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LAW3136
Module Reading List (First Semester only for CI)

Penology, 2019/20, Semester 1, 2
Dr Richard Peake
R.Peake@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Reading Lists

The reading lists below are quite lengthy so that all students should have access to at least some sources for each week’s lecture. I do not expect you to read everything that is on the reading lists. To help you structure your reading the best sources for each lecture are indicated by a *. Most of the Home Office/Ministry of Justice documents are available from their web-sites.

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General

Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2007) The penal system : an introduction , 4th Edition, London: Sage.

Coyle, A. (2005) Understanding prisons : key issues in policy and practice , Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Gelsthorpe, L. and Morgan, R. (eds) (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Jewkes, Y. (ed). (2007) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Jewkes, Y. and Bennett, J. (2008) Dictionary of prisons and punishment , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Jewkes, Y. and Johnston, H. (eds.) (2006) Prison readings : a critical introduction to prisons and imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

King, R.D. and McDermott, K. (1995) The state of our prisons , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Liebling, A. (2004) Prisons and their moral performance : a study of values, quality, and prison life , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Matthews, R. (2009) Doing time : an introduction to the sociology of imprisonment . , London: Macmillan.

Matthews, R. (2009) ‘Prisons’ in C. Hale, K. Haywood, A. Wahidin and E. Wincup (eds) Criminology , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Morris, N. and Rothman, D. (1998) The Oxford history of the prison : the practice of punishment in Western society , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Player, E. and Jenkins, M. (eds) (1994) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot , London: Routledge.

Stern, V. (1998) A sin against the future : imprisonment in the world , Harmondsworth: Penguin.

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Introduction to penology and imprisonment

This lecture will examine the extent of use of imprisonment particularly in England and Wales and briefly familiarise students with some of the problems which currently facing the Prison Service.

Reading

Cavadino, M. and Dignan J. (2007) The penal system : an introduction , 4th Edition, Sage, London.

Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2006) Penal systems : a comparative approach , London: Sage, Chap.4.

Coyle, A. (2005) Understanding prisons : key issues in policy and practice , Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Dunbar, I. and Langdon, A. (1998) Tough justice : sentencing and penal policies in the 1990s , London: Blackstone.

Gelsthorpe, L. and Morris, A. (2002) ‘Women’s Imprisonment in England and Wales: a penal paradox’, Criminal justice. . , 2(3): 277-301.

HM Prison Service (2009) Monthly Prison Brief. http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/resourcecentre/publicationsdocuments/ - Unable to access document through hyperlink

HM Prison Service (2009) Population Bulletin. http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/resourcecentre/publicationsdocuments/index.asp? cat=85 - Unable to access document through hyperlink

Liebling, A. (2004) Prisons and their moral performance : a study of values, quality, and prison life , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Matthews, R. (2009) Doing Time: An Introduction to the Sociology of Imprisonment , London: Palgrave macmillan.

Matthews, R. (2009) ‘Prisons’ in C. Hale, K. Haywood, A. Wahidin and E. Wincup (eds) Criminology , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Millie, A., Jacobson, J. and Hough, M. (2003) Understanding the Growth in the Prison Population in England and Wales’, Criminal justice. , 3(4): 369-387.

Ministry of Justice (2008) Prison Policy Update – briefing paper, London: MoJ at http://www.cjp.org.uk/publications/archive/prison-policy-update-briefing-paper-31-01-2008/

Ministry of Justice (2009) Prison population projections 2009-2015, Statistical Bulletin, London: Home Office available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/218329/stats-prison-population-projections-2009-2015.pdf

Ministry of Justice (2009) Offender Management Caseload Statistics 2008, London: MoJ at https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/offender-management-caseload-statistics-annual-ns

Ministry of Justice (2009) The Story of the prison population 1993-2012 England and Wales, London: MoJ at https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/story-of-the-prison-population-1993-2012

Ministry of Justice (2009) Population in Custody (monthly), London: MoJ at http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/populationincustody.htm   

Morgan, R. and Liebling, A. (2007) ‘Imprisonment: an expanding scene’, in M. Maguire et al (eds) The Oxford handbook of criminology , 4th Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

National Audit Office (2005) National Offender Management Service : dealing with increased numbers in custody . , Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, London: NAO.

Newburn, T. (2007) Criminology , Cullompton: Willan Publishing, Chapter 28.

Owers, A. (2007) ‘Imprisonment in the twenty-first century: a view from the inspectorate’, in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Rambotham, D. (2003) Prisongate : the shocking state of Britain's prisons and the need for change , London: Free.

Walmsley, R. (2009) World Prison Population List, 8th Edition: London, International Centre for Prison Studies, King’s College, available at http://www.apcca.org/uploads/8th_Edition_2009.pdf

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Aims and Functions of Imprisonment

This lecture will examine the aims and functions of the prison. This will be done historically examining the debate about what prisons are for since the 1960s before moving on to more contemporary debates about the aims of imprisonment with particular reference to the Woolf Report and the decency agenda.

Reading

Cavadino, M. and Dignan J. (2007) The penal system : an introduction , 4th Edition, Sage, London.

Coyle, A. (2005) Understanding prisons : key issues in policy and practice , Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Dunbar, I. and Langdon, A. (1998) Tough justice : sentencing and penal policies in the 1990s , London: Blackstone.

Home Office (1991) Custody, care and justice : the way ahead for the prison service in England and Wales London: HMSO.

Home Office (1994) Report of the Woodcock Inquiry , Cmd. 2741, London: HMSO.

Home Office (1995) Report of the Learmont Inquiry into Prison Service Security in England and Wales, London: Home Office.

Liebling, A. (2004) Prisons and their moral performance : a study of values, quality, and prison life , Oxford: Clarendon Press, esp. Chapter 1.

King, R. (2007) ‘Security, control and the problems of containment’, in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

King, R. and McDermott, K. (1995) The state of our prisons , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

King, R. and Maguire, M. (eds) (1994) Prisons in context , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Mathiesen, T (2006) Prison on trial , Winchester: Waterside Press.

Matthews, R. (1999) Doing time : an introduction to the sociology of imprisonment . , London: Macmillan.

Morgan, R. (1992) ‘Following Woolf: The Prospects for Prison Policy’, Journal of law and society. . , 19(2): 231-47.

Morgan, R. and Liebling, A. (2007) ‘Imprisonment: an expanding scene’, in M. Maguire et al (eds) The Oxford handbook of criminology , 4th Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Morgan, R. and Jones, H. (1991) ‘Prison Discipline: The Case for Implementing Woolf’, British journal of criminology. . , 31(3): 280-91.

Owers, A. (2007) ‘Imprisonment in the twenty-first century: a view from the inspectorate’, in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

*Newburn, T. (2003) Crime and criminal justice policy , Longman: London.

Newburn, T. (2007) Criminology , Cullompton: Willan Publishing, Chapter 28.

Player, E. and Jenkins, M. (1994) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot , London: Routledge.

Shaw, S. (1992) ‘Prisons’ in E. Stockdale and S. Casale, Criminal justice under stress London: Blackstones.

Sim, J. (1994) ‘Reform the Penal Wasteland? A Critical Review of the Woolf Report’ in E. Player and M. Jenkins (eds) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot , London: Routledge: 31-45.

Sim, J. (2004) ‘Thinking about Imprisonment’, in J. Muncie and D. Wilson Student handbook of criminal justice and criminology , London: Cavendish.

Sparks, R. (2007) ‘The politics of imprisonment’, in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Sparks, J.R. and Bottoms, A.E and Hay,W. (1996) Prisons and the problem of order , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sparks, J.R. and Bottoms, A.E. (1995) ‘Legitimacy and Order in Prisons’, The British journal of sociology. . 46(1): 45-62.

Stern, V. (1998) A sin against the future : imprisonment in the world Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Wilson, D. and Ashton, J. (1998) What everyone in Britain should know about crime and punishment , London: Blackstone.

Woolf Report (1991) Prison disturbances April 1990 : report of an Inquiry , London: HMSO.

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Justice and Legitimacy in Prison

The Woolf Report argued that the main cause of the 1991 riots and the main problem with the prison system was a lack of justice and legitimacy. This lecture will explore what the report meant by this and go on to discuss whether justice and legitimacy within the prison system has increased in recent years. In particular, the lecture will discuss the adjudication and grievance procedures, how prison regimes operate and prisoners’ rights.

Reading

Casale, S. (1994) ‘Conditions and Standards’ in E. Player and M. Jenkins (eds) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot ’, London: Routledge: 66-77 .

Carrabine, E. (2005) Prison riots, social order and the problem of legitimacy’, British journal of criminology. . 45(6): 896-913

Cavadino, M. and Dignan J. (2007) The penal system : an introduction , 4th Edition, Sage, London.

Dunbar, I. and Langdon, A. (1998) Tough justice : sentencing and penal policies in the 1990s , London: Blackstone.

Eady. D. (2007) ‘Prisoners’ rights since the Woolf Report: Progress or Procrastination? ’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . , 46(3): 264-275.

Easton, S (2011) Prisoners' rights : principles and practice , London: Routledge

Feest, J., (1993), ‘Institutional Resistance against Prisoners’ Rights’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. 32(2): 127-35.

Flynn, N. (1998) Introduction to prisons and imprisonment , Winchester: Waterside Press.

Fowles, A.J., (1989) Prisoners' rights in England and the United States , Aldershot: Avebury.

Harding, R. (2007) ‘Inspecting Prisons’ in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Henham, R. (2000) ‘Some Alternative Strategies for Improving the Effectiveness of the English Prison Ombudsman Scheme’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. 39(3): 290-314.

Home Office (1991) Custody, care and justice : the way ahead for the prison service in England and Wales , London: HMSO.

Home Office (1994) Report of the Woodcock Inquiry , Cmd. 2741, London: HMSO.

Home Office (1995) Report of the Learmont Inquiry into Prison Service Security in England and Wales, London: Home Office.

Justice (1983) Justice in prison : a report , London: Justice.

King, R. and Maguire, M. (eds) (1994) Prisons in context , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

King, R. and McDermott, K. (1995) The state of our prisons , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Lawrence, P.M., (1990), ‘Still No Justice in Jails’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . vol.29, no.3, August:149-54.

Liebling, A. (1999) Incentives and earned privileges for prisoners : an evaluation , London: Home Office.

Liebling, A. (2004) Prisons and their moral performance : a study of values, quality, and prison life , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Livingstone, S. (1994) ‘The Changing Face of Prison Discipline’ in E. Player and M. Jenkins (eds) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot ’, London: Routledge: 97-111.

Livingstone, S. (2000) ‘ Prisoners’ rights in the context of the European Convention on Human Rights’, Punishment & society. . , 2(3): 309-324.

Maguire, M. et al., (1985), Accountability and prisons : opening up a closed world , London: Tavistock.

Matthews, R. (1999) Doing time : an introduction to the sociology of imprisonment. , London: Macmillan.

Morgan, R. (1992) ‘Following Woolf: The Prospects for Prison Policy’, Journal of law and society. . 19(2): 231-47.

