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Module Reading List

Principles of Public Health, 2019/20, Semester 1
Maryam Ba-Break
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

How to use this Guidance:
This list will provide you with some selected references about public health themes, journals and websites. You will receive further guidance on essential reading material during each session of the module.

Selected books and articles

1 Public Health and Interventions

Walley J, Wright J (2010) Public health : an action guide to improving health.. (2nd ed). Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5, 6. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Green A (2007) An introduction to health planning for developing health systems (3rd ed). Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Muir Gray JA (2001) Evidence-based Healthcare: how to make health policy and management decisions (2nd ed.) Chapter 1, 2, 3. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone

Webber R (2016) Communicable diseases : A global perspective.(5th ed) . Chapter 1, 2, 3. Wallingford : CABI Publishing.

2 Health Service and District Organization

Walley J, Wright J (2010) Public health : an action guide to improving health. (2nd ed) Chapter 7. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Amonoo-Lartson R (1996) District health care : challenges for planning, organisation and evaluation in developing countries London: Macmillan 2nd ed.

Collins C (1994). Management and organization of developing health systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Goergen H, Kirsch-Woik T and Schmidt-Ehry B (eds.) (2004) The district health system experiences and prospects in Africa : manual for Public Health Practitioners. Chapter 1, 4, 8, 9. Wiesbaden: Universum-Verlag.

Lagarde M and Palmer N. The impact of user fees on access to health services in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD009094.

3 Epidemiology and Statistics

3.1 Epidemiology

Coggon D, Rose G and Barker DJP (2003). Epidemiology for the uninitiated (5th ed.) London: BMJ Publications.

Available at: (4th ed.) [Accessed 2 October 2019]

Walley J, Wright J (2010) Public health : an action guide to improving health. (2nd ed) Chapter 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Farmer R, Lawrenson R (2004) Lecture notes epidemiology and public health medicine (5th ed.) Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Friis RH, Sellers TA (2009) Epidemiology for public health practice, fourth edition : student study guide (4th edition). Sudbury, Mass. : Jones and Bartlett Publishers

Gold MR, Stevenson D, Fryback DJ (2002) HALYS AND QALYS AND DALYS, OH MY: Similarities and Differences in Summary Measures of Population Health. Annu. Rev. Public health.  23:115–34

Kroeger A, Montoya-Aguilar C, Bichmann W, Goergen R, Diaz SJ (1997) The use of epidemiology in local health planning : a training manual. London: Zed Books.

Krieger N (2001) Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. International Journal of Epidemiology.  30: 668-677.

Krieger N (2011) Epidemiology and the people's health : theory and context. New York: Oxford University Press

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012) Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice (3rd edition) [Accessed 4 November 2015] 

Porta M (ed) (2016) A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6th ed.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: [Accessed 10 October 2019] 

3.2 Statistics

Bowers D (2008). Medical statistics from scratch : an introduction for health professionals. Chichester: Wiley.  

Campbell MJ and Machin D (2007). Medical statistics : a commonsense approach (4th ed.) Chichester: Wiley.

Harris M and Taylor G (2014, 2008). Medical statistics Made Easy (3rd or 2nd ed.) Banbury. Scion.

Kirkwood B.R. (2014).  Essentials of medical statistics (3rd edition). Blackwell Science.

Pocock SJ, Ware JH (2009) Translating statistical findings into plain English. Lancet. 373: 1926-7.

Swinscow T D V Revised by M J Campbell (1997) Statistics at Square One (9th editiion). BMJ Publishing Group. Available at: [Accessed 2 October 2019]

4 Specific Health Problems

4.1 Communicable Diseases

Walley J, Wright J (2010) Public health : an action guide to improving health. (2nd ed) Chapter 11. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Webber R (2016) Communicable diseases : A global perspective.(5th ed) . Chapter 1, 2, 3. Wallingford : CABI Publishing.

