela Pilar Fábregas García and Flocel Sabaté Curull (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015), pp. 1–15 and 113–33

Bárbara Boix Gallardo, ‘The Genealogical Legitimization of the Nasrid Dynasty: The Alleged Ansari Origins of the Banu Nasr’, in The Articulation of Power in Medieval Iberia and the Maghrib, ed. by Amira K. Bennison (= Proceedings of the British Academy, 195 (2014)), 61–86

Diego Melo Carrasco, ‘A Possible Periodisation of the Treaties of Peace and Truce between al-Andalus and the Christian Kingdoms (Nasrid Sultanate of Granada with Castile and Aragon) 13th–15th Centuries’, Imago Temporis: Medium Aevum, 8 (2014), 211–38 <http://www.raco.cat/index.php/ImagoTemporis/article/view/299266> [last modified 17 October 2015 as of 28 December 2016]

The Real Alhambra

Carmen Lícia Palazzo, ‘The Cordoba Mosque and the Alhambra of Granada: Founding Monument and Final Testimony of al-Andalus’, Mirabilia, 21 (2015), 178–96 <http://www.revistamirabilia.com/sites/default/files/pdfs/21-10.pdf> [last modified 4 June 2018 as of 11 July 2018]

Lara Eggleton, ‘Crumbling Empires, Nostalgia and the Politics of Ornament in Naṣrid Granada’, in Postcards from the Edge: European Peripheries in the Middle Ages, ed. by Liz Mylod and Zsuzsanna Reed Papp (Leeds: Institute of Medieval Studies, University of Leeds, 2011), pp. 179–207  

Cynthia Robinson, ‘Arthur in the Alhambra? Narrative and Nasrid Courtly Self-Fashioning in the Hall of Justice Ceiling Paintings’, Medieval Encounters, 14 (2008), 164–98

Meanings of al-Andalus

Mariano Delgado, ‘From Acceptance to Religious Freedom: Considerations for Convivencia in Medieval Spain and Multireligious Coexistence Today’, trans. by Martha M. Matesich, in Contested Spaces, Common Ground: Space and Power Structures in Contemporary Multireligious Societies, ed. by Ulrich Winkler, Lidia Rodríguez Fernández and Oddbjørn Leirvik (Leiden: Brill, 2017), pp. 225‒40

Muneeza Shamsie, ‘Introduction: The Enduring Legacy of al-Andalus’, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 52.2 (2016), 127–35

Eric Calderwood, ‘The Invention of al-Andalus: Discovering the Past and Creating the Present in Granada’s Islamic Tourism Sites’, Journal of North African Studies, 19 (2014), 27–55

Brad Erickson, ‘Utopian Virtues: Muslim Neighbors, Ritual Sociality, and the Politics of Convivència’, American Ethnologist, 38.1 (2011), 114–31

David Coleman, ‘The Persistence of the Past in the Albaicín: Granada’s New Mosque and the Question of Historical Relevance’, in In the Light of Medieval Spain: Islam, the West and the Relevance of the Past, ed. by Simon Doubleday and David Coleman (New York City: Springer, 2008), pp. 157–88

Maria Jesús Rubiera Mata and Mikel de Epalza, ‘Al-Andalus: Between Myth and History’, History and Anthropology, 18 (2007), 269–73

Margarita López Gómez, ‘Islamic Civilisation in al-Andalus: A Final Assessment’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 1059–62

This list was last updated on 28/06/2020