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Module Reading List

Africa in the Contemporary World, 2021/22, Semester 2
Dr Jorg Wiegratz
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Key texts that will be referred to in the module include;

Tom Young (2010) Africa

Tom Young (2020) We need to talk about Africa   

Vishnu Padayachee ed.(2010) The political economy of Africa

Francis B. Nyamnjoh (2016) #RhodesMustFall. Nibbling at Resilient Colonialism in South Africa 

Ray Bush (2007) Poverty and neoliberalism

Patrick Bond (2006) Looting Africa

Fred Cooper (2002) Africa Since 1940

Morten Jerven (2015) Africa. Why Economists get it wrong

Frantz Fanon (2001) The Wretched of the Earth

Mahmood Mamdani  (2018) Citizen and Subject

James Ferguson (2006) Global shadows : Africa in the neoliberal world order

Bill Freund (1998) The Making of Contemporary Africa

Zack-Williams ed. (2002) Africa in Crisis

_______________(2011) Neo Liberal Africa

Alex Thomson 4th edition (2016) An introduction to African politics

Rita Abrahamsen ed (2013) Conflict & security in Africa

Nana Poku & Anna Mdee (2011) Politics in Africa : a new Introduction., Zed Books

George Ayittey (2005) Africa Unchained    

Martin Meredith (2005) The State of Africa Chapter 35

Basil Davidson (1973) [2007] Black Star    

Graham Harrison (2010) Neoliberal Africa 

Harrison (2020) Developmentalism

Ian Taylor (2018) African Politics: A Very Short Introduction  

Wiegratz, Martiniello, and Greco, eds. (2018) Uganda: The Dynamics of Neoliberal Transformation  

 Todd Moss (2007) African Development: Making sense of the issues and actors    

 Wale Adebanwi, ed. (2017) The Political Economy of Everyday Life in Africa: Beyond the Margins  

 Carmody, P. (2016) The new scramble for Africa, second edition    

 Matthew Graham (2018) Contemporary Africa  

 Cooper (2014) Africa in the World: Capitalism, Empire, Nation-State 

 Reid (2011) A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present  

 Iliffe (2007) Africans: The History of a Continent     

 Harrison (2013) The African Presence: Representations of Africa in the Construction of Britishness 

 Shanguhyia, Martin, Falola, Toyin (Eds.) (2018) The Palgrave Handbook of African Colonial and Postcolonial History 

George Ayittey (2005) Africa Unchained    

Martin Meredith (2005) The State of Africa    

 Basil Davidson (1973) [2007] Black Star  

Mills et al. (2017) Making Africa work: a handbook  

Grant (2014) Africa: Geographies of Change   

Desai, Gaurav Gajanan and Masquelier, Adeline Marie (2018) Critical terms for the study of Africa   

Binns et al. (2012) Africa: Diversity and Development   

Oloruntoba, Samuel Ojo, Falola, Toyin (Eds.) (2018) The Palgrave Handbook of African Politics, Governance and Development   

Oloruntoba, Samuel Ojo, Falola, Toyin (Eds.) (2020) The Palgrave Handbook of African Political Economy   

Nic Cheeseman, David Anderson, Andrea Scheibler, eds. (2013) Routledge Handbook of African Politics   

Compare some of above to e.g.

George Ayittey (2005) Africa Unchained Chapter 1

Martin Meredith (2005) The State of Africa Chapter 35

Basil Davidson (1973) [2007] Black Star

Mills et al. (2017) Making Africa work: a handbook


Also compare to the positions and analysis of the international financial institutions

 World Bank’s Africa site


and other such (mainstream) views/sites re Africa

also have a look at the Africa related twitter accounts of some of these institutions: e.g.

Also follow blogs published here (and see twitter of these blog sites)

 these sites have usually very useful search engines so that you can find older articles:

or news, see e.g. and

see also archives of & for Africa related coverage

and see relevant twitter of AFP Africa, Africa Confidential etc (e.g.

relevant journals: various Africa focused journals, including: African Affairs, Review of African Political Economy, Journal of Modern African Studies, Journal of Eastern African Studies, Journal of Southern African studies, Africa (Journal of International African Institute), Journal Critical African studies, African Studies Quarterly, African Studies Review, Canadian Journal of African Studies, etc.; but also journals such as Third World Quarterly, Development and Change, Globalizations, Antipode, New Political Economy, Review of International Political Economy etc.


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Week One 

Seminar: Allocation of work and reading groups

Required Reading:

Binyavanga Wainaina: Changing the conversation on Africa & on African Wrap

Tom Young (2010) Africa

Young (2020)  We need to talk about Africa:  The harm we have done, and how we should help (also runs under the earlier title:  Neither Devil Nor Child: How Western Attitudes Are Harming Africa)

Young, 2019 The Gilley ‘debate’. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 57(2), 325-337

Walter Rodney [1972] (2018) How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (chaps 1&2)

Rita Abrahamsen (2017) Africa and international relations: Assembling Africa, studying the world, African Affairs, Volume 116, Issue 462, Pages 125–139

Pritish Behuria; Lars Buur; Hazel Gray (2017) Studying political settlements in Africa, African Affairs, Volume 116, Issue 464, Pages 508–525

 See also current debates about African studies:

Odugbemiet al: There is no Africa in African studies, (;

Guesmi The gentrification of African studies,;

Insa Nolte (2019) The future of African Studies: what we can do to keep Africa at the heart of our research, Journal of African Cultural Studies, 31:3, 296-313

 Finally: listen to  Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: The danger of a single story: (and read comments on youtube)


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Week Two 

Lecture: Africa rising? Contours of current debates

This lecture reviews contemporary debate about development in Africa and especially the recent turn in the media and scholarship from ‘Afro-pessimism’ to a narrative of ‘Africa Rising’. It examines historical patterns of interaction between the continent and the global economy as well as exploring often problematic perceptions of Africa and Africans as seen from the global North.



Mkandawire, T. (2014). Can Africa Turn from Recovery to Development?.Current history.113(763),

Bush, R. (2013). ‘Making the 21st century its own: Janus faced African (under) development)’ in Afrika Focus

Ian Taylor (2016) ‘Dependency redux: why Africa is not rising’ Review of African political economy. 43,147, 8-25

Moses Khisa (2019) Whose Africa is rising?, Review of African Political Economy, 46:160, 304-316

Giovanni Arrighi ‘The African Crisis’ New left review. 15,5-36 2002

Ndongo Samba Sylla (2014) From a marginalised to an emerging Africa? A critical analysis’  Review of African Political Economy41, 143



What can we learn from Africa's experience of Covid? | Coronavirus | The Guardian 28, 2, 2021

Hidden Toll of COVID in Africa Threatens Global Pandemic Progress - Scientific American Scientific American 25 March 2021

Africa needs local solutions to face the COVID-19 pandemic - The Lancet The Lancet  3 April 2021



Adams, P., (2015) Africa Debt Rising.  African Research Institute, available at

Bush, Yao Graham and Leo Zeilig (2018) ‘Radical Political Economy and Industrialisation in Africa’ in Review of African Political Economy vol45, 156

Ewout Frankema; Marlous van Waijenburg (2018) Africa rising? A historical perspective, African Affairs, Volume 117, Issue 469, Pages 543–568

Isaac Abotebuno Akolgo (2018) Afro-euphoria: is Ghana’s economy an exception to the growth paradox?, Review of African Political Economy, 45:155, 146-157

Franklin Obeng-Odoom (2017) The myth of economic growth in Africa, Review of African Political Economy, 44:153, 466-475

Ray Bush and Graham Harrison (2014) ‘New African Development?’ Review of African political economy., 41, 143 S December

M Jerven, 2015, Africa : why economists get it wrong

A. Hoogvelt ‘Globalisation, Imperialism and Exclusion’ in Tunde Zack Williams ed 2002 Africa in Crisis 

M Jerven, 2015, Africa : why economists get it wrong

Historical materialism. [Special Issue on Africa, vol 12:4 2004]

M Branko 2003 ‘The Two Faces of Globalisation: Against Globalisation as we know it’ World development. 31 4 pp667-83

Graham Harrison 2010 ‘The Africanization of Poverty: A retrospective on ‘Make Poverty History’’ in African affairs. 109.436, 391-408

Jörg Wiegratz ‘Fake capitalism? The dynamics of neoliberal moral restructuring and pseudo-development: the case of Uganda’ in Review of African political economy. vol 37 no.124 June 2010 pp123-138

David Harvey (2003) ‘The “New” Imperialism: Accumulation by Dispossession’ in Leo Panitch and Colin Leys (eds) The new imperial challenge, Socialist Register 2004. London: Merlin



Look at relevant reports of agencies such as UNCTAD and UNIDO, begin with their summaries and keep these in mind for the later sessions too. 

