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HIST3001
Weekly Reading Lists for Semester 2

Conquest, Convivencia and Conflict: Christian and Muslim Spain, 711-1212, 2019/20, Semester 1, 2
Dr Jonathan Jarrett
TBC
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

ISBN: 9789004349612 (e-book)Week 1. The Transformation of the Year 1000 and the Iberian Peninsula

Required Readings

Primary Sources

This seminar will be based around a source-pack of translated documents made available on Minerva.

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Pierre Bonnassie, ‘From the Rhône to Galicia: Origins and Modalities of the Feudal Order’, in Pierre Bonnassie, From Slavery to Feudalism in South-Western Europe, trans. by Jean Birrell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 104–30

Adam Kosto, ‘What about Spain? Iberia in the Historiography of Medieval European Feudalism’, in Feudalism: New Landscapes of Debate, ed. by Sverre Bagge, Michael Gelting and Thomas Lindkvist (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), pp. 135–58 

Questions to Think About

What is there about the social and political structures of the northern, or indeed the southern, Iberian Peninsula that could be called ‘feudal’ on either side of the year 1000? Were these phenomena shared by other areas or was there something uniquely ‘Spanish’ about them? How sure are we what the term ‘feudal’ even describes? And was this a situation in flux or a stable one?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

‘Historia Roderici’, in The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest: Selected Sources Translated and Annotated, ed. and trans. by Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 90-147

AbÅ« Marwān Hayyān ibn Jalaf Ibn Hayyān, Citations, partially trans. by Paul Cobb as ‘The Siege of Bobastro’ and ‘Peace with Christian Barcelona (939)’, in Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997), pp. 68-72

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

General Background

Simon Barton, ‘Spain in the Eleventh Century’, and Peter Linehan, ‘Spain in the Twelfth Century’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History volume 4: c.1024-c.1198, ed. by David Luscombe & Jonathan Riley-Smith, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), I, pp. 154-90 and II, pp. 475-509, respectively

Michel Zimmermann, ‘Western Francia: The Southern Principalities’, and Roger Collins, ‘The Spanish Kingdoms’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History volume 3: c.900–c.1024, ed. by Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 420–56 and 670–91, respectively

Debates over Power and Government in the Millennial Iberian Peninsula

Marco Zuccato, ‘Nobisque Potius Obaedire Delegistis Quam Hismahelitis : The Political Predicament of Tenth-Century Catalonia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 11.1 (2019), 1–18

Álvaro Carvajal Castro and Josu Narbarte Hernández, ‘Royal Power and Proprietary Churches in the Eleventh-Century Kingdom of Pamplona’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 11.2 (2019)

*Álvaro Carvajal Castro, ‘The Monarchy and the Elites in Early Medieval León (Ninth-Eleventh Centuries)’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 7 (2015), 232-48

Flocel Sabaté i Curull, ‘The Catalonia of the 10th to 12th Centuries and the Historiographic Definition of Feudalism’, Catalan Historical Review, 3 (2010), 31–53 <http://revistes.iec.cat/index.php/CHR/article/viewFile/40560/40461> [last modified 25 October 2010 as of 9 March 2014]

*Thomas F. Glick, From Muslim Fortress to Christian Castle: Social and Cultural Change in Medieval Spain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995), pp. 92–124

María Isabel Fierro Bello, ‘Four Questions in Connection with Ibn Hafsun’, in The Formation of al-Andalus, 1: History and Society, ed. by Manuela Marín (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 291–328

Subphenomena

Julio Escalona, ‘In the Name of a Distant King: Representing Royal Authority in the County of Castile, c. 900–1038’, Early Medieval Europe, 24 (2016), 74–102

Wendy Davies, ‘Free Peasants and Large Landowners in the West’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 90 (2012), 361–80 <http://www.persee.fr/doc/rbph_0035-0818_2012_num_90_2_8329> [last modified 28 May 2016 as of 26 November 2016]

Wendy Davies, ‘Summary Justice and Seigneurial Justice in Northern Iberia on the Eve of the Millennium’, The Haskins Society Journal, 22 (2010), 43–58

Wendy Davies, ‘Lordship and Community: Northern Spain on the Eve of the Year 1000’, Past & Present, 195 (2007), 18–33

*Peter Linehan, ‘The Church and Feudalism in the Spanish Kingdoms in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’, in Chiesa e mondo feudale nei secoli X-XII. Atti della dodicesima Settimana internazionale di studio. Mendola 24-28 agosto 1992 (= Miscellanea del Centro di Studi Medievali, 14 (1995)), 303–31, repr. in Linehan, The Processes of Politics and the Rule of Law: Studies on the Iberian Kingdoms and Papal Rome in the Middle Ages (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), chapter I

Paul H. Freedman, The Origins of Peasant Servitude in Medieval Catalonia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 1–118 (esp. pp. 56–118)

The ‘Feudal Transformation’ Elsewhere

Richard Abels, ‘The Historiography of a Construct: “Feudalism” and the Medieval Historian’, History Compass, 7.3 (2009), 1008–31: historiographical round-up

There is also an extremely illustrative five-way debate in Past and Present, of which Bisson's first piece and especially Barthélemy's and Reuter's responses are the most useful here (cited in chronological order):

• *Thomas N. Bisson, ‘The Feudal Revolution’, Past and Present, 142 (1994), 6–42;

• Dominique Barthélemy, 'Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”. I', trans. by Jean Birrell, Past and Present, 152 (1996), 196–205;

• Stephen D. White, ‘Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”, II’, Past and Present, 152 (1996), 205–23, repr. as ‘The “Feudal Revolution”: Comment’, in White, Feuding and Peace-Making in Eleventh-Century France (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), chapter II;

• Timothy Reuter, ‘Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”. III’, Past and Present, 155 (1997), 177–95, repr. as ‘Debating the “Feudal Revolution”’, in Reuter, Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, ed. by Janet L. Nelson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 72–88;

• Chris Wickham, ‘Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”. IV’, Past and Present, 155 (1997), 197–208;

• Bisson, ‘Debate: The “Feudal Revolution”. Reply’, Past and Present, 155 (1997), 208–34.

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Week 2. ‘Party Kings’ and Parias

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Historia Silense, trans. in The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, trans. by Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 9–64 (pp. 41–56, chapters 76–96)  

Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari, Complete History, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Ibn el-Athir, Annales du Maghreb et de l’Espagne, trans. by Edmond Fagnan (Alger: Alphonse Jourdan, 1901) <https://archive.org/details/ibnelathirannale00ibna> [last modified 25 April 2017 as of 6 February 2019], pp. 435–46): translation on Minerva
 
 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 130–53  

Anna M. Balaguer, ‘“Parias” and the Myth of the “Mancus”’, in Problems of Medieval Coinage in the Iberian Area 3 : A Symposium held by the Instituto Numismatica Scabitana and the Instituto de Sintra on 46-8 October, 1988, ed. by Mario Gomes Marques and D. M. Metcalf (Santárem: Sociedad Numismática Scalabitana, 1988), pp. 499–545  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

Questions to Think About

Why were so many princedoms ready to emerge at the collapse of the Andalusi Caliphate? Were they as weak as they are depicted, and if so, how did they last so long? How did they muster the wealth with which to keep the Christian kingdoms at bay and what effects did the transfer of that wealth northwards have? And what kind of life would someone living in a taifa state have enjoyed?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1999), pp. 75–108 (nos 15–19)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 66–85 (nos 86–90)

'Anonymous Chronicle of the Taifa Kings, cc. 19–23', unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Crónica anónima de los Reyes de Taifa, trans. by Felipe Maíllo Salgado (Madrid: Akal, 1991), pp. 41–54; the whole work is of relevance, of course, but the translation, which deals with València, is on Minerva

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol.1, 711-1150, ed. by Colin Smith (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1988), pp. 84–7 (no. 17)

‘Abd Allāh ibn BuluggÄ«n, Tibyān, trans. as The Tibyān: Memoirs of Ê»Abd Allāh B. BuluggÄ«n, Last ZÄ«rid AmÄ«r of Granada, trans. by Amin T. Tibi (Leiden: Brill, 1986)

The Poems of Mu’tamid , King of Seville, trans. by Dulcie Lawrence Smith (London: John Murray, 1915) <https://archive.org/details/poemsofmutamidk00muta> [last modified 15 December 2010 as of 06 December 2016]

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

General

Hugh Kennedy, ‘Muslim Spain and Portugal: al-Andalus and its Neighbours’, and Simon Barton, ‘Spain in the Eleventh Century’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History volume 4: c.1024–c.1198, ed. by David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), I, pp. 599–622 and II, pp. 154–90, respectively

