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LAW3160
Module Reading List

Policing, 2019/20, Semester 1, 2
Mr Sean Butcher
S.B.Butcher@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Plural Policing: A Comparative Perspective

Plural Policing: A Comparative Perspective

British Journal of Criminology

Reading for lectures and seminars*:

*NB. You will not be required to complete all of the reading below - mandatory reading for seminars will be outlined by the teaching team on a week-by-week basis.

Lecture 1: Introduction to policing

Liebling, A., Maruna, S. and McAra, L. (eds.) 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 6th Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 34.

Newburn, T. (ed) 2018. Criminology, 3rd Edition. London: Routledge. Chapter 26.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing, 3rd Edition. London: Sage. Chapter One.   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 15/10/2019) 

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. Sheptycki, J. 2019. The Politics of the Police, 5th Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter One.

 

Lecture 2: Police role and functions

For a light introduction to this session read: ‘In praise of fire brigade policing: Contra common sense conceptions of the police role’ by Professor Robert Reiner. Type the title into google search engine.

Banton, M. 2005. ‘The Police as Peace Officers’. In: Newburn, T. (ed) Policing: Key Readings. Cullompton: Willan.

Bayley, D.H. 2005. ‘What Do The Police Do?’ In: Newburn, T. (ed) Policing: Key Readings. Cullompton: Willan.

Bittner, E. 2005. ‘Florence Nightingale in Pursuit of Willie Sutton: A Theory of the Police’. In: Newburn, T. (ed) Policing: Key Readings. Cullompton: Willan.

Johnston, L. 2000. Policing Britain. Harlow: Longman. Chapter three.

Manning, P. 1977. Police work. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Millie, A. 2013. ‘The policing task and the expansion (and contraction) of British policing’. Criminology and Criminal Justice. 13(2), pp.143-160.

Morgan, R. and Newburn, T. (1997) The Future of Policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chapter three.

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. Sheptycki, J. 2019. The Politics of the Police, 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter five.

Reiner, R. 2012. ‘In praise of fire brigade policing: Contra common sense conceptions of the police role’, ‘What if’ Series, Howard League for Penal Reform. Available via: https://howardleague.org/publications/in-praise-of-fire-brigade-policing-contra-common-sense-conceptions-of-the-police-role/

Waddington, P.A.J. 1999. Policing Citizens: Authority and RightsLondon: UCL Press. Chapter one.

Wright, A. 2002. Policing: an Introduction to Concepts and Practice. Cullompton: Willan. Chapter two.

 

Lecture 3: Policing in historical perspective

Churchill, D. 2015. Local initiative, central oversight, provincial perspective: governing police forces in nineteenth-century Leeds. Historical Research. 88(241), pp.458-481.

Churchill, D. 2018. Crime control and everyday life in the Victorian city: the police and the public. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Parts 1 and 3.

Emsley, C. 1996. The English Police: a political and social history, 2nd edn. Harlow: Longman.

Emsley, C. 2003. The police. In: Bogdanor, V. ed. The British constitution in the twentieth century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.557-583.

Emsley, C. 2008. The birth and development of the police. In: Newburn, T. (ed.) Handbook of Policing. Cullompton: Willan. Pp.72-89.    

Gatrell, V.A.C. 1990. Crime, authority and the policeman-state. In: Thompson, F.M.L. (ed.) The Cambridge social history of Britain, 1750-1950. Volume three. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp.243-310.

Loader, I. and Mulcahy, A. 2003. Policing and the Condition of England: Memory, Politics and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnston, L. 2000. Policing BritainHarlow: Longman. Chapter one.

Newburn, T. 2008. ‘Policing since 1945’, in: Newburn, T. (ed.) Handbook of Policing. Cullompton: Willan. Pp.90-114.

Rawlings, P. 2001. Policing: A Short History. Cullompton: Willan.

Reiner, R. 2010. The Politics of the Police, 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapters two and three.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing. London: Sage. Chapter two.

Storch, R.D. 1975. ‘The plague of blue locusts: police reform and popular resistance in northern England, 1840-57’. International Review of Social History. 20(1). Pp.61-90.

Taylor, D. 1997. The new police in nineteenth-century England: crime, conflict and control. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Williams, C.A. 2014. Police control systems in Britain, 1775-1975: from parish constable to national computer. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Williams, C.A. 2003. Britain’s police forces: forever removed from democratic control? History & Policy. [Online]. [Accessed 3 January 2017]. Available from: http://www.historyandpolicy.org/policy-papers/papers/britains-police-forces-forever-removed-from-democratic-control

Williams, C.A. 2011. Rotten boroughs: the crisis of urban policing and the decline of municipal independence 1914-64. In: Williams, C.A. ed. Police and policing in the twentieth century. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp.3-23.