Also look at Africa Progress Panel:

Look at these reports, get a critical view from the UN agencies and contrast positions of the World Bank and IMF, and also check reports by business consultancy groups etc.

 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2017) World Investment Report 2017.

 UNCTAD (2016) Economic Development in Africa. Report 2016. Debt Dynamics & Development Finance Geneva, UNCTAD

UNCTAD (2012). Economic Development in Africa Report 2012 Structural Transformation and Sustainable Development in Africa (available at

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, (2016). Industrialization in Africa and Least Developed Countries. Boosting growth, creating jobs, promoting inclusiveness and sustainability.  A Report to the G20 Development Working Group by UNIDO.

International Monetary Fund, (2016) Regional Economic Outlook. Sub Saharan Africa: time for a policy reset (and other annual outlooks, e.g., 2019: Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Economic Outlook: Navigating Uncertainty)

Beegle, K., L. Christiaensen, A. Dabelen and I. Gaddis, (2016) Poverty in a Rising Africa. World Bank Group,

World Bank ‘Africa can end Poverty’ World Bank blog,

Withall, Adam (2016), ‘Is the entire GDP of Africa really just equal to that of France’ 18 October available at, &


Watch also mainstream vs non-mainstream on poverty (& capitalism) and what to do about it






Alexander Beresford (2016) Africa rising?, Review of African PoliticalEconomy, 43:147, 1-7,

Christian Aid & TJN (2014) Africa rising? Inequalities and the essential role of fair taxation   

Bright, A. Hruby (2015) The Next Africa: An Emerging Continent Becomes a Global Powerhouse 

Mahajan, 2008 Africa Rising: How 900 Million African Consumers Offer More Than You Think 

re Scrambling in Africa

Bond 2006 Looting Africa

Bond 2006 Resource Extraction and African Underdevelopment, Capitalism Nature Socialism, 17:2, 5-25

Chris Alden 2007 China in Africa

Cyril Obi 2010 ‘Oil as the ‘curse’ of conflict in Africa: peering through the smoke and mirrors Review of African political economy. vol 37, no.126

A scramble for Africa, The economist.


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Week Three 

Traditions and Modernity – representation and understanding a continent

This session examines the debate about modernisation in Africa. Are there theoretical perspectives that explain political development and that grasp the intricacies of African social formations? And are there perspectives that also grasp the ways in which the continent has been unevenly incorporated into the world economy? Modernisation theory has offered a particular view of development and one that has been critiqued for being ahistorical but what, amongst other things, does that mean? Does this theory help countries in Africa deal with contemporary problems or does the debate about dependency and underdevelopment offer a more meaningful alternative to explaining the legacy of colonialism?

Binyavanga Wainaina (2012)

How not to write about Africa in 2012 – a beginner's guide

Francis B. Nyamnjoh (2016) #RhodesMustFall

see also other work by Nyamnjoh, eg.

Franz Fanon (1967) Black Skin- White Mask 

Walter Rodney How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, e.g. chapter 6

Leo Zeilig (2016) Frantz Fanon

Comaroff/Comaroff eds.(1993) Modernity and Its Malcontents

Comaroff/Comaroff (2009) Ethnicity, Inc.

Comaroff/Comaroff eds. (2018) The Politics of Custom: Chiefship, Capital, and the State in Contemporary Africa

Questions for discussion:

Q1 what influence has modernization theory had in viewing Africa’s development problems? Can you evidence this with reference to the impact of colonial rule?

World Bank 2000 Can Africa claim the 21st Century and review by E Harsh in Africa recovery. October 2000

A Foster Carter 1976 ‘From Rostow to Gunder Frank: conflicting paradigms in the analysis of underdevelopment’  World development. 4,3,167-180

Mkandawire (1997) ‘The Social Sciences in Africa: Breaking Local Barriers and Negotiating International Presence’ African studies review. 40 2. pp15-36

G Harrison 2010 ‘The Africanisation of Poverty: A retrospective on ‘Make Poverty History’, African affairs. 109, 436, pp391-408

T Ranger ‘The invention of tradition in colonial Africa’ in E Hobsbawm and T Ranger (eds) 1983,The invention of tradition

T Young (2010) Africa ch 2

Mark Duffield (2014) ‘From immersion to simulation: remote methodologies and the decline of area Studies’ ROAPE 41, 143 S

Rita Abrahamsen 2013 ‘Blair’s Africa: The Politics of Securitisation & Fear’ in Conflict & security in Africa


Q2 How did colonialism justify itself?

Alison Ayers 2006 ‘Beyond the Imperial Narrative: African Political Historiography Revisited’ in B. Gruffydd Jones (ed.) Decolonizing international relations

T Young 2010 Africa

Fanon (2001) The Wretched of the Earth

Bruce Gilley 2016, ‘Chinua Achebe on the positive legacies of colonialism’ African affairs. 115, (461) (and related debates:;

A Thompson 2016 An Introduction to African Politics chapter2

Adam Hochschild 1998 King Leopold’s ghost: a story of greed, terror and heroism in Colonial Africa. Prologue and chapts 8&9

Joseph Conrad 1926 [1995] Heart of Darkness

Chinua Achebe 1983 An Image of Africa

Semakula M. Kiwanuka ‘Colonial policies and Administrations in Africa: the myth of the contrasts’ in African historical studies., 3,2,pp295-315 JSTOR

Alison Ayers 2009 ‘Imperial Liberties: Democratisation and Governance in the “New” Imperial Order’ Political studies., Vol. 57, Issue 1


Q3 Does the notion of underdevelopment explain Africa’s position in the contemporary world?

R Bush 2007 Poverty and neoliberalism

Makki, F. (2015). Post-Colonial Africa and the World Economy: The Long Waves of Uneven Development. Journal of world-systems research [electronic resource]., 21(1)

W Rodney 1972 How Europe Underdeveloped Africa

Samir Amin ‘Underdevelopment and Dependence in Black Africa- Origins and Contemporary Forms’ Journal of modern African studies. 10,4,503-524

Mark Duffield 2007 Ch4 Development, Security and Unending War

Amin, S. (2002). Africa: Living on the fringe. Monthly review.53(10), 41


Q4 What does it mean to claim that African societies are capitalist? Is this an appropriate/useful framework?

Horman Chitonge (2018) Capitalism in Africa: mutating capitalist relations and social formations, Review of African Political Economy, 45:155, 158-167

Stefan Ouma (2017) The difference that ‘capitalism’ makes: on the merits and limits of critical political economy in African Studies, Review of African Political Economy, 44:153, 499-509

Freund, B. (1998), “Tropical Africa: State, Class and Development” in The Making of Contemporary Africa,

Leys, C. (1996). The rise & fall of development theory. Chapter 8

Mkandawire, T. (2014). Can Africa Turn from Recovery to Development?. Current History, 113(763)

Himbara, D. (1993). Myths and realities of Kenyan capitalism. Journal of modern African studies.31(01), 93-107.

Kaplinsky, R. (1980). Capitalist accumulation in the periphery—the Kenyan case re‐examined. Review of African political economy.

Boone, C. (1990). The making of a rentier class: Wealth accumulation and political control in Senegal. The journal of development studies.26(3), 425-449.

Bayart, J. F., & Ellis, S. (2000). Africa in the world: a history of extraversion, African affairs., 217-267.

Saul, J. S., & Leys, C. (1999). Sub-Saharan Africa in global capitalism. Monthly review., 51(3), 13.

Daloz, J. P. (2003). " Big Men" in Sub-Saharan Africa: How Elites Accumulate Positions and Resources. Comparative Sociology2(1), 271-285.

 Iliffe (1983) The emergence of African capitalismIliffe (1983) The emergence of African capitalism

Janet Mac Gaffey (1987) Entrepreneurs and Parasites The Struggle for Indigenous Capitalism in Zaire, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

C Dolan, K Roll - African Studies Review, 2013 - Capital's New Frontier: From" Unusable" Economies to Bottom-of-the-Pyramid Markets in Africa

Dolan, Catherine and Rajak, Dinah (2016) 'Remaking Africa's Informal Economies: Youth, Entrepreneurship and the Promise of Inclusion at the Bottom of the Pyramid'. Journal of Development Studies, (52) 4, pp 514-529.