Richard Fletcher, Moorish Spain (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1992), pp. 79–104

*David J. Wasserstein, The Rise and Fall of the Party-Kings: Politics and Society in Islamic Spain 1002-1086 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985)

Mohammad Benaboud, ‘Asabiyya and Social Relations in al-Andalus during the Period of the Taifa States’, Hespéris: Talmuda, 19 (1981), 5–46

Particular Kingdoms

Travis Bruce, ‘The Taifa of Denia and the Jewish Networks of the Medieval Mediterranean: A Study of the Cairo Geniza and Other Documents’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 10.2 (2018), 147–66

Travis Bruce, ‘Piracy as Statecraft: The Mediterranean Policies of the Fifth/Eleventh-Century Taifa of Denia’, al-Masāq, 22 (2010), 235–48

David J. Wasserstein, ‘The Emergence of the Taifa Kingdom of Toledo’, al-Qantara, 21 (2000), 17–56

Jan P. Hogendijk, ‘Al-Mu'Taman Ibn Hud: 11th Century King of Saragossa and Brilliant Mathematician’, Historia Mathematica, 22 (1995), 1–18

Andrew Handler, The Zirids of Granada (Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press, 1974)

Douglas M. Dunlop, ‘The Dhunnunids of Toledo’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2 (1942), 77–96

Christian-Muslim Relations in the Taifa Era

*Travis Bruce, ‘An Intercultural Dialogue between the Muslim Taifa of Denia and the Christian County of Barcelona in the Eleventh Century’, Medieval Encounters, 15 (2009), 1–34

Felipe Fernández-Arnesto, ‘The Survival of a Notion of Reconquista in Late Tenth- and Eleventh-Century León’, in Warriors and Churchmen in the High Middle Ages: Essays presented to Karl Leyser, ed. by Timothy Reuter (London: Hambledon, 1992), pp. 123–43

*Hanna E. Kassis, ’Roots of Conflict: Aspects of Christian-Muslim Confrontation in Eleventh-Century Spain’, in Conversion and Continuity: Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands, Eighth to Eighteenth centuries, ed. by Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990), pp. 151–60

Lynn Harry Nelson, ‘Christian-Muslim Relations in Eleventh-Century Spain’, Military Affairs, 43 (1979), 195–98

Charles Julian Bishko, ‘Fernando I and the Origins of the Leonese-Castilian Alliance with Cluny’, in Bishko, Studies in Medieval Spanish Frontier History (London: Variorum, 1980) <http://libro.uca.edu/frontier/spanfrontier.htm> [last modified 19 December 2003 as of 06 December 2016], chapter II

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Week 3. Love and Gender in Christian and Muslim Spain

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Ibn Hazm, The Ring of the Dove, trans. as Ibn Hazam, The Ring of the Dove: A Treatise on the Art and Practice of Arab Love, trans. by A. J. Arberry (London: Luzac & Co., 1925) <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html> [last modified 4 January 2008 as of 10 July 2018]: as much as you like but esp. ‘On Falling in Love at First Sight’, <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch4>, ‘On Falling in Love After Long Association’ <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch5> and ‘Of the Vileness of Sinning’ <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch28>; ‘On Forgetting’ <http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch26> also has some interesting details  

Cynthia Robinson, Medieval Andalusian Courtly Culture in the Mediterranean: Hadith Bayad wa Riyad (London: Routledge, 2007), pp. 24‒35 (‘The Tale of Bayad and Riyad’, trans. by Cynthia Robinson), repr. in Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World, ed. by Barbara H. Rosenwein, 3rd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018), pp. 344‒50    

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Simon Barton, ‘Marriage across Frontiers: Sexual Mixing, Power and Identity in Medieval Iberia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian StudiesISSN: 1754-6559; 1754-6567, 3 (2011), 1‑25  

Kamila Shamsie, ‘Librarians, Rebels, Property Owners, Slaves: Women in al-Andalus’, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 52 (2016), 178–88 

Questions to Think About

What was the social standing of women in al-Andalus? How did the northern kingdoms compare? What spheres of action did women have in these cultures? And were relations between the sexes in any ways equally balanced?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 103‑6 (no. 18; also in 1st ed., pp. 77‑80, no. 15) and pp. 172‑3 (no. 29; also in 1st ed., pp. 131‑32, no. 24)

Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih, The Unique Necklace: Al-Iqd al-faridISBN: 9781859641842 (v. 1); 1859641849 (v. 1); 9781859642269 (v. 2); 1859642268 (v. 2); 9781859642405 (v. 3); 1859642403 (v. 3), trans. by Isa J. Boullata, rev. by Roger M. A. Allen, 3 vols (Reading: Garnet, 2006): examples of love poetry dotted throughout

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order by section)

*Simon Barton, Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia ISBN: 9780812246759 (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015)

*Jessica Ann Coope, ‘An Etiquette for Women: Women's Experience of Islam in Muslim Spain’, Essays in Medieval StudiesISSN: 1043-2213, 29 (2013), 75‑83

David J. Wasserstein, ‘Ibn Ḥazm and al-Andalus’, in Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker, ed. by Camilla Adang, Maria Isabel Fierro, and Sabine Schmidtke (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 69–86

Ragnhild Johnsrud Zorgati, Pluralism in the Middle Ages: Hybrid Identities, Conversion, and Mixed Marriages in Medieval Iberia (London: Routledge, 2012)

Nada Mourtada-Sabbah and Adrian Gully, ‘“I am, by God, fit for high positions”: on the Political Role of Women in al-Andalus’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 30 (2003), 183‑209

Manuela Marín, ‘Marriage and Sexuality in Al-Andalus’, in Marriage, Love and Sexuality in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia, ed. by Eukene Lacarra Lanz (London: Routledge, 2002), 3‑20

Cristina Cuadra García, ‘Religious Women in the Monasteries of Castile-León (VIth-XIth Centuries)’, in Women at Work in Spain, from the Middle Ages to Early Modern TimesISBN: 9780820436708; 0820436704, ed. by Marilyn Stone and Carmen Benito-Vessels (New York City, NY: Lang, 1998), pp. 33‑63

Women from a Male Perspective

Ibtissam Bouachrim, ‘In the Absence of Men: Representing Andalusi Women’s Sexuality in the Context of Military Conflict’, Journal of Medieval Iberian StudiesISSN: 1754-6559; 1754-6567, 4 (2012), 77‑81

Nadia Lachiri, ‘Andalusi Proverbs on Women’, María Luisa Avila Navarro, ‘Women in Andalusi Biographical Sources’, and María Jesús Viguera Molins, ‘A Borrowed Space: Andalusi and Maghribi Women in Chronicles’, in Writing the Feminine: Women in Arab SourcesISBN: 1860646972, ed. by Manuela Marín and Randi Deguilhem (London: I.B. Tauris, 2002), pp. 41‑8, 149‑63 and 165‑80

María Jesús Viguera Molins, ‘Asluhu li'l-ma'ali on the Social Status of Andalusi Women’, in The Legacy of Muslim SpainISBN: 9004095993, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 709‑24

Women’s Voices and Actions

Miriam Shadis, Berenguela of Castile (1180-1246) and Political Women in the High Middle Ages ISBN: 9780312234737 (hbk.) (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

María Elena Jorge Díez, ‘Women and the Architecture of al-Andalus (711 – 1492): a Historiographical Analysis’, in Reassessing the Roles of Women as 'Makers' of Medieval Art and ArchitectureISBN: 9789004185555 (hardback set : alk. paper); 9789004228276 (hardback v. 1 : alk. paper); 9789004228283 (hardback v. 2 : alk. paper); 9789004228320 (e-book), ed. by Therese Martin, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 2012), I, pp. 479‑521

Lourdes María Álvarez, ‘“This Still Flickering Light”: Reading and Teaching the Women Poets of Al-Andalus’, La corónica, 32 (2003), 79‑88

Mercedes Vaquero, ‘Women in the Chartularies of Toledo (1101‑1291)’, in Stone and Benito-Vessels, Women at Work in Spain, ISBN: 9780820436708; 0820436704 as above, pp. 121‑46

Asma Afsaruddin, ‘Poetry and Love: The Feminine Contribution in Muslim Spain’, Islamic Studies, 30.1/2 (1991), 157‒69: little more than a list from another work but useful for that at least OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

Marriage and the Law

María Isabel Fierro, ‘Ill-Treated Women Seeking Divorce: the Qur'anic Two Arbiters and Judicial Practice among the Malikis in al-Andalus and North Africa’, and David S. Powers, ‘Four Cases relating to Women and Divorce in al-Andalus and the Maghrib, 1100‑1500’, both in Dispensing Justice in Islam: Qadis and their JudgementsISBN: 9789004226838 (pbk.) : No price; 9004226834 (pbk.) : No pric, ed. by Muhammad Khalid Masud (Leiden: Brill, 2006), pp. 323‑48 and 383‑410, the latter repr. in Powers, The Development of Islamic Law and Society in the Maghrib (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011), chapter VI

Maya Shatzmiller, ‘Women and Property Rights in al-Andalus and the Maghrib: Social Patterns and Legal Discourse’, Islamic Law and SocietyISSN: 0928-9380, 2 (1995), 219‑57

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Dissertation Workshop 3: Research and Analysis

In the course of Week 3 we will schedule a 1-hour workshop where we can check in with each other about how things are going with dissertations. In the previous workshop, all that time ago, we were focused on questions that needed answering: now we will see how we are all going about answering them, and how much further the answers can be developed!