 

Lecture 4: Policing across the world

Bayley. D.H. 1999. ‘Policing: the world stage’, in R.I. Mawby (ed.) Policing Across the World: Issues for the Twenty-First Century. Abingdon: Routledge. Chapter one.

Bowling, B. 2009. ‘Transnational Policing: The Globalisation Thesis, a Typology and a Research Agenda’, in Policing3(2): 149-160.

Bowling, B. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. (2012) Global Policing, London: Sage. Chapters one and three.

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. Sheptycki, J. (2019) The Politics of the Police, 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter nine.

Loader, I. 2002. ‘Governing European Policing: Some Problems and Prospects’, in Policing & Society. 12(4): 291-305.

Marenin, O. 1995. Policing Change, Changing Police: International Perspectives. New York: Garland Publishing. Chapter one.

Mawby, R.I. (1990) Comparative Policing Issues: The British and American Experience in International Perspective. London: Unwin Hyman. Chapter One.   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Mawby, R.I. 1999. ‘Approaches to comparative analysis: the impossibility of becoming an expert on everywhere’, in R.I. Mawby (ed.) Policing Across the World: Issues for the Twenty-First Century. Abingdon: Routledge. Chapter two.

Mulcahy, A. 2006. Policing Northern Ireland: Conflict, Legitimacy and Reform. Cullompton: Willan.

O’Reilly. C. (2018) Colonial Policing and the Transnational Legacy: The Global Dynamics of Policing across the Lusophone Community. Abingdon: Routledge. Introduction.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing, 3rd edn. London: Sage. Chapter eight.

Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2000. Issues in Transnational Policing. London: Routledge. Introduction.

Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2006. ‘The Constabulary Ethic and the Transnational Condition’ in A. Goldsmith. J.W.E. Sheptycki (eds.) Crafting Transnational Policing. Oxford: Hart. Pps. 31-72.

Walker, N. 2008. ‘The pattern of transnational policing’, in T. Newburn (ed.) Handbook of Policing, 2nd edn. Cullompton: Willan. Chapter six.

Wood, J. Kempa, M. 2013. ‘Understanding global trends in policing: Explanatory and normative dimensions’, in J.W.E. Sheptycki. A. Wardak. (eds.) Transnational and Comparative Criminology. London: Glasshouse Press. Chapter thirteen.

 

Lecture 5: The political economy of policing

Brain, T. 2013. A Future for Policing in England and Wales. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brogden, M. and Ellison, G. 2012. Policing in an age of austerity: a postcolonial perspective. London: Routledge.

Brown, J.M. (ed.) The Future of Policing. London: Routledge, especially chapters by Loader, Millie and Innes.

Downes, D. and Morgan, R. 1997. Dumping the 'hostages to fortune': the politics of law and order. In: Maguire, M., Morgan, R., and Reiner, R. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.87-135.

Garland, D. 2001. The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Loader, I. 1997. Private security and the demand for protection in contemporary Britain. Policing and Society. 7(3), pp.143-162.

Millie, A. 2013. The policing task and the expansion (and contraction) of British policing. Criminology & Criminal Justice. 13(2), pp.143-160.

Morgan, R. and Smith, D.J. 2017. Delivering more with less: austerity and the politics of law and order. In: Liebling, A., Maruna, S. and McAra, L. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.138-162.

Reiner, R. 2007. Law and Order: An Honest Citizen’s Guide to Crime and Control. Cambridge: Polity. Esp. chapters 1, 5 and 6.

Reiner, R. 2013. Who governs? Democracy, plutocracy, science and prophecy in policing. Criminology & Criminal Justice. 13(2), pp.161-180.

Reiner, R. 2017. Political economy, crime, and criminal justice. In: Liebling, A., Maruna, S. and McAra, L. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.116-137.

Taylor, I. 1999. Crime in Context: A Critical Criminology of Market Societies. Cambridge: Polity. Esp. chapters 1, 2 and 7.

Turner, L. 2014. PCCs, neo-liberal hegemony and democratic policing. Safer Communities. 13(1), pp.13-21.

White, A. 2014. Post-crisis policing and public–private partnerships. The British Journal of Criminology. 54(6), pp.1002-1022.

White, A. 2015. The politics of police ‘privatization’: a multiple streams approach. Criminology & Criminal Justice. 15(3), pp.283-299.

 

Lecture 6: Police powers and discretion

Bowling, B. and Phillips, C. 2007. ‘Disproportionate and Discriminatory: Reviewing the Evidence on Police Stop and Search’, Modern Law Review, 70: 236-961.