Dolan, Catherine and Rajak, Dinah (2018) 'Speculative Futures at the Bottom of the Pyramid'. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, (24) 2, pp 233-255.

Dolan and Gordon (2019) 'Worker, Businessman, Entrepreneur?: Kenya’s Shifting Labouring Subject'. Critical African Studies, (11) 3, pp 301-321

Capitalism in Africa series here: - for example these pieces in the series:

Wiegratz (2018) The Great Lacuna: Capitalism in Africa (see also Wiegratz 2019 Capitalism and Its Discontents: My Observations in Uganda and Kenya)

Ouma (2020) ‘Africapitalism’ and the limits of any variant of capitalism (see also  Ouma 2019 Africapitalism: A Critical Commentary and Assessment, in Uwafiokun Idemudia, Kenneth Amaeshi eds Africapitalism. Sustainable Business and Development in Africa)  

Gielespie (2020) African Cities: capitalism’s urban frontier

Ochonu (2020) African Entrepreneurship: the fetish of personal responsibility

Bhagat (2019) Experimental Neoliberalism and Refugee Survival in Kenya

Tom Goodfellow (2020) Finance, infrastructure and urban capital: the political economy of African ‘gap-filling’, Review of African Political Economy

Radley (2019) Corporate Suppression of Artisanal Mining in the Congo,


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Week Four 

The Post colonial State: Authoritarianism and Spoils Politics?

This seminar examines the nature of the post-colonial state in Africa and identifies the structural characteristics that produce both stability and crisis. It is important to explore accounts for the rise and nature of authoritarian politics that goes beyond the pathologising of politics in Africa and which also examines why and how ethnic politics emerges. There is an interesting contrast in the overall interpretation of African politics offered in the work of Cooper (2002) Young (1994; 2004) and Mamdani (1996) in relation to how and in what way the state in Africa has been influenced by colonialism and its interaction with local forces

Questions for discussion:

Q1 How do you account for the main features of the post-colonial state in Africa? Is it different from the state in liberal democratic political systems?

Chris Allen (1995) ‘Understanding African Politics’ Review of African Political Economy 65,301-320

Fantu Cheru 2002 African Renaissance chapter 2

B. Berman, ‘The Perils of Bula Matari: Constraint and Power in the Colonial State’, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 31: 3 (1997), pp. 556-570

Nii-K Plange ‘The Colonial State in Northern Ghana: The Political Economy of Pacification’ Review of African political economy. 11, 31, 29-43 B’ton West level 2 Politics A-0.01 REV

W Rodney ‘The colonial economy’ in A Adu Boahen ed Africa under colonial domination 1880-1935 Heinemann 1985 B’ton Main level 2 Modern History N-90 GEN

Copper, F "The recurrent Crisis of the Gatekeeper State" in Cooper, F Africa since 1940 : the past of the present Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Crawford Young 1994 The African colonial state in comparative perspective

Crawford Young 2004 ‘The end of the post colonial state in Africa? Reflections on Changing African Political Dynamics’, in African affairs., 103, issue 410, 23-49

Jackson, R and C Rosberg (1982) “Why Africa’s weak states persist” World politics. vol 35, 1 pp 1-24

C Obi and S A Rustad 2011, Introduction: Petro violence in the Niger Delta – the complex politics of an insurgency, in C Obi and S Rustad eds, Oil and Insurgency in the Niger Delta


Q2 Why have most African states become increasingly authoritarian after independence?

Chris Allen (1995) ‘Understanding African Politics’ Review of African Political Economy 65 301-320

 Ake, C. (2001) Democracy and Development in Africa. Brookings

Jackson, R.H. and Carl G. Rosberg (1984) “Personal Rule: Theory and Practice in Africa “ Comparative politics., Vol. 16, No. 4. pp. 421-442

Rita Abrahamsen 2013 Introduction: conflict & Security in Africa, in Conflict & security in Africa

J. Lonsdale & B. Berman, ‘Coping with the contradictions: the development of the colonial state in Kenya’, The journal of African history., 20, 4 (1979)

T Young 2010 Africa ch3&4

M. Szeftel, ‘Misunderstanding African politics: corruption and the governance agenda’, Review of African political economy. 25, 76 (1998), pp. 221-40

Frederick Cooper 2002 Africa since 1940 : the past of the present

Nic Cheeseman and Jonathan Fisher (2019) Authoritarian Africa: Repression, Resistance, and the Power of Ideas 

Perrot, Sandrine et al, eds. (2014) Elections in a Hybrid Regime. Revisiting the 2011 Ugandan Poll


Q3 What do you understand by corruption and spoils politics?

Giorgio Blundo and Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan with N. B. Arifari, M. T. Alou and M. Mathieu 2006 Everyday corruption and the state : citizens and public officials in Africa

Blunda and de sardan (2006) Corruption in Africa and the social sciences: A review of the literature

Bayart, J-F. (1993) ‘The politics of the belly’ in The state in Africa: the politics of the belly.

Leys, C. (1965) What is the problem about corruption? Journal of Modern African Studies 3, 215-230

Berman, B. (1998) ‘Ethnicity, Patronage and the African State’, African affairs. 97: 305-341

Clapham, C. (ed.) (1982) Private patronage and public power: political clientelism in the modern state, London: Pinter. Especially chapters by Clapham and Medard

Schatzberg, M (1993) ‘Power, Legitimacy and 'Democratisation', Africa. Vol. 63

M. Szeftel, 2000,‘Clientelism, corruption and catastrophe’, Review of African political economy., 27, 85

Szeftel (1998) Misunderstanding African Politics: corruption and the governance agenda. Review of Africna Poltical Economy 25, 76, 221-40

A Beresford, 2015, ‘Power, Patronage and Gatekeeper politics in South Africa’ African affairs. 114 (455)

H Gray, 2015, ‘The Political Economy of grand corruption in Tanzania’ African affairs. 114 (456)

Musambayi Katumanga 2013, ‘A city under siege: Banditry…’ in Abrahamsen, Conflict & security in Africa

Michelle D’Arcy and A Cornell 2016, ‘Devolution and corruption in Kenya: Everyone’s turn to eat’ African affairs. 115, (459)

M Watts 2013, ‘Petro-Insurgency or Criminal Syndicate? Conflict and Violence in the Niger Delta’ in Abrahamsen ed Conflict & security in Africa

J-F Bayart. S. Ellis & B. Hibou, The criminalization of the state in Africa

A.Mwenda & R. Tangri, 2001 ‘Corruption and cronyism in Uganda’, African affairs., 100 pp. 117-33

Mwenda and Tangri: The politics of elite corruption in Africa

P Chabal 2010 Africa : the politics of suffering and smiling

Van de Walle, N (2003) ‘Presidentialism and clientelism in Africa's emerging party systems’, Journal of Modern African Studies., 41 : 297-321

Steven Pierce (2016) Moral economies of corruption: State Formation and Political Culture in Nigeria


Q4 How much weight would you give to a) colonial legacies, b) the role of foreign interests and the global political economy, and/or c) the role of African elites, in an explanation of why post-colonial African states have generally been characterised by authoritarianism and spoils politics?

Fred Cooper 2002 Africa since 1940, ch7 gatekeeper state.

Cyril Obi 2013, Oil as a ‘Curse’ of conflict in Africa…’ in Abrahamsen, Conflict & security in Africa

Chabal, P. and JP Daloz, (1999) chapter ‘The Political Instrumentalization of Disorder’ in Africa works: disorder as political instrument pp. 141-163

David Williams 2010 ‘Making a liberal state: ‘good governance’ in Ghana’ in Review of African political economy. vol 37, no 126, pp403-420

Jon Phillips et al 2016 ‘Sovereignty, the ‘resource curse’ and the limits of good governance: a political economy of oil in Ghana’ Review of African political economy., 43,147,26-42

M. Mamdani, Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism (1996)

C Allen ‘Understanding African Politics’, Review of African political economy. 65, pp301-320, 1995

Kenneth Kalu, Olajumoke Yacob-Haliso, Toyin Falola, eds (2018) Africa’s Big Men: Predatory State-Society Relations in Africa    

Jabusile M. Shumba (2018) Zimbabwe's predatory state: Party, military and business   


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Week Five 

Debt, Development and Dependency? Africa and Neoliberal Agendas

This debate involves the need to explore a number of sub questions and to try and identify contrasting positions to explain, amongst other things;

Q1 What have been the causes of Africa’s economic crises?