4.2 Mental Health

Patel V, Flisher AJ and Cohen A (2006) Mental health pp 355-392 In: Merson MH, Black RE and Mills AJ. International public health : diseases, programs, systems, and policies (2nd edition). London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

4.3 Non-communicable Diseases (Socially Transmitted Conditions)

Allen LN and Feigl AB (2017) Reframing non-communicable diseases as socially transmitted conditions. Lancet; 5(7): PE644-E646.

Nishtar S et al. (2018) Time to deliver: report of the WHO Independent High-Level Commission on NCDs. Lancet; 392: 245-52. (18)31258-3

Skolnik R (2008) Essentials of global health. Chapter 12: Non-communicable diseases. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/11/2017) Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

4.4 Sexual and Reproductive Health

Glasier A, Gulmezoglu AM, Schmid GP, Moreno CG, Van Look PF (2006) Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death. Lancet 368(9547):1595-607.

Fathalla MF. Sinding SW. Rosenfield A. Fathalla MM. (2006) Sexual and reproductive health for all: a call for action. Lancet 368(9552):2095-100.

5 Specific Population Groups

5.1 Adolescent Health

Blum RW and Nelson-Mmari K (2004) The health of young people in a global context. Journal of adolescent health 35: 402-418.

5.2 Child Health

Walley J, Wright J (2010) Public health : an action guide to improving health. (2nd ed) Chapter 9. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bryce J, el Arifeen S, Pariyo G et al (2003). Reducing child mortality: can public health deliver? Lancet, 362, 159-64.

Ward CL et al. Sexual violence against children in South Africa: a nationally representative cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates. Lancet Glob Health 2018; 6: e460–68

Woods D (2007) Child Health Care. Cape Town: Electric Book Works. This coursebook for nurses, doctors and students is available online and can be downloaded for free at  The publication is funded in large part by the non-profit organisation Eduhealthcare and based on the highly successful Perinatal Education Programme. Child Health Care focuses on solving practical problems and on taking a simple, logical approach to common paediatric disorders. It includes clear, step-by-step guides through definitions, causes, diagnoses, prevention, dangers and management, and case studies. The book can be used as a training course or as a reference manual for professionals and students.

5.3 Health of the Elderly

Unwin N and Alberti KGMM (2006) Chronic non-communicable diseases. Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology 100: 455-464.

5.4 Refugee Health

The Sphere Handbook 2018 (2018) and Humanitarian Standards: Sphere is a worldwide community which brings together and empowers practitioners to improve the quality and accountability of humanitarian assistance. The Sphere Handbook, is one of the internationally recognised sets of common principles and universal minimum standards in humanitarian response. [Accessed 21 May 2019] 

6 Specific Topics

6.1 Epidemics and Outbreak control

Camacho A et al. (2018) Cholera epidemic in Yemen, 2016–18: an analysis of surveillance data. Lancet. ISSN: 0140-6736; 1474-547X Glob Health 6: e680–90.

Ebola outbreak epidemiology team (2018) Outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, April–May, 2018: an epidemiological study. Lancet 392: 213–21.

6.2 Environmental Health

McMichael AJ, Kjellstom T and Smith KR (2006) Environmental Health pp393-444 In: Merson MH, Black RE and Mills AJ. International public health : diseases, programs, systems, and policies (2nd edition). London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/11/2017) Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

6.3 Health Promotion

Stokols D (1992) Establishing and maintaining healthy environments: toward a social ecology of health promotion. The American psychologist. 47 (1): 6-22.

Walley J, Wright J (2010) Public health : an action guide to improving health. (2nd ed) Chapter 8. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

6.4 Occupational Health

Ahasan R (2001) Legacy of implementing industrial health and safety in developing countries Journal of physiological anthropology and applied human science 20 (6) pp311-19.

Daykin N (1999) Critical perspectives on health and work pp 1-20 in Daykin N an Doyal L. Health and work : critical perspectives. Houndmills: MacMillan Press Ltd. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/11/2017) Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

6.5 Water and Sanitation

Cairncross S (2005) Environmental health engineering in the tropics : an introductory text (3rd ed.) Chapter 4 – 8. London: Earthscan.

