Dr James Doherty
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue
- A. General Reading on the Crusades
- Reference works
- B. Primary Sources (in translation)
- (a) Western
- (b) Byzantine
- (c) Muslim
- (d) Collections of Sources
- (e) Module Website – VLE Blackboard
- BIBLIOGRAPHY BY TOPIC
- I Crusading Ideas
- II The Byzantine Background
- III The Muslim Background
- (b) Attitudes to Islam
- IV The First Crusade
- V The Aftermath of the First Crusade
- VI The Second Crusade
- Extra sources on the Second Crusade
- VII The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
- (a) General
- (b) Settlement and Social Structure
- (c) The Early Kingdom (to the 1130s)
- (d) Government
- VIII The Noble Families of Jerusalem
- IX The Principality of Antioch
- X The Collapse of the First Kingdom of Jerusalem 1174-87
- XI The Church in the Crusader States
- (a) The Secular Church
- (b) Monasticism
- XII The Native Communities in the Crusader States
- XIII William of Tyre. The great crusader historian
- XIV Saladin and the Third Crusade
- XV Warfare and Fortifications
- (a) Warfare
- (b) Fortifications
- XVI Crusader Art
- XVII Gender, Women and the Crusades
This bibliography may seem dauntingly long. Do not be put off by its length. This is intended to provide both a considerable range of subjects, of which you will cover only seven during the course of the module, and a generous choice of reading within individual topics. However, you do need to study this bibliography carefully, because there is inevitably some overlap between topics, and thus some items may be useful for more than one subject. If in doubt, please ask me for further guidance.
Items with a star (*) are to be regarded as particularly useful.
A. General Reading on the Crusades
*Christopher Tyerman, God's war : a new history of the Crusades (2006, 2007 or 2008) [this is the work that I would recommend the most]
Andrew Jotischky, Crusading and the Crusader states (most recent edn, 2017)
[You would be well-advised to purchase one of the volumes above, and especially so if you intend also to do HIST 2031, The Crusades and Medieval Christendom]
A. Andrea & A. Holt (eds.) Seven myths of the Crusades (2015)
N. Housley, Contesting the Crusades (2006)
N. Housley, Fighting for the cross : crusading to the Holy Land (2008)
Nikolas Jaspert, The Crusades (2006) [too short to be entirely satisfactory]
H. E. Mayer, The Crusades (1988, 2nd. ed.)
Jonathan Phillips, The Crusades, 1095-1197 (2002)
Joshua Prawer The world of the Crusaders (1972)
Jean Richard, The Crusades, c. 1071-c. 1291 (1999)
*Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Atlas of the Crusades (1991)
Jonathan Riley-Smith The Crusades : a short history (1987)
Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Oxford illustrated history of the Crusades (1994
Steven Runciman, A history of the Crusades. (3 vols. 1951-5), vol. i The First Crusade, ii The Kingdom of Jerusalem, iii The Kingdom of Acre [classic narrative history, but now rather out-dated. To be read with caution!]
K.M. Setton et al. A history of the Crusades (5 vols. 1958-1985) [Likewise, the oldest parts of this are beginning to get rather old!]
On the historiographical background,
Giles Constable, 'The Historiography of the Crusades', in Crusaders and crusading in the twelfth century ISBN: 9780754665236 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), 3–45.
Matthew Gabriele, 'Debating the Crusade in Contemporary America', in The Medieval Journal 6/1, ed. M. Connelly, J. Firnhaber-Baker, I. Johnson, and J. Palmer (Turnhout, 2016), 73–92. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (KR 22/05/2019)
Christopher Tyerman, The Debate on the Crusades, 1099–2010 (2011)
Two collections of essays will be widely used:
P.W. Edbury (ed.), Crusade and settlement : Papers Presented to R.C. Smail (1985)
Thomas Madden (ed.), The Crusades: the essential readings (2002)
There are also two useful summary chapters in the New Cambridge Medieval History:
H. E. Mayer, ‘The Latin East, 1098–1204’, The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 4. Pts 1 and 2, c.1024–c.1198, vol. iv, part 2 (2004) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.
J. Riley-Smith, ‘The Crusades, 1095–1198’, The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 4. Pts 1 and 2, c.1024–c.1198. vol. iv, part 1 (2004)
Peter Lock, The Routledge Companion to the Crusades (2006)
Alan V. Murray (ed.), The Crusades : an Encyclopedia (4 vols., 2006)
Alan V. Murray (ed.), The crusades to the Holy Land : the essential reference guide (2015)
In addition, copies of articles denoted with [ HDC ] are also available in the High Demand Collection in the Library. Articles followed by [ CR ] are available in the ‘Course Readings’ folder on the VLE; articles followed by [ E ] are available electronically through the library website. Items followed by [ DRM ] are available on the ‘De Re Militari’ website.
B. Primary Sources (in translation)
EITHER The deeds of the Franks and other Jerusalem-bound pilgrims : the earliest chronicle of the first crusades, ed. and tr. N. Dass (2011) OR Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum = The deeds of the Franks and the other pilgrims to Jerusalem, ed. & trans. Rosalind Hill (1956)
Fulcher of Chartres, A history of the expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127, trans. F.R. Ryan and H.S. Fink (1969) Book I
Raymond d'Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, trans. J.H. and L. Hill (1968)
Radulf of Caen, The Gesta Tancredi of Ralph of Caen : a history of the Normans on the First Crusade, trans. B.S. Bachrach & D.S. Bachrach (2005)
Albert of Aachen, Historia Ierosolimitana : history of the journey to Jerusalem, ed. & trans. Susan B. Edgington (2007) [this is a very long text, but useful for dipping in to].
Odo of Deuil, ( De profectione Ludovici VII in orientem = The journey of Louis VII to the East ), ed. and trans. V.G. Berry (1948)
De expugnatione Lyxbonensi = The conquest of Lisbon, trans. C.W. David (1936) [E-3.1 DAV]
Caffaro, Genoa and the twelfth-century Crusades, ed. and tr. M. Hall and J. Phillips (2013)
Fulcher of Chartres, A history of the expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127, trans. F.R. Ryan and H.S. Fink (1969), Book I I-III.