Giovanni Arrighi ‘The African Crisis’ New left review. 15,5-36 2002

Peter Lawrence ‘The African tragedy: international and national roots, ch3 in Vishnu Padayachee ed. The political economy of Africa

Colin Leys ‘Confronting the African Tragedy’ New Left Review 204 March/April 1994 internet version,

*JS Saul and C Leys (1999) ‘Sub Saharan Africa in Global Capitalism’ Monthly Review

James Ferguson (2006) Global shadows : Africa in the neoliberal world order

G Ayittey Africa Unchained ch 1 & 3

Patric Bond, ‘Bankrupt Africa: Imperialism, Sub Imperialism and the Politics of Finance’, Historical materialism.


Q2 What have been the social, economic and political consequences of the crisis?; Look again at the UNCTAD reports above and UNIDO

Infrastructure crisis

Dave Sanders

Bond, P and Dor, G 2007 Uneven health outcomes and political resistance under residual neoliberalism in Africa. In: V.Navarro (ed), Neoliberalism, globalization, and inequalities : consequences for health and quality of life

Heather Deegan 2009 Africa Today ch7

Abrahamsen, R (2001) Disciplining democracy : development discourse and good governance in Africa

David Williams ‘Making a liberal state: ‘good governance’ in Ghana’ in Review of African political economy. vol37 no.126, Dec 2010 pp403-420


Q3 What have been some of the mainstream policies to address the crisis?

International Monetary Fund, (2016) Regional Economic Outlook. Sub Saharan Africa: time for a policy reset. World Economic and Financial Survey. Washington. IMF.

World Bank (2017) The World Bank in Africa, 11, October.

Harrison (2005) ‘Economic Faith, Social Project and a Misreading of African Society: The Travails of Neoliberalism in Africa’, Third world quarterly., 26 (8) and then look for country experiences at and

World Bank African poverty at the millennium : causes, complexities, and challenges World Bank World Development Reports 1997 – ‘the state in a changing world’ and 2002 ‘Building institutions for markets’; 2008 Agriculture; 2011 Conflict; 2012 Gender IMF Poverty reduction strategy papers

Morten Jerven 2015, Africa : why economists get it wrong

M Jerven 2016 ‘Research Note: Africa by numbers: reviewing the data base approach to studying African Economies, African affairs. 115 (459)

D Simon et al Structurally Adjusted Africa (1995) chapter 2

G Mohan et al Structural Adjustment chapters 1&2

Africa recovery.


Q4 What have been some of the African responses to the crisis?

Africa Progress Panel

African peer review mechanism     

Mkandawire, Thandika (2014) ‘Can Africa Turn from Recovery to Development?, Current History,

Thandika Mkandawire (2005) ‘The Global Economic Context’ in Ben Wisner et al eds Towards a New Map of Africa.

Africa Mining Vision  

Lionel Cliffe, ‘African Renaissance? In Tunde Zack-Williams, Diane Frost and Alex Thomson Africa in Crisis

JO Adésinả, A Olukoshi and Yao Graham (2006) Africa and development challenges in the new millennium : the NEPAD debate

Thioub, I., Diop, M. C., & Boone, C. (1998). Economic liberalization in Senegal: shifting politics of indigenous business interests. African studies review.41(02), 63-90.

‘Lagos Plan of Action for the Economic Development of Africa, 1980-2000’ Addis Ababa: OAU, 1979 reprint available at,

Hesphina Rukato 2010 Future Africa : prospects for democracy and development under NEPAD


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Week Six 


Begin work on developing an annotated bibliography for your research report. Assemble references and begin searches for the themes or country report that you might like to develop. Hand in the assembled bibliography for week 7


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Week Seven 

Primary Commodities: Agriculture and Natural Resources

We examine agriculture and natural resources, the two sectors which have since the colonial period made up the majority of African exports and which play a major role in African development and well-being.


Q1 What is the nature of African food insecurity?

Ray Bush, Giuliano Martiniello. (2017) Food Riots and Protest: Agrarian Modernizations and Structural Crises. World Development 91, pages 193-207

Giuliano Martiniello. (2017) Agrarian politics and land struggles in Northern Uganda. Community Development Journal, pages 1-16

Giuliano Martiniello (2015) Food sovereignty as praxis: rethinking the food question in Uganda, Third World Quarterly, 36:3, 508-525

Bernstein, H. (2010) Class dynamics of agrarian change ch4

Borras, S et al ‘The politics of biofuels, land and agrarian change: editors introduction’ and Ben White and A Dasgupta ‘Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy’, Journal of peasant studies. vol 37, 4, October, 2010

Ben White and A Dasgupta ‘Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy’, The Journal of Peasant Studies vol 37, 4, October, 2010

Conceição, P., Levine, S., Lipton, M., & Warren-Rodríguez, A. (2016). Toward a food secure future: Ensuring food security for sustainable human development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food policy.60, 1-9.

Maloney, T. and J Smith 2010 ‘Briefing: Biofuels, Food Security, And Africa’ in African affairs. 109/436, pp489-498

Moore, J. (2010) ‘The End of the Road? Agricultural Revolutions in the Capitalist World-Ecology, 1450-2010, Journal of agrarian change. vol10, 3

Ngcoya, M., & Kumarakulasingam, N. (2016). The Lived Experience of Food Sovereignty: Gender, Indigenous Crops and Small‐Scale Farming in Mtubatuba, South Africa. Journal of agrarian change.


Q2 Is agricultural transformation happening in Africa?

Aliber, M. & Hall, R. (2012) Support for smallholder farmers in South Africa: challenges of scale and strategy. Development southern Africa. 29, 4:

Andreasson, S. (2006) ‘Stand and Deliver: Private Property and the Politics of Global Dispossession’ Political studies., 54, 3-2

Ayeb, H, (2013) ’The Marginalisation of the small peasantry: Egypt and Tunisia’ in Ray Bush and Ayeb, H. eds Marginality and exclusion in Egypt

Bernstein, H. (2004) ‘Considering Africa’s Agrarian Questions’ Historical materialism. 12,4,115-144

Bernstein, H. (2010) Class dynamics of agrarian change intro and chapter 2

Bush, R. (2004) “Poverty and Neo-Liberal Bias in the Middle East and North Africa,” Development and change. Vol. 35, No. 4 (2004): pp. 673-695.

Mitchell, T. “The Market’s Place” in Directions of change in rural Egypt , eds. Nicholas S. Hopkins and Kirsten Westergaard (Cairo: The American University Press, 1998).

Oya, C. (2010) Agro-pessimism, capitalism and agrarian change trajectories and contradictions in Sub-Saharan Africa, in Padayachee ed

World Bank (2007) Agriculture for Development, World Development Report 2008. Washington DC, World Bank.

_________(2010)  ‘Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment that Respects Rights, Livelihoods and Resources’ A discussion note prepared by FAO, IFAD, UNCTAD and the World Bank Group to contribute to an ongoing global dialogue. January 25


Q3 What have been the main effects of the 2003-14 commodity boom for Africa? How problematic is a continuing reliance on commodity exports?

Fraser, A. (2010). Zambia, mining, and neoliberalism : boom and bust on the globalized copperbelt. Palgrave Macmillan. Introduction

Douglas A. Yates (2012) The Scramble for African Oil: Oppression, Corruption and War for Control of Africa's Natural Resources

Bonini, A. (2012). Complementary and Competitive Regimes of Accumulation: Natural Resources and Development in the World-System. 50. Journal of world-systems research [electronic resource].

Bush, R. (2008). Scrambling to the Bottom? Mining, Resources & Underdevelopment. Review of African political economy.35(117), 361-366

Soares de Oliveira, R. (2012). Magnificent and beggar land : Angola since the Civil War. Chapter 2

Hickey, S., & Izama, A. (2016). The politics of governing oil in Uganda: going against the grain?. African affairs..

Moore, D. and S Mawowa 2010 ‘Mbimbos, Zvipamuzis and ‘primitive accumulation’ in Zimbabwe’s violent mineral economy’ in Padayachee ed The political economy of Africa

Morris, M., Kaplinsky, R., & Kaplan, D. (2012). One thing leads to another : promoting industrialisation by making the most of the commodity boom in sub-Saharan Africa Chapter 1.

Zack-Williams, Alfred. "Natural resources, economic rents and social justice in contemporary Africa." Review of African political economy. (2016): 533-539.

Taylor, I. (2016). Dependency redux: why Africa is not rising. Review of African political economy.43(147), 8-25.

Jędrzej George Frynas; Geoffrey Wood; Timothy Hinks (2017) The resource curse without natural resources: Expectations of resource booms and their impact, African Affairs, Volume 116, Issue 463, Pages 233–260


Q4 How have trends in global business (global value/commodity chains, food industry, supermarkets) during the neoliberal era affected African export agriculture (e.g. different actors there etc.)?