Morgan, R. and Liebling, A. (2007) ‘Imprisonment: an expanding scene’ in M. Maguire et al (eds) The Oxford handbook of criminology 4th Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Morgan, R. (2000) ‘Developing Prison Standards Compared’, Punishment & society. . , 2(3): 325-342.

Morgan, R. and Jones, H. (1991) ‘Prison Discipline: The Case for Implementing Woolf, British journal of criminology. . , 31(3): 280-91.

Morgan, R., (1993), ‘Prisons Accountability Revisited’, Public Law , Summer: 314-32.

*Newburn, T. (2003) Crime and criminal justice policy , Longman: London.

Player, E. and Jenkins, M. (eds) (1994) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot , London: Routledge.

Richardson, G., (1993), Law, process and custody : prisoners and patients , London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.

Richardson, G. (1994) ‘From Rights to Expectations’ in E. Player and M. Jenkins (eds) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot London: Routledge: 78-96.

Schone, J. (2001) ‘The Short Life and Painful Death of Prisoners’ Rights’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 40(1): 70-82.

Shaw, S. (1992) ‘Prisons’ in E. Stockdale and S. Casale, Criminal justice under stress , London: Blackstones.

Sim, J. (1994) ‘Reform the Penal Wasteland? A Critical Review of the Woolf Report’ in E. Player and M. Jenkins (eds) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot , London: Routledge: 31-45.

Sparks, R. (1996) ‘Penal “austerity”: the doctrine of less eligibility reborn? ’ in R. Matthews and P. Francis (eds) Prisons 2000 : an international perspective on the current state and future of imprisonment , Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Sparks, J.R. and Bottoms, A.E. (1995) ‘Legitimacy and Order in Prisons’, The British journal of sociology. . 46(1): 45-62.

Sparks, J.R. and Bottoms, A.E and Hay,W. (1996) Prisons and the problem of order , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Stern, V. (1998) A sin against the future : imprisonment in the world Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Van Zyl Smit, D. (2007) ‘Prisoners’ rights’ in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Woolf Report (1991) Prison disturbances April 1990 : report of an Inquiry , London: HMSO.

Prison Inspectorate reports are available at: https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmiprisons/inspections/#.VgKAfZdWW3Y

Prison and Probation Ombudsman reports are available at: www.ppo.gov.uk

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Comparative use of imprisonment

Reading :

Cavadino,M & Dignan, J (2006) Penal systems : a comparative approach , London: Sage

Cavadino, M. & Dignan, J. (2006), ‘Penal Policy and Political Economy’ in Criminology & criminal justice. , 6(4): 435-456.

Downes, D. (1982) 'The origins and consequences of Dutch penal policy since 1945' British journal of criminology. . , 22: 325-62.

Matthews, R. and Francis, P. (eds) (1996), Prisons 2000 : an international perspective on the current state and future of imprisonment , London: Macmillan.

Muncie, J. and Sparks, R. (1991) Imprisonment : European perspectives , Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. esp. Chapters 5-7.

Mauer, M. (2001), 'Causes and consequences of prison growth in the USA'. 3 Punishment & society. . p. 9.

Stern, V. (1998) A sin against the future : imprisonment in the world Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Tonry, M. (2004) ‘Why aren’t German penal policies harsher and imprisonment rates higher? 5 German law journal no. 10

Van Zyl Smit, D. & Snacken, S. (2009) Principles of European prison law and policy : penology and human rights . Oxford: Oxford University Press

Walmsley, R. (2009) World Prison Population List, 8th Edition: London, International Centre for Prison Studies, King’s College, available at http://www.apcca.org/uploads/8th_Edition_2009.pdf

[N.B. prior to the sixth edition, these were published by the Home Office. See, for example, the 5th edition, which is available as Home Office Research Findings 234, London: Home Office 2003. Available on the Home Office’s Research and Statistics Directorate website at: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110302104126/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r234.pdf ]

Whitman, J. (2003). Harsh justice : criminal punishment and the widening divide between America and Europe . Oxford: Oxford University Press

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Prison Privatisation

This lecture will examine the background to the introduction of private prisons in the UK, in the early 1990s, and the arguments of principle and practice surrounding the contracting-out of the management of prisons to companies in the private sector.

Reading

Baldrey, E. (1996) ‘Prison Privateers: Neo-Colonists in NSW’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 35(2): 161-174.

Borna, S. (1986) 'Free Enterprise Goes to Prison' British journal of criminology. . , 26, 321-34.

Bottomley, A.K. et al (1996) ‘ Wolds Remand Prison : an evaluation ’, Home Office Research Findings No.32, London: Home Office.

Bottomley, A.K. et al. (1997) Monitoring and evaluation of Wolds Remand Prison : and comparisons with public-sector prisons, in particular HMP Woodhill , London: Home Office.

British journal of criminology. (1994) Special Issue on Prisons in context , 34, esp. pp 14-48.

Cavadino, M. and J. Dignan (2007) The penal system : an introduction , 4th Edition, London: Sage.

Genders, E. (2002) ‘Legitimacy, Accountability and Private Prisons’, Punishment & society. . , 4(3): 205-304.

Genders, E. (2003) ‘Privatisation and innovation: rhetoric and reality: the development of therapeutic communities in prison’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . , 42(2): 137-157.

Genders, E. and Player, E. (2007) ‘The commercial context of criminal justice: prison privatisation and the perversion of purpose’, Criminal law review. . , July: 513-529.

Home Office (1988) Private sector involvement in the remand system. , Cm 434, London: HMSO.

James, A. and Bottomley, A.K. (1998) ‘Prison Privatisation and the Remand Population: Principle versus Pragmatism? ’ Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. ., 37(3): 223-233.

Jones, T. and Newburn, T. (2007) Policy transfer and criminal justice : exploring US influence over British crime control policy , Maidenhead: McGraw Hill, chapter 3.

Liebling, A. (2004) Prisons and their moral performance : a study of values, quality, and prison life , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Liebling, A. and Sparks, R. (2002) ‘Prison Privatization’, Punishment & society. . , special issue, 4(3): 285-393.

Lilley, J.R. and Knepper, P. (1992) 'An International Perspective on the Privatisation of Corrections' Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . , 31, 174-91.

Logan, C. (1990) Private prisons : cons and pros , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McDonald, D. (1994) ‘Public Imprisonment by Private Means’ in R. King and M. Maguire (eds) Prisons in context , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Mehigan, J and Rowe, A. (2007) ‘Problematizing prison privatization: an overview of the debate’, in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Porter, R.G. (1990) ‘The Privatization of prisons in the United States’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 65-81.

Prison Reform Trust (1994) Privatisation and market testing in the prison service. London: PRT.

Ryan, M. and Ward, T. (1989) Privatization and the penal system : the American experience and the debate in Britain , Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Ryan, M. (1993) 'Evaluating and Responding to Private Prisons in the United Kingdom' International journal of the sociology of law. , 21, 319-33.

Shefer, G. and Liebling (2008) ‘Prison Privatisation: In search of a business-like atmosphere’, Criminology & criminal justice. 8(3): 261-278

Shichor, D. (1995) Punishment for profit : private prisons/public concerns , London: Sage.

Shichor, D. (1998) ‘Private Prisons in Perspective’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 37(1), February: 82-100.

Sparks, R. (1994) ‘Can Prisons Be Legitimate? Penal Politics, Privatisation and the Timeliness of an Old Idea’ in R. King and M. Maguire (eds) Prisons in context , Oxford: Clarendon Press or in J. Jewkes, and H. Johnston (2006) Prison readings : a critical introduction to prisons and imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan Publishing..

Windlesham, D. (1993) Responses to crime: Vol.2 Penal Policy in the Making , Oxford: Clarendon Press, Chap. 6

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Drugs in Prison

Dealing with the problem of drug use in prison has become an important policy for the prison service. This lecture will examine the issues which arise from trying to assess the extent and nature of drug use in prison and the policies which have been put in place to deal with them

Reading

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (1996) Drug misusers and the criminal justice system. Part 3, Drug misusers and the prison system - an integrated approach , London: HMSO.

Blakey, D. (2008) The Blakey Review: Disrupting the supply of illegal drugs into prison, London: Ministry of Justice at http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/disrupting-drugs-prisons.htm . See also the Government response. - Hyperlink does not lead to website

Borrill, J. et al (2003) Differential substance misuse treatment needs of women, ethnic minorities and young offenders in prison: prevalence of substance misuse and treatment needs , Research Development and Statistics On-line Report 33/03, London: Home Office http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http:/rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/rdsolr3303.pdf

Burrows, J., Clarke, A., Davison, T., Tarling, R. and Webb, S. (2001) Research into the nature and effectiveness of drugs throughcare , Research Findings No. 109, London, Home Office.

Cope, N. (2003) ‘It’s No ‘Time or High Time’: Young Offenders Experiences of Time and Drug Use in Prison’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 42(2): 158-176.

Covell, R., Frischer, M., Taylor, A., Goldberg, S., McKegany, N., and Bloor, M. (1993) ‘Prison experience of injecting drug users in Glasgow’, Drug and alcohol dependence. , 32: 9-14.

Crewe, B. (2006) ‘The drugs economy and the prisoner society’ in Y. Jewkes and H. Johnston, Prison readings : a critical introduction to prisons and imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Devlin, A. (1998) Invisible women : what's wrong with women's prisons? , Winchester: Waterside: Chapter 9.

Dolan, K., Donoghue, M. and Stimson, G. (1990) ‘Drug injecting and syringe sharing in custody and in the community: an explanatory survey of HIV risk behaviour’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 29: 117-86.

Dolan, K. and Rutter, S. and Wodak, AD. (2003) ‘Prison-based syringe exchange programmes: a review of the international research and development’, Addiction. . , 98(2): 153-158).

Drug Prevention Advisory Service (1999) Drugs interventions in the criminal justice system : guidance manual , London: Home Office.

Duke, K. (2001) Evidence-based policing making: the interplay between research and the development of Prisons Drugs Policy, Criminal justice. . 1(3): 277-300.

*Duke, K. (2003) Drugs, prisons, and policy-making , London: Palgrave.

Edgar, K. and O’Donnell, I. (1998) Mandatory drug testing in prisons : the relationship between MDT and the level and nature of drug misuse , Home Office Research Study 189, London: Home Office.

Edmunds, M., Hough, M., Turnbull, P., May, T. (1999) Doing justice to treatment : referring offenders to drug services , Drug Prevention Advisory Service Paper No. 2, London: Home Office.

Fazel, S., Bains, P and Doll, H. (2006) ‘Substance abuse and dependence in prisoners: a systematic review,’ Addiction. , 101(2): 181-191.

Her Majesty’s Government (1995) Tackling drugs together : a strategy for England 1995-98 : A Strategy for England 1995-8, Cmnd 2846, London: HMSO.

Her Majesty’s Government (1998) Tackling drugs to build a better Britain : the Government's 10-year strategy for tackling drugs misuse , Cmnd. 39, London: HMSO.

HM Government (2008) Drugs: protecting families and communities: the 2008 drug strategy , London: Home Office.

HM Prison Service (1995) Drug misuse in prison : policy and strategy. , London: HMSO.