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Week 4. Frontier Lordship and Settlement

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn Anas al-‘UdrÄ«, Accepted Meanings from Spain in a Book of Collection of Traditions, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from ‘La Marca Superior en la obra de al-cUdrí’, trans. by Fernando de la Granja, Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón, 8 (1967), 447‑545, <http://cema.unizar.es/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/la-marca-superior.pdf> [last modified 9 November 2011 as of 8 July 2016] (pp. 468‑87, cc. 27‑82): translation on Minerva  

The Fuero of Sepúlveda, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Los fueros de Sepúlveda: edicion critica y apendice documental, ed. by Ernesto Sáez, Rafael Gibert, Manuel Álvar and Atilano G. Ruíz-Zorilla (Segovia: Diputación Provincial de Segovia, 1956), pp. 43–51: translation on Minerva 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Eduardo Manzano Moreno, ‘Christian-Muslim Frontier in al-Andalus: Idea and Reality’, in The Arab Influence in Medieval Europe, ed. by Dionisius Agius & Richard Hitchcock (Reading: Ithaca Press, 1994), pp. 83-96  

William T. Strong, ‘The Fueros of Northern Spain’, Political Science Quarterly, 8 (1893), 317–34  

Questions to Think About

Who, if anyone, controlled the frontier zones between Christian and Muslim territory? Were the Banū Qāsī exceptional frontier lords, or were there others like them? Who settled in frontier zones, and why (and when)? And how did the kings of the north secure obedience in these areas?

Additional Reading

This is my most active research area so I have found it hard to keep this bibliography short. Choose the area that interests you most to explore!

Primary Sources

On the Banū Qāsī

The Chronicle of Albelda, ‘Order of the Kings of the Goths’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Chroniques asturiennes (fin IXe siècle) ISBN: 2222035163 avec édition critique, traduction et commentaire, ed. and trans. by Yves Bonnaz (Paris: C. N. R. S., 1987), p. 25 (c. 46): on Minerva

The Chronicle of Alfonso III, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Bonnaz, Chroniques asturiennesISBN: 2222035163, as above, pp. 56–8 (c. 16.2): on Minerva

On the later frontier

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 162–73 (nos 27–29, esp. no. 27) or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 123–32 (nos 22–24, esp. no. 22)

The Code of Cuenca: Municipal Law on the Twelfth-Century Castilian Frontier, trans. by James F. Powers (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 124–27 (no. 99)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

On the frontier and frontier relations (there is a lot of duplication between these; be selective)

Richard Hitchcock, ‘Reflections on the Frontier in Early Medieval Iberia’, in The Making of Medieval History, ed. by G. A. Loud and Martial Staub (Woodbridge: York Medieval Press, 2017), pp. 155–96

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Before the Reconquista: Frontier Relations in Medieval Iberia, 718-1031’, in The Routledge Companion to Iberian StudiesISBN: 9780415722834 (hardback ; alk. paper); 0415722837 (hardback ; alk. paper); 9781315709895 (ebook, ed. by Javier Muñoz-Bassols, Laura Lonsdale and Manuel Delgado Morales (London: Routledge, 2017), pp. 27–40

Peter Linehan, ‘At The Spanish Frontier’, in The Medieval World, ed. by Peter Linehan and Janet L. Nelson (London: Routledge, 2001), pp. 37‑59

Eduardo Manzano Moreno, ‘The Creation of a Medieval Frontier: Islam and Christianity in the Iberian Peninsula, Eighth to Twelfth Centuries’, Frontiers in Question: Eurasian Borderlands, 700-1700ISBN: 0333684532 (pbk.) : No price; 0333684524; 0312216386 (St. Martin's Press), ed. by Naomi Standen and Daniel Power (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 1999), pp. 32‑52

The Era of the Banū Qāsī

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Heartland and Frontier from the Perspective of the BanÅ« QasÄ«, 842-907’, in Rethinking the Medieval Frontier 1: works arising from the International Medieval Congress, Leeds, 2015 and 2016, ed. by Jonathan Jarrett (in preparation): draft version available on Minerva

*Juan José Larrea and Jesús Lorenzo, ‘Barbarians of Dâr Al-Islâm: The Upper March of Al-Andalus and the Pyrenees in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries’, in La Transgiordania nei secoli XII-XIII e le 'frontiere' del Mediterraneo medievaleISBN: 9781407309781 (pbk.); 1407309781 (pbk.), ed. by Guido Vannini and Michele Nucciotti (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2012), pp. 277–88

Hugh Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 30‑63

Abdurrahman Ali el-Hajji, ‘Political Relations between the Andalusian Rebels and Christian Spain during the Umayyad Period (A.H. 138-366/A.D. 755-976)’, The Islamic QuarterlyISSN: 0021-1842, 10 (1966), 84‑94

Frontier control after the Umayyad Caliphate

Fernando Luis Corral, ‘The Christian Frontier against al-Andalus (Muslim Spain): Concept and Politics during the Reigns of King Fernando I of Castile and Leon and his Successors until 1230’, in Walls, Ramparts, and Lines of Demarcation: Selected Studies from Antiquity to Modern Times, ed. by Natalie M. Fryde and Dirk Reitz (Berlin: Lit, 2009), 67–84

Enrique Rodríguez-Picavea Matilla, ‘The Kingdom of Castile (1157–1212): Towards a Geography of the Southern Frontier’, Mirator, 7 (2005), 1–18 <http://www.glossa.fi/mirator/pdf/frontiersofcastile.pdf> [last modified 27 March 2007 as of 23 December 2016]

Enrique Rodríguez-Picavea Matilla, ‘The Frontier and Royal Power in Medieval Spain: A Developmental Hypothesis’, Medieval History Journal, 8 (2005), 273–301

Theresa M. Vann, ‘Twelfth-Century Castile and its Frontier Strategies’, in The Circle of War in the Middle Ages: Essays on Medieval Military and Naval History, ed. by Donald J. Kagay and L. J. Andrew Villalon (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1999), pp. 21–31

Manuel González Jiménez, ‘Frontier and Settlement in the Kingdom of Castile (1085‑1350)’, in Medieval Frontier Societies, ed. by Robert Bartlett and Angus MacKay (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), pp. 49‑74

Settlers and settlement

Thomas W. Barton, ‘Lords, Settlers and Shifting Frontiers in Medieval Catalonia’, Journal of Medieval History, 36 (2010), 204–52

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Settling the Kings’ Lands: Aprisio in Catalonia in Perspective’, Early Medieval Europe, 18 (2010), 320‒41

W. Clayton Stalls, ‘The Relationship between Conquest and Settlement on the Aragonese Frontier of Alfonso I’, in Iberia and the Mediterranean World of the Middle Ages: Studies in Honor of Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed. by Larry Simon and Paul E. Chevedden, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 1995–96), Volume 1: Proceedings from Kalamazoo, ed. by Simon, pp. 216–31

W. Clayton Stalls, Possessing the Land: Aragon's Expansion into Islam's Ebro Frontier under Alfonso the Battler, 1104-1134 (Leiden: Brill, 1995)

Lawrence J. McCrank, ‘The Frontier of the Spanish Reconquest and the Land Acquisitions of the Cistercians of Poblet 1150–1276’, Analecta Cisterciensia, 29 (1973), 57–78, repr. in McCrank, Medieval Frontier History in New Catalonia (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1996), chapter V

Law and Fueros

James William Brodman, ‘Municipal Ransoming Law on the Medieval Spanish Frontier’, Speculum, 60 (1985), 318–30

James F. Powers, ‘Frontier Competition and Legal Creativity: A Castilian-Aragonese Case Study Based on Twelfth-Century Municipal Military Law’,  Speculum, 52 (1977), 465–87