William of Tyre, A history of deeds done beyond the sea, trans. E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey (2 vols. 1941) [Vol. 2 is the useful one]
Walter the Chancellor's the Antiochene Wars, trans. T.S. Asbridge & S.B. Edgington (1999)
P. Edbury (ed.), The conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade : sources in translation
Sources in Translation (1996) [includes the Chronicle of Ernoul]
Ambroise The Crusade of Richard lion-heart trans. M.J. Hubert and J.L. La Monte (1940) or The history of the Holy War : Ambroise's Estoire de la guerre sainte., ed. & trans. Malcom Barber and Marianne Ailes, vol. ii translation
H. Nicholson (ed.), Chronicle of the Third Crusade : a translation of the Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta Regis Ricardi (1997)
The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, trans. E.R.A. Sewter, (Penguin Classics, 1969)
John Cinnamus, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, trans. C.M. Brand (1976)
Niketas Choniates, O City of Byzantium : Annals of Niketas Choniates, trans. H.P. Magoulias (1984) [M-6NIC]
*F. Gabrieli, Arab historians of the crusades (1969) [an excellent collection]
The Damascus chronicle of the Crusades trans. H.A.R. Gibb (1932)
Usama ibn Munqidh, The Book of Contemplation: Islam and the Crusades, tr. P. Cobb (2008) OR An Arab-Syrian gentleman and warrior in the period of the Crusades : memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh (Kitab al-I'tibar) , trans. P.K. Hitti (1929)
The travels of ibn Jubayr trans. R.J.C. Broadhurst, (1951) pp. 295-325 (N-1.3)
The rare and excellent history of Saladin trans. D.S. Richards (2001), also translated as Beha-ed-Din, The Life of Saladin, (Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, Vol. XII, 1897)
Conquete de la Syrie et de la Palestine : par Saladin (al-Fath al-quss f l-fath al-quds ), trad. Française, by H. Masse (1972) (C-1.3)
The chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the crusading period, from al-Kamil fi'l-ta'rikh trans. D.S. Richards, i 1097-1146: The Coming of the Franks and the Muslim Response (2006)
The chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the crusading period, from al-Kamil fi'l-ta'rikh, trans. D.S. Richards, ii 1146-1193: The Age of Nur al-Din and Saladin (2007)
(d) Collections of Sources
J. A. Brundage, The Crusades : a documentary survey. (1962) [Poor]
L. & J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades : idea and reality, 1095-1274 (1981) [excellent, especially on ideas]
E. Peters (ed.) The First Crusade : the chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and other source materials (1971) [a bad selection, but does contain useful extracts from otherwise untranslated Albert of Aachen and important letters].
E.M. Hallam (ed.) Chronicles of the crusades, (1989)
S.J. Allen & E. Amt The Crusades : a reader (2003) [a useful collection]. Pages 39-53 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.
C. Tyerman (ed.), Chronicles of the First Crusade, 1096-1099 (2012) [much better than the Peters collection above]
(e) Module Website – VLE Blackboard
Go to the HIST2030 site on the VLE then to 'Learning Resources' -- 'Contemporary Sources for the Crusade'.
[You are expected to use the translations on this website. Students who fail to use relevant material from this website for papers and essays may well be marked down. ]
This contains translations of the following texts:
(1) ‘Letters concerning the Second Crusade'
(2) ‘The Capture of Almeria and Tortosa by Caffaro' [NB – see a more recent translation in Caffaro, Genoa and the twelfth-century Crusades, ed. and tr. M. Hall and J. Phillips (2013)]
(3) 'The Autobiography of William of Tyre'
(4) ‘The Conquest of the Holy Land by Saladin’
(5) ‘The Expedition of Frederick Barbarossa’ [extract from a work now available in print, see above]
(6) ‘Philip II of France on the Third Crusade'
(7) 'The Tract about Conditions and Places in the Holy Land'
(8) ‘A Letter of Jacques de Vitry, 1216’ [contains useful information about the religious groups in the Crusader states]
Links to other useful online sites:
The VLE contains links to two approved sites
(1) The 'Medieval Sourcebook' of Fordham University
(2) De Re Militari: the Society for Medieval Military History. This last has some very useful material for the Crusades, both translations of primary texts and secondary articles.
BIBLIOGRAPHY BY TOPIC
I Crusading Ideas
C. Erdmann, The origin of the idea of crusade (Eng. trans. 1977) [Old, originally published in 1935, but still fundamental]
*J. Riley-Smith, What were the Crusades? (1977)
J. Riley-Smith, The first crusaders, 1095-1131 (1997), chapters 2-3, pp. 23-80.
F.H. Russell, The just war in the Middle Ages (1975) [Philosophy M-4.2 RUS]
J.A. Brundage, Medieval canon law and the crusader (1962)
P.J. Cole, The preaching of the crusades to the Holy Land, 1095-1270 (1991)
Matthew Gabriele, An Empire of Memory: the Legend of Charlemagne, the Franks, and Jerusalem before the First Crusade (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
William J. Purkis, Crusading spirituality in the Holy Land and Iberia, c.1095-c.1187 (2008), chapters 1-4.
I.S. Robinson, 'Gregory VII and the soldiers of Christ', History. ISSN: 0018-2648 lviii (1973) 169-192 [HDC]
*H.E.J. Cowdrey. 'Pope Urban II's preaching of the first crusade' History. ISSN: 0018-2648 lV (1970) 177-188 [reprinted in H.E.J. Cowdrey, Popes, monks and crusaders (1984), and in The Crusades : the essential readings ] [HDC] Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.
H.E.J. Cowdrey, ‘Christianity and the morality of warfare during the first century of Crusading’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 1, Western approaches ed. M. Bull & N. Housley (2003), 175-92.
J.A. Brundage, 'The Army of the First Crusade and the Crusade Vow', Medieval Studies xxxiii (1971) 334-343
*C.J. Tyerman, 'Were there any Crusades in the twelfth century? ', English historical review. cx (1995), 553-577 [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ] – a very important, if controversial, essay
Janus Moller Jensen, 'Peregrinatio sive Expeditio: why the First Crusade was not a pilgrimage', al-Masaq : Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 15 (2003), 119-38.