HM Prison Service (1998) Tackling Drugs in Prison: the Prison Service Drug Strategy , London: HMSO.

HM Prison Service (2003) The Prison Service drug strategy. CARATS, PSI 8/2001, London: HM Prison Service.

Home Affairs Select Committee (1999) Drugs in prison : Howard League submission to the Home Affairs Select Committee. , London: HMSO.

Home Office (2008) Drugs: protecting families and communities, 2008-2018, London: Home Office at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100419081707/http://drugs.homeoffice.gov.uk/publication-search/drug-strategy/drug-strategy-20082835.pdf? view=Binary

Hough, M. (1996) Drugs Misuse and the Criminal Justice System: a review of the literature , Drug Prevention Initiative Paper No. 15, London: Home Office

Hucklesby, A. and Wilkinson, C. (2001) Drug Misuse in Prison: some comments on the Prison Service Drug Strategy’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . . , 4(4), November.

Hughes, R. (2000) ‘Drug Injectors and prison mandatory drug testing’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . , 39(1), 1-13.

Kenne, J. (1997) ‘Drug Misuse in Prison: Views From Inside: A Qualitative Study of Prison Staff and Inmates’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 36(1): 28-41.

Kothari, G., Marsden, J. and Strang, J. (2002) ‘Opportunities and Obstacles for Effective Treatment of Drug Misuse in the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales’, British journal of criminology. . , 42(2): 412-427.

Luyt, W. (2007) ‘Harm reduction, substance abuse and methadone maintenance in Scottish Prisons’, European journal of crime, criminal law and criminal justice. . , 15(2): 205-226.

MacDonald, M. (1998) ‘Mandatory Drug Testing in Prisons’, Prison service journal. . : 115.

Maden, A., Swinton, M. and Gunn, J. (1990) ‘Women in prison and the use of illicit drugs before arrest’, British medical journal. . , 301, 1133.

Madan, A., Swinton, M. and Gunn, J. (1991) ‘A Survey of pre-arrest drug use in sentenced prisoners, British journal of addiction. . , 87: 27-33.

Maden, A., Swinton, M. and Gunn, J. (1991) ‘Drug dependence in prisoners’, British medical journal 302: 880.

Malloch, M. (2000) ‘Caring for Drug Users? The Experiences of Women Prisoners’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 39(4): 354-368.

May, C. (2005) The CARAT drug service in prisons : findings from the research database , Home Office Research Findings 262, London: Home Office.

McSweeney, T., Turnbull, P.J. and Hough, M. (2008) The treatment and supervision of drug dependent offenders: A review of the literature prepared for the UK Drug Policy Commission . London: UK Drug Policy Commission.

NOMS (2005) The National Offender Management Service (NOMS) : strategy for the management and treatment of problematic drug users within the correctional services, London: Home Office.  

National Offender Management Service (NOMS) (2008) The National Offender Management Service Drug Strategy 2008-2011 , London: Ministry of Justice.

National Treatment Agency (2008) Integrated drug treatment system in prisons (IDTS) http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/hmphighdown_idts_trpl1_0910.pdf   

Plugge, E., Yudkin, P. and Douglas, N. (2009) ‘Changes in women’s use of illicit drugs following imprisonment’, Addiction. . , 104: 215-222.

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) (2008) Review of Prison-Based Drug Treatment Funding Prison Reform Trust, Report to the Department of Health and Ministry of Justice, London: MoJ at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/news/docs/prison-drug-treatment-funding.pdf - Unable to access website through hyperlink

*Ramsey, M. (ed) (2003) Prisoners' drug use and treatment : seven research studies , Home Office Research Study no.267, London: Home Office.

Ramsey, M., Bullock, T and Niven, S. (2005) ‘The Prison Service Drug Strategy: the extent to which prisoners need and receive treatment’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . . 44(3): 269-285.

Seddon, T. (1996) ‘Drug Control in Prison’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 35(4): 327-335.

Singleton, N. et al (2005) The impact and effectiveness of mandatory drug testing in prisons , Home Office Research Findings 223, London: Home Office.

Stewart, D. (2009) ‘Drug Use and perceived treatment need among newly sentenced prisoners in England and Wales’, Addiction. , 104: 243-247.

Strang, J., Gossop, M., Heuston, J., Green, J., Whitely, C. and Maden, A. (2006) ‘Persistence of drug use during imprisonment: relationship of drug type, recency of use and severity of dependence to use of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine in prison’, Addiction. , 101: 1125-1132.

Swann, R. and James, P. (1998) The Effect of the Prison Environment upon Inmate Drug Taking Behaviour, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . , 37(3): 252-265.

Turnbull, P. and Stimson, G. (1994) Drug Use in Prison, British medical journal. , 308 (6945): 1716.

UK Drug Policy Commission (UKDPC) (2008) Reducing drug use, reducing reoffending: are programmes for problem drug-using offenders in the UK supported by the evidence , London: UKDPC. - Available online: http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/publication/reducing-drug-use-reducing-reoffending/

Wheatley, M. (2007) ‘Drugs in Prison’ in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

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Ethnic Minority Groups and Imprisonment

Some minority ethnic groups are disproportionately represented in the prison population. This lecture will briefly discuss some possible reasons for this before going on to examine some of the issues raised by the imprisonment of minority ethnic groups and how the prison service deals with them.

Reading

Bhui, Hindpal Singh (2009) ‘Prisons and race equality’ in Hindpal Singh Bhui (ed) Race and criminal justice , London: Sage.

Bowling, B. and Phillips, C. (2001) Racism, crime and justice , Harlow: Pearson Education.

Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2007) The penal system : an introduction , 4th Edition: London: Sage.

Cheliotis, L. and Liebling, A. (2006) ‘Race Matters in British Prisons: towards a research agenda’, British journal of criminology. . , 46(2): 286-317.

Commission for Racial Equality (2003) Race equality in prisons : a formal investigation by the Commission for Racial Equality into HM Prison service of England and Wales ; part 2 . London: CRE.

Cook, D. and Hudson, B. (eds.) (1993) Racism and criminology , London: Sage.

Edgar, K. and Martin, C. (2004) Perceptions of race and conflict [electronic resource] : perspectives of minority ethnic prisoners and of prison officers , Home Office online report 11/04, London: Home Office.

Edgar, K. (2007) ‘Black and minority ethnic prisoners’ in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Ellis, T, Tedstone, C. and Curry, D. (2004) Improving Race Relations in Prisons: What Works? , Home Office online report 12/04, London: Home Office http://eprints.port.ac.uk/12931/1/rdsolr1204.pdf   

Fitzgerald, M. and Marshall, P. (1996) Ethnic Minorities in British Prisons: Some Research Implications in R. Matthews and P. Francis (eds) Prisons 2000 : an international perspective on the current state and future of imprisonment, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Genders, E. and Player, E. (1989) Race relations in prisons , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hindpal Singh Bhui (2006) ‘Anti-racist practice in NOMS: Reconciling managerialist and professional realities’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . . 45(2): 171-190.

HM Inspectorate of Prisons (2005) Parallel worlds : a thematic review of race relations in prisons , London: HMSO.

Ministry of Justice (2009) Offender Management Caseload Statistics 2008, London: MoJ at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/218068/offender-management-caseload-statistics-2008-2.pdf

Ministry of Justice (2009) Statistics on race and the criminal justice system 2007/8, London: MoJ at http://www.stamp-it-out.co.uk/docs/stats_race_criminal_justice_system_0708.pdf

Hood, R. (1992) Race and sentencing : a study in the crown court : a report for the Commission for Racial Equality , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

House of Commons (2006) Report of The Zahid Mubarek Inquiry , London: HMSO.

Hudson, B (1993) 'Racism and Criminology: concepts and controversies', in, D. Cook and B. Hudson (eds.), Racism and criminology , London: Sage.

Hudson, B. (1996) Race, crime and justice , Aldershot: Dartmouth.

Langan, P. A. (1985) ‘Racism on Trial: new evidence to explain the racial composition of prisons in the United States’, Journal of criminal law and criminology. . , 76(3): 666 83.

Matthews, R. (1999) Doing time : an introduction to the sociology of imprisonment. , Basingstoke: Macmillan. Chapter 9

Maden, A. et al. (1992) ‘The ethnic origin of women serving a prison sentence’, British journal of criminology. .

Ministry of Justice (2009) Statistics on race and the criminal justice system 2007/8, London: MoJ at http://www.stamp-it-out.co.uk/docs/stats_race_criminal_justice_system_0708.pdf

NACRO (1986) Black people and the criminal justice system : report of the NACRO Race Issues Advisory Committee. , London: NACRO.

Phillips, C. and Bowling, B. (2007) ‘Ethnicities, racism, crime and criminal justice’, in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford handbook of criminology , 4th Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smellie, E (1991) Black people's experience of criminal justice , London: NACRO.

Spencer, J., Haslewood-Pocsik, I. and Smith, E. (2009) ‘Trying to get it right’: what prison officers say about implementing race relations policy’, Criminology & criminal justice. . 9(2): 187-206.

Tonry, M. (1994) ‘Racial Disproportion in US Prisons’, in R. King and M. Maguire, Prisons in context , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Walker, M (1987b) 'Note: ethnic origin of prisoners', British journal of criminology. . , 27(2): 202 6.

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Women in Prison

Despite a marked increase in the last decade, there are comparatively few women in prison in England and Wales, but although small in number, they face particular problems. In this lecture we shall briefly look at why far fewer women than men end up in prison, before assessing the effectiveness of prison for women, the particular problems women face and how they are addressed. We will examine the views of feminist criminologists and finish by briefly reviewing the Corston report, which has suggested radical changes to women’s imprisonment.

Reading

Bosworth M & Carrabine E (2001) 'Reassessing Resistance: Race, Gender and Sexuality in Prison’, Punishment & society. . , 3(4).

Caddle, D. and Crisp, D. (1997) Imprisoned women and mothers Home Office Research Study 162, London: Home Office.

Carlen, P. (1983) Women's imprisonment : a study in social control , London: Routledge.

Carlen, P. (ed) (1985) Criminal women : autobiographical accounts , Cambridge: Polity Press.

Carlen, P. (1990) Alternatives to women's imprisonment , Milton Keynes: Open University Press

Carlen, P, (1994) 'Why Study Women Imprisonment? Or Anyone Else's? ' British journal of criminology. . , 34: 131-40.

Carlen, P. (1998) Sledgehammer : women's imprisonment at the millennium , Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Carlen, P (2001) Death and the Triumph of Governance? Lessons from the Scottish Women's Prison, Punishment & society . 3(4): 459-471

Carlen, P. (2002) Women and punishment : the struggle for justice , Cullompton: Willan

Carlen, P. and Tchaikovsky, C. (1996) ‘Women’s Imprisonment in England and Wales at the End of the Twentieth Century: Legitimacy, Realities and Utopias’ in R. Matthews and P. Francis (eds) Prisons 2000 : an international perspective on the current state and future of imprisonment , Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Carlen, P & Worrall, A (2004), Analysing women's imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan

Carlen, P. and Worrall, A. (2006) ‘Analysing Women’s Imprisonment’ in Y. Jewkes and H. Johnston, Prison readings : a critical introduction to prisons and imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Casale, S. (1989) Women inside : the experience of women remand prisoners in Holloway , London: Civil Liberties Trust.

Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2007) The penal system : an introduction , 4th Edition, London: Sage.

Corston, J. (2007) The Corston Report: a review of women with particular vulnerabilities in the criminal justice system, London: Home Office available at: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130206102659/http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/docs/corston-report-march-2007.pdf

Department of Health (1996) Inspection of facilities for mothers and babies in prison : a report on the third multi-disciplinary inspection conducted by the Department of Health, November 1995-February 1996. , London: Department of Health.

Devlin, A. (1998) Invisible women : what's wrong with women's prisons? Winchester: Waterside Press

Dobash, R. et al., (1986) The imprisonment of women , Oxford: Blackwell.

Eaton, M (1993) Women after prison , Milton Keynes, OUP

Fawcett Society (2009) Engendering Justice: from policy to practice, London: Fawcett Society available at: http://www.ohrn.nhs.uk/resource/policy/EngenderingCJSFawcett.pdf

Genders, E. and Player, E. (1986) 'Women's imprisonment' British journal of criminology.

Genders, E. and Player, E. (1987) 'Women in Prison: the Treatment, Control and the Experience' in P. Carlen and A. Worrall (eds) Gender, crime and justice , Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Heidensohn, F. (1996) Women and crime, London: Macmillan: Chapter 4.

HM Inspector of Prisons (1997) Women in prison : a thematic review , London: Home Office.

HM Inspector of Prisons (2001) Follow-up to Women in prison : a thematic review , London: Home Office.

H.M. Inspectorate of Prisons (2005) Women in prison , London: HM Inspectorate of Prisons (available electronically in the library)

HM Inspector of Prisons (2006) Women in Prison: a literature review, London: Home Office. https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmiprisons/inspections/women-in-prison-a-literature-review/#.VgKGU5dWW3Z

Institute for Criminal Policy Research Statistics on women and the criminal justice system : a Home Office publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991. London: MoJ

Kenney-Herbert, J. (1999) ‘The Health Care of Women Prisoners in England and Wales: A Literature Review’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . , 38(1): 54-66.

Kersten, J. (1989) 'The Institutional Control of Girls and Boys: An Attempt at a Gender Specific Approach' in M. Cain (Ed) Growing up good : policing the behaviour of girls in Europe , London: Sage.

Kersten, J. (1990) 'A Gender Specific Look at Patterns of Violence in Juvenile Institutions: or "Are Girls Really More Difficult to Handle? "', International journal of the sociology of law. . , 18: 473-93.

Kruttschnitt, C. (2005) ‘The politics of confinement: women’s imprisonment in California and the UK’ in A.Liebling & S.Maruna The effects of imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Liebling, A., (1992) Suicides in prison , London: Routledge. Chapter 7

Liebling, A., (1994) 'Suicide Amongst Women Prisoners'. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. , 33: 1-9

Matthews, R. (2009) Doing Time: An Introduction to the Sociology of Imprisonment , London: Palgrave macmillan.

Medlicott, D (2008) ‘Women in Prison’ in Y. Jewkes Handbook on prisons , Cullompton: Willan

Ministry of Justice (2009) Offender Management Caseload Statistics 2008, London: MoJ at https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/offender-management-caseload-statistics-annual-ns

Morris, A. (1987) Women, crime, and criminal justice , Oxford: Blackwell, Ch 5

Morris, A. and Wilkinson, C. (eds), (1988) Women and the penal system : papers presented to 19th Cropwood Round-Table Conference, March 1988 , Cambridge, Institute of Criminology.

Morris, A., Wilkinson, C., Tisi, A., Woodrow, J. and Rockley, A. (1995) Managing the needs of female prisoners London: Home Office.

O'Dwyer, J. et al (1987) 'Women's Imprisonment in England, Wales and Scotland: Recurring Issues' in P Carlen & A Worrall (eds) Gender, crime and justice , Milton Keynes: Open University Press

Padel, U & Stevenson, P (1988) Insiders : women's experience of prison , London: Virago

Peckham, A. (1985) A woman in custody , London: Fontana

Player, E., (1994) 'Women's Prisons after Woolf' in E Player & M Jenkins (eds) Prisons after Woolf : reform through riot , London: Routledge.

Shaw, M. (1996) 'Is There a Feminist Future for Women's Prisons? in Matthews, R. & Francis, P., Prisons 2000 : an international perspective on the current state and future of imprisonment , Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Sim, J.(1990) Medical power in prisons : the prison medical service in England 1774-1989 , Milton Keynes: Open University Press, Ch 6

Wedderburn, D. et al. (2000) Justice for women : the need for reform ; the report of the Committee on Women's Imprisonment , London: Prison Reform Trust.

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Life-sentenced and long-term prisoners

Lifers present particular problems to the penal system, largely due to the long and often indeterminate length of the sentence. This lecture will outline the various types of life sentences available to the judiciary for very serious offenders and will examine the process of serving the sentence. What is being done to rehabilitate these very serious offenders and what progress must lifers make before the majority are released on license into communities that are not always pleased to see them return? It will look not only at lifers, but the effects of serving a long sentence, how these prisoners cope and adapt to long-term imprisonment.

Reading :

Cohen, S & Taylor, L (1972) Psychological survival : the experience of long-term imprisonment , Harmondworth: Penguin

Coker, J & Martin, J (1985) Licensed to live , Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Coyle, A (2005) ‘Foreword’ in A.Liebling & S.Maruna The effects of imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Coyle, A (2008) ‘Long-term prisoners’ in Y. Jewkes & J. Bennett (2008) Dictionary of prisons and punishment , Cullompton: Willan

Drake, D & Crewe, B (2008) ‘Deprivations / ‘Pains of Imprisonment’ in Y. Jewkes & J. Bennett (2008) Dictionary of prisons and punishment , Cullompton: Willan

Flanagan, T (1982) ‘Lifers and Long Termers - Doing Big Time’ in R.Johnson & H.Toch (eds.) The Pains of imprisonment , Illinois: Waveland Press Inc.

HM Inspectorate of Probation (1999) Lifers : a joint thematic review by Her Majesty's Inspectorates of Prisons and Probation. , London: HMSO. Available online.   

Jewkes Y (2005) ‘Loss, liminality and the life sentence: managing identity through a disrupted life course’ in A. Liebling & S. Maruna The effects of imprisonment Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Johnson, R (2005) ‘Dead Time’ in A. Liebling & S. Maruna The effects of imprisonment Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Prison Service (2001) Prisoners' Information book: life-sentenced prisoners, ‘lifers’, London: Waterside Press  

Sapsford, R (1978) ‘Life-sentence Prisoners: Psychological Changes During Sentence’ British journal of criminology. , 18:2: 128-145

Smith, D (Ed) (1979) Life-sentence prisoners , Home Office Research Study No.51, London: HMSO

Solomon, E (2008) ‘Life-sentenced Prisoners’ in Y. Jewkes & J. Bennett (2008) Dictionary of prisons and punishment , Cullompton: Willan

Sykes, G (1958) The society of captives : a study of a maximum security prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

Walker, N (1987) ‘The unwanted effects of long-term imprisonment’ in A.Bottoms & R.Light (Eds.) Problems of long-term imprisonment , Aldershot: Gower

Walker, S and Worral, A. (2006) Life as a women: the gendered pains of indeterminate imprisonment’, in Y. Jewkes and H. Johnstone, Prison readings : a critical introduction to prisons and imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Zamble, E & Porporino, FJ (1988) Coping, behavior, and adaptation in prison inmates , New York NY: Springer-Verlag

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Early release and resettlement

This lecture will discuss the origins and development of systems for early release. The issues and problems surrounding the use of early release will be discussed as well as recent proposals for change. It will explore some of the problems encountered by prisoners as they leave prison and resettle in the community. It will go on to examine some of the measures which have been put in place to aid resettlement and decrease the likelihood that prisoners will reoffend.

Reading

Ashworth, A. and Player, E. (2005) ‘Criminal Justice Act 2003: the sentencing provisions,’ Modern law review. . , 68(5): 822-857.

Burnett, R. (2004) ‘To reoffend or not to reoffend? The ambivalence of convicted property offenders’, in S. Maruna and R. Immarogeon (eds) After crime and punishment : pathways to offender reintegration , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Burrows, J. et al (2001) Research into the nature and effectiveness of drugs throughcare , London: Home Office.

Carter, P. (2003) Managing offenders, reducing crime : a new approach , London: Home Office.

Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2007) The penal system : an introduction , 4th Edition, London: Sage.

Clancy, A. et al (2006) Getting out and staying out : results of the prisoner Resettlement Pathfinders , Bristol: Policy Press.

Codd, H. (2007) Prisoners’ Families and Resettlement: a critical analysis’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . , 46(3): 255-263.

Coyle, A. (2005) Understanding prisons : key issues in policy and practice , Milton Keynes, Open University Press, Chap.8.

Crow, I. (2006) Resettling Prisoners: a review, Sheffield: University of Sheffield. http://canatx.org/rrt_new/professionals/articles/CROW-RESETTLING%20PRISONERS.pdf   

Dunbar, I and Langdon, A. (1998) Tough justice : sentencing and penal policies in the 1990s , Blackstone.

Eaton, M. (1993) Women after prison , Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Farrall, S. and Calverley, A. (2006) Understanding desistance from crime : theoretical directions in resettlement and rehabilitation . Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Farrall, S. and Sparks, R. (2006) ‘What Lies Beyond? Problems, prospects and possibilities for life after punishment’, Criminology & criminal justice. . , Special Issue, 6(1).

Fraser, P. and Padel, U. (eds) (2004) Resettlement, CJM - criminal justice matters. . , 56, London, CCJS.

Hamlyn, B. and Lewis, D. (2000) Women prisoners : a survey of their work and training experiences in custody and on release e, Home Office Research Study no. 208, London: Home Office.

Hann, R., Harman, W. and Pease, K (1991) ‘Does parole reduce the risk of reconviction? ’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 30: 66-75.

Hartfree, Y. Dearden, C. and Pound, E. (2008) High hopes: Supporting ex-prisoners in their lives after prison. Research Report no. 509. London: Department for Work and Pensions available at  https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130125093854/http://research.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/report_abstracts/rr_abstracts/rra_509.asp

Her Majesty’s Inspectorates of Prison and Probation (2001) Through the prison gate : a joint thematic review , London: Home Office.

Home Affairs Committee (2004) The work of the Parole Board : oral and written evidence : Tuesday 28 October 2003 : The Parole Board for England and Wales, Mr David Hatch CBE JP, chairman and Ms Christine Glenn, Chief Executive , London: HMSO.

Home Office (2001) Making punishments work : report of a review of the sentencing framework for England and Wales. (The Halliday Report), London: Home Office.