Heath Portman Dillard, ‘Women in Reconquest Castile: the Fueros of Sepúlveda and Cuenca’, in Women in Medieval Society, ed. by Susan Mosher Stuard (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977), 71–94

Other Specific Questions

*Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Engaging Élites: Counts, Capital and Frontier Communities in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, in Catalonia and Elsewhere’, Networks and Neighbours, 2.2 (2014), 202–30 <https://nnthejournal.files.wordpress.com/2018/05/nn-2-2-jarrett-engaging-elites1.pdf> [accessed 12 April 2019]

Simon Barton, ‘Marriage across Frontiers: Sexual Mixing, Power and Identity in Medieval Iberia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 3.1 (2011), 1–25

James William Brodman, ‘Charity and Captives on the Medieval Spanish Frontier’, Anuario Medieval, 1 (1989), 25–36 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

James F. Powers, A Society Organized for War: The Iberian Municipal Militias in the Central Middle Ages, 1000-1284 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988) <https://libro.uca.edu/socwar/war.htm> [accessed 29 July 2018]

Charles Julian Bishko, ‘The Castilian as Plainsman: The Medieval Ranching Frontier in La Mancha and Extremadura’, in The New World Looks at its History: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Historians of the United States and Mexico, ed. by Archibald R. Lewis and Thomas F. McGann (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1963), pp. 47–69, repr. in Bishko, Studies in Medieval Spanish Frontier History (London: Variorum, 1980), <http://libro.uca.edu/frontier/spanfrontier.htm> [last modified 19 December 2003 as of 23 December 2016], chapter IV

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Week 5. The Legend of el Cid

Required Readings

Primary Source

‘Historia Roderici’, trans. in The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, ed. by Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 90–147  

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Bernard Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 90–128 

Simon Barton, ‘El Cid, Cluny and the Medieval Spanish Reconquista’, English Historical Review, 126 (2011), 517–43  

Richard Fletcher, ‘Reconquest and Crusade in Spain’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th Series, 37 (1987), 31‒47, repr. in The Crusades: Essential Readings, ed. by Thomas F. Madden (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 52‒67 and in Spain, Portugal and the Atlantic Frontier of Medieval Europe, ed. by José-Juan López-Portillo (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 69‒86 

Questions to Think About

Was Rodrigo Díaz’s career in any way usual, and if not, what made him so outstandingly successful? Was he motivated by anything other his own self-advancement? How far are treatments of him as a Christian hero missing the point? And why has his legend become so politically powerful?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

‘Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris’, in Barton and Fletcher, The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, as above, pp. 148–263

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 86–109 (nos 91–95)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 1, 711-1150, ed. by Colin Smith (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1988), pp. 98–133 (nos 20–26)

‘Abd Allāh ibn BuluggÄ«n, Tibyān, trans. by Amin T. Tibi as The Tibyān: Memoirs of Ê»Abd Allāh B. BuluggÄ«n, Last ZÄ«rid AmÄ«r of Granada (Leiden: Brill, 1986)

The Poem of My Cid, ed. and trans. by Peter Such and John Hodgkinson (Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1987), or otherwise the older The Lay of the Cid, trans. by R. Selden Rose and Leonard Bacon (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1919), ed. by Roy Tennant <http://mcllibrary.org/Cid/> [last modified 4 May 1997 as of 4 November 2016]

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

General Background

Joseph F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), pp. 1–49

Mikel de Epalza, ‘Islamic Social Structures in Muslim and Christian Valencia’, in Iberia and the Mediterranean World of the Middle Ages: Studies in Honor of Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed. by Larry J. Simon and Paul Chevedden, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 1995–96), II, pp. 179–90

Bernard F. Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995), pp. 74–125

Derek W. Lomax, The Reconquest of Spain (London: Longman, 1978), pp. 68–93

The Cid and his Legend

Meirion J. Trow, El Cid: The Making of a Legend (Stroud: Sutton, 2007)

*Richard Fletcher, The Quest for El Cid (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991)

Colin Smith, ‘Two Historians Reassess the Cid’, Anuario Medieval, 2 (1990), 155–71 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

History and Poetry

Michael Harney, ‘The Cantar de Mio Cid as Pre-War Propaganda’, Romance Quarterly, 60 (2013), 74–88

Francisco García Fitz, ‘War in The Lay of the Cid’, Journal of Medieval Military History, 10 (2012), 61–87

Joseph J. Duggan, ‘The Interface between Oral and Written Transmission of the Cantar de mio Cid ’, La corónica, 33 (2005), 51–64

Simon Barton, ‘Reinventing the Hero: The Poetic Portrayal of Rodrigo Díaz, the Cid, in its Political Context’, in Textos épicos castellanos: problemas de edición y crítica, ed. by David G. Pattinson (London: Queen Mary University of London, 2000), pp. 65–84

Elena Lourie, ‘Black Women Warriors in the Muslim Army Besieging Valencia and the Cid's Victory: A Problem of Interpretation’, Traditio, 55 (2000), 181–209

Derek W. Lomax, ‘The Date of the “Poema del Mio Cid”’, and Geoffrey West, ‘King and Vassal in History and Poetry: A Contrast between the "Historia Roderici" and the "Poema de Mio Cid"’, in "Mio Cid" Studies, ed. by Alan Deyermond (London: Támesis, 1977), pp. 73–81 and pp. 195–208

Politics and el Cid

Nora Berend, ‘“The Medieval Origins of Modern Nationalism”? Stephen of Hungary and el Cid of Spain’, in The Creation of Medieval Northern Europe: Christianisation, Social Transformations, and Historiography: Essays in Honour of Sverre Bagge, ed. by Leidulf Melve and Sigbjørn Sønnesyn (Oslo: Dreyer, 2012), pp. 219–45

Ross Brann, ‘The Moors?’, Medieval Encounters, 15 (2009), 307–18

Milija N. Pavlovic, ‘The Episode of the Jews: An Aspect of the “Historicity” of the Poema de Mio Cid in the Context of “Political Correctness”’, in Historicist Essays on Hispano-Medieval Narrative in Memory of Roger M. Walker, ed. by Barry Taylor and Geoffrey West (London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2005), pp. 359–85

John Aberth, A Knight at the Movies: Medieval History on Film (London: Routledge, 2003), pp. 63-148

*Richard Fletcher, ‘Reconquest and Crusade in Spain’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th Series, 37 (1987), 31-47, repr. in The Crusades: Essential Readings, ed. by Thomas F. Madden (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 52-67 and in Spain, Portugal and the Atlantic Frontier of Medieval Europe, ed. by José-Juan López-Portillo (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 69-86

Ramon Menéndez Pidal, The Cid and his Spain, trans. by Harold Sunderland (London: Cass, 1971)

El Cid, dir. by Anthony Mann (Universal Pictures, 1961) <http://www.veoh.com/watch/v203705417FXtwGGp> [last modified 23 August 2010 as of 11 July 2018]: the full three-hour version!

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Week 6. The Crown of Catalonia-Aragón: Pacts and Provence

Note that this seminar will be partly taken up by the Assessed Gobbets Exercise described at p. 3 above.

Required Readings

Primary Sources

‘Two Charters from the Liber Feudorum Maior of the Counts of Barcelona’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Liber feudorum maior : cartulario real que se conserva en el Archivo de la Corona de Aragón, ed. by Francisco Miquel Rosell, 2 vols (Barcelona: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1945–47), II, pp. 298–300 (nos 815 & 816)): on Minerva 

‘Deeds of the Counts of Barcelona, 6–11’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Les Gesta Comitum Barchinonensium (versió primitiva), la Brevis Historia i altres textos de Ripoll, ed. by Stefano Maria Cingolani (València: Universitat de València, 2012), pp. 126–41 ( cc. VI–XI)): on Minerva 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Thomas N. Bisson, The Medieval Crown of Aragón: A Short History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), pp. 31–57  

Benjamin Wood Westervelt, ‘The Power to Take and the Authority to Hold: Fabrications of Dynastic Legitimacy in Twelfth-Century Catalonia’, The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 29 (1999), 227–52

Questions to Think About

Where were the priorities of the rulers of Barcelona in the period after the collapse of the Andalusi Caliphate? What processes were at work to unify Catalonia and join it to Aragón given their fragmentary beginnings? Was this area differently governed from its neighbours, and if so, why? And how did the count-kings achieve such a foothold in the south of what is now France, and indeed beyond?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

Pere Albert, The Customs of Catalonia between Lords and Vassals by the Barcelona Canon, Pere Albert: A Practical Guide to Castle Feudalism in Medieval Spain, trans. by Donald J. Kagay (Chicago, IL: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2002)