M. Markowski, ‘Crucesignatus: its origins and early usage’, Journal of Medieval History. x (1984), 157-65 [E].
P.J. Cole ‘”Oh God, the heathen hath come into your inheritance” (Ps. 78.1). The theme of religious pollution in Crusade documents’, in Crusaders and Muslims in twelfth-century Syria ed. M. Shatzmiller (1993), 84-111.
Renana Bartal, 'Relics of Place: Stone Fragments of the Holy Sepulchre in Eleventh-Century France', Journal of Medieval History 44/4 (2018): 406–21.
II The Byzantine Background
G. Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine state (Eng. trans. 1968)
R.J.H. Jenkins, Byzantium : the imperial centuries, A. D. 610-1071. 602-1071 (1966)
R.J.H. Jenkins, The Byzantine Empire on the eve of the Crusades (Hist. Assoc. Pamphlet G-24: 1953)
P. Charanis, 'Byzantium, the West and the Origins of the First Crusade', Byzantion. xix (1949) 17-36
S. Vryonis, 'Byzantium, the Social Basis for decline in the Eleventh Century', Greek, Roman, and Byzantine studies. ii (1959) 159-75
S. Vryonis, The decline of medieval hellenism in Asia Minor and the process of Islamization from the eleventh through the fifteenth century (1971). chaps. 1-3.
M. Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025-1204 : a political history (1984)
Ralph-Johannes Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096-1204 (1993)
L. Neville, Anna Komnene : the life and work of a medieval historian ISBN: 9780190498177; 9780190498191; 9780190498184 ebk (2016)
*Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (2003)
III The Muslim Background
(a) The Islamic World at the Time of the Crusades
A history of the Crusades, ed. K. Setton, Vol. I The First Hundred Years, ed. M.W. Baldwin, chaps. 3-4, pp. 181-276
E. Ashtor, A social and economic history of the Near East in the Middle Ages (1976), especially chaps. 5-6
Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades : Islamic perspectives (1999)
P.K. Hitti, History of the Arabs, especially chap. 45.
P.M. Holt (ed.), The Eastern Mediterranean lands in the period of the Crusades (1977), especially chaps. 4-5
*P.M. Holt, The age of the Crusades : the Near East from the eleventh century to 1517 (1986)
Bernard Lewis, The Assassins : a radical sect in Islam. (1967)
Ronnie Ellenblum, The collapse of the eastern Mediterranean : climate change and the decline of the East, 950-1072 (2012)
C. F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt. Vol.1, Islamic Egypt, 640-1571/ edited by Carl F. Petry ; general editor, M.W. Daly. (1998) [ see esp. the chapters on the Fatimids and on the Ayyubids ]
M. Brett, ‘Abbasids, Fatimids and Seljuqs,’ in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. iv, part 2 (2004), 675-720.
S. Humphreys, ‘Zengids, Ayyubids and Seljuqs’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. iv, part 2 (2004), 721-752.
P. Cobb, The race for paradise : an Islamic history of the Crusades ISBN: 9780199532018 (hbk.) : £20.00 (2014)
The Muslim texts, especially the introduction to the The Damascus chronicle of the Crusades
(b) Attitudes to Islam
R.W. Southern, Western views of Islam in the Middle Ages (1965)
D.C. Munro, 'Western Attitudes to Islam during the Crusades', Speculum. vi (1931) 329-343
N. Daniel, Islam and the West : the making of an image (1960)
C.H. Haskins, Studies in the history of mediaeval science (1927)
B.Z. Kedar, Crusade and mission : European approaches toward the Muslims (1984)
(c) Muslim-Christian Interactions
Mike Carr, 'Between Byzantium, Egypt and the Holy Land: The Italian Maritime Republics and the First Crusade' in Jerusalem the Golden : the origins and impact of the First Crusade ISBN: 9782503551722 (hardback); 2503551726 (hardback); 9782503551920 (online), ed. S. B. Edgington and L. García-Guijarro (Turnhout: Brepols, 2014), 75–87.
J. Shepard, 'The Use of Franks in Eleventh-Century Byzantium', Anglo-Norman Studies 15 (1993), 275–306.
IV The First Crusade
Sources: Gesta Francorum, Fulcher, Raymond d'Aguilers, Anna Comnena Bks. 10-11; The Crusades : a reader, pp. 39-53.
S.Runciman, A history of the Crusades., vol. I The First Crusade (1951)
Thomas Asbridge, The first crusade : a new history (2004)
Jonathan Phillips (ed.,), The first crusade : origins and impact ( 1997), especially the essays by J. France, J. Sheppard and C. Hillenbrand.
*J. France, Victory in the East : a military history of the First Crusade (1994) [excellent]
J. Riley-Smith, The first crusade and the idea of crusading (1986)
C. Cahen, 'An Introduction to the First Crusade', Past & present. 6 (1954) 6-31
Jason T. Roche, 'In the wake of Mantzikert: The First Crusade and the Alexian Reconquest of Western Anatolia', History. (2009), 135-53.
H.E.J. Cowdrey, 'The Gregorian Papacy, Byzantium and the First Crusade', in J.D. Howard-Johnston (ed). Byzantium and the West c.850-c.1200 : Proceedings of the XVIII Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Oxford 30th March - 1st April 1984. (1988), pp. 145-169
J. France, 'The departure of Tatikios from the Crusading Army', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. 44 (1971), 131-47 - Available online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2281.1971.tb02060.x/pdf
J. France, 'The crisis of the First Crusade', from the defeat of Kerbogha to the departure from Arqa', Byzantion. 40 (1970), 276-308.
Alan V. Murray, 'The Army of Godfrey of Bouillon, 1096-1099: Structure and Dynamics of a Contingent on the First Crusade', in Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire. 70 (1992), 301-29. [reprinted in Medieval warfare, 1000-1300, ed. John France (2006), pp. 423-51].
Alan V. Murray, ‘Money and logistics in the forces of the First Crusade: coinage, bullion and supply, 1096-99’, in Logistics of warfare in the age of the Crusades : proceedings of a workshop held at the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 30 September to 4 October 2002, ed. John Pryor (2006), pp. 229-49. - Available online: http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/b/b036556.pdf
*John Pryor, 'A view from the masthead: the First Crusade from the sea', Crusades. 7 (2008), 87-152.