Home Office (2004) National Reoffending Action Plan, London: Home Office. https://www.nicco.org.uk/userfiles/downloads/024%20-%20Reducing%20Reoffending%20Action%20Plan%202004.pdf

Home Office (2005) National Reducing Re-offending delivery plan, London: Home Office. https://www.nicco.org.uk/userfiles/downloads/024%20-%20Reducing%20Reoffending%20Delivery%20Plan%202009.pdf

Hood, R. and Shute, S. (2000) The parole system at work : a study of risk based decision-making , Home Office Research Study No. 202, London: Home Office.

Hucklesby, A. and Hagley-Dickinson, L. (eds) (2007) Prisoner resettlement : policy and practice , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Hudson, K., Maguire, M. and Raynor, P. (2007) ‘Through the prison gate: resettlement, offender management and the ‘seamless sentence’ in Y. Jewkes (ed) Handbook on prisons Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Keil, J. and Sanile, C. (2009) ‘The resettlement needs of female prisoners’, Journal of forensic psychiatry and psychology. . , 20(1): 29-45.

Lewis, S. (2003) The resettlement of short-term prisoners : an evaluation of seven Pathfinders ISBN: 1844730239 , Research Development and Statistics Occasional Paper no. 84, London: Home Office.

Lewis, S. et al (2007) ‘What works in resettlement? ’ Criminology & criminal justice. . 7(1): 33-54.

Maguire, M. (1992) ‘Parole’ in E. Stockdale and S. Casale, Criminal justice under stress , Blackstone.

Maguire, M, Peroud, B and Raynor, P. (1996) Automatic conditional release : the first two years . Home Office Research Study 156. London: Home Office.

Maguire, M. and Raynor, P. (1997) ‘The Revival of Throughcare: Rhetoric and Reality of Automatic Conditional Release’, British journal of criminology. . , 37(1): 1-14.

Maguire, M. et al (2000) ‘Voluntary After-Care and the Probation Service: a case of diminished responsibility’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. , 39: 234-248.

Maguire, M., Perroud, B and Raynor, P. (1996) Automatic conditional release : the first two years , Home Office Research Study 156, London: Home Office.

Maruna, S. (2000) Making good : how ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives : Washington: American Psychological Society.

Maruna, S. and Immarigeon (2004) After crime and punishment : pathways to offender reintegration , Cullompton: Willan.

Maruna, S. and LeBel, T. (2002) ‘Revisiting ex-prisoner re-entry: a buzzword in search of a narrative’ in S. Rex and M. Tonry, Reform and punishment : the future of sentencing , Cullompton: Willan.

McAllister, D, Bottomley, A.K. and Liebling, A. (1992) From custody to community : throughcare for young offenders . Aldershot: Avebury.

Ministry of Justice (2009) Re-offending of adults: results from the 2007 cohort, Statistical Bulletin, London: Ministry of Justice at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/199224/compendium-of-reoffending-statistics-and-analysis.pdf .

Ministry of Justice (2009) Re-offending of juveniles: results from the 2007 cohort, London: Ministry of Justice at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/162939/reoffending-juveniles-2007.pdf.pdf

Moorthy, W., Cahalin, K. and Howard, P. (2004) Ethnicity and parole , Home Office Research Findings no.222, London: Home Office.

National Audit Office (2002) Reducing Prisoner Reoffending, London: NAO available at http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/0102/reducing_prisoner_reoffending.aspx

Niven, S. and Stewart (2005) Resettlement outcomes on release from prison in 2003 , Home Office Research Findings 248, London: Home Office.

Padfield, N. (2007) Who to release? : parole, fairness and criminal justice , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Padfield, N. and Maruna, S. (2006) ‘The revolving door at the prison gate: exploring the dramatic increase in recalls to prison’, Criminology & criminal justice. . 6(3): 329-352.

Petersilia, J. and Travis, J. (2001) From prison to society : managing the challenges of prisoner reentry , London: Sage.

Raynor, P. (2004) ‘Opportunity, Motivation and Change: some findings for research on resettlement’, in R. Burnett and C. Roberts (eds) What works in probation and youth justice : developing evidence-based practice , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Raynor, P. and Maguire, M. (2006) ‘End to end or End in Tears? Prospects for the Effectiveness of the National Offender Management Model’ in M. Hough, R. Allen and U. Padel (eds) Reshaping probation and prisons : the new offender management framework , Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter 3 available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE .

Roberts, J and Smith, M. (2003) ‘Custody plus, custody minus’ in M. Tonry (ed) Confronting crime , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Roberts, J. (2003) ‘Evaluating the pluses and minuses of custody: sentencing reform in England and Wales’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 43(3): 229-247.

Rumgay, J. (1990) 'Taking the rehabilitation out of after-care? The post-release supervision of young adult offenders', British journal of criminology. . 30, 36-50.

Social Exclusion Unit (2002) Reducing Re-Offending by Ex-Prisoners, London: HMSO available at www.socialexclusionunit.gov.uk - Unable to access website through hyperlink

Taylor, R., Wasik, M. and Leng, R. (2004) Blackstone's guide to the Criminal Justice Act 2003 , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ward, D. and Lacey, M (eds) (1995) Probation : working for justice. London: Whiting & Birch.

Webster, R. et al (2001) Building bridges to employment for prisoners , Home Office Research Study 226, London: Home Office.

White, R & Graham, H (2010) Working with offenders : a guide to concepts and practice , Cullompton: Willan

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Comparative use of imprisonment

This lecture will examine the contemporary use of imprisonment in a range of broadly similar societies (advanced industrial democracies), mainly from a comparative perspective. An attempt will be made to identify the factors that appear to influence trends in prison population, and to examine ways of controlling the use of imprisonment in particular societies and contexts.

Cavadino,M & Dignan, J (2006) Penal systems : a comparative approach , London: Sage

Cavadino, M. & Dignan, J. (2006), ‘Penal Policy and Political Economy’ in Criminology & criminal justice. . an International Journal, 6(4): 435-456.

Downes, D. (1982) 'The origins and consequences of Dutch penal policy since 1945' British journal of criminology. . , 22: 325-62.

Lacey, N (2007) The prisoners' dilemma : political economy and punishment in contemporary democracies Cambridge: CUP

Matthews, R. and Francis, P. (eds) (1996), Prisons 2000 : an international perspective on the current state and future of imprisonment , London: Macmillan.

Muncie, J. and Sparks, R. (1991) Imprisonment : European perspectives , Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. esp. Chapters 5-7.

Mauer, M. (2001), 'Causes and consequences of prison growth in the USA'. 3 Punishment & society . . p. 9 .

Pakes, F (2010) Comparative Criminal Justice (2nd ed), Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Stern, V. (1998) A Sin Against the Future, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Tonry, M. (2004) ‘Why aren’t German penal policies harsher and imprisonment rates higher? 5 German law journal no. 10

Van Zyl Smit, D. & Snacken, S. (2009) Principles of European prison law and policy : penology and human rights . Oxford: Oxford University Press

Walmsley, R. (2009) World Prison Population List , 8th Edition: London, International Centre for Prison Studies, King’s College, available at http://www.apcca.org/uploads/8th_Edition_2009.pdf . [N.B. prior to the sixth edition, these were published by the Home Office. See, for example, the 5th edition, which is available as Home Office Research Findings 234, London: Home Office 2003. Available on the Home Office’s Research and Statistics Directorate website at: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110302104126/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r234.pdf

Whitman, J. (2003). Harsh justice : criminal punishment and the widening divide between America and Europe . Oxford: Oxford University Press

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SEMESTER 2

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Community Sentencing/punishment in the community

Allen, R. (2008) ‘Changing public attitudes to crime and punishment: building confidence in community penalties’, Probation journal : the journal of community and criminal justice. . : 55: 389-400.

Bailey, R., Knight, C. and Williams, B. (2007) ‘The Probation Service as part of NOMS in England and Wales: fit for purpose? ’ in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Bottoms, A., Gelsthorpe, L. and Rex, S. (2001) Community penalties : change and challenges , Cullompton: Willan.

Bottoms, A., Rex, S. and Robinson, G. (eds) (2004) Alternatives to prison : options for an insecure society Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Brownlee, I. (1995) ‘Intensive Probation with Young Adult Offenders: a short reconviction study’, British journal of criminology. . 35(4): 599-612.

Brownlee, I. (1998) Community punishment : a critical introduction . Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman

Burnett, R., Baker, K. and Roberts, C. (2007) ‘Assessment, supervision and intervention; fundamental practice in probation’ in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2007) The Penal System: An Introduction , 4th edition, London: Sage

Cohen, S. (1985) Visions of social control : crime, punishment and classification Cambridge: Polity Press.

Ellis, T., Hedderman, C. and Mortimer, E. (1996) Enforcing community sentences : supervisors' perspectives on ensuring compliance and dealing with breach , Home Office Research Study No. 158, London: Home Office.

Gelsthorpe, L. and Morgan, R. (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Goldblatt, P and Lewis, C. (1998) Reducing offending : an assessment of research evidence on ways of dealing with offending behaviour . Home Office Research Study 187. London: Home Office.

Gough, D. (2005) ‘Tough on probation’: probation practice under the National Offender Management Service’, in J. Winstone and F. Pakes, (eds) (2005) Community justice : issues for probation and criminal justice , Cullompton: Willan publishing.

Hedderman, C. (2007) ‘Past, present and future sentences: what do we know about their effectiveness? ’ in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Hedderman, C., Ellis, T. and Sugg, D. (1999) Increasing confidence in community sentences :the results of two demonstration projects , Home Office: London.

Home Office (1988) Punishment, custody and the community. , Cm 424. London: HMSO.

Home Office (1990) Supervision and punishment in the community : a framework for action . Cm 966, London: HMSO.

Home Office (1995) Strengthening punishment in the community : a consultation document . Cm 2780. London: HMSO.

Home Office (1996) Organising supervision and punishment in the community : a decision document . London: HMSO.

Hough, M., Allen, R. and Padel, U. (2006) Reshaping probation and prisons : the new offender management framework , Bristol: The Policy Press.

James, A. and Bottomley, K. (1997) ‘Evaluating the “Tackling Offending” initiative’. In G. Mair, (1997) Evaluating the effectiveness of community penalties , Avebury, Aldershot.

Khanom, K., Samele, C. and Rutherford, M. (2009) A missed opportunity: community sentences and the Mental Health Treatment Requirement , London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health at http://www.ohrn.nhs.uk/resource/policy/MissedOpportunity.pdf

Lloyd, C, Mair, G and Hough, M. (1994) Explaining reconviction rates : a critical analysis .  Home Office Research Study 136. London: Home Office.

Mair, G (ed) (1997) Evaluating the effectiveness of community penalties Avebury, Aldershot.

Mair, G. (1997) ‘Community Penalties and the Probation Service’ in M. Maguire et al (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2nd Edition.

Mair. G. (2004) What matters in probation Cullompton: Willian Publishing.

Mair, G. (2009) 'Community sentences’ in A. Hucklesby and A. Wahidin (eds), Criminal Justice , Oxford: Oxford University Press

Mair, G. and Canton, R. (2007) ‘Sentencing, community penalties and the role of the Probation Service’, in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Mair, G, Cross, N. and Taylor, S. (2007) The use and impact of the Community Order and the Suspended Sentence Order , London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies

Mair, G, Cross, N. and Taylor, S. (2008) The community order and the suspended sentence order : the views and attitudes of sentencers , London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies available at: http://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/ccjs_sentencers_views.pdf

Mair, G. and May, C. (1997) Offenders on probation , Home Office Research Study No.167, London: Home Office.