Gibbon, Peter (2002) ‘Present-Day Capitalism, the New International Trade Regime and Africa’, Review of African political economy, 29(91): 95-112

Daviron, Benoit and Peter Gibbon (2002) 'Global Commodity Chains and African Export Agriculture', Journal of agrarian change, 2(2): 137-61

Dolan, Catherine and John Humphrey (2000) ‘Governance and Trade in Fresh Vegetables: The Impact of UK Supermarkets on the African Horticulture Industry’, The journal of development studies, 37(2): 147-76

Dolan and Humphrey (2004) ‘Changing Governance Patterns in the Trade in Fresh Vegetables between Africa and the United Kingdom’, Environment and Planning A, 36(3): 491-509

Fold, Niels and Katherine V. Gough (2008) ‘From smallholders to transnationals: The impact of changing consumer preferences in the EU on Ghana’s pineapple sector’, Geoforum 39(5): 1687-97

Bargawi, Hannah and Oya, Carlos (2009) ‘Agribusiness for Development’: Who Really Gains? Perspectives from the Journal of Agrarian Change’, Development Viewpoint (36)

Amanor, K.S. (2009) ‘Global Food Chains, African Smallholders and World Bank Governance’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 9 (2): 247-62 OR Amanor (2012) ‘Global resource grabs, agribusiness concentration and the smallholder: two West African case studies’, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 39 (3-4)

Ouma, Stefan and Lindsay Whitfield (2012) ‘The Making and Remaking of Agroindustries in Africa’, Journal of Development Studies 48 (3): 301-07

Ouma (2012) ‘Creating and Maintaining Global Connections: Agro-business and the Precarious Making of Fresh-cut Markets’, The Journal of Development Studies, 48 (3): 322-34

Ouma, Stefan, Boeckler, Marc & Peter Lindner (2013) 'Extending the Margins of Marketization: Frontier Regions and the Making of Agro-export Markets in northern Ghana', Geoforum 48: 225–235

Baglioni, Elena (2015) Straddling Contract and Estate Farming: Accumulation Strategies of Senegalese Horticultural Exporters, JOAC, 15(1): 17–42.

Ouma (2015) Assembling Export Markets: The Making and Unmaking of Global Food Connections in West Africa

Whitfield, Lindsay (2016) 'New Paths to Capitalist Agricultural Production in Africa: Experiences of Ghanaian Pineapple Producer-Exporters', JOAC, 17 (3): 535-56.

Behuria, Pritish (2019) ‘The domestic political economy of upgrading in global value chains: how politics shapes pathways for upgrading in Rwanda’s coffee sector’, Review of International Political Economy


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Week Eight 

Land Reform and social transformation in eastern & southern Africa

This session continues to explore agricultural questions, but with specific focus on access to and ownership of land.

Q1 Who will make the best use of Africa’s land?

Max Ajl (2018) Delinking, food sovereignty, and populist agronomy: notes on an intellectual history of the peasant path in the global South, Review of African Political Economy, 45:155, 64-84

Hall, R. (2011) ‘Land Grabbing in Southern Africa’: the Many faces of the investor rush’ Review of African political economy. 38, 128

Isgren, E. (2016) ‘No quick fixes: Four interacting constraints to advancing agroecology in Uganda’, International journal of agricultural sustainability. Doi: 10.1080/14735903.2016.1144699

Jacobs, P. (2012) ‘Whither agrarian reform in South Africa?’ Review of African political economy. 39, 131

Lahiff, E. (2007) ‘Willing buyer, willing seller’: South Africa’s Failed Experiment in Market-Led Agrarian Reform’ in Third world quarterly., 28, (8)

Manjengwa, J., Hanlon, J. and Smart, T. (2014) ‘Who will make the “best” use of Africa’s land? Lessons from Zimbabwe’, Third world quarterly. 35(6): 980–95.

Harrison, E. & Mdee, A. (2017) Size isn’t everything: narratives of scale and viability in a Tanzanian irrigation scheme, Journal of Modern African Studies 55(2)  

Neves, D. and A Du Toit (2013) ‘Rural Livelihoods in South Africa: Complexity, Vulnerability and Differentiation’ in Journal of agrarian change. 13, 1

Nyantakyi-Frimpong, H., Mambulu, F. N., Kerr, R. B., Luginaah, I. and Lupafya, E. (2016) ‘Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi’, Social science & medicine. 164: 89–99.

Peters, P. E. (2013). Land appropriation, surplus people and a battle over visions of agrarian futures in Africa. Journal of peasant studies.40(3), 537-562.

Pretty, J., Bharucha, Z.P., Garba, M.H., Midega, C., Nkonya, E., Settle, W. and Zingore, S. (2014) ‘Foresight and African agriculture: Innovations and policy opportunities’, Foresight. London: Government Office for Science. Available at :

Scoones, I., Mavedzenge, B., & Murimbarimba, F. (2016). Sugar, People and Politics in Zimbabwe’s Lowveld. Journal of Southern African studies., 1-18.

Scoones, I. (2010) ‘Chapter 1’ in Scoones, ed. Zimbabwe's land reform : myths & realities

Mkodzongi & Lawrence (2019) The fast-track land reform and agrarian change in Zimbabwe, Review of African Political Economy, 46:159, 1-13 (check also entire special issue on the land reforms, same issue)

Moyo, S. 2011 ‘Three Decades of Agrarian Reform in Zimbabwe’, Journal of Peasant Studies 38 (3): 493–531

see also other works by Moyo:

__2011 ‘Changing Agrarian Relations after Redistributive Land Reform in Zimbabwe’, Journal of Peasant Studies 38 (5): 939–966

__2011 ‘Land Concentration and Accumulation after Redistributive Reform In Post-settler Zimbabwe’, Review of African Political Economy 38 (128): 257–276

__2013 ‘Land Reform and Redistribution in Zimbabwe since 1980’, In Land and Agrarian Reform: Beyond White Settler Capitalism, edited by S. Moyo, and W. Chambati, 29–78. Dakar: CODESRIA


Q2 How is land reform linked to transformations in gender relations?

Claassens, A. (2013). Recent changes in women's land rights and contested customary law in South Africa. Journal of agrarian change.13(1), 71-92.

Doss, C. R., Kovarik, C., Peterman, A., Quisumbing, A. R., & Van den Bold, M. (2013). Gender inequalities in ownership and control of land in Africa: myths versus reality. IFPRI working paper- available at

Doss, C., Meinzen-Dick, R., & Bomuhangi, A. (2014). Who owns the land? Perspectives from rural Ugandans and implications for large-scale land acquisitions. Feminist economics.20(1), 76-100.

Mbilinyi, M. (2016). Analysing the history of agrarian struggles in Tanzania from a feminist perspective. Review of African political economy.43(sup1), 115-129.

Tsikata, D., & Yaro, J. A. (2014). When a good business model is not enough: Land transactions and gendered livelihood prospects in rural Ghana. Feminist economics.20(1), 202-226.

Verma, R. (2014). Land grabs, power, and gender in East and Southern Africa: So, what's new?. Feminist economics.20(1), 52-75.


Q3 Is there a land and water grab in Africa?

Kandel, M. (2017). Land conflicts and social differentiation in eastern Uganda. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 55(3), 395-422.

Ambreena Manji (2017) Property, conservation, and enclosure in Karura Forest, Nairobi, African Affairs, Volume 116, Issue 463, Pages 186–205

Bottazzi, P., Goguen, A., & Rist, S. (2016). Conflicts of customary land tenure in rural Africa: is large-scale land acquisition a driver of ‘institutional innovation’?. Journal of peasant studies., 1-18.

Chinsinga, B. (2016). The Green Belt Initiative, Politics and Sugar Production in Malawi. Journal of Southern African studies., 1-15.

Chinsinga, B., & Wren-Lewis, L. (2013). Grabbing Land in Malawi. Corruption, Grabbing and Development: Real World Challenges, Søreide and Williams (Eds.). Available at

Chinsinga, B., & Chasukwa, M. (2012). Youth, agriculture and land grabs in Malawi. IDS Bulletin43(6), 67-77.

McMichael, P. (2012). The land grab and corporate food regime restructuring. Journal of peasant studies.39(3-4), 681-701.