James H. Forse, 'Armenians and the First Crusade', Journal of Medieval History. 18 (1991), 13-22.
Peter Frankopan, The first crusade : the call from the East (2012). [Fascinating, if controversial approach.]
G. Bell, ‘In starvation’s shadow: the role of logistics in the strained Byzantine-European relations during the First Crusade’, Byzantion. 80 (2010), 38-71.
John France, ‘The First Crusade as a naval enterprise’, Mariner's mirror. 83/4 (1997), 389-97.
B. Bachrach, ‘Some Observations on the Role of the Byzantine Navy in the Success of the First Crusade’, Journal of medieval military history. 1 (2002), 83-100.
*B. Bachrach, ‘The Crusader March from Dorylaion to Herakleia’, in Shipping, trade and crusade in the medieval Mediterranean : studies in honour of John Pryor, ed. R. Gertwagen and E. Jeffreys (2012), 231-254.
A. V. Murray, ‘The Enemy Within: Bohemund, Byzantium and the Subversion of the First Crusade’, Crusading and pilgrimage in the Norman world, ed. K. Hurlock and P. Oldfield (2015), 31-47. [CR]
S. Edgington & L. Garcia-Guijarro (eds.) Jerusalem the Golden : the origins and impact of the First Crusade (2014)
J. Riley-Smith, The first crusaders, 1095-1131 (1997)
V The Aftermath of the First Crusade
Anna Comnena: a study, Bks. 11-13
(a) Bohemond's Crusade
J. G. Rowe, 'Paschal II, Bohemond of Antioch and the Byzantine Empire', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester. xlix (1966-7), 165-202 - Available online: https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-man-scw:1m2923&datastreamId=POST-PEER-REVIEW-PUBLISHERS-DOCUMENT.PDF
(b) King Sigurd of Norway's Crusade
Albert of Aachen, Historia Ierosolimitana : History of the Journey to Jerusalem, ed. and trans. S. B. Edgington (Oxford, 2007), 798.
Ágrip af Nóregskonungaşogum : a twelfth-century synoptic history of the kings of Norway ISBN: 090352127X, ed. and trans. M. J. Driscoll (London, 2008).
Fagrskinna, a catalogue of the Kings of Norway ISBN: 9004131728, ed. and trans. A. Finlay (Leiden, 2003), 74–5.
Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana, ed. H. Hagenmayer (Heidelberg, 1913), 544.
Ibn al-Athīr, The chronicle of Ibn al-Athīr for the crusading period from al-Kāmil fīʼl-taʼrīkh ISBN: 9780754669524 (v. 3 pbk.); 9780754640776 (v.1); 0754640779 (v.1); 9780754669500 (v.1 pbk.); 9780754640783 (v.2); 0754640787 (v.2); 9780754669517 (v.2 pbk.); 9780754640790 (v.3). Part 1: The Years 491–541/1097/1146: The Coming of the Franks and the Muslim Response, trans. D. S. Richards (Farnham, 2005), 152.
Ibn al-Qalānisī, The Damascus chronicle of the Crusades, trans. H. A. R. Gibb (London, 1932), 106.
Morkinskinna : the earliest Icelandic chronicle of the Norwegian kings (1030-1157) ISBN: 080143694X; 9780801477836 (pbk), ed. and trans. T. M. Andersson (New York, 2000), 313–59.
Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla : history of the kings of Norway, trans. L. M. Hollander (Austin, 1967), 688–714.
William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum Anglorum = The history of the English kings ISBN: 019820678X (v. 1); 0198206828 (v. 2), ed. R. A. B. Mynors, with R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, 2 vols (Oxford, 1998–99), ii, 480–81.
G. B. Doxey, 'Norwegian Crusaders and the Balearic Islands', Scandinavian studies. ISSN: 0036-5637 68/2 (1996): 139–60.
J. Hill, ‘Pilgrimage and Prestige in the Icelandic Sagas’, Saga-book of the Viking Club. ISSN: 0305-9219 23 (1993): 433–53.
A. Jakobsson, 'Image is Everything: The Morkinskinna Account of King Sigurðr of Norway’s Journey to the Holy Land,' Parergon ISSN: 0313-6221 30/1 (2013): 121–40.
M. E. Kalinke, 'Sigurðar Saga Jórsalafara: Fictionalisation of Fact in Morkinskinna,' Scandinavian studies. ISSN: 0036-5637 56/2 (1984): 152–67.
A. Nedkvitne, ‘Why Did Medieval Norsemen Go on Crusades?,' in Medieval history writing and crusading ideology ISBN: 9517466625 (pbk.), ed., T. M. S. Lehtonen, K. V. Jensen, J. Malkki and K. Ritari (Helsinki, 2005), 37–50.
L. K. Norako, 'Crusading Gone Global? The Icelandic Magnussona Saga’s Visions of the World and Home,' Literature compass. ISSN: 1741-4113 11/7 (2014): 423–34.
J. Phillips, ‘William of Malmesbury: Medical Historian of the Crusades,' in Discovering William of Malmesbury ISBN: 1783271361 hardback; 9781783271368 hardback, ed., R. M. Thompson, E. Dolmans and E. A. Winkler (Woodbridge, 2017), 129–38.
E. Joranson, 'The problem of the spurious letter of the Emperor Alexius to the Count of Flanders', The American historical review. lv (1949- 50) [E]
A.C. Krey, 'A neglected passage in the Gesta', The Crusades and other historical essays : presented to Dana C. Munro by his former students (1928), pp. 57 ff.
J. Riley-Smith, 'The title of Godfrey of Bouillon', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. lii (1979), 83-7 Available online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2281.1979.tb02085.x/abstract
J. Riley-Smith, ' The motives of the earliest crusaders and the settlement of latin Palestine , English historical review. xcviii (1983) 721-736 [HDC]
Alan V. Murray, ' The title of Godfrey of Bouillon as ruler of Jerusalem ', Collegium Medievale 3 (1990), pp 163-78 [offprint in Brotherton Library]
VI The Second Crusade
Sources: Cinnamus, Odo of Deuil, William of Tyre, Bk. 16, De Expugnatione Lyxboniense, ‘Letters concerning the Second Crusade’, ‘The capture of Almeria and Tortosa’ [website].