Mair, G. and Mills, H. (2009) The Community Order and the Suspended Sentence Order three years on: the views and experiences of probation officers and offenders , London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies available at: http://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sentenceshreeyearson.html

Maruna, S. and King. A. (2008) ‘Selling the public on probation: beyond the bib’, Probation journal : the journal of community and criminal justice. . 55(4): 337-351.

Mathieson, T. (1983) ‘The future of Control Systems – the Case of Norway’, in D. Garland and P. Young (eds.) The Power to Punish: Contemporary Penality and Social Analysis , London: Heinemann.

May, T. (1999) Explaining reconviction following a community sentence : the role of social factors , Home Office Research Study no. 192, London: Home Office.

McGuire, J. (ed.) (1995) What works : reducing reoffending : guidelines from research and practice . Chichester: Wiley.

McGuire, J. (2005) ‘Is research working? Revisiting the research and effective practice agenda’, in J. Winstone and F. Pakes, (eds) (2005) Community justice : issues for probation and criminal justice , Cullompton: Willan publishing.

NAO (2008) The supervision of community orders in England and Wales : National Probation Service , report by the Comptrolor and Auditor General, London: Stationary Office.

Nellis, M. (1995) ‘Probation Values in the 1990s’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. 34(1): 19-44. Also various comments and replies in Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . . (1995) 34(4).

Nellis, M. (2007) ‘Humanising justice: the English Probation Service up to 1972’ in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Nellis, M. and Goodman, A. (2009) ‘Probation and Offender Management’ in A. Hucklesby and A. Wahidin (eds), Criminal justice Oxford: Oxford University Press

Pycroft, A. (2005) ‘A new chance for rehabilitation: multi-agnecy provison and potential under NOMS’, in J. Winstone and F. Pakes, (eds) (2005) Community justice : issues for probation and criminal justice , Cullompton: Willan publishing.

Raynor, P. (1997) ‘Some Observations on Rehabilitation and Justice’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 36(3), 248-262.

Raynor, P. (2004) ‘Rehabilitative and reintegrative approaches’, in A. Bottoms, S. Rex, and G. Robinson (eds) (2004) Alternatives to prison : options for an insecure society , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Raynor, P. (2007) ‘Community penalties: ‘What Works, and offender management’, in M.Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner, Oxford Handbook of Criminology , 4th Edition, Oxford: Oxford Univesity Press.

Raynor, P. and Vanstone, M. (2002) Understanding community penalties : probation, policy and social change , Buckingham: Open University Press

Raynor, P. and Vanstone, M. (2007) ‘Towards a correctional service’, in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Rex, S. (1998) ‘Applying Desert Principles to Community Sentences: Lessons from Two Criminal Justice Acts’, Criminal law review. . , June: 381-391.

Robinson, A (2011) Foundations for offender management : theory, law and policy for contemporary practice , Bristol, Policy Press

Robinson. G. and Burnett, R. (2007) ‘Experiencing modernization: frontline probation persepctives on the transiotn to a National Offender Management Service’, Probation journal : the journal of community and criminal justice. . 54: 318-337.

Scull, A. (1983) ‘Community Corrections, Progress or Pretence’ in D. Garland and P. Young, The Power to Punish, London: Heinemann.

Scull, A. (1984) Decarceration: Community Treatment and the Deviant-a Radical View.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Soloman, E. and Silvestri, A. (2008) Community Sentences Digest , 2nd Edition, London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies at http://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/communitysentencesdigest2008.html

Vass, A. (1990) Alternatives to prison : punishment, custody and the community , London: Sage.

Vennard, J, Sugg, D and Hedderman, C. (1997) Changing offenders' attitudes and behaviour : what works?  Home Office Research Study 171. London: Home Office.

Wing Houg Chui and Nellis, M. (2003) Moving probation forward : evidence, arguments and practice , Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Worrall, A. (2009) ‘Community sentences and offender management’ in C. Hale, K. Hayward, A. Wahidin and E. Wincup (eds) Criminology , Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Worrall, A & Hoy, C (2005) Punishment in the community : managing offenders, making choices Cullompton: Willan

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Electronic Monitoring

Electronic monitoring was introduced predominantly to reduce the prison population but also increase the monitoring and control over offenders in the community. This lecture will examine whether this strategy has been successful and some of the implications for offenders, their families and the wider community.

Bales, W, Mann, K., Blomberg, T., Gaes, K., Barrick, K., Dhungana, K. and McManus, B. (2010) A quantitative and qualitative assessment of electronic monitoring, US Department of Justice. - Available online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/230530.pdf

CJM - criminal justice matters. (2014) Electronic Monitoring Special Edition, 95:1.

Geohegan R (2012)  Future of Corrections: Exploring the Use of Electronic Monitoring .London: Policy Exchange. - Available online: http://www.policyexchange.org.uk/images/publications/future%20of%20corrections.pdf

Cassidy, D., Harper, G. and Brown, S. (2005) Understanding electronic monitoring of juveniles on bail or remand to local authority accommodation , Home Office Online Report 21/05, London: Home Office.

Cavadino, M and Dignan, J. (2013) The Penal System: an Introduction (5th ed) London: Sage

Cohen, S. (1985) Visions of social control : crime, punishment and classification , Polity Press

Dodgson, K. (2001) Electronic monitoring of released prisoners : an evaluation of the Home Detention Curfew scheme , Home Office Research Study No. 222, London: Home Office.

Elliot, R., Airs, J., Easton, C., Lewis, R. (2000) Electronically monitored curfew for 10-15 year olds – report of the pilot   , London: Home Office.

Erez, E. and Ibarra, P. (2014) Electronic Monitoring Special Edition, Crime, law and social change. , Vol 62:4

Gainey, R. and Payne, B. (2000) ‘Understanding the experience of house arrest with electronic monitoring: An analysis of quantitative and qualitative data, Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology , 44:1, pp84-96. - Available online: http://ijo.sagepub.com/content/44/1/84.abstract

Graham, H and McIvor, G. (2015) Scottish and International Review of the Uses of Electronic Monitoring, SCCJR Research Report 7/2015 Glasgow: SCCJR. - Available online: http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Scottish-and-International-Review-of-the-Uses-of-Electronic-Monitoring-Graham-and-McIvor-2015.pdf

Gibbs, A. and King, D. (2003) ‘Home Detention with Electronic Monitoring’, Criminal justice. . , 3(2): 199-212.

HM Inspectorate of Probation, HMI Court Administration and HMI Constabulary (2008) A complicated business: a joint inspection of electronically monitored curfew requirements, orders and licences , London: MoJ at http://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmiprobation/inspections/a-complicated-business-a-joint-inspection-of-electronically-monitored-curfew-requirements-orders-and-licences/#.VgKaA5dWW3Z

HM Inspectorate of Probation (2012) It's Complicated: The Management of Electronically Monitored Curfews , London: HMI Probation - https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/government-response-to-its-complicated-the-management-of-electronically-monitored-curfews

House of Commons Papers 994 (2006) The electronic monitoring of adult offenders : sixty-second report of session 2005-06 : report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence : Committee of Public Accounts London:HMSO

Hucklesby, A. (2008) ‘Vehicles of Desistance? The impact of electronically monitored curfew orders’, Criminology & criminal justice. . 8(1): 51-71.

Hucklesby, A. (2009) ‘Understanding offenders’ compliance: a case study of electronically monitored curfew orders’, Journal of law and society. . 36(2): 248-71

Lilly, R. (2006) ‘Issues beyond empirical EM reports,’ Criminology & Public Policy , Vol 5:1 pp93-101

Lockhart-Mirams, G., Pickles, C. and Crowhurst, E. (2015) Cutting crime: the role of tagging in offender management, London: Reform. - Available online: https://reform.uk/research/cutting-crime-role-tagging-offender-management

Lobley, D. and Smith, D. (2000) Evaluation of electonically monitored restriction of liberty orders , Edinburgh, Scottish Executive Research Unit.

Mair, G. (2001) ‘Technology and the Future of Probation’, in A.E. Bottoms, L. Gelsthorpe and S. Rex (eds) Community penalties : change and challenges , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Mair, G. (2005) ‘Electronic monitoring in England and Wales: evidence-based or not? ’, Criminal justice. . , 5(3): 257-278.

Mair, G. and Mortimer, E. (1996) Curfew orders with electronic monitoring : an evaluation of the first twelve months of the trials in Greater Manchester, Norfolk and Berkshire, 1995-1996 , Home Office Research Study No.163, Home Office.

Mair, G. and Nee, C. (1990) Electronic monitoring : the trials and their results Home Office Research study No. 120, Home Office.

Mortimer, E. (2001) Electronic monitoring of released prisoners : an evaluation of the Home Detention Curfew scheme : , Home Office Research Findings No. 139, London: Home Office.

Mortimer, E. and Mair, G. (1997) Curfew orders with electronic monitoring : an evaluation of the first twelve months of the trials in Greater Manchester, Norfolk and Berkshire, 1995-1996 : , Research Findings no. 51, London: Home Office.

Mortimer, E. and May, C. (1997) Electronic monitoring in practice : the second year of the trials of curfew orders : , Home Office Research Study No.177, Home Office.

Mortimer, E., Pereira, E. and Walter, I. (1999) Making the Tag Fit: further analysis for the first two years of the trials of curfew orders , Research findings , No. 105, London: Home Office.

National Audit Office (2006) The Electronic Monitoring of Adult Offenders , Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, London: National Audit Office.

Nellis, M (2006) Surveillance, ‘Rehabilitation and electronic monitoring: Getting the issues clear’, Criminology & Public Policy , Vol 5:1, pp103-108.

Nellis, M. (2012). Implant technology and the electronic monitoring of offenders. In A. Crawford & A. Hucklesby (Eds.), Legitimacy and compliance in criminal justice , pp. 159–180. Abingdon: Routledge

Nellis, M. (2014) ‘Upgrading electronic monitoring, downgrading probation: Reconfiguring ‘offender management’ in England and Wales’ European journal of probation , 6(2) pp169-191.

Nellis, M. (2003) ‘Electronic monitoring and the future of probation’ in W. H. Chui and M. Nellis(eds), Moving probation forward : evidence, arguments and practice Harlow: Pearson Education

Nellis, M. (2004) ‘Electronic Monitroing and the community supervision of offenders’, in A. Bottoms, S. Rex, and G. Robinson (eds) Alternatives to prison : options for an insecure society , Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Nellis, M. (2005) ‘Electronic Monitoring, Satellite Tracking and the New Punitiveness in England and Wales’ in Pratt, J., Brown, D., Hallsworth, S., Brown, M. and Morrison, W. (eds), The new punitiveness : trends, theories, perspectives , Cullompton: Willan: 167-185.

Nellis, M. (2006) ‘The Limitations of Electronic Monitoring: reflections on the tagging of Peter Williams’, Prison service journal. .