Stein, H., Maganga, F.P., Odgaard, R., Askew, K. and Cunningham, S., 2016. The Formal Divide: Customary Rights and the Allocation of Credit to Agriculture in Tanzania. The Journal of Development Studies52(9), pp.1306-1319.

van Eeden, A., Mehta, L., & van Koppen, B. (2016). Whose waters? Large-scale agricultural development and water grabbing in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania. Water Alternatives9(3), 608. Available at:

Woodhouse, P. (2012) ‘Foreign agricultural land acquisition and the visibility of water resource impacts in Sub-Saharan Africa’, Water Alternatives 5(2): 208–22. Available at:

Zoomers, A. (2010). Globalisation and the foreignisation of space: seven processes driving the current global land grab. Journal of peasant studies.37(2), 429-447.

Harrison, & Mdee, A. (2017). Size isn't everything: Narratives of scale and viability in a Tanzanian irrigation scheme. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 55(2), 251-273

Harrison & Mdee (2018): Entrepreneurs, investors and the state: the public and the private in sub-Saharan African irrigation development, TWQ

Mdee, A. (2017) Disaggregating orders of water scarcity - The politics of nexus in the Wami Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania, Water Alternatives 10(1): 100-15


Q4 How might climate change play out in Africa?

Death, C. (2015). Four discourses of the green economy in the global South. Third world quarterly.36(12), 2207-2224.

Death, C. (2016). The green state in Africa. Yale University Press

Death, C. (2016). Green states in Africa: beyond the usual suspects. Environmental politics.25(1), 116-135.

GoE. (2011) Ethiopia’s Climate-Resilient Green Economy Strategy, Addis-Ababa: Government of Ethiopia available at:

Ignatova, J.A., 2017. The ‘philanthropic’ gene: biocapital and the new green revolution in Africa. Third World Quarterly, pp.1-18.

Jones, L., & Carabine, E. (2013) Exploring Political and Socio-Economic Drivers of Transformational Climate Policy: Early Insights from the Design of Ethiopia's Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy. Overseas Development Institute, Working Paper available at:

Mosberg, M., & Eriksen, S. H. (2015). Responding to climate variability and change in dryland Kenya: The role of illicit coping strategies in the politics of adaptation. Global Environmental Change35, 545-557

Nelson, M. B. (2016). Africa’s Regional Powers and Climate Change Negotiations. Global environmental politics 16(2)110-29


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Week Nine 

Debate: How do we make sense of developments in post-1994 Rwanda? Is Rwanda a model developmental state?

This debate explores that concept of the developmental state through a focus on Rwanda.


Routley, L. (2014). Developmental states in Africa? A review of ongoing debates and buzzwords. Development policy review.32(2), 159-177.

Mkandawire, T. (2001). Thinking about developmental states in Africa. Cambridge journal of economics.25(3), 289-314.

Clapham, C. (2017). The Ethiopian developmental state. Third World Quarterly, 1-15.

Evans, P. (2010). Constructing the 21st century developmental state: potentialities and pitfalls. Constructing a democratic developmental state in South Africa : potentials and challenges, 37-58.

Whitfield, L., & Buur, L. (2014). The politics of industrial policy: ruling elites and their alliances. Third world quarterly.35(1), 126-144.

Jonathan Fisher (2015) Writing about Rwanda since the Genocide: Knowledge, Power and ‘Truth’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 9:1, 134-145

 see also:

Jesse Salah Ovadia & Christina Wolf (2017) Studying the developmental state: theory and method in research on industrial policy and state-led development in Africa, Third World Quarterly

Richard Saunders & Alexander Caramento (2017) An extractive developmental state in Southern Africa? The cases of Zambia and Zimbabwe, TWQ


Thematic reading on Rwanda

Group 1: Gender

Ali, D. A., Deininger, K., & Goldstein, M. (2014). Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa: pilot evidence from Rwanda. Journal of Development Economics.110, 262-275.

Burnet, J. E. (2008). Gender balance and the meanings of women in governance in post-genocide Rwanda. African affairs.107(428), 361-386.

Burnet, J. E. (2011). Women have found respect: Gender quotas, symbolic representation, and female empowerment in Rwanda. Politics and gender7(03), 303-334.

Paul Gready (2010) 'You're either with us or against us': Civil society and policy making in post-genocide Rwanda, a case study of land reform and the Gacaca Courts

Bert Ingalaere (2010) Peasants, Power and Ethnicity: A bottom-up perspective on Rwanda's political transition

Devlin, C., & Elgie, R. (2008). The effect of increased women's representation in parliament: The case of Rwanda. Parliamentary affairs. 61(2), 237-254.

Nzayisenga, M. J., Orjuela, C., & Schierenbeck, I. (2016). Food (In) Security, Human (In) Security, Women’s (In) Security: State Policies and Local Experiences in Rural Rwanda. African security9(4), 278-298.


Group 2: Livelihoods

Ansoms, A. (2009). Re-engineering rural society: The visions and ambitions of the Rwandan elite. African affairs.108(431), 289-309.

Ansoms, A., & McKay, A. (2010). A quantitative analysis of poverty and livelihood profiles: The case of rural Rwanda. Food policy.35(6), 584-598.

Ansoms, A., Marijnen, E., Cioffo, G., & Murison, J. (2016). Statistics versus livelihoods: questioning Rwanda’s pathway out of poverty. Review of African political economy., 1-19.

An Ansoms, et al  (2018) The Rwandan agrarian and land sector modernisation: confronting macro performance with lived experiences on the ground, Review of African Political Economy, 45:157, 408-4;

Julie Van Damme & An Ansoms (2013)  Agricultural Innovation From Above and From Below: Confrontation and integration on Rwanda's rural hills

Huggins (2019) Agricultural reform in Rwanda: Authoritarianism, markets and zones of governance

Binagwaho, A., Faret al.  2014. Rwanda 20 years on: investing in life. The Lancet384(9940), pp.371-375.

Dawson, N., Martin, A., & Sikor, T. (2016). Green revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications of imposed innovation for the Wellbeing of rural smallholders. World development.78, 204-218.

Huggins, C. D. (2014). ‘Control Grabbing’ and small-scale agricultural intensification: emerging patterns of state-facilitated ‘agricultural investment’ in Rwanda. Journal of peasant studies.41(3), 365-384.

Howe, G., & McKay, A. (2007). Combining quantitative and qualitative methods in assessing chronic poverty: The case of Rwanda. World development.35(2), 197-211.

McKay, A., & Verpoorten, M. (2016). Growth, Poverty Reduction, and Inequality in Rwanda. Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, Chapter in Growth & Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa- UN-WIDER- Oxford University Press- Full text available at

Ngamaba, K. H. (2016). Happiness and life satisfaction in Rwanda. Journal of psychology in Africa26(5), 407-414.

Pritchard, M. F. (2013). Land, power and peace: Tenure formalization, agricultural reform, and livelihood insecurity in rural Rwanda. Land use policy.30(1), 186-196.

 Maurice Okito (2019) Rwanda poverty debate: summarising the debate and estimating consistent historical trends, Review of African Political Economy

See also:


Group 3: Aid interactions

Hayman, R. (2007). Are the MDGs enough? Donor perspectives and recipient visions of education and poverty reduction in Rwanda. International journal of educational development.27(4), 371-382.

Knutsson, B. (2016). Responsible risk taking: The neoliberal biopolitics of people living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. Development and change. 47(3), 615-39

Lavers, T. (2016) Elite commitment to social protection in Rwanda- UN-WIDER working paper- available at

Rosa, G., Majorin, F., Boisson, S., Barstow, C., Johnson, M., Kirby, M., ... & Clasen, T. (2014). Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda. PLoS ONE9(3), e91011.

Schimmel, N. (2010). Failed aid: How development agencies are neglecting and marginalising Rwandan genocide survivors. Development in practice.20(3), 407-413.

Jonathan Fisher, 2015, ‘Image management’ in East Africa: Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya and their donors, in Gallagher, J. (ed.). Images of Africa: Creation, Negotiation and Subversion

Fisher and Anderson (2015) Authoritarianism and the securitization of development in Africa, International Affairs

Zoë Marriage (2016) Aid to Rwanda: Unstoppable Rock, Immovable Post, in Tobias Hagmann and Filip Reyntjens, eds. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa: Development without Democracy

Marie-Eve Desrosiers, Haley J Swedlund (2019) Rwanda’s post-genocide foreign aid relations: Revisiting notions of exceptionalism, African Affairs, Volume 118, Issue 472, pp. 435–462


Group 4: Rwandan state

Ansoms, A., & Rostagno, D. (2012). Rwanda's Vision 2020 halfway through: what the eye does not see. Review of African political economy.39(133), 427-450.