*J. Phillips, The Second Crusade : extending the frontiers of Christendom . (2007)
J. Phillips & M. Hoch (eds.), The Second Crusade : scope and consequences. (2001)
G. Constable, 'The Second Crusade as seen by Contemporaries', Traditio. ix (1953), 213 ff. [still very important] Available online: http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/z/zsn2a038422.pdf
A.J. Forey, ' The second crusade : scope and objectives ', The Durham University journal. lxxxvi (1994), 165-175 [HDC]
M. Gervers (ed.), The Second crusade and the Cistercians (1995), esp. pp. 79-128.
Jonathan Harris Byzantium and the Crusades (2003)
J.J. Norwich, The kingdom in the sun 1130-1194 (1970) chaps. 6-7, pp. 106-142.
A. Grabois, 'The Crusade of King Louis VII: a reconsideration', Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail, ed. P.W. Edbury [See Section A], pp. 94-105.
H. Mayr-Harting, ‘Odo of Deuil, the Second Crusade and the monastery of St. Denis’, in The Culture of Christendom : essays in medieval history in memory of Denis L.T. Bethel ed. M.A. Meyer (1993), 225-41.
P. Stephenson, ‘Anna Comnena’s Alexiad as a source for the Second Crusade? ’, Journal of Medieval History. xxix (2003), 41-54.
A.J. Forey, 'The failure of the siege of Damascus in 1148', Journal of Medieval History. x (1984), 13-23 [E: via the De Re Militari website]
M. Hoch, ‘The choice of Damascus as the objective of the Second Crusade’, in Autour de la première croisade : actes du Colloque de la Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Clermont-Ferrand, 22-25 juin 1995, ed. M. Balard (1996), 359-69. Available online: http://www.knightorder.org.uk/history/The%20Choice%20of%20Damascus%20as%20the%20Objective%20of%20the%20Second%20Crusade%20a%20re-evaluation.pdf
A.V. Murray, 'Galilee and Damascus in the period of the Crusades', Nottingham medieval studies. xl (1996), 190-3.
G.A. Loud, ‘Some reflections on the failure of the Second Crusade’, Crusades. iv (2005), 1-14.
J. Roche, ‘Conrad III and the Second Crusade: retreat from Dorylaion’, Crusades. v (2006), 85-97.
Extra sources on the Second Crusade
The "Historia pontificalis" of John of Salisbury, trans. M. Chibnall (1956), pp. 11-12, 52-62
The letters of St. Bernard of Clairvaux trans. B. Scott-James (1953), especially nos. 320, 323, 391-4, 398-400, 408, 410.
Otto of Freising, The deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, trans. C.C. Mierow, (1953), Bk. 1 Chaps. 34-47, 62-65, pp. 69-81, 101-6.
VII The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
J. Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1972)
J. Richard, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (Eng. trans. 2 vols. 1979)
J. Prawer, Crusader institutions (1980) – [outstanding]
Zacour, N.P. & H.W. Hazard (eds.) A history of the Crusades. Vol.5, The impact of the Crusades on the Near East (1985)
R.J. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096-1204 (1993)
*M. Barber, The Crusader states (2012)
T.S.R. Boase, Kingdoms and strongholds of the Crusaders (1971)
R.C. Smail, The Crusaders in Syria and the Holy Land (1973)
R.C. Smail, Crusading warfare, 1097-1193. (1956)
(b) Settlement and Social Structure
Sources: Ibn Jubayr, The Autobiography of Usamah, ‘A letter of Jacques de Vitry’ [website]
J. Prawer, 'The Settlement of Latins in Jerusalem', Speculum. xxvii (1952) [E]
J. Prawer, 'Colonization activities in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem', Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire xxix (1951). Available online: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rbph_0035-0818_1951_num_29_4_2115
J. Prawer, 'The Assise de Teneure and the Assise de Vente', The economic history review. Ser. II.iv (1951-2), 77-87
(All three reprinted in Crusader institutions, chaps. 4-5, 14)
J. Prawer, Palestinian Agriculture and the Crusader Rural System', Crusader institutions chap. 6 ; a revised version of the essay first published (in French) in Byzantion. xxii (1952) and xxiii (1953)
Ronnie Ellenblum, Frankish rural settlement in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1998)
J. Riley-Smith, 'Some lesser officials in Latin Syria', English historical review. lxxxvii (1972), 1-26 [reprinted in J. Riley-Smith, Crusaders and Settlers in the Latin East (2008), essay xi] - Available online: http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/LXXXVII/CCCXLII/1.citation
J. Riley-Smith, 'Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants', Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages, ed. D. Baker (Edinburgh 1973) [reprinted in Riley-Smith, Crusaders and Settlers in the Latin East (2008), essay xi]
Alan V. Murray, 'Ethnic Identity in the Crusader States: The Frankish Race and the Settlement of Outremer', in Concepts of national identity in the Middle Ages, ed. S. Forde, L. Johnson and A.V. Murray (1995), 59-73
A. Mallett, Popular Muslim reactions to the Franks in the Levant, 1097-1291 (2014)
P. Cobb, Usama ibn Munqidh : warrior-poet of the age of Crusades ISBN: 1851684034 (2005)
(c) The Early Kingdom (to the 1130s)
Sources: Fulcher of Chartres, Bks. 2-3, William of Tyre.
H.E. Mayer, 'The Origins of the County of Jaffa', Israel exploration journal. (1985), 35-85 [reprinted in his Kings and lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)] Available online: http://www.jchp.ucla.edu/Bibliography/Mayer%201985%20%28IEJ%2035%29.pdf
H.E. Mayer, 'The Origins of the lordship of Ramla and Lydda in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem' Speculum. lx (1985), 537-52 [E] [reprinted in his Kings and lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)].