Bowling, B., Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2019. The Politics of the Police. Fifth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 11, pp.229-245.

Bronitt, S. and Stenning, P. 2011. ‘Understanding discretion in modern policing’. Crim. Law J., 35, pp. 319-332. Available online.

Brown, D. 1997. PACE Ten Years On: a Review of the Research, Home Office Research Study No. 155, London: HMSO.

Cape, E. 2008. PACE then and now: Twenty-one years of ‘rebalancing’. In: Cape, Ed and Young, R., eds. Regulating Policing: The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 Past, Present and Future. Oxford: Hart Publishing, pp. 191-220. 

Choongh, S. 2002. ‘Police Investigative Powers’.In: M. McConville and G. Wilson, The Handbook of The Criminal Justice Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

College of Policing’s: National Decision Model http://www.app.college.police.uk/app-content/national-decision-model/the-national-decision-model/

Dixon, D. 1997. Law in Policing: Legal Regulation and Police Practices, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Liebling, A., Maruna, S. and McAra, L. (eds) 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 6th Edition.Oxford: Oxford University Press (Sixth Edition). Chapter 34.

Parpworth, N. 2013. ‘Arresting and Searching Under PACE’. Criminal Law & Justice Weekly. 177 JPN: 174.

Rowe, M. 2007. ‘Rendering Visible the Invisible: Police Discretion, Professionalism and Decision-making’. Policing & Society. 17(3), pp.279-294.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing, 3rd Edition. London: Sage. Chapter Three.

Sanders, A. and Young, R. 2008. ‘Police powers’. In: Newburn, T. (ed.). The Handbook of Policing. Second Edition. Cullompton: Willan.

Sanders, A., Young, R. and Burton, M. 2010. Criminal Justice. Fourth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapters 2 and 3.

Stroshine, M., Alpert, G. and Dunham R. 2008. ‘The Influence of “Working Rules” on Police Suspicion and Discretionary Decision Making’, Police Quarterly, 11: 315-337.

Zander M. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. Multiple editions. London: Sweet and Maxwell.

 

Lecture 7: Police cultures

Balch, R.W. 1972. ‘The Police Personality: Fact or Fiction?’, The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Political Science, 63(1): 106-119.

Bowling, B., Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2019. The Politics of the Police. Fifth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 8.

Chan, J. 1996. ‘Changing Police Culture’. British Journal of Criminology36(1), pp.109-34.

Chan, J. 1997. Changing Police Culture: Policing in a Multicultural Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter four

Chan, J. with Devery, C. and Doran, S. 2003. Fair Cop: Learning the Art of Policing. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Cockcroft, T. 2012. Police Culture: Themes and Concepts, London: Routledge.

Foster, J. 2003. ‘Police Cultures’. In: Newburn, T. (ed). Handbook of Policing. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Loftos, B. 2008. ‘Dominant Culture Interrupted: Recognition, Resentment and the Politics of Change in an English Police Force’, British Journal of Criminology, 48: 756-77.

Loftus, B. 2009. Police Culture in a Changing WorldOxford: Oxford University Press.

Loftus, B. 2010. Police occupational culture: classic themes, altered times, Policing and Society. 20(1), pp.1-20.

McLaughlin, E. 2007. The New Policing. London: Sage. Part Six.

Newburn T. 2008. (ed) Policing: Key Readings. Cullompton: Willan. Part C

O’Neill, M., Marks, M. and Singh, A.M. 2007. Police Occupational Culture: New Debates and Directions. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Reussi-Ianni, E. and Ianni, F.A.J. 1983. ‘Street Cops and Management Cops: The Two Cultures of Policing’. In: Punch, M. (ed). Control in the Police OrganizationCambridge, MIT.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing, 3rd Edition. London: Sage. Chapter Six. 

Waddington, P. 1999b. ‘Police (Canteen) Sub-Culture: An Appreciation’. British Journal of Criminology. 39(2), pp.286-308.

Westmarland, L. 2008. ‘Police cultures’. In: Newburn, T. (ed). The Handbook of PolicingSecond Edition. Cullompton: Willan.

 

Lecture 8: Policing the police

Beggs, J. QC and Davies, H. OBE QC. 2018. Police Misconduct, Complaints, and Public Regulation (2ndedn). Oxford: Oxford University Press. (due to be published in 2018)

Bowling, B., Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2019. The Politics of the Police. Fifth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 11.

College of Policing website http://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/Ethics/Documents/Code_of_Ethics.pdf

Dixon, D. 2005. ‘The legal regulation of policing’. In: Newburn, T. (ed). Policing: Key readings. Cullompton: Willan.