6.6 Nutrition

West KP, Caballero B and Black RE (2006) Nutrition pp187-272 In: Merson MH, Black RE and Mills AJ. International public health : diseases, programs, systems, and policies (2nd edition). London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

6.7 Disaster and Crisis

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ and Zwi A. Complex emergencies and the crisis of developmentalism pp445-512 In: Merson MH, Black RE and Mills AJ. International public health : diseases, programs, systems, and policies (2nd edition). London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

6.8 Diversity of people

Eade D and Williams S (1995) The Oxfam handbook of development and relief, Volume 1. pp 225-268 Chapter 2.2 Ethnicity, Race and Caste and pp 169-224 Chapter 2.1 Gender

6.9 Gender

American Psychological Association, APA Working Group on Health Disparities in Boys and Men. (2018). Health disparities in racial/ethnic and sexual minority boys and men. Available online

Anonymous. 2018. Comment: Gender and health are also about boys and men. Lancet. ISSN: 0140-6736; 1474-547X 392: 188

Greig F, Hausmann R, Tyson LD, Zahidi S (2012) The Global Gender Gap Index. World Economic Forum. Available online:

6.10 Globalization and Health

Global Health Watch (2005) Part A: Health and Globalization pp9-52 In Global health watch 2005-2006 : an alternative world health report London: Zed Books.

6.11 Governance and Corruption

TI (2006) Global corruption report 2006. Chapter 1: The causes of corruption in the health sector: A focus on health care systems. London: Pluto Press.

Savedoff, W, (2006) Chapter 1: The causes of corruption in the health sector: A focus on health care systems. FROM: Kotalik, J, Global corruption report 2006. pp.3-24. London: Pluto Press - Available online: Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

6.12 Poverty

MacDonald TH (2005) Third world health : hostage to first world wealth Chapter 1-6. Abingdon: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd.  

Marmot M, Allen J and Goldblatt P (2010) A social movement, based on evidence, to reduce inequalities in health. Social science & medicine. 71: 1254-1258.

6.13 Social Determinants of Health

Carey G and Crammond B (2015) Systems change for the social determinants of health. BMC Public Health [electronic resource].  15:662 doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1979-8

6.14 Urban Health

Sclar ED, Garau P and Carolini G (2005) The 21st century health challenge of slums and cities. Lancet 365(9462):901-3.

WHO (2015) Urban HEART. Manual and Presentations. Website:  [Accessed 4 November 2015] 

Top of page

Selected journals

British medical journal

Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Critical public health

Health policy and planning

Health policy.

The lancet

Social science & medicine.

Tropical Doctor.

Top of page

Selected useful websites and online learning 

African Health Statistics:  [Accessed 22 September 2016]

American Red Cross International Services (2006) Integrated Planning Process, Project Design and Proposal Writing Guide. Washington: Red Cross.  [Accessed 22 September 2016]

Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (National Institutes of Health) Methodology:  [Accessed 10 October 2013]

Campbell Collaboration: [Accessed 10 November 2018] Promotion of positive social and economic change through the production and use of systematic reviews and other evidence synthesis for evidence-based policy and practice.

Center for Humanitarian Health: [Accessed 10 November 2018] The Digest connects you to peer-reviewed articles on humanitarian health from a wide variety of journals in one place.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Glossary (2014): [Accessed 10 October 2014]

Clinical Evidence:  [Accessed 10 October 2013] The systematic reviews of clinical evidence summarise the current state of knowledge - and uncertainty - about the prevention and treatment of clinical conditions, based on thorough searches and appraisal of the literature. They don't tell you what to do: they just describe the best available evidence from systematic reviews, RCTs, and observational studies where appropriate. And, if there is no good evidence, we say so. Clinical evidence provides open access to users from developing countries and is available to students from the University of Leeds.

Clinical Trials:  [Accessed 20 March 2014] is a registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants conducted around the world. It is a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

Cochrane Collaboration (2014) The reliable source of evidence in health care. [Accessed 10 October 2014]

Community Tool Box: [Accessed 10 October 2013] A global resource for free information on essential skills for building healthy communities. Promoting community health and development by connecting people, ideas and resources.