Alan V. Murray, 'The Origins of the Frankish nobility of the Kingdom of Jerusalem', Mediterranean historical review. iv (1989), 281-300
Alan V. Murray, 'Dynastic Continuity or Dynastic Change? : The Accession of Baldwin II and the Nobility of the Kingdom of Jerusalem', Medieval prosopography. xiii (1992), 1-27.
Alan V. Murray, ' Baldwin II and his Nobles: Baronial Factionalism and Dissent in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1118-1134 ', Nottingham medieval studies. xxxviii (1994), 60-85. [HDC]
Alan V. Murray, ‘”Mighty against the enemies of Christ”: the relic of the True Cross in the armies of the kingdom of Jerusalem’, in The crusades and their sources : essays presented to Bernard Hamilton, ed. John France & William G. Zajac (1998), pp. 217-38 .
Alan V. Murray, The Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem : a dynastic history 1099-1125 (2000)
Jean Richard, 'Frankish Power in the Eastern Mediterranean', Mediterranean historical review. ii (1987), 168-87
J. Riley-Smith, ‘King Fulk of Jerusalem and the “Sultan of Babylon”, in Montjoie : studies in Crusade history in honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer, ed. B.Z. Kedar, J. Riley-Smith & R. Hiestand (1997), 55-66. [reprinted in J. Riley-Smith, Crusaders and settlers in the Latin East (2008), essay xii].
J. Riley-Smith, ‘Families, Crusades and Settlement in the Latin East’, in J. Riley-Smith, Crusaders and settlers in the Latin East (2008), essay ix.
J.L. La Monte, Feudal monarchy in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100 to 1291 (Cambridge, Mass. 1932) [to be used with care, good on details, esp. chaps. 4-8, conclusions rather dated].
J. Riley-Smith, The feudal nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277 (1971), especially chapters 5 & 7.
S. Tibble, Monarchy and lordships in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291 (1989)
J. Prawer, ' The nobility and the feudal regime in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem ', Lordship and community in medieval Europe : selected readings, ed. F.L. Cheyette (1968) pp.156-172 [reprinted in Crusader institutions, chap. 2, pp 20-45] [HDC]
Deborah Gerish, 'Ancestors and predecessors: royal continuity and identity in the first kingdom of Jerusalem', Anglo-Norman Studies20 Proceedings of the Battle Conference in Dublin, 1997 , ed. C. harper-Bill (1998), 127-50.
Deborah Gerish, 'The True Cross and the kings of Jerusalem', The Haskins Society journal. 8 (1996/9), 137-55.
P.W. Edbury, 'Feudal Obligations in the Latin East', Byzantion. 47 (1977) 328-356
S. Reynolds, ‘Fiefs and vassals in twelfth-century Jerusalem: a view from the west’, Crusades. i (2002), 29-48.
P.W. Edbury, ‘Fiefs and vassals in twelfth and thirteenth century Jerusalem’, Crusades. i (2002), 49-62.
B.Z. Kedar, 'The general tax of 1183 in the Crusading Kingdom: innovation or adaptation', English historical review. lxxxix (1974), 339- 345
H.E. Mayer, 'The Beginnings of King Amalric of Jerusalem', in The Horns of Hattin, ed. B.Z. Kedar (1992), pp 121-135
H.E. Mayer, 'The Wheel of Fortune: Seignorial Vicissitudes under Kings Fulk and Baldwin III of Jerusalem', Speculum. lxv (1990), 860-7 [E] [reprinted in his Kings and lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)].
M. Barber, ‘The career of Philip of Nablus in the kingdom of Jerusalem’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 2, Defining the crusader kingdom, ed. P.W. Edbury & J. Phillips (2003), 60-75.
A. V. Murray, ‘Women in the Royal Succession of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1291)’, Mächtige Frauen? : Königinnen und Fürstinnen im europäischen Mittelalter (11. - 14. Jahrhundert), ed. C. Zey (2015), 131-162. [CR]
VIII The Noble Families of Jerusalem
S. Tibble, Monarchy and lordships in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291 [see above, section VII (d)]
J.L. La Monte, 'John d'Ibelin. The Old Lord of Beirut 1177-1236', Byzantion. xii (1937) 417 ff.
J.L. La Monte, 'The Lords of Le Puiset on the Crusades', Speculum. xvii (1942), 100 ff. [E]
J.L. La Monte, 'The Lords of Sidon in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries', Byzantion. xvii (1944/5), 183 ff.
J.L. La Monte, The Lords of Caesarea in the period of the Crusades', Speculum. xxii (1947), 145 ff.
M. E. Nickerson, 'The Seigneurie of Beirut in the twelfth century and the Brisebarre family of Beirut-Blanchegarde', Byzantion. xix (1949), 141-85.
H.E. Mayer, Kings and lords in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1994)
P. W. Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1997)
IX The Principality of Antioch
Walter the Chancellor, Albert of Aachen [see primary sources]
T.S. Asbridge, ‘The “Crusader” community at Antioch: the impact of interaction with Byzantium and Islam’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Ser. VI.ix (1999), 305-25.
T.S. Asbridge, The creation of the principality of Antioch, 1098-1130 (2000)
T.S. Asbridge, ‘Alice of Antioch: a case study of female power in the twelfth century’, in The experience of crusading. Vol. 2, Defining the crusader kingdom, ed. P.W. Edbury & J. Phillips (2003), 29-47.
M. Barber, The Crusader states (2012)
X The Collapse of the First Kingdom of Jerusalem 1174-87
Sources: William of Tyre, Bks. 19-23, Ernoul & contemporary letters, in Edbury (ed.), The conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade : sources in translatio n [above], ‘The Conquest of the Holy Land by Saladin’ [on module website].
M.W. Baldwin, Raymond III of Tripolis and the fall of Jerusalem (1140-1187) (1936) [to be used with care, now rather dated].
*B. Hamilton, The leper king and his heirs : Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (2000) [excellent, even if you disagree with his views]
R.C. Smail, ' Latin Syria and the West 1149-1187 ', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., ser. V.xix (1969) 1-20 [HDC]
R.C. Smail, ‘The international status of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem 1150-1197’, The Eastern Mediterranean lands in the period of the Crusades, ed. P.M. Holt (1977), pp. 23-43.