Dixon, B. and Smith, G. 1998. ‘Laying down the Law: The Police, the Courts and Legal Accountability’, International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 26: 419-35.

Independent Police Complaints Commission (www.ipcc.gov.uk) contains many resources, including performance statistics, reports into specific complaints, and links to other agencies and useful police-related resources and organisations.

Jones, T. 2008. ‘The accountability of policing’. In: Newburn, T. ed. The Handbook of Policing Second Edition. Cullompton: Willan.

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. 2015. eds. The Accountability of Policing. Abingdon: Routledge (e-book)

Neyroud, P. and Beckley, A. 2001. Policing, Ethics and Human Rights. Cullompton: Willan.

Reiner, R. 1989. ‘Where the book stops: Chief Constables’ views on police accountability, in R. Morgan and D. Smith, Coming to terms with Policing: Perspectives on Policy, Routledge: London.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing, 3rd Edition. London: Sage. Chapter Four.

Savage, S.P. 2013. Thinking independence: calling the police to account through the independent investigation of police complaints. The British Journal of Criminology. 53(1), pp.94-112.

Seneviratne, M. 2004. ‘Policing the Police in the United Kingdom’, Policing and Society 14(4): 329–347

Smith, G. 2009. ‘Why Don’t More People Complain against the Police?’, European Journal of Criminology, 6: 249-266.

Smith, G 2006. ‘A Most Enduring Problem: Police Complaints Reform in England and Wales. Journal of Social Policy35(1), pp.121-141.

 

Lecture 9: Policing beyond the police

Forms of plural policing

Crawford, A. 2008. ‘Plural Policing in the UK: Policing Beyond the Police’. In: Newburn, T. ed. The Handbook of Policing.

Crawford, A. 2013. ‘The police, policing, and the future of the “extended police family”’, in Brown, J. (ed.) The Future of Policing. London: Routledge, 173:190.

Crawford, A. and Lister, S. 2004. The extended policing family: Visible patrols in residential areas. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Crawford, A., Lister, S., Blackburn, S. and Burnett, J. 2005. Plural Policing: the mixed economy of visible security patrols, Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter two.

Jones, T. Newburn, T. 2006. (eds.) Plural Policing: A Comparative PerspectiveAbingdon: Routledge. Chapter one.

Jones, T. van Steden, R. Boutellier, H. 2009. ‘Pluralisation of policing in England and Wales and the Netherlands: exploring similarity and difference’, in Policing and Society. 19(3): 282-299.

Rogers, C. 2016. Plural Policing: Theory and Practice. Bristol: Policy Press. Part one (chapters one, two and three).

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing, 3rd Edition. London: Sage. Chapter Ten.

van Stokkom, B. Terpstra, J. Spreeuwers, R. 2013. Who Patrols the Streets? An International Comparative Study of Plural PolicingThe Hague: Eleven International Publishing. Chapters one and three.

Accountability of plural policing/private security

Lister, S. Jones, T. 2015. ‘Plural policing and the challenge of democratic accountability’, in S. Lister. M. Rowe, (eds.) Accountability of Policing. London: Routledge. Chapter ten.

Loader, I. 2000. ‘Plural Policing and Democratic Governance’. Social & Legal Studies. 9(3), pp.323-345.

Loader, I. and White, A. 2015. How can we better align private security with the public interest? Towards a civilizing model of regulation. Regulation & Governance. 11(2), pp.166-184.

Stenning, P.C. 2009. ‘Governance and accountability in a plural policing environment: the story so far’, in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice3(1): 22-33.

Stenning, P.C. 2000. ‘Powers and accountability of private police’, in European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 8(3): 325-352.

White, A. (2015) ‘Private Security and the Politics of Accountability’, in S. Lister and M. Rowe (eds), Accountability of Policing, London: Routledge, pp.173-191.

White, A. (2013) ‘The New Political Economy of Private Security’, Theoretical Criminology, 17: 85-101.

White, A. 2014. ‘Post-crisis Policing and Public–Private Partnerships’. British Journal of Criminology. 54(6): 1002-1022.

Zedner, L. (2006) ‘Liquid Security: Managing the Market for Crime Control’, Criminal Justice, 6(3): 267-288.    

 

Lecture 10:Semester review / Essay assessment advice

No preparation.

 

Top of page

Supplementary reading list:

Beggs, J. QC and Davies, H. OBE QC. 2018. Police Misconduct, Complaints, and Public Regulation (2nd edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bowling, B. (1998) Violent racism : victimization, policing, and social context. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J. (2019) The Politics of the Police (5th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bowling, B. and Sheptycki, JWE (2012) Global policing, London: Sage.