Corruption prevention in humanitarian aid elearning course: loid=b5439729-51af-4da0-8c12-2d010343d567#t=1  [Accessed 22 September 2016]

Creative Commons Search: [Accessed 3 November 2017] Please note that is not a search engine, but rather offers convenient access to search services provided by other independent organizations. CC has no control over the results that are returned. Do not assume that the results displayed in this search portal are under a CC license. You should always verify that the work is actually under a CC license by following the link. Since there is no registration to use a CC license, CC has no way to determine what has and hasn't been placed under the terms of a CC license. If you are in doubt you should contact the copyright holder directly, or try to contact the site where you found the content.

Critical Study Approach: Manchester Metropolitan University (2010) TIPS – Critical reading, thinking and writing. [Accessed 06 November 2017]

Demopaedia: Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, second unified edition, English volume: [Accessed 10 October 2015] 

Education (Transformative) for Health Professionals: WHO Guidelines for new approaches in health professionals' education: [Accessed 23 September 2019] 

E-learning: Preventing Corruption in Humanitarian Aid Transparency International Norway and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have developed a basic e-learning course targeting all employees especially programme staff, and partners in humanitarian operations on how to prevent corruption, identify risks and react to corruption: loid=b5439729-51af-4da0-8c12-2d010343d567#t=1  [Accessed 1December 2015] 

Emergency and refugee crisis planning and management: [Accessed 10 October 2015]  

 Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance (ALNAP):

 Reliefweb website:

 EvidenceAid website.

 Joint Emergency Services Interoperability Principles (JESIP):


Epidemic Intelligence Tutorial  [Accessed 10 September 2016] The tutorial was developed by the the European Centre for disease prevention and control: 'Epidemic Intelligence (EI) can be defined as the process to detect, verify, analyse, assess and investigate public health events that may represent a threat to public health. Providing early warning signals is a central objective of public health surveillance systems. …This EI tutorial aims to illustrate the various Epidemic Intelligence steps in a European context and highlights the role both of EU Member States and of the Centre in promoting health security at the EU level. The tutorial has a broad target of potential users and should be considered as a training opportunity for national and international approaches to EI. It includes suggestions and material that can support in building up and improving capacities on EI principles and procedures in different working contexts. ….”

EQUINET, the Regional Network on Equity in Health in Southern Africa, is a network of professionals, civil society members, policy makers, state officials and others within the region who have come together as an equity catalyst, to promote and realise shared values of equity and social justice in health: [Accessed 22 September 2016]

Essential Health Links (2010) [Accessed 10 October 2010]
EH-Links provides users with a linked list of health and medical-related web pages relevant to clinical and public health practice or research in developing and emerging countries with the objective of making it easier to locate and identify useful information.
Emphasizing quality over quantity, EH-Links has selected only 750 sites out of the many thousands on the web. In addition, each webpage recommendation includes an annotated description of the site written by a health information specialist to guide the user to the best information sources.

Evidence-based Medicine (University of Ottawa):   [Accessed 23 September 2019] 

Evidence database-PDQ : [Accessed 10 October 2013] The objective of PDQ-Evidence is to make relevant high quality research easy to find for anyone with a health system question. It is a non-commercial database, developed by health system researchers, designers and programmers from three continents. PDQ is funded in part by the EU 7th framework and Norad.

Gapminder. Unveiling the beauty of statistics for a fact based world view. [Accessed 10 October 2010] 

Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx): The world’s most comprehensive catalog of surveys, censuses, vital statistics, and other health-related data.  [Accessed 10 September 2016]

Global Health Policy:  [Accessed 25 October 2014] This gateway on the US role in global health is 'an effort to provide policy-relevant and accessible information on the efficacy (the "what works") of key global health interventions, including the strength of the evidence. It is a web-based tool that summarizes findings for a range of prevention and treatment interventions designed to reduce the risk of death and disease in the developing world. Information is presented by health condition and in several formats, including a narrative overview, a key findings table, and a logic model.'