B. Hamilton, ' "The Elephant of Christ", Reynald of Chatillon', Studies in church history. xv (1978) 97-108
B. Hamilton, ' Miles of Plancy and the Fief of Beirut, in The Horns of Hattin : proceedings of the Second Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Jerusalem and Haifa, 2-6 July 1987 , ed. B.Z. Kedar (1992) pp 136-146 [HDC]
R.L. Nicolson, Joscelyn III and the fall of the crusader states, 1134-1199. (1973) [rather disappointing].
H.E. Mayer, 'Henry II of England and the Holy Land', English Historical Review. xcvii (1982), 721-739
R.C. Smail, 'The Predicaments of Guy de Lusignan 1183-87', Outremer : studies in the history of the crusading kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer Presented to Joshua Prawer, ed. B.Z. Kedar, H.E. Mayer and R.C. Smail (1982), pp.159-176
*Peter Edbury, 'Propaganda and faction in the kingdom of Jerusalem : the background to Hattin', in Crusaders and Muslims in twelfth-century Syria, ed. Maya Shatzmiller (1993), 173-189 [HDC] [crucial]
Peter Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1997)
B.Z. Kedar, 'The Battle of Hattin revisited', in The Horns of Hattin : proceedings of the Second Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Jerusalem and Haifa, 2-6 July 1987, pp. 190-207.
XI The Church in the Crusader States
(a) The Secular Church
J.L. La Monte, Feudal monarchy in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100 to 1291 [as in (VII(d) above], chapter 10 pp.203-216
*Bernard Hamilton, The Latin Church in the Crusader states : the secular church (1980)
B. Hamilton, ‘Aimery of Limoges. Latin Patriarch of Antioch (c. 1142-96) and the unity of the Churches’, in East and West in the crusader states : context, contacts, confrontations II : acta of the congress held at Hernen Castle in May 1997, ed. K. Ciggaar & H. Teule (1999), 1-12 [also useful for the native communities].
A history of the Crusades. Vol.5, The impact of the Crusades on the Near East [above section VII(a)], chapter 5.
J. Riley-Smith, 'The Latin Clergy and the settlement in Palestine and Syria, 1098-1100', The Catholic historical review. lxxiv (1988) 539- 557
J.G. Rowe, 'Paschal II and the relations between the spiritual and temporal powers in the Kingdom of Jerusalem', Speculum. xxxii (1957), 470-501 [E]
J.G. Rowe, 'The Papacy and the Ecclesiastical Province of Tyre', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester. xliii (1960), 160-189 [CR] - Available online: https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-man-scw:1m2855&datastreamId=POST-PEER-REVIEW-PUBLISHERS-DOCUMENT.PDF Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.
H.E. Mayer, 'The Concordat of Nablus', Journal of Ecclesiastical History. xxxiii (1982), 531-543
Y. Katzir, 'The Patriarch of Jerusalem. Primate of the Latin Kingdom', Crusade and settlement : papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail, ed. P.W. Edbury (1985), pp. 169-175
P.W. Edbury and J.G. Rowe, ' William of Tyre and the patriarchal election of 1180 ', English historical review. xciii (1978), 1-25 [HDC]
B.Z. Kedar, 'The Patriarch Eraclius', Outremer : studies in the history of the crusading kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer [as above], pp. 177-204
B. Hamilton, ‘Rebuilding Zion: the Holy Places of Jerusalem in the twelfth century’, Studies in church history. xiv (1977), 105-116.
B. Hamilton, 'Ideals of Holiness: Crusaders, Contemplatives and Mendicants', International history review. xvii (1995), 693-712
*A. Jotischky, The perfection of solitude : hermits and monks in the crusader states (1995)
H.E. Mayer, Bistmer, Klster und Stifte im Knigreich Jerusalem (1977) [an important study for anyone who can read German]
XII The Native Communities in the Crusader States
Sources: ‘The Tract about the places and conditions of the Holy Land’, ‘A letter of Jacques de Vitry 1216’ [website]
*Christopher McEvitt, The Crusades and the Christian world of the East : rough tolerance. Rough Tolerance (2008)
Hadia Dajani-Shakeel, 'Natives and Franks in Palestine: Perceptions and Interactions', in Conversion and continuity : indigenous Christian communities in Islamic lands, eighth to eighteenth centuries, pp 161-84
Elias El-Hayek 'Struggle for Survival: The Maronites of the Middle Ages', in Conversion and continuity : indigenous Christian communities in Islamic lands, eighth to eighteenth centuries pp 407-21
B.Z. Kedar Crusade and mission : European approaches toward the Muslims (Princeton, 1984)
*B.Z. Kedar, 'The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant', in Muslims under Latin rule, 1100-1300, ed. James M. Powell (Princeton, 1990), pp 135-74 [reprinted in The Crusades : the essential readings ]
Conversion and continuity : indigenous Christian communities in Islamic lands, eighth to eighteenth centuries ed. Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi (Toronto, 1990)
XIII William of Tyre. The great crusader historian
‘The lost autobiographical chapter of William of Tyre’ [website]
*P.W. Edbury/J.G. Rowe, William of Tyre : historian of the Latin East (1988)
P.W. Edbury/J.G. Rowe, ' William of Tyre and the patriarchal election of 1180 ', English historical review. xliii (1978), 1-25 [HDC]
R.H.C. Davies, 'William of Tyre', Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages, ed. D. Baker (1973)
D.W.T.C. Vesey, 'William of Tyre and the Art of Historiography', Mediaeval studies. xxxv (1973), 433-455
B. Hamilton, ‘William of Tyre and the Byzantine Empire’, in Porphyrogenita : essays on the history and literature of Byzantium and the Latin East in honour of Julian Chrysostomides, ed. C. Dendrinos et alii (2003), pp. 219-33 .
M.R. Tessera, ‘Prudentes homines … qui habebant magis exercitatos’: a preliminary inquiry into William of Tyre’s vocabulary of power’, Crusades. i (2002), 63-72.