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 157–61 (no. 26) and 166–71 (no. 28) or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 118–25 (no. 21), 127–30 (no. 23) and 239–49 (no. 43)

The Usatges of Barcelona: The Fundamental Law of Catalonia, ed. by Donald J. Kagay (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994) <http://libro.uca.edu/usatges/usatges.htm> [last modified 7 June 2006 as of 11 July 2018]

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

Politics and Society

*The Crown of Aragon: A Singular Mediterranean Empire ISBN: 9789004349612 (e-book)E, ed. by David Abulafia and Flocel Sabaté Curull (Leiden: Brill, 2017): esp. Jesús Brufall Sucarrat, ‘The Northeast Iberian Peninsula and its Muslim Rulers’, pp. 37‑69, Adam J. Kosto, ‘Aragon and the Catalan Counties Before the Union’, pp. 70‑91, and Isabel Grifoll, ‘The Culture (Ninth‑Twelfth Centuries): Clerics and Troubadours’, pp. 125‑49

Josep David Garrido Valls, ‘Enemies and Allies: The Crown of Aragon and al-Andalus in the Twelfth Century’, in Crusaders, Condottieri, and Cannon: Medieval Warfare in Societies around the Mediterranean, ed. by Donald J. Kagay and L. J. Andrew Villalon (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 175–91

W. Clayton Stalls, ‘Custom, Authority and Community in the Middle Ages: Aragon and Navarre in the Twelfth Century’, in Medieval Iberia: Essays on the History and Literature of Medieval Spain, ed. by Donald J. Kagay and Joseph Thomas Snow (New York City, NY: Lang, 1997), pp. 27–41

Stephen P. Bensch, Barcelona and its Rulers, 1096-1291 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Stephen Bensch, ‘From Prizes of War to Domestic Merchandise: The Changing Face of Slavery in Catalonia and Aragon, 1000‒1300’, Viator, 25 (1994), 63–94 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Thomas N. Bisson, ‘The Rise of Catalonia: Identity, Power, and Ideology in a Twelfth-Century Society’, in Bisson, Medieval France and her Pyrenean Neighbours: Studies in Early Institutional History (London: Hambledon, 1989), pp. 125–52

Fredric L. Cheyette, ‘The "Sale" of Carcassonne to the Counts of Barcelona (1067-1070) and the Rise of the Trencavels’, Speculum, 63 (1988), 826–64

Elena Lourie, ‘The Will of Alfonso I, "El Batallador," King of Aragon and Navarre: A Reassessment’, Speculum, 50 (1975), 635–51, repr. in Lourie, Crusade and Colonisation: Muslims, Christians and Jews in Medieval Aragon (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1990), chapter III

Tools of Government

Travis Bruce, ‘An Intercultural Dialogue between the Muslim Taifa of Denia and the Christian County of Barcelona in the Eleventh Century’, Medieval Encounters, 15.1 (2009), 1–34

Tomas de Montagut, ‘Barcelona, a Society and its Law: 11th–13th Centuries’, Catalan Historical Review, 1 (2008), 35–46 <http://revistes.iec.cat/index.php/CHR/article/viewFile/40577/40476> [last modified 18 April 2009 as of 23 December 2016]

Adam J. Kosto, ‘The Limited Impact of the Usatges de Barcelona in Twelfth-Century Catalonia’, Traditio, 56 (2001), 53–88

Adam J. Kosto, ‘The Liber feudorum maior of the Counts of Barcelona: The Cartulary as an Expression of Power’, Journal of Medieval History, 27 (2001), 1–22

Adam J. Kosto, Making Agreements in Medieval Catalonia: Power, Order, and the Written Word, 1000-1200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Adam J. Kosto, ‘The «Convenientiae» of the Catalan Counts in the Eleventh Century: A Diplomatic and Historical Analysis’, Acta Historica et Archaeologica Mediaevalia, 19 (1998), 191–228 <http://www.raco.cat/index.php/ActaHistorica/article/view/193942/288141> [last modified 27 June 2010 as of 11 July 2018]

W. Clayton Stalls, ‘Queenship and Royal Patrimony in Twelfth-Century Iberia: The Example of Petronila de Aragón’, in Queens, Regents and Potentates, ed. by Theresa M. Vann (Dallas, TX: University of Texas Press, 1993), pp. 49–61

Thomas N. Bisson, ‘Ramon de Caldes, c. 1135- c. 1200: Dean of Barcelona and King's Minister’, in Law, Church, and Society: Essays in Honor of Stephan Kuttner, ed. by Kenneth Pennington and Robert Somerville (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977), pp. 281–92, repr. in Bisson, Medieval France and her Pyrenean Neighbours, as above, pp. 187–98

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Week 7. The Berbers Strike Back: The Almoravid Takeover

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Abd Allāh ibn BuluggÄ«n, Tibyān, printed as The Tibyān: Memoirs of Ê»Abd Allāh B. BuluggÄ«n, Last ZÄ«rid AmÄ«r of Granada, ed. and trans. by Amin T. Tibi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 113–35 (chapters 7–9), of which pp. 113–23 (chapter 7) repr. as ‘Warfare in Eleventh-Century Spain (Al-Andalus), according to The Tibyan’, ed. by De Re Militari, De Re Militari <http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/SOURCES/tibyan.htm> [last modified 6 March 2012 as of 24 December 2016]  

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 92–9 (no. 93) 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Bernard Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995), pp. 99–125  

Amira K. Bennison, The Almoravid and Almohad Empires  (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), pp. 24–62 

Questions to Think About

Why did the Almoravids answer the call of the taifa kings to save al-Andalus? Did they represent an ideologically different government from those that Muslim Spain had known before? How serious a chance did they have of reversing the Christian dominance in the Peninsula? And why in the end did they fail?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

‘Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris’, in Barton and Fletcher, The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest, as above, pp. 148–263

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 106–33 (nos 95–100)

Abd Allāh ibn Buluggīn, The Tibyān, as above

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

General Background

*Roland A. Messier, The Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio, 2010), esp. pp. 93–172

Amira K. Bennison, ‘Liminal States: Morocco and the Iberian Frontier between the Twelfth and Fourteenth Centuries’, Journal of North African Studies, 6 (2001), 11–28, repr. in North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World, from the Almoravids to the Algerian War, ed. by Julia-Ann Clancy-Smith (London: Frank Cass, 2001), pp. 11–28

Bernard F. Reilly, The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI, 1065–1109 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988) <http://libro.uca.edu/alfonso6/alfonso.htm> [last modified 16 August 2000 as of 24 December 2016], pp. 161–363

Richard Fletcher, Moorish Spain (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), pp. 105–30

Almoravid Ideology and Culture

Alejandro García Sanjuan, ‘Jews and Christians in Almoravid Seville as Portrayed by the Islamic Jurist Ibn Abdun’, Medieval Encounters, 14 (2008), 78–98

Chris Lowney, A Vanished World: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Medieval Spain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 103–42

*Rachid El Hour, ‘The Andalusian Qadi in the Almoravid Period: Political and Judicial Authority’, Studia Islamica, 91 (2000), 67–84

María Isabel Fierro Bello, ‘Christian Success and Muslim Fear in Andalusi Writings during the Almoravid and Almohad Periods’, in Dhimmis and Others: Jews and Christians and the World of Classical Islam, ed. by Uri Rubin and David J. Wasserstein (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997), pp. 155–78, repr. in Fierro, The Almohad Revolution: Politics and Religion in the Islamic West during the Twelfth-Thirteenth Centuries (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter XI

Manuel Casamar Pérez, ‘The Almoravids and Almohads: An Introduction’, in Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, ed. by Jerrilyn Dodds (New York City, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992) <http://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Al_Andalus_The_Art_of_Islamic_Spain> [last modified not specified as of 24 December 2016], pp. 74–83; see also pp. 84–126

The Almoravids in Africa

James A. Miller, ‘Trading Through Islam: The Interconnections of Sijilmasa, Ghana and the Almoravid Movement’, and Roland A. Messier, ‘Rethinking the Almoravids, Rethinking Ibn KhaldÅ«n’, in The Journal of North African Studies, 6 (2001), 29–58 and 59–80, repr. in Clancy-Smith, North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World, as above, pp. 29–58 and 59–80

Roland A. Messier, ‘The Almoravids: West African Gold and the Gold Currency of the Mediterranean Basin’, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 17 (1974), 31–42

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Week 8. The Creation of Portugal