Booth, D., & Golooba-Mutebi, F. (2012). Developmental patrimonialism? The case of Rwanda. African affairs.111(444), 379-403.

Goodfellow, T., & Smith, A. (2013). From urban catastrophe to ‘model’ city? Politics, security and development in post-conflict Kigali. Urban studies.50(15), 3185-3202.

Behuria, P. and T. Goodfellow. "Leapfrogging Manufacturing? Rwanda’s Attempt to Build a Services-Led ‘Developmental State’." The European Journal of Development Research (2018): 1-23

Goodfellow T (2017) Urban fortunes and skeleton cityscapes: real estate ad late urbanisation in Kigali and Addis Ababa. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 41(5), 786-803

Goodfellow T (2017) Taxing property in a neo-developmental state: The Politics of urban land value capture in Rwanda and Ethiopia. African Affairs, 116(465), 549-572

Goodfellow T (2014) Rwanda's political settlement and the urban transition: expropriation, construction and taxation in Kigali. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 8(2), 311-329

Pritish Behuria (2019) The domestic political economy of upgrading in global value chains: how politics shapes pathways for upgrading in Rwanda’s coffee sector*, Review of International Political Economy

Behuria (2019)  Twenty-first century Industrial Policy in a small developing country: The challenges of reviving manufacturing in Rwanda, Development and change

Harrison, G. (2016). Rwanda: an agrarian developmental state?. Third world quarterly.37(2), 354-370.

Hasselskog, M. (2015). Rwandan developmental ‘social engineering’: What does it imply and how is it displayed? Progress in development studies.15(2), 154-169.

Huggins, C. (2016). Discipline, Governmentality and ‘Developmental Patrimonialism’: Insights from Rwanda's Pyrethrum Sector. Journal of agrarian change..

Mamdani, M. (2001). When victims become killers : colonialism, nativism & the genocide in Rwanda. Princeton University Press.

Mann, L., & Berry, M. (2015). Understanding the Political Motivations That Shape Rwanda's Emergent Developmental State. New political economy., 1-26.

Reyntjens, F. (2011). Constructing the truth, dealing with dissent, domesticating the world: Governance in post-genocide Rwanda. African affairs.110(438), 1-34.

Reyntjens, F. (2013). Political governance in post-genocide Rwanda [electronic resource]. Cambridge University Press.

Wrong, M. (2016). False Idols. Foreign policy., (218), 72.

Purdeková (2015) Making Ubumwe: Power, State and Camps in Rwanda's Unity-Building Project   

Andrea Purdeková, Filip Reyntjens & Nina Wilén (2018) Militarisation of governance after conflict: beyond the rebel-to-ruler frame – the case of Rwanda, Third World Quarterly, 39:1, 158-174

Fisher (2020)  East Africa after Liberation: Conflict, Security and the State since the 1980s   

Wrong (2021) Do not disturb - The story of.....

Harrison (2020) Developmentalism (see Rwanda chapter)



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Week Ten : Assignment talk







Africa’s youth

Abdulai, A. G., & Hickey, S. (2016). The politics of development under competitive clientelism: Insights from Ghana's education sector. African affairs.115(458), 44-72.

Banks, N. (2016). Youth poverty, employment and livelihoods: social and economic implications of living with insecurity in Arusha, Tanzania. Environment and urbanization.28(2), 437-454.

Chabal, P. (2011). Who Speaks for Africa?. Cahiers d'études africaines., (4), 979-988.

Chinsinga, B., & Chasukwa, M. (2012). Youth, agriculture and land grabs in Malawi. IDS bulletin.43(6), 67-77.

Mabala, R. (2011). Youth and “the hood”-livelihoods and neighbourhoods. Environment and urbanization.23(1), 157-181.

Von Hellermann, P. (2010). The chief, the youth and the plantation: communal politics in southern Nigeria. Journal of modern African studies.48(02), 259-283.


China in Africa

Brautigam, D. (2009) The dragon's gift : the real story of China in Africa Chapter 11

Hackenesch, C. (2013). Aid Donor Meets Strategic Partner? The European Union’s and China’s Relations with Ethiopia. Journal of current Chinese affairs.42 (1), 7-36.

Holslag, J. (2011). China and the coups: Coping with political instability in Africa. African affairs.110 (440), 367-386.

Carmody, P. (2013) The Rise of the BRICS in Africa Chapter 2

Kaplinsky, R. (2013). What contribution can China make to inclusive growth in sub‐Saharan Africa?. Development and change.44(6), 1295-1316.

Mohan, G., & Lampert, B. (2013). Negotiating china: reinserting African agency into China–Africa relations. African affairs.112(446), 92-110

Scoones, I., Amanor, K., Favareto, A., & Qi, G. (2016). A new politics of development cooperation? Chinese and Brazilian engagements in African agriculture. World development. 81, 1-12

Nicholas Jepson (2020) In China's Wake: How the Commodity Boom Transformed Development Strategies in the Global South

Lee (2018) The Specter of Global China: Politics, Labor, and Foreign Investment in Africa 

Bond, P. and Garcia, A. (2015) ‘Introduction’ in idem, eds. Brics : an anti-capitalist critique, Pluto

Justin van der Merwe, Patrick Bond, and Nicole Dodd (2019) BRICS and Resistance in Africa: Contention, Assimilation and Co-optation   e-book in stock [afp Library, 02/03/2020]  

Van der Merwe, Justin, Taylor, Ian, Arkhangelskaya, Alexandra eds. (2016) Emerging Powers in Africa: A New Wave in the Relationship? 

Anthony, Ross, Ruppert, Uta (Eds.) (2020) Reconfiguring Transregionalisation in the Global SouthAfrican-Asian Encounters 

Ho-fung Hung (2018) The tapestry of Chinese capital in the Global South, Palgrave Communications, volume 4, Article number: 65

Grell-Brisk, M. (2016) Beyond the Long Twentieth Century: China in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Changing Dynamics of the World System - Part 2, IROWS WP

Mohan, G. (2013) ‘Beyond the Enclave: Towards a Critical Political Economy of China and Africa’, Development and change., 44 (6): 1255–72

Ayers, A. (2013) ‘Beyond Myths, Lies and Stereotypes: The Political Economy of a 'New Scramble for Africa'’, New political economy. 18(2): 227-57

Bräutigam, D. and Gallagher, K. P. (2014) ‘Bartering Globalization: China's Commodity backed Finance in Africa and Latin America’, Global Policy 5(3): 346-52.

Kaplinsky, R. (2013) ‘What contribution can China make to inclusive growth in sub‐Saharan Africa? ’, Development and change. 44(6): 1295-1316.

Campbell, Horace (2008) ‘China in Africa: challenging US global hegemony’, Third world quarterly. 29(1): 89-105.

Carmody, P and Owusu, F.Y. (2007) ‘Competing hegemons? Chinese versus American geo-economic strategies in Africa’ Political geography.. 26, 5 & Carmody, Pádraig, and Ian Taylor. "Flexigemony and force in China's resource diplomacy in Africa: Sudan and Zambia compared." Geopolitics. 15, no. 3 (2010): 496-515

Cheru, Fantu. "Emerging Southern powers and new forms of South–South cooperation: Ethiopia’s strategic engagement with China and India." Third world quarterly. 37, no. 4 (2016): 592-610.

Ovadia, Jesse Salah. "Accumulation with or without dispossession? A ‘both/and’approach to China in Africa with reference to Angola." Review of African political economy. 40, no. 136 (2013): 233-250.

Shinn, David. "Extended Ground for US-China Competition? Comparing China’s and the US’ Engagement with Africa." China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies 2, no. 01 (2016): 35-55.

see articles in Special Issue: Globalization with Chinese Characteristics, Development and change., 44 (6)

see articles in Special issue re Rising Powers, Third world quarterly. (2013), 34(2)

Kaplinsky, Raphael and Mike Morris (2008) ‘Do the Asian Drivers Undermine Export-oriented Industrialization in SSA? ’, World Development, 36(2): 254-73

Mohan, Giles (2013) ‘Migrants as agents of South-South Cooperation: the case of Chinese in Africa’, in: Dargin, Justin ed. The rise of the global south : philosophical, geopolitical and economic trends of the 21st century. London: World Scientific.