Nellis, M, Beyens, K & Kaminski, D (2012) Electronically monitored punishment : international and critical perspectives , London: Routledge

Nellis, M. and Lilly, J.R. (2000) ‘Accepting the Tag: Probation officers and home detention curfew’, VISTA , 6: 68-80.

Padgett, K., Bales, W. and Blomberg, T. (2006) ‘Under Surveillance: An empirical test of the effectiveness and consequences of electronic monitoring’, Criminology & Public Policy , Vol 5:1 pp61-91.

Renzema, M. and Mayo-Wilson, E. (2005) Can electronic monitoring reduce crime for moderate to high-risk offenders? , Journal of Experimental Criminology , 1; 215-237.

Shute, S. (2007) Satellite Tracking of Offenders: a study of the pilots in England and Wales   , Research Summary 4, London: Ministry of Justice.

Smith, D. (2001) ‘Electronic monitoring of offenders: the Scottish Experience’, Criminal justice. . 1(2): 201-214.

Sugg, D, Moore, L and Howard, P. (2001) Electronic monitoring and offending behaviour : reconviction results for the second year of trials of curfew orders. , Research findings 141, Home Office: London.

Vanhaelemeesch, D, Vander Beken, T., and Vandevelde, S. (2014) Punishment at home: Offenders’ experiences with electronic monitoring, European journal of criminology. , vol 11:3, pp273-287.

Walter, I (2002) Evaluation of the national roll-out of curfew orders , Home Office online report 15/02, London: Home Office. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.617.8220&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Walter, I, Sugg, D. and Moore, L. (2001) A year on the tag : interviews with criminal justice practitioners and electronic monitoring staff about curfew orders. , Home Office Research findings 140, London: Home Office.

Whitfield, D. (1997) Tackling the tag : the electronic monitoring of offenders , Winchester: Waterside Press.

Whitfield, D. (2001) The magic bracelet : technology and offender supervision Winchester: Waterside Press.

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Diversity and Community Sentencing

Bhui, H.S. (2006) ‘Anti-racist practice in NOMS: reconciling managerialist and professional realities, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 45(2): 171-90.

Bowling, B and Phillips, C. (2002) Racism, crime and justice . London: Longman.

Calverley, A., Cole, B., Kaur, G., Lewis, S., Raynor, P., Sadeghi, S., Smith, D., Vanstone, M. and Wardak, A. (2004) Black and Asian Offenders on Probation . Home Office Research Study 277, London: Home Office

Calverley, A., Cole, B., Kaur, G., Lewis, S., Raynor, P., Sadeghi, S., Smith, D., Vanstone, M. and Wardak, A. (2006) ‘Black and Asian probationers: implications of the Home Office Study’, Probation journal : the journal of community and criminal justice. , 53(1) (pp 24-37)

Carlen, P and Worrall, A. (2004) Analysing women's imprisonment , Cullompton: Willan, Chapter 5

Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2007) The Penal System: an introduction , London: Sage, Chapter 10

Corston, J. (2007) The Corston Report: a review of women with particular vulnerabilities in the criminal justice system , London: Home Office available at:  https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130206102659/http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/docs/corston-report-march-2007.pdf

Durrance, P. and Ablitt, F. (2001) ‘”Creative solutions” to women’s offending: an evaluation of the Women’s Probation Centre’, Probation journal. , 28(4): 247-59.

Durrance, P. and Williams, P. (2003) ‘Broadening the agenda round what works for black and Asian offenders’, Probation journal. , 50, 3, 211-24. (Available at http://prb.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/50/3/211 ).

Farrant, F. (2009) ‘Gender, ‘Race’ and the criminal justice process’ in Hindpal Singh Bhui (ed) Race and criminal justice , London: Sage: 102-121

Fawcett Society (2004) Women and the criminal justice system : a report of the Fawcett Society's Commission on Women and the Criminal Justice System , London: Fawcett Society. Available at: https://www.fawcettsociety.org.uk/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da9130a4-6e24-4717-b770-3efee1d351aa

Fawcett Society (2009) Engendering Justice: from policy to practice, London: Fawcett Society available at: http://www.ohrn.nhs.uk/resource/policy/EngenderingCJSFawcett.pdf

Gelsthorpe, L. (2001) ‘Accountability: difference and diversity in the delivery of community penalties’, in A. Bottoms, L. Gelsthorpe and S. Rex (eds) Community penalties : change and challenges , Cullompton: Willan

Gelsthorpe, L. and McIvor, Gill, J. (2007) ‘Difference and diversity in probation’ in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Hedderman, C., Palmer, E. and Hollin, C. (2008) ‘Implementing services for women offenders and those ‘at risk’ of offending: action research with Together women’, Ministry of Justice Research Series 12/08, London: Ministry of Justice at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100505212400/http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/together-women.htm

Hindpal Singh Bhui (2006) ‘Anti-racist practice in NOMS: Reconciling managerialist and professional realities’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . . , 45(2): 171-190.

HM Inspector of Probation (HMIP) (2000) Towards race equality: Thematic inspection report , available online London: HMIP. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+ /http://www.justice.gov.uk/inspectorates/hmi-probation/docs/hmiprobthematicracefulldoc-rps.pdf

HM Inspector of Probation (HMIP) (2004) Towards race equality : follow-up inspection report , London: HMIP.
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+ /http://www.justice.gov.uk/inspectorates/hmi-probation/docs/towardsraceequality04-rps.pdf

Horn, R. and Evans, M. (2000) ‘The effect of gender on pre-sentence reports’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. , 39(2): 184-97.

Hudson, B. and Bramhall, G. (2005) ‘Assessing the “Other”: constructions of “Asianness” in risk assessments by Probation Officers’, British journal of criminology. . , 45: 721-40.

Institute for Criminal Policy Research Statistics on women and the criminal justice system : a Home Office publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991.

Kemshall, H., Canton, R. and Bailey, R. (2004) ‘Dimensions of difference’, in A. Bottoms, S. Rex, and G. Robinson (eds) (2004) Alternatives to prison : options for an insecure society , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Lewis, S. (2009) ‘The probation service and race equality’ in Hindpal Singh Bhui (ed) Race and Criminal Justice , London: Sage: 102-121

Lewis, S., Raynor, P., Smith, D. and Wardak, A. (eds) (2006) Race and probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

McIvor, G. (1998) ‘Jobs for the Boys? Gender differences in referral for community service’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. , 37: 280-90.

Ministry of Justice (2009) Offender Management Caseload Statistics 2008 , London: MoJ at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/218068/offender-management-caseload-statistics-2008-2.pdf

Ministry of Justice (2009) Statistics on race and the criminal justice system 2007/8 , London: MoJ at - http://www.stamp-it-out.co.uk/docs/stats_race_criminal_justice_system_0708.pdf

Patel, S. and Stanley, S. (2008) The use of the Community Order and the Suspended Sentence Order for women , London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies at: http://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/communitysentencesforwomen.html

Powis, B. and Walmsley, R.K. (2002) Programmes for black and Asian offenders on probation : lessons for developing practice : Home Office research Study 250. London: Home Office.

Probation Journal (2009), Special Issue on Women and probation, Probation journal : the journal of community and criminal justice. . , 56: 4.

Roberts, J. (2002) ‘Women-centred: the West Mercia community-based programme for women offenders’, in P. Carlen (ed.) Women and punishment : the struggle for justice Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Rumgay, J. (2004) ‘Living with paradox: community supervision of women offenders’, in G. McIvor (ed) Women who Offend, London: Jessica Kingsley.

Shaw, M. and Hannah-Moffat, K. (2004) ‘How cognitive skills forgot about gender and diversity’ in G. Mair (ed) What matters in probation , Cullompton: Willan.

Stephens, K., Coombs, J. and Debidin, M. (2004) Black and Asian offenders pathfinder : implementation report Home Office Development and Practice Report 24. London: Home Office.

Worrall, A. and Hoy, C. (2005) Punishment in the community : managing offenders, making choices (2nd edition), Cullompton: Willan.

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Dealing with drug using offenders

Barton, A. (1999) ‘Sentenced to treatment? Criminal justice orders and the health service’ Critical social policy. . 19(4) 463-483.

Bean, P. (2004) Drugs and Crime ( 2nd Edition) Cullumpton: Willan.

Bean, P. (2011) Drugs and Crime ( 3rd Edition)  Cullumpton: Willan.

Bennett, T. (2009) ‘The causal connection between drug misuse and crime’, British journal of criminology. .

Bennett, T. and Holloway, K. (2007) Drug-crime connections Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coid, J, Carvell, A., Kittler, Z, Heally, A. and Henderson, J. (2000) Opiates, criminal behaviour and methadone treatment. , London: Home Office.

Department of Health and National Treatment Agency (2008) Statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) 1st April 2007 – 31st March 2008 , London: Department of Health and National Treatment Agency.

Eley, S., Gallop, K., McIvor, G., Morgan, K. and Yates, R. (2002) Drug treatment and testing orders : final evaluation report . Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Social Research.

Eley, S., Malloch, M., McIvor, G., Yates, R. and Brown, A. (2002) The Glasgow Drug Court in action : the first six months . Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Social Research.

Fowler, L. (2002) Drugs, crime and the drug treatment and testing order . Issues in Community and Criminal Justice. Monograph 2. London: NAPO.

Gossop, M. (2005) Drug Misuse Treatment and Reductions in Crime : Findings From the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS) . London: National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse

Gossop, M., Marsden, J., Stewart, D., Kidd, T. (2003) ‘The National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS): 4-5 year follow-up results’, Addiction. . 98: 291-303.

Hartfree, Y. Dearden, C. and Pound, E. (2008) High hopes : supporting ex-prisoners in their lives after prison . Research Report no. 509. London: Department for work and pensions.

HM Government (2008) Drugs, protecting families and communities : the 2008 drug strategy. : , London: HM Government.

HM Inspectorate of Probation (2003) ‘A long way in a short time…’: Inspection of the Implementation of Drug Treatment and Testing Orders by the National Probation Service . Thematic Inspection Report. London: Home Office available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+ /http://www.justice.gov.uk/inspectorates/hmi-probation/docs/drug-treatment-testing-report-rps.pdf

Hollingworth, M. (2008). An examination of the potential impact of the Drug Rehabilitation Requirement on homeless illicit drug-using offenders. Probation journal : the journal of community and criminal justice. . , 55(2), 127-138.

Holloway, K., Bennett, T. and Farrington, D. (2005) The effectiveness of criminal justice and treatment programmes in reducing drug related crime: a systematic review , Home Office Online Report 26/05, London: Home Office.

Home Office (1995) Tackling drugs together : a strategy for England 1995-98 : London: HMSO.

Home Office (2002) Updated drug strategy 2002. , London: Home Office.

Home Office (2007) Drug Interventions Programme: Race, Equality and Diversity Action Plan , London: Home Office

Hough, M. (1996) Drugs misuse and the criminal justice system : a review of the literature , London: Home Office.