Required Readings

Primary Sources

On the Capture of Lisbon, printed as ‘De expugnatione Lyxbonensi’, ed. by William Stubbs, in Chronicles and memorials of the reign of Richard I , ed. by Stubbs (London: Longmans, 1864), pp. clv–clvi, clx–clxi, clxiv, clxvi, clxxviii–clxxx and 20-23, partially trans. in The Crusades: A Documentary History, ed. by James Brundage (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962), pp. 97–104, ed. as ‘Medieval Sourcebook: Osbernus: De expugnatione Lyxbonensi, 1147 [The Capture of Lisbon]’ by Paul Halsall, Internet Medieval Sourcebook <http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/cap-lisbon.asp> [last modified December 1997 as of 11 July 2018]  

Pope Alexander III, ‘Manifestis Probatum’, printed in Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, ed. by Philip Jaffé (Berlin: Veit, 1851), p. 786, trans. in ‘Manifestis Probatum’, Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifestis_Probatum> [last modified 2 April 2016 as of 11 July 2018]  

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

A. R. Disney, A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire, from Beginnings to 1807, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009–12), volume 1: Portugal, pp. 70–94  

Bernard F. Reilly, ‘Alfonso VII of León-Castilla, the House of Trastámara, and the Emergence of the Kingdom of Portugal’, Mediaeval Studies, 63 (2001), 193–222  

Questions to Think About

Why did the breakaway of the county of Portugal and its creation as a kingdom find a population so ready to be governed apart from the kingdom of Castile-León? Why did that kingdom fail to prevent the breakaway? Which of the various agencies which historians have given a rôle in the process of independence—kingdom, counts, Templars, and so on—really deserve any credit for it? And was there anything distinctive about Portuguese society at so early a stage?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

Afonso Don Henriques, ‘Chronicle’, trans. in Hugh Reilly, ‘The Miracle of Ourique and the Birth of Portugal’, Tradition in Action <http://www.traditioninaction.org/History/A_014_BirthPortugal.htm> [last modified 7 March 2016 as of 11 July 2018]

On the Capture of Lisbon, printed as Osbern and Raol, De expugnatione Lyxbonensi: The Conquest of Lisbon, edited from the Unique Manuscript in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, with a Translation into English, ed. and trans. by Charles Wendell David (New York City, NY: Columbia University Press, 1936, repr. with foreword by Jonathan Phillips, 2001)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

General Background

Antonio Castro Henriques, ‘The Reconquista and Its Legacy, 1000‑1348’, in An Agrarian History of Portugal, 1000-2000: Economic Development on the European FrontierISBN: 9789004311527 (e-book, ed. by Dulce Freire and Pedro Lains (Leiden: Brill, 2017), pp. 13‑44

Kurt Villads Jensen, Crusading at the Edges of Europe: Denmark and Portugal, c. 1000-c. 1250 ISBN: 9781472469380 (hardback ; alkaline paper); 1472469380 (hardback ; alkaline paper); 9781315575216 (ebook) (London: Routledge, 2017), esp. pp. 130‑85

Luis Adão da Fonseca, ‘The Idea of Crusade in Medieval Portugal. Political Aims and Ideological Framing’, in Crusading on the Edge: Ideas and Practice of Crusading in Iberia and the Baltic Region, 1100-1500 ISBN: 9782503548814 (pbk.); 2503548814 (pbk.); 9782503549903 (ebook), ed. by Torben K. Nielsen and Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt (Turnhout: Brepols, 2016), pp. 177‑98

*Stephen Lay, The Reconquest Kings of Portugal: Political and Cultural Reorientation on the Medieval Frontier (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009), pp. 60–170

James Maxwell Anderson, The History of Portugal (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000), pp. 27–38

Dan Stanislawski, The Individuality of Portugal: A Study in Historical-Political Geography (Austin, TX: Texas University Press, 1959) <http://libro.uca.edu/stanislawski/portugal.htm> [last modified 25 August 2012 as of 26 December 2016], pp. 137–82

The Origins Question

José Augusto de Sottomayor-Pizarro, ‘Political Origins of Portugal: From County to Kingdom (1096-1143/1157)’, in Catalonia and Portugal: The Iberian Peninsula from the Periphery, ed. by Flocel Sabaté Curull and Luís Adão de Fonseca (Bern: Peter Lang, 2015), 165–204

Abdoolkarim Vakil, ‘From the Reconquista to Portugal islámico: Islamic Heritage in the Shifting Discourses of Portuguese Historiography and National Identity’, Arqueología medieval, 8 (2003), 5–15 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 31/10/2019) 

Jose M. Valente, ‘The New Frontier: The Role of the Knights Templar in the Establishment of Portugal as an Independent Kingdom’, Mediterranean Studies, 7 (1998), 49–65

James F. Powers, ‘The Creative Interaction between Portuguese and Leonese Municipal Military Law, 1055 to 1279’, Speculum, 62 (1987), 53–80

Charles Julian Bishko, ‘Count Henrique of Portugal, Cluny, and the Antecedents of the Pacto Sucessório’, Revista Portuguesa da História, 13 (1971), 155–88, repr. in Bishko, Spanish and Portuguese monastic history, 600-1300 ISBN: 0860781364 (London: Variorum, 1984) <http://libro.uca.edu/monastic/monastic.htm> [last modified 4 February 2004 as of 11 July 2018], chapter IX

On the Capture of Lisbon

*Jonathan Wilson, ‘Enigma of the De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 9.1 (2017), 99–129

Matthew Bennett, ‘Military Aspects of the Conquest of Lisbon, 1147’, in The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences, ed. by Jonathan Phillips and Martin Hoch (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001), pp. 71–89

Jonathan Phillips, ‘Ideas of Crusade and Holy War in De expugnatione Lyxbonensi (The conquest of Lisbon)’, in The Holy Land, Holy Lands, and Christian History, ed. by Robert Swanson (= Studies in Church History, 36 (2000)), 123–41

Susan B. Edgington, ‘The Lisbon Letter of the Second Crusade’, Historical Research, 69 (1996), 328–39

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Dissertation Workshop 4: Structuring the Dissertation and Writing Up

In the course of Week 8 we will schedule a 1-hour workshop to talk over how to write up the dissertations that you will now be well advanced upon. Whereas at the beginning you will have been wondering how you would ever write something so long, by now if you are typical you will be grieving over what you have that you can already see will not fit inside the word limit. How can all the content you have be filtered and focused? There will be no other agenda or preparation for this discussion; it’s just to share problems and, hopefully, solutions to these and any other dilemmas you’re facing.

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Week 9. The Third Culture: Jews and Tolerance in Medieval Iberia

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), pp. 110‒30 (nos 20 and 21) or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 84‒102 (nos 17 and 18)  

‘Jews and Christians in Teruel: The Fuero of Teruel, 1176 CE’, trans. by Elka Klein, in Internet Medieval Sourcebook, ed. by Paul Halsall <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/1276teruel.asp> [last modified September 1999 as of 9 August 2019]  

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Mark R. Cohen, ‘The “Golden Age” of Jewish-Muslim Relations: Myth and Reality’, in A History of Muslim-Jewish Relations, ed. by Abdelwahab Meddeb and Benjamin Stora (Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2014) <http://assets.press.princeton.edu/chapters/p10098.pdf> [accessed 8 August 2019]  

Harvey J. Hames, ‘A Jew amongst Christians and Muslims: Introspection in Solomon Ibn Adret’s Response to Ibn Hazm’, Mediterranean Historical Review, 25.2 (2010), 203–19  

Questions to Think About

How important were Jews in Muslim and Christian Iberian societies, and how did that change over time? Is our élite-level information misleading, or should it provide us with a further basis for believing in convivencia? How much difficulty did Jews ordinarily encounter from Christian and Muslim communities of the Peninsula? What agendas are at work in the Jewish historiography?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

Constable, Medieval Iberia, as above, 2nd ed., pp. 81‒86 (no. 14B), 91‒92 (no. 16), 172‒73 (no. 29) and 227‒31 (no. 39) or 1st ed., pp. 71‒74 (nos 13B and 14), 131‒32 (no. 24) and 175‒79 (no. 32)

The Dream of the Poem: Hebrew Poetry from Muslim and Christian Spain 950 ‒ 1492, ed. by Peter Cole (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), pp. 21‒170: some great stuff in here

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 78‒79 (no. 89)

Maimonides, ‘Letter to Ibn Djabir’, ‘Letter to Samuel ibn Tibbon’, and ‘On Art and Charity’, all in The Jew in the Medieval World: A Sourcebook, 315‒1791, ed. by Jacob R. Marcus (Cincinatti, OH: The Sinai Press, 1938) <https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015046330851> [last modified not specified as of 9 August 2019], pp. 306‒10 and 364‒66

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

General Background

Jonathan Ray, ‘Images of the Jewish Community in Medieval Iberia’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 1.2 (2009), 195–211

Raymond P. Scheindlin, ‘The Jews in Muslim Spain’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992), pp. 188–200

Jane S. Gerber, The Jews of Spain: A History of the Sephardic Experience (New York City, NY: Free Press, 1992), pp. 1‒114

Eliyahu Ashtor, The Jews of Moslem Spain, trans. by Aaron Klein and Jenny Machlowitz Klein, 3 vols (Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1973‒84): fundamental but huge work, to which too many people resort rather than identify their primary sources!