Mohan, Giles and Lampert, Ben (2013) ‘Negotiating China: reinserting African agency into China-Africa relations’, African affairs., 112(446): 92–110

Mohan, G. (2008) ‘China in Africa: A Review Essay’, Review of African political economy., 35 (1): 155-73

Obi, Cyril I. (2008) ‘Enter the Dragon? Chinese Oil Companies & Resistance in the Niger Delta ’, Review of African political economy., 117: 417-34

Kiely, Ray (2008) ‘'Poverty's Fall'/China's Rise: Global Convergence or New Forms of Uneven Development? ’, Journal of contemporary Asia., 38(3): 353-72

Bond, Patrick (2013) ‘Sub-imperialism as Lubricant of Neoliberalism: South African ‘deputy sheriff’ duty within brics’, Third world quarterly. 34(2): 251-70

Urban, Frauke; Mohan, Giles and Cook, Sarah (2012) China as a new shaper of international development: the environmental implications, Environment, Development and Sustainability

Tan-Mullins, May and Mohan, Giles (2012) The potential of corporate environmental responsibility of Chinese state-owned enterprises in Africa, Environment, development and sustainability.

Power, Marcus; Mohan, Giles and Tan-Mullins, May (2012) China's resource diplomacy in Africa : powering development? International Political Economy Series. London: Palgrave McMillan.

Kaplinsky, R, 2008, 'What does the rise of China do for industrialisation in sub-Saharan Africa? ', Review of African political economy., 35(1), pp. 7-22

Tull, D, 2006, 'China's engagement in Africa: scope, significance and consequences', Journal of modern African studies., 44(3), pp. 459-79

Brautigam, D, 2010, 'Africa's Eastern Promise: What the west can learn from Chinese investment in Africa', Foreign affairs., 89 (1),

Fantu Cheru and Cyril Obi (eds.) (2010) The rise of China and India in Africa : challenges, opportunities and critical interventions, London: Zed books, ‘Introduction’

Goldstein, Andrea, Nicholas Pinaud, Helmut Reisen and Xiaoban Chen (2006) The Rise of China and India: What's in it for Africa?, Paris: Development Centre of the Organisation for

Scoones, I., Cabral, L. and Tugendhat, H. (2013) China and Brazil in African Agriculture, IDS bulletin. 44.4 Taylor, Ian (2014) Africa rising? : BRICS - diversifying dependency, JC

Lampert et al. (2014) Chinese migrants and Africa's development : new imperialists or agents of change?, Zed

French, H. (2014) China's second continent : how a million migrants are building a new empire in Africa, New York: Doubleday

see articles in special issue China and Brazil in African Agriculture, World development. Vol. 81, May 2016

 Sebastian Amanor, Kojo (2015) Rising Powers and Rice in Ghana: China, Brazil and African agricultural development,

See various papers in JESAS special issue re Southern Africa beyond the West: Political, Economic and Cultural Relationships with the BRICS countries

Swedlund, H.J. (2017) Is China eroding the bargaining power of traditional donors in Africa?, International affairs. Volume 93, Issue 2, 1 March 2017, Pages 389–408,

 Ziso, Edson (2018) A post state-centric analysis of china-africa relations : internationalisation of chinese capital and state-society relations in ethiopia , Palgrave  please scan the introduction [06/02/2018]   Ebook available. No OCR requirement [GW Library, 08/02/2018]  

Marfaing, L., & Thiel, A. (2013). The impact of Chinese business on market entry in Ghana and Senegal. Africa, 83(4), 646-669 - Available online:

Wenzel, N. (2016) South African Corporations in BRICS: New Waves of Entrepreneurial Thinking?. in der Merwe et al. Emerging Powers in Africa : A New Wave in the Relationship? , Palgrave, pages 177-197.

 Wenzel et al. (2013) Competition and cooperation: can South African business create synergies from BRIC+S in Africa?, African geographical review. Vol. 32, Iss. 1

Alden, C, 2007, China in Africa, Zed, London

Brautigam, D, 2009, The dragon's gift : the real story of China in Africa, OUP, New York

Corkin, L & Naidu, S, 2008, 'China and India in Africa: An introduction', Review of African political economy., 35(1)

Goldstein, A, 2006, The Rise of China and India: What's in it for Africa? , OECD, Paris

Harneit-Sievers, A, Marks, S & Naidu, S (eds), 2010, Chinese and African perspectives on China in Africa, Pambazuka, Oxford

Mohan, G & Power, M, 2008, 'New African Choices? The politics of Chinese engagement in Africa and the changing architecture of international development', Review of African political economy., 35(1), pp. 23-42

Rotberg, R (ed.), 2008, China into Africa : trade, aid, and influence, Brookings Institution, Washington DC



neoliberal Africa

Gavin Williams (1994) Why Structural Adjustment Is Necessary and Why It Doesn't Work, Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 21, No. 60, pp. 214-225

Sarah Bracking (1999) Structural Adjustment: Why It Wasn't Necessary & Why It Did Work, Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 26, No. 80, pp. 207-226

Storey (2000) The World Bank, neo-liberalism, and power: Discourse analysis and implications for campaigners, Development in Practice, 10:3-4,361-370

For South Africa’s case of neoliberalism: see especially Patrick Bond’s work

Harrison (2004) The World Bank and Africa: The Construction of Governance States

Harrison, G. (2010) ‘Practices of Intervention: Repertoires, Habits, and Conduct in Neoliberal Africa’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 4/4: 433-452.

Harrison, G. (2010) Neoliberal Africa: the impact of global social engineering (London: Zed Books), chapter 1

Harrison (2019) Authoritarian neoliberalism and capitalist transformation in Africa: all pain, no gain, Globalizations, 16:3, 274-288

Cramer et al (2009) 'Africa and the credit crunch', African Affairs

Williams (2012) Civil Society and the Liberal Project in Ghana and Sierra Leone. Journal of Intervention and State-building vol. 6, (1) 57-72.

Williams D, Young T(2014). Engineering civil society in Africa. in Clive Gabay and Carl Death, eds. Critical perspectives on African politics: Liberal interventions, state-building and civil society; see also various other chapters in the collection  

Wiegratz, J. (2010) ‘Fake capitalism? The dynamics of neoliberal moral restructuring and pseudo-development: the case of Uganda’, Review of African Political Economy 37 (124): 123-137

Wiegratz, J. and Cesnulyte, E. (2016) ‘Money Talks: Moral Economies of Earning a Living in Neoliberal East Africa’, New Political Economy, 21 (1): 1-25

Wiegratz, Jörg, Giuliano Martiniello, and Elisa Greco, ‘Introduction: Interpreting Change in Neoliberal Uganda’, in ibid, eds. Uganda: The Dynamics of Neoliberal Transformation (London: Zed Books 2018), various chapters relevant, e.g. by Lie, Wilson, Pier

Cesnulyte (2019) Selling Sex in Kenya: Gendered Agency under Neoliberalism, CUP, e.g. chapter 2

Cesnulyte, E. (2015) ‘I do not work. I do commercial sex work.’ The ambiguities of discourse and practice of selling sex in Mombasa, Kenya. Development and Change 46(5): 1159-1178.

Wilson (2014) Model villages in the neoliberal era: the Millennium Development Goals and the colonization of everyday life, Journal of Peasant Studies;

Wilson (2015) Paradoxical Utopia: The Millennium Villages Project in Theory and Practice, JOAC

Clive Gabay (2012) The Millennium Development Goals and Ambitious Developmental Engineering, Third World Quarterly, 33:7, 1249-1265

Clive Gabay (2015) Exploring an African Civil Society: Development and Democracy in Malawi, 1994–2014 

Rachel Spronk (2014). Exploring the Middle Classes in Nairobi: From Modes of Production to Modes of Sophistication. African Studies Review, 57, pp 93-114

Nicola Ansell, Seroala Tsoeu & Flora Hajdu (2015) Womens' changing domestic responsibilities in neoliberal Africa: a relational time-space analysis of Lesotho's garment industry, Gender, Place & Culture, 22:3, 363-382

Melber, H. ed. (2016) The Rise of Africa's Middle Class, Zed

Kroeker et al. (2018) Middle Classes in Africa, Palgrave

Mattia Fumanti (2015) ‘Taramo, where winning is easy’: the making of the entrepreneurial self in Namibia's fortunational capitalism, Critical African Studies, 7:3, 280-298

Smith (2008) Bewitching Development: Witchcraft and the Reinvention of Development in Neoliberal Kenya 

Schmidt (2017). ‘Disordered surroundings’: Money and socio-economic exclusion in Western Kenya. Africa, 87(2), 278-299

Mario Schmidt (2019): ‘Almost everybody does it … ’ gambling as future-makingin Western Kenya, Journal of Eastern African Studies

Various