Brain, T. 2013. A future for policing in England and Wales . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brodeur, JP (2010) The policing web. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brogden, M. and Ellison, G. (2012) Policing in an age of austerity : a postcolonial perspective. London: Routledge.

Brogden, M., Jefferson, T. and Walklate, S. (1988) Introducing policework. London: Unwin Hyman.

Choongh, S. (1997) Policing as social discipline. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Crawford, A., Lister, S., Blackburn, S. and Burnett, J. (2005) Plural policing : the mixed economy of visible patrols in England and Wales. Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Delpeuch, T. and Ross, J.E. 2016. (eds). Comparing the democratic governance of police intelligence : new models of participation and expertise in the United States and Europe. Edward Elgar Press.

Dixon, D. (1997) Law in policing : legal regulation and police practices. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Emsley, C. 1996. The English police: a political and social history. Second Edition. Harlow: Longman.

Fielding, N. (2005) The Police and Social Conflict (2nd edn). London: Glasshouse Press. Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Goldsmith, A. and Sheptycki, JWE (2007) Crafting transnational policing : police capacity-building and global policing reform. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Holdaway, S. (1996) The racialisation of British policing . Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Hopkins Burke, R. (ed.) (2003) Hard cop, soft cop : dilemmas and debates in contemporary policing. Cullompton: Willan.

Innes, M. (2003) Understanding social control : deviance, crime and social order. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Jason-Lloyd, J. (2004) An introduction to policing and police powers (2nd ed.). London: Cavendish.

Johnston, L. (2000) Policing Britain : risk, security and governance. Harlow: Longman. Chapter 1 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Johnston, L. and Shearing, C. (2003) Governing security : explorations in policing and justice, London: Routledge. Chapter 6 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Jones, T., Newburn, T. and Smith, D. J. (1994) Democracy and policing. London: Policy Studies Institute.

Jones, T. and Newburn, T. (1997) Policing after the Act. London: Policy Studies Institute.

Jones, T. and Newburn, T. (1998) Private security and public policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Joyce, P. 2011. Policing : development & contemporary practice . London: Sage.

Leibling, A., Maruna, S. and McAra, L. (eds) 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 6th Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press (Sixth Edition). Chapter 34.

Leishman, F, Loveday, B, Savage, S, (eds) (2000) Core issues in policing. London: Longman.

Lemieux, F. (2010) (ed.) International police cooperation : emerging issues, theory and practice, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Lippert, R.K. and Walby, K. 2014. Policing cities : urban securitization and regulation in a twenty-first century world. London: Routledge.

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. (2015) Accountability of policing. London: Routledge.

Loader, I. and Mulcahy, A. (2003) Policing and the condition of England : memory, politics and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Loftus, B. (2009) Police culture in a changing world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (eds.) (1996) Controlling crime. London: Sage.

McLaughlin, E. (2007) The new policing. London: Sage.

Marenin, O. Policing change, changing police : international perspectives. New York: Garland.

Morgan, R. and Newburn, T. (1997) The future of policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chapter 5 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Mulcahy, A. (2006) Policing Northern Ireland : conflict, legitimacy and reform. Cullompton: Willan.

Newburn, T. (ed) (2005) Policing : key readings . Cullompton: Willan. pp.141-149 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Newburn, T. (ed) (2008) The Handbook of Policing (2nd edn). Cullompton: Willan. pp.693-724 available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Newburn, T. and Neyroud, P. (eds) Dictionary of policing, Cullompton: Willan.

Punch, M. (2007) Zero tolerance policing, Bristol: Policy Press

Rowe, M. (2004) Policing, race and racism. Cullompton: Willan.

Shetptycki, JWE (2000) Issues in transnational policing. London: Routledge.

Waddington, P.A.J. (1999) Policing citizens : authority and rights. London: UCL Press.

Wakefield, A. (2003) Selling security : the private policing of public space. Cullompton: Willan. Chapter one

Walker, N. (2000) Policing in a changing constitutional order. London: Sweet & Maxwell.

Wall, D.S. (1992) Historical developments in policing. Leeds: CCJS Press.

Westmarland, L. (2001) Gender and policing : sex, power and police culture. Cullompton: Willan.

White, A. (2010) The politics of private security : regulation, reform and re-legitimation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Wood, J. and Dupont, B. (2006) (eds.) Democracy, society, and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wright, A. (2002) Policing : an introduction to concepts and practice. Cullompton: Willan.

This list was last updated on 23/10/2019