Arguments over Tolerance (see also the Seminar 1 Week 9 bibliography on Convivencia)

Ernest Schonfield, ‘Heine and Convivencia : Coexistence in Muslim Spain’, Oxford German Studies, 47.1 (2018), 35–50

Jonathan Ray, ‘Whose Golden Age? Some Thoughts on Jewish-Christian Relations in Medieval Iberia’, Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations, 6.1 (2011), Ray CP1‒11

David J. Wasserstein, ‘The Muslims and the Golden Age of the Jews in al-Andalus’, Israel Oriental Studies, 17 (1997), 179–96 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Detail Cases

Travis Bruce, ‘The Taifa of Denia and the Jewish Networks of the Medieval Mediterranean: a Study of the Cairo Geniza and Other Documents’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 10.2 (2018), 147–66

Sarah Stroumsa, ‘Between Acculturation and Conversion in Islamic Spain: The Case of the BanÅ« Ḥasday’, Mediterranea, 1 (2016), 9–36 <https://www.uco.es/ucopress/ojs/index.php/mediterranea/article/view/5171> [accessed 8 August 2019]

*Mordechai A. Friedman, ‘Sending Funds to Judah Ha-Levi’, in Pesher Naḥum: Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature from Antiquity through the Middle Ages Presented to Norman (Nahum) Golb, ed. by Joel L. Kraemer and Michael G. Wechsler (Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2012), pp. 75–81 <https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/publications/saoc/pesher-nahum-texts-and-studies-jewish-history-and-literature-antiquity> [accessed 7 May 2019]

*Norman Golb, ‘The Caliph’s Favorite: New Light from Manuscript Sources on Hasdai ibn Shaprut of Cordova’ (The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2011) <https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/the_caliph%27s_favorite.pdf> [accessed 7 May 2019]

Alejandro García-Sanjuán, ‘Jews and Christians in Almoravid Seville as Portrayed by the Islamic Jurist Ibn ’AbdÅ«n’, Medieval Encounters, 14.1 (2008), 78–98

Mariano Gómez Aranda, ‘Border Crossing and Identity Consciousness in the Jews of Medieval Spain’, in Border Interrogations: Questioning Spanish Frontiers, ed. by Benita Sampedro and Simon R. Doubleday (New York City, NY: Berghahn Books, 2008), pp. 228–45

David J. Wasserstein, ‘Jewish Élites in al-Andalus’, in The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society and Identity, ed. by Daniel H. Frank (Leiden: Brill, 1995), pp. 101–10

*The Jews in Cordoba (X‒XII Centuries), ed. by Jesús Peláez del Rosal and trans. by Patricia A. Sneesby (Córdoba: Ediciones El Almendro, 1987), esp. Jesés Peláez del Rosal, ‘Hasdai ibn Shaprut in the Court of Abd-Ar-Rahman III’, pp. 61‒77

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Week 10. Reconquer and Repeat: The Road to las Navas de Tolosa

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Ibn al-KardabÅ«s, History of al-Andalus, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Ibn al-KardabÅ«s, Historia de al-Andalus: Estudio, Traducción y Notas, ed. and trans. by Felipe Maíllo Salgado (Madrid: Akal, 1986), pp. 145–50 (cc. 84–8): on Minerva 

First Annals of Toledo, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett, from Enrique Flórez, Pablo Risco and Ángel González Palencia, España sagrada: Theatro geographico-histórico de la Iglesia de España, 52 vols (Madrid: Marín, 1747–1918), XXIII <https://books.google.ca/books? id=zHMOAAAAQAAJ> [last modified 21 Nov 2007 as of 11 July 2018], pp. 381–400: on Minerva 

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Joseph F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), pp. 50–77  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Martín Alvira Cabrer, ‘Las Navas de Tolosa: The Beginning of the End of the “Reconquista”? The Battle and its Consequences according to the Christian Sources of the Thirteenth Century’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 4 (2012), 45–51  

Questions to Think About

Was the Almohad Caliphate in Spain more effective in resisting Christian advances than the Almoravids had been? What changes did the Almohad period see in the societies in either side of the frontier? What factors brought the Christian powers of the Peninsula into cooperation at las Navas de Tolosa? And was las Navas really the end of Muslim political hope in the Peninsula?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

A German Third Crusader's Chronicle of his Voyage and the Siege of Almohad Silves, 1189 AD/Muwahid Xelb, 585 AH: De itinere navaliISBN: 9780989285315 (hardcover book); 9780989285308 (digital book), trans. by Dana Cushing (Tuscon, AZ: Antimony, 2013)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 134–48 (nos 101 and 102)

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 239–70 (nos 42–47), or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 85–206 (nos 34–37)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

General and Northern Background

Hussein Anwar Fancy, ‘The Last Almohads: Universal Sovereignty between North Africa and the Crown of Aragon’, Medieval Encounters, 19 (2013), 102–36

Bernard Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 129–59

*Charles Julian Bishko, ‘The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095-1492’, in A History of the Crusades, ed. by Kenneth M. Setton and Harry W. Hazard, 6 vols (1969–89), III, pp. 396–456 <http://images.library.wisc.edu/History/EFacs/HistCrus/0001/0003/reference/history.crusthree.i0024.pdf> [last modified 7 August 2014 as of 11 July 2018], repr. in Bishko, Studies in Medieval Spanish Frontier History (London: Variorum, 1980) <http://libro.uca.edu/frontier/spanfrontier.htm> [last modified 19 December 2003 as of 11 July 2018], chapter III

Almohad Spain

Anthony Minnema, ‘A Ṭā’ifa in Exile: Sayf al-Dawla and the Survival of the BanÅ« HÅ«d’, al-Masāq, 31.1 (2019), 1–19

María Isabel Fierro, ‘The Islamic West in the Time of Maimonides: The Almohad Revolution’, in "Höre die Wahrheit, wer sie auch spricht": Stationen des Werks von Moses Maimonides vom islamischen Spanien bis ins moderne Berlin ISBN: 9783525300671 (hd. bd.); 3525300670 (hd. bd.) (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 2014), pp. 21‑31

Amira K. Bennison, The Almoravid and Almohad Empires (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), pp. 63–117

Josep Torró, ‘The Eastern Regions of al-Andalus before the Conquest by Catalonia-Aragon: An Overview’, Catalan Historical Review, 5 (2012), 11–27

María Isabel Fierro, ‘Conversion, Ancestry and Universal Religion: The Case of the Almohads in the Islamic West (Sixth/Twelfth-Seventh/Thirteenth Centuries)’, Eva Lapiedra Gutiérrez, ‘Christian Participation in Almohad Armies and Personal Guards’, David Abulafia, ‘Christian Merchants in the Almohad Cities’, and David Corcos, ‘The Nature of the Almohad Rulers' Treatment of the Jews’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 2 (2010), 155–73, 235–50, 251–57, and 259–85 respectively

Manuel Casamar Pérez, ‘The Almoravids and Almohads: An Introduction’, in Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, ed. by Jerrilyn Dodds (New York City, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992) <http://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Al_Andalus_The_Art_of_Islamic_Spain> [last modified as of 24 December 2016], pp. 84–126

Reconquest Renewed

Francisco García Fitz, ‘Battle in the Medieval Iberian Peninsula: 11th to 13th Century Castile-Leon. State of the Art’, Imago Temporis: Medium Aevum, 10 (2016), 25–53 <http://hdl.handle.net/10459.1/58852> [last modified 19 December 2016 as of 9 August 2019]

Noel Fallows, ‘Against the Arabs: Propaganda and Paradox in Medieval Castile’, in Medieval Iberia: Changing Societies and Cultures in Contact and Transition, ed. by Ivy A. Corfis and Ray Harris-Northall (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007), pp. 57–69

François Soyer, ‘Muslim Freedmen in León, Castile and Portugal (1100-1300)’, al-Masāq, 18 (2006), 129–44