Hough, M., Clancy, A., McSweeney, T. and Turnbull, P. (2003) The impact of Drug Treatment and Testing Orders on offending : two-year reconviction results . Home Office Research Findings 184. London: Home Office. - Available online: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http:/rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r184.pdf

Hunt, N and Stevens, A. (2004) ‘Whose Harm? Harm Reduction and the Shift to Coercion in UK Drug Policy’, Social policy and society. . , 3:333-42

Matrix Knowledge Group (2008) Dedicated drug court pilots : a process report . London: Ministry of Justice. http://www.dldocs.stir.ac.uk/documents/dedicated-drug-courts.pdf

Matrix Research and Consultancy and ICCP, Kings College (2007) Evaluation of the Drug Interventions Programme for children and young people: arrest referral, drug testing and drug testing and treatment requirements , Home Office online report 07/07, London: Home Office. - http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/8468/1/rdsolr0707.pdf

McIntosh, J., Bloor, M. and Robertson, M. (2007) ‘The effect of drug treatment upon the commission of acquisitive crime’, Journal of Substance Use , 12(5): 375 – 384.

McIvor, G. (2009) ‘Therapeutic jurisprudence and procedural justice in Scottish drug courts’, Criminology & criminal justice. . , 9(1): 29-49 .

McIvor, G., Barnsdale, L. Malloch, M., Eley, S. and Yates, R. (2006) The operation and effectiveness of the Scottish drug court pilots . Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Social Research.

McSweeney, T., Hough, M. and Turnbull, P. (2007) ‘Drugs and crime: exploring the links’, in M. Simpson, T. Shildrick and R. MacDonald (ed.) Drugs in Britain : supply, consumption, and control Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

McSweeney, T., Stevens, A., Hunt, N. and Turnbull, P.J. (2007) ‘Twisting arms or a helping hand? : Assessing the impact of ‘coerced’ and comparable ‘voluntary’ drug treatment options’ British journal of criminology. . , 47 (3): 470 – 490.

McSweeney, T., Stevens, A., Hunt, N. and Turnbull, P.J. (2008) ‘Drug testing and court review hearings: Uses and limitations’, Probation journal : the journal of community and criminal justice. . 55, 1 , 39-53.

McSweeney, T. Turnbull, P.J. and Hough, M. (2008) The treatment and supervision of drug-dependent offenders: A review of the literature prepared for the UK Drug Policy Commission . London: UK Drug Policy Commission. http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/resources/RDURR_ICPR_literature_review.pdf

National Audit Office (2004) The Drug Treatment and Testing Order : early lessons : ninth report of session 2004-05 : report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence . London: The Stationery Office. [Downloadable from NAO website: www.nao.org.uk ]

National Offender Management Service (NOMS) (2005) The National Offender Management Service (NOMS) : strategy for the management and treatment of problematic drug users within the correctional services, London: Home Office. https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/national-offender-management-service 

National Offender Management Service (NOMS) (2008) The National Offender Management Service Drug Strategy 2008-2011 , London: Ministry of Justice. http://www.cjp.org.uk/publications/archive/national-offender-management-service-drug-strategy-2008-2011/

National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse (2009). Breaking the link: the role of drug treatment in tackling crime  London: NTA.

National Treatment Agency and The Centre for Ethnicity and Health (2003) Black and minority ethnic communities in England : a review of the literature on drug use and related service provision. , London: National Treatment Agency - http://www.better-health.org.uk/resources/research/black-and-minority-ethnic-communities-england-review-literature-drug-use-and-rela   

President of the Council (1998) Tackling drugs to build a better Britain : the Government's 10-year strategy for tackling drugs misuse , London: The Stationery Office.

Rumgay, J. (2004) ‘Dealing with substance-misusing offenders in the community’, in A. Bottoms, S. Rex, and G. Robinson (eds) (2004) Alternatives to prison : options for an insecure society , Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Seddon T. (2000) ‘Explaining the drug-crime link: theoretical, policy and research issues, Journal of social policy. . , 29(1): 95-107.

Skodbo, S., Brown, G., Deacon, S., Cooper, A., Hall, A., Millar, T., Smith, J., Whitham, K. (2007) The Drug Interventions Programme (DIP): Addressing Drug Use and Offending through ‘Tough Choices’ , Research Report 2, London: Home Office.

Turnbull, P.J., McSweeney, T., Webster, R., Edmunds, M. and Hough, M. (2000) Drug treatment and testing orders : final evaluation report . Home Office Research Study 212, London: Home Office.

Ville and Company (2009) Moving up a Gear – the Next Steps for DIP: Executive Summary, London: Home Office.

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Sex Offenders in the Community

In this lecture, we will look at the way in which sex offenders are supervised and managed in the community. We will explore the role of offender managers, the implementation of the Sex Offenders Register and the development of Multi-Agency Public Protection Panels plus the recent implementation of ‘Sarah’s Law’. We will also consider the role of the voluntary sector and the development of restorative approaches towards dealing with sex offenders in the community.

Beech, A. et al (2001) A six-year follow-up of men going through probation-based sex offender treatment programmes. , Home Office Research Findings No. 144, London: Home Office. Available online http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110314171826/http:/rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/r144.pdf

Cobley, C. (2000) Sex offenders : law, policy and practice , Bristol: Jordon.

Cowan, D et al (1999) Housing sex offenders : an examination of current practice. . , Coventry: Institute of Housing.

Friendship, C. and Thornton, D. (2001) ‘Sexual Reconviction for Sexual Offenders Discharged from Prison in England and Wales: Implications for Evaluating Treatment’, British journal of criminology. . , 41(2): 285-292.

Grubin, D. (1998) Sex Offending Against Children: Understanding the Risk , Police Research Series Paper 99, Policing and Reducing Crime, London: Home Office.   

Hebenton, B. and Thomas, T. (1996) ‘Tracking sex offenders’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 35(2): 97-112.

Hebenton, B. and Thomas, T. (1996) ‘Sexual Offenders in the Community: Reflections on Problems of Law, Community and Risk Management in the USA, England and Wales’, International journal of the sociology of law. . , 24(4): 427-444.

Hebenton, B. and Thomas, T. (1997) Keeping track? : observations on sex offender registers in the U.S. , Crime Detection and Prevention Series Paper 83, Home Office.

Henham, R. (1998) ‘Sentencing Sex Offenders: some implications for recent criminal justice policy’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 37(1): 70-81.

Kemshall, H. (2001) Risk assessment and management of known sexual and violent offenders : a review of current issues : , London: Home Office.

Kemshall, H. and Magire, M. (2001) ‘Public Protection, Partnership and Risk Penality: the multi-agency risk management of sexual and violent offenders,’ Punishment & society. . , 3(2): 237-64.

Kemshall, H. and Maguire, M. (2003) ‘Sex offenders, risk penality and the problem of disclosure to the community’, in A. Matravers (ed.) Sex offenders in the community : managing and reducing the risks : , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Knock, K. (2002) The police perspective on sex offender orders : a preliminary review of policy and practice : , London: Home Office.

Ireland, J, Ireland, C & Birch, P (2009) Violent and sexual offenders : assessment, treatment and management : , Cullumpton: Willan Publishing

Maguire, M. et al (2001) Risk management of sexual and violent offenders : the work of Public Protection Panels London: Home Office.

Marshall, P. (1997) The prevalence of convictions for sexual offending. , Research findings No. 55, Research and Statistics Directorate, London: Home Office.

Matravers, A. (2003) Sex offenders in the community : managing and reducing the risks , Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Plotnikoff, J. and Woolfson, R. (2000) Where are they now? : an evaluation of sex offender registration in England and Wales , London: Home Office.

Power, H. (1999) ‘Sex Offenders, Privacy and the Police’, Criminal law review. . 3-16.

Sampson, A. (1994) Acts of abuse : sex offenders and the criminal justice system , London: Routledge.

Soothill, K et al (2000) ‘Sex Offenders: Specialists, Generalists … or both? A 32 year Criminological Study, British journal of criminology. . , 40(1): 56-67.

Thomas, T. (2000) Sex crime : sex offending and society , Cullompton: Willan Publishing

*Thomas, T (2011) The registration and monitoring of sex offenders : a comparative study , London: Routledge

West, D. (1996) ‘Sexual molesters’ in N. Walker (ed) Dangerous people , London: Blackstone: 51-69

Wilson, R., Picheca, J. and Prinzo, M. (2007a) ‘Evaluating the effectiveness of professionally-facilitated volunteerism in the community-based management of high-risk sexual offenders: Part one – effects on participants and stakeholders’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . 46(3): 289-302.

Wilson, R., Picheca, J. and Prinzo, M. (2007b) ‘Evaluating the effectiveness of professionally-facilitated volunteerism in the community-based management of high-risk sexual offenders: Part two – A comparison of recidivism rates’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. . , 46(4): 327-337.

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High Risk Offenders

This lecture will focus on the assessment and management of high risk offenders. Whilst it will concentrate on policy and practice in relation to this small but significant group of offenders, it will seek to locate the discussion within a theoretical and political context. In particular, it will explore the rise of risk within social theory and the emergence of a so-called ‘new penology’. It will also examine the extent to which the emergence of a ‘risk society’ can be identified within contemporary penal practice. 

Brown, M and Pratt, J. (2000) (eds.) Dangerous offenders : punishment and social order , London Routledge.

Feeley, S. and Simon, J. (1992) ‘The New Penology: Notes on the Emerging Strategy of Corrections and its Implications’, Criminology. , 30 (pp 452-74) (Also reprinted in McLaughlin , E., Muncie, J., and Hughes, G. (2001) (eds.) Criminological Perspectives , London: Sage)

Hudson, B. (2003) Justice in the risk society : challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity Buckingham: Open University Press.

Kemshall, H. (2001) Risk assessment and management of known sexual and violent offenders : a review of current issues , Police Research Series Paper 140, London: Home Office.

Kemshall, H. (2003) Understanding risk in criminal justice , Buckingham: Open University Press.

Kemshall, H (2008) Understanding the community management of high risk offenders , Maidenhead: Open University Press

Kemshall, H. and Maguire, M. (2000) ‘Public Protection, Partnership and Risk Penality’, Punishment and Society , 3, 237-64.

Kemshall, H. and Wood, J. (2007) ‘High-risk offenders and public protection’ in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds) (2007) Handbook of probation , Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Maguire, M., Kemshall, H., Noaks, L., Wincup, E., and Sharpe, K. (2001) Risk management of sexual and violent offenders : the work of Public Protection Panels : , Police Research Series Paper 139, London: Home Office.

Matravers, A. (2003) Sex offenders in the community : managing and reducing the risks Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Nash, M. (1998) Police, probation and protecting the public London: Blackstone.

Nash, M. (2005) ‘The Probation Service, public protection and dangerous offenders’, in J. Winstone and F. Pakes, (eds) (2005) Community justice : issues for probation and criminal justice , Cullompton: Willan publishing.

O’Malley, P. (2001) ‘Risk’ in E. McLaughlin and J. Muncie (eds.) The Sage Dictionary of Criminology , London: Sage.

O’Malley, P. (2004) ‘The uncertain promise of risk’, Australian and New Zealand, Journal of Criminology , 37(3): 323-43 .

Walker, N. (1996)(ed.) Dangerous people , London: Blackstone

This list was last updated on 14/09/2016