GRADE: [Accessed 10 November 2018] The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (short GRADE) working group began in the year 2000 as an informal collaboration of people with an interest in addressing the shortcomings of grading systems in health care. The working group has developed a common, sensible and transparent approach to grading quality (or certainty) of evidence and strength of recommendations. Many international organizations have provided input into the development of the GRADE approach which is now considered the standard in guideline development.

GRADE-CerQual: [Accessed 10 November 2018] The GRADE-CERQual approach provides a transparent method for assessing the confidence of evidence from reviews of qualitative research, and indicating this confidence to end users, such as guideline panels or decision makers. CERQual uses a similar approach conceptually to other GRADE tools, but is intended for findings from systematic reviews of qualitative evidence.

HealthKnowledge: [Accessed 10 November 2018] This learning resource is for anyone working in health, social care and well-being wherever they work or study. The resource allows you to access a broad range of learning materials for personal use or for teaching purposes in order to help everyone expand their public health knowledge. The resources have been set up within four different learning styles: Public Health Textbook, Text Courses, Video Courses, Management Training

Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) explanatory videos: [Accessed 3 November 2017] Several short films produced by Health Systems Global and the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research explaining health systems and policy and related research. 

Health Systems Evidence (McMasters University Canada): Health Systems Evidence is a continuously updated repository of syntheses of research evidence about governance, financial and delivery arrangements within health systems, and about implementation strategies that can support change in health systems.  [Accessed 10 October 2014]

Health System Assessment Resource Center: [Accessed 10 October 2013] To help countries understand and strengthen their health systems, the Partners for Health Reformplus (PHRplus) (2001-2006) and Health Systems 20/20 (2006-2012) projects, with funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), in collaboration with other projects and development partners, pilot tested and began developing the original Health System Assessment Approach in 2004. Since that time the approach has continued to be tested and the accompanying HSAA How To Manual adjusted as a “living document”.

Health Workforce Information Solution (iHRIS): [Accessed 10 October 2013] iHRIS provides health sector leaders and managers with the information they need to assess health workforce problems, plan effective interventions, and evaluate those interventions.

ID21 (2010) Welcome to ID21. [Accessed 10 October 2010]

Instructions to authors in the health sciences. These pages provide links to Web sites which provide instructions to authors for over 6,000 journals in the health and life sciences. All links are to "primary sources" - that is, to publishers and organizations with editorial responsibilities for the titles. [Accessed 09 November 2015]

Lectures: 'Life and Death in 2100: Health, History and Human Contingency' - Dr Richard Horton at [Accessed 10 November 2018]

National Centre for Research Methods (ESRC)  [Accessed 10 August 2011]

NICE (2014) Evidence search: health and social care. [Accessed 10 October 2015]

NHS (2015) Solutions for Public Health. [Accessed 10 October 2010]

Overseas Development Institute (ODI) publications: [Accessed 3 November 2017] A leading independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues

OXFAM Impact Evaluation Survey Data: [Accessed 02 November 2016]

People’s Health Movement. Health for All Now! [Accessed 21 May 2019]

Procurement & Supply Management (PSM toolbox) (2007) [Accessed 10 October 2013] WHO AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service (AMDS) created a platform to improve access through the internet to procurement and supply management (PSM) tools. Any professional or organizations can submit a tool by using the submit option found in the PSM Toolbox database. WHO will accept or reject the submission based on objective criteria that the PSM Toolbox working group has developed

Public Health 101 Series: Set of courses that provides an introduction to public health and covers the sciences essential to public health practice. The fundamental scientific components span topics in epidemiology, public health informatics and surveillance, health economics, public health laboratory science, and related fields:  [Accessed 10 September 2016]

Public Health information and Statistics – Leeds City Council: [Accessed 3 November 2017] The sites listed below all provide reliable statistical data that can be used to support evidence-based practice and research in public health work.