Simon Barton, ‘Traitors to the Faith? Christian Mercenaries in al-Andalus and the Maghreb, c.1100–1300’, in Medieval Spain: Culture, Conflict, and Coexistence: Studies in Honour of Angus MacKay, ed. by Roger Collins and Anthony Goodman (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), pp. 23–45

Las Navas de Tolosa and its Consequences

Jonathan Ray, ‘The Reconquista and the Jews: 1212 from the Perspective of Jewish History’, Journal of Medieval History, 40 (2014), 159–75

David Cantor Echols, ‘Kingship, Crusade, and the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Chronica Latina Regum Castellae ’, Romance Quarterly, 60 (2013), 102–13

The first issue of Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 4 (2012), was a commemorative one for las Navas de Tolosa, and has a number of directly relevant articles, of which some are:

• Francisco García Fitz, ‘Was Las Navas a Decisive Battle? ’, 5–9

• Miguel Gómez, ‘Las Navas de Tolosa and the Culture of Crusade in the Kingdom of Castile’, 11–14

• Jorge A. Eiroa Rodríguez, ‘Historians, Historiography and Archaeologically Imperceptible Change’, 21–5

• Josep Torró, ‘Was the Christian Conquest of al-Andalus Irreversible? ’, 59–65, and

• Bernard Reilly, ‘Las Navas de Tolosa and the Changing Balance of Power’, 83–7

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Workshop 2. Reconquista and Convivencia?

One of the big questions of this course is exactly how we can talk about the Christian campaigns into the Muslim territories given the problems of the word ‘Reconquista’. The Hispanophone academic world has basically rejected the term, but arguably not the concept, while the Anglophone one either recoils in politically correct horror or steams on with it regardless, especially when dealing with the Crusader period. Meanwhile, the other Spanish word that dominates our literature and discussions is ‘Convivencia’, which has been questioned from every side (including by us, by now) and yet still remains what much of the scholarship and indeed more popular interest seeks to find in the medieval Iberian Peninsula, more or less explicitly as a signal of hope for our own times. Are these two poles of a spectrum of Peninsular historiography, from nasty to cuddly? Can we make these terms do any useful work? Or should they just be let go? This workshop will try to thrash out where we as a group stand on the issue. Please read these three short pieces beforehand to help you find your thoughts.

Alejandro García-Sanjuán, ‘Rejecting al-Andalus, Exalting the Reconquista: Historical Memory in Contemporary Spain’, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 10 (2018), 127–45

Adam J. Kosto, ‘Reconquest, Renaissance, and the Histories of Iberia, ca. 1000-1200’, in European Transformations: The Long Twelfth Century, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble and John van Engen (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2012), pp. 93–116

Jonathan Ray, ‘Beyond Tolerance and Persecution: Reassessing Our Approach to Medieval “Convivencia”’, Jewish Social Studies, 11.2 (2005), 1–18

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Week 11. Granada and Aftermath

Required Readings

Primary Sources

Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-MaqqarÄ«, The Breath of Perfume from the Branch of Green al-Andalus and Memorials of its Vizier Lisan al-DÄ«n ibn al-KhatÄ«b, trans. as The history of the Mohammedan dynasties in Spain : extracted from the Nafhu-t-tíb min ghosni-l-Andalusi-r-rattíb wa táríkh lisánu-d-dín Ibni-l-Khattíb, trans. by Pascual de Gayangos, 2 vols (London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1840), II <https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_Ie7TAAAAMAAJ>, last modified 10 December 2014 as of 9 July 2018, pp. 339–53 (Book II chapter V)

Washington Irving, Tales of The Alhambra, rev. ed. (Paris: Baudry’s European Library, 1832), pp. 127–54 (‘Legend of the Arabian Astrologer’)

Secondary Writing (in suggested order)

Salah Zaimeche, ‘Granada – The Last Refuge of Mulsims in Spain’, Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization <http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/Granada.pdf> [last modified 20 December 2004 as of 11 July 2018]

Maria Jesús Rubiera Mata and Mikel de Epalza, ‘Al-Andalus: Between Myth and History’, History and Anthropology, 18 (2007), 269–73

Questions to Think About

If the fall of Muslim Spain was inevitable after 1212, why did Muslim rule in the peninsula last until 1492? What was there about the survivor state in Granada that made it so long-lasting? Why has it become a site of such legends and fables? And how far is the reputation that it has bequeathed to Muslim Spain as a whole fair or adequate?

Additional Reading

Primary Sources

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. by Olivia Remie Constable, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), pp. 435–523 (nos 74–85), or 1st ed. (1997), pp. 315–70 (nos 56–63)

Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, ed. by Jerrilynn D. Dodds (New York City, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Al_Andalus_The_Art_of_Islamic_Spain> [last modified 24 December 2016 as of 11 July 2018], pp. 126‑71 (the Alhambra) and 264‑391 (objects)

Christians and Moors in Spain. Vol. 3, Arabic sources (711-1501), ed. by C. P. Melville and Ahmad ‘UbaydlÄ« (London: Aris & Phillips, 1992), pp. 142–91 (nos 103–12)

Secondary Writing (in reverse chronological order)

General Background

*David S. Abulafia, ‘The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History Volume 5: c.1198-c.1300, ed. by Abulafia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 636–43

Bernard Reilly, The Medieval Spains (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 190–209

Richard Fletcher, Moorish Spain (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), pp. 157–76

*L. P. Harvey, Islamic Spain, 1250-1500 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1990)

The Nasrids and their Fall

Carmen Lícia Palazzo, ‘The Cordoba Mosque and the Alhambra of Granada: Founding Monument and Final Testimony of al-Andalus’, Mirabilia, 21 (2015), 178‑96 <http://www.revistamirabilia.com/sites/default/files/pdfs/21-10.pdf> [last modified 4 June 2018 as of 11 July 2018]

Adela Fábregas, ‘Agents of Local Power in the Nasrid Kingdom: Their Influence on Social Networks and Leadership’ and Alberto García Porras, ‘Nasrid Frontier Fortresses and Manifestations of Power: The Alcazaba of Moclín Castle as Revealed by Recent Archaeological Research’ and, both in Power and Rural Communities in al-Andalus: Ideological and Material Representations ISBN: 9782503553429 No price (hbk.), ed. by Adela Pilar Fábregas García and Flocel Sabaté Curull (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015), pp. 1‑15 and 113‑33

Bárbara Boix Gallardo, ‘The Genealogical Legitimization of the Nasrid Dynasty: The Alleged Ansari Origins of the Banu Nasr’, in The Articulation of Power in Medieval Iberia and the Maghrib, ed. by Amira K. Bennison (= Proceedings of the British Academy, 195 (2014)), 61–86

Diego Melo Carrasco, ‘A Possible Periodisation of the Treaties of Peace and Truce between al-Andalus and the Christian Kingdoms (Nasrid Sultanate of Granada with Castile and Aragon) 13th–15th Centuries’, Imago Temporis: Medium Aevum, 8 (2014), 211–38 <http://www.raco.cat/index.php/ImagoTemporis/article/view/299266> [last modified 17 October 2015 as of 28 December 2016]

Lara Eggleton, ‘Crumbling Empires, Nostalgia and the Politics of Ornament in Naá¹£rid Granada’, in Postcards from the Edge: European Peripheries in the Middle Ages, ed. by Liz Mylod and Zsuzsanna Reed Papp (Leeds: Institute of Medieval Studies, University of Leeds, 2011), pp. 179–207

Cynthia Robinson, ‘Arthur in the Alhambra? Narrative and Nasrid Courtly Self-Fashioning in the Hall of Justice Ceiling Paintings’, Medieval Encounters, 14 (2008), 164–98

Fables and Historiography

Muneeza Shamsie, ‘Introduction: The Enduring Legacy of al-Andalus’, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 52.2 (2016), 127–35

Eric Calderwood, ‘The Invention of al-Andalus: Discovering the Past and Creating the Present in Granada’s Islamic Tourism Sites’, Journal of North African Studies, 19 (2014), 27–55

Serafin Fanjul, ‘Uses of a Myth: al-Andalus’, Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature, 33 (2009), 227–47 <http://newprairiepress.org/sttcl/vol33/iss2/3/> [last modified 3 July 2014 as of 27 July 2018]

Margarita López Gómez, ‘Islamic Civilisation in al-Andalus: A Final Assessment’, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. by Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 1059–62

David Coleman, ‘The Persistence of the Past in the Albaicín: Granada’s New Mosque and the Question of Historical Relevance’, in In the Light of Medieval Spain: Islam, the West and the Relevance of the Past, ed. by Simon Doubleday and David Coleman (New York City: Springer, 2008), pp. 157‒88

 

This list was last updated on 04/10/2019