R.W. Crawford, 'William of Tyre and the Maronites', Speculum. xxx (1955) [E]
M.R. Morgan, The chronicle of Ernoul and the continuations of William of Tyre (1973) [rather technical]
XIV Saladin and the Third Crusade
Sources: Ambroise; A Chronicle of the Third Crusade; Edbury, The Fall of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade; The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin or al-Nawadir al-Sultaniyya wa'l-Mahasin al-Yusufiyya; The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa, [as above] - there is a extract from this last text on the VLE.
*M.C. Lyons & D. Jackson Saladin : the Politics of the Holy War (1982) [the best study on the subject]
Hannes Möhring, Saladin, the Sultan and his times, 1138-1193 (2008)
H.A.R. Gibb, 'The Achievement of Saladin', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester. xxv (1952)
D.S. Richards, 'The Early History of Saladin', The Islamic quarterly. xvii (1973), 140-159
R. Stephen Humphreys, From Saladin to the Mongols : the Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260 (1977)
C.M. Brand, 'The Byzantines and Saladin: opponents of the Third Crusade', Speculum. xxxvii (1962) 167-181 [E]
Penny J. Cole, 'Christian perceptions of the Battle of Hattin (583/1187)', al-Masaq.: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean6 (1993), 9-39.
Alan V. Murray, ‘Finance and logistics of the Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa’, in In Laudem Hierosolymitani : studies in Crusades and medieval culture in honour of Benjamin Z. Kedar, ed. I. Shagrir, R. Ellenblum & J. Riley-Smith (Aldershot 2007), pp. 357-68 [CR ] .
J. Gillingham, 'Roger of Howden on Crusade', Medieval historical writing in the Christian and Islamic worlds, ed D.O. Morgan (1982) pp 60-75
J. Gillingham, 'Richard I and the science of warfare', in War and government in the Middle Ages : essays in honour of J.O. Prestwich.ed. John Gillingham and J.C. Holt (1984), 194-207.
John Gillingham, Richard I (Yale, 1999) [not to be confused with his earlier works entitled Richard the Lionheart ]
M. Markowski, ‘Richard Lionheart: bad king, bad crusader? ’, Journal of Medieval History. 22 (1997), 351-65.
D. Jacoby, ‘Conrad, Marquis of Montferrat and the kingdom of Jerusalem (1187-92)’, in D. Jacoby, Trade, commodities and shipping in the medieval Mediterranean (1997)
A.-M. Edde, Saladin (2011), tr. J.-M. Todd. [Recent assessment by a distinguished French historian.]
S. Humphreys, ‘Zengids, Ayyubids and Seljuqs’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. iv, part 2 (2004), 721-752.
P. Cobb, The race for paradise : an Islamic history of the Crusades ISBN: 9780199532018 (hbk.) : £20.00 (2014)
XV Warfare and Fortifications
R.C. Smail, Crusading warfare, 1097-1193. (1956) [fundamental]
C. Marshall, Warfare in the Latin east, 1192-1291 (1992)
J. Prawer, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem : European colonialism in the Middle Ages, chapter 15
J. Prawer, 'The Battle of Hattin', Crusader institutions chapter 19, pp. 484-500
*Hugh Kennedy, Crusader castles (1994) [excellent, the best book on the subject]
Ronnie Ellenblum, Crusader castles and modern histories (2007)
P. Deschamps, Les Chateaux des Croisés en Terre Sainte i Le Crac des Chevaliers : tude historique et archologique (1934), ii La defense du royaume de Jrusalem : tude historique, geographique et monumentale (1939), iii La dfense du comt de Tripoli et de la principaut d'Antioche : tude historique, gographique, toponymique et monumentale (1973) (each volume has a vol. of plates attached - Architecture E DES)
T.E. Lawrence, Crusader castles (2 vols., 1936) - (Special Collections, English P-40LAW). (2nd ed., ed by D. Pringle, 1988)
K. Molin, Unknown crusader castles (2001)
A history of the Crusades. Vol.4, The art and architecture of the Crusader states, ed. H.W. Hazard (1976), chapter 4. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.
XVI Crusader Art
Jarsolav Folda, Crusader Art (2008)
A history of the Crusades. Vol.4, The art and architecture of the Crusader states, ed. H.W.
H. Buchtal, Miniature painting in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1957)
K. Weitzmann, 'Icon Painting in the Crusader Kingdom', Dumbarton Oaks Papers. xx (1966), 49-83
L.A. Hunt, 'Art and colonialism: the mosaics of the church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (1169) and the problem of "Crusader" art', Dumbarton Oaks Papers. xlv (1991
XVII Gender, Women and the Crusades
Susan B. Edgington and Sarah Lambert, eds., Gendering the Crusades (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2001).
Kirsten A. Fenton ‘Gendering the First Crusade in William of Malmesbury’s Gesta Regum Anglorum’, in Intersections of Gender, Religion, and Ethnicity in the Middle Ages, ed. by Cordelia Beattie and Kirsten A. Fenton (Basingstroke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), pp. 125–39.
Deborah Gerish, 'Gender Theory', in Palgrave Advances in the Crusades, ed., Helen Nicholson (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 130–47.
Natasha R. Hodgson, Katherine J. Lewis, Matthew M. Mesley, eds., Crusading and masculinities (London: Routledge, 2019).
Natasha Hodgson, 'Normans and Competing Masculinities on Crusade', in Crusading and pilgrimage in the Norman world, ed. Kathryn Hurlock and Paul Oldfield (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2015), 195–213.
Natasha Hodgson, 'Reputation, Authority and Masculine Identities in the Political Culture of the First Crusaders: The Career of Arnulf of Chocques', History: The Journal of the Historical Association 102/353 (2017): 889–913.
Natasha Hodgson, Women, Crusading and the Holy Land in Historical Narrative (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007).
Matthew Mesley, 'Episcopal Authority and Gender in the Narratives of the First Crusade', in Religious Men and Masculine Identity in the Middle Ages, eds. P. H. Cullum and Katherine J. Lewis (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2013), 94–111.
Helen Nicholson, 'Women on the Third Crusade', Journal of Medieval History, 23/4 (1997): 335–49.
James M. Powell, 'The Role of Women on the Fifth Crusade', The Horns of Hattin, ed. Benjamin Z. Kedar (Jerusalem:
Israel Exploration Society, 1992), 294–301.
This list was last updated on 28/10/2019