Public Health Agency of Canada - Glossary of Terms (2010):  [Accessed 10 October 2014]

Public Health Glossary - A Terms and Definitions Guide for US Air Force Public Health Professionals (2009): [Accessed 10 October 2014]

Public Health Law Glossary (2010):  [Accessed 10 October 2014]

Public Health Glossary Multilingual (English, French, German, Spanish) (no date):  [Accessed 10 October 2014]

Sexuality, Poverty and Law Programme - Map of Sex Work Law: This is a map of national 'legal frameworks' around sex work. It aims to provide an accurate overview, in plain English. of the laws, regulations, directives and enforcement practices that govern the sale of sexual services by adult women. Website: [Accessed 28 November 2018]

Social Research Glossary: Harvey, L., 2012–18, Social Resarch Glossary, Quality Research International: [Accessed 10 September 2019]

Social Research Methods Programme 2002-2007 (Economic and Social Research Council/ESRC) [Accessed 10 August 2011]

Social Research in Social Sciences: Harvey L 2012-2019. Researching the Real World. Available from: [Accessed 10 September 2019]

Social Science Research Methods. [Accessed 20 January 2011]

Sphere Emergency Training Toolkit: This Emergency training toolkit (v1) seeks to support training workshops carried out during an emergency response. It includes a number of resources designed by Sphere trainers to quickly bring aid workers and local officials up to speed on Sphere principles and standards. [Accessed 21st May 2019]

Supercourse (2010) Epidemiology, the Internet and Global Health. [Accessed 10 October 2014]

Supply Chain Management: People that Deliver (PtD)  is a global partnership whose mission is to build global and national capacity to implement evidence-based approaches to plan, finance, develop, support and retain the national workforces needed for the effective, efficient and sustainable management of health supply chains. [Accessed 4 November 2015] 

Supply Chain Management. LAPTOP is a go-to course finder that offers you a world of training opportunities in supply chain management. [Accessed 9 November 2015]

Troubled Desire: [Accessed 10 November 2018] TROUBLED DESIRE offers Online-Self-Management for people who feel attracted to children and early adolescents and don't have the chance to get in real contact with therapists.

UK Public Health data gateway - UK:  [Accessed 10 October 2014] The PHE Data and Knowledge Gateway gives direct access to analysis tools and resources for public health professionals from one single portal. Over 100 tools are available through the gateway. They cover a wide range of public health areas.

Urban Health and Disaster: Ten-point Checklist - Essentials for Making Cities Resilient [Accessed 4 November 2015]

World Bank Open Knowledge Repository.  [Accessed 10 October 2013] The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository (OKR) is The World Bank’s official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products. Through the OKR, The World Bank collects, disseminates, and permanently preserves its intellectual output in digital form. The OKR is interoperable with other repositories and supports optimal discoverability and re-usability of the content by complying with Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) standards and the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). The World Bank’s new Open Access Policy (effective July 1, 2012), and the OKR will both improve access to those who regularly use World Bank research outputs and knowledge products as well as increase the range of people who can now access Bank content—from governments and civil society organizations (CSOs), to students and the general public.

World Health Organization (2007) World Health Organization [Accessed 10 October 2014]

World Health Organization Health Systems Strengthening Glossary (2014):  [Accessed 10 October 2014]

WHO E-learning platform:  [Accessed 23 September 2019] 

WHO Data portal on Universal Health Coverage: [Accessed 3 November 2017] To mark Universal Health Coverage Day, WHO today launched a new data portal to track progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) around the world. The portal shows where countries need to improve access to services, and where they need to improve information. The portal features the latest data on access to health services globally and in each of WHO’s 194 Member States, along with information about equity of access. Next year WHO will add data on the impact that paying for health services has on household finances. "Any country seeking to achieve UHC must be able to measure it," said Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO. "Data on its own won’t prevent disease or save lives, but it shows where governments need to act to strengthen their health systems and protect people from the potentially devastating effects of health care costs."

Word in Data: [Accessed 3 September 2019] Our World in Data and the SDG-Tracker are collaborative efforts between researchers at the University of Oxford, who are the scientific editors of the website content; and the non-profit organization Global Change Data Lab, who publishes and maintains the website and the data tools that make our work possible. All the work we ever do is made available in its entirety as a public good.

This list was last updated on 10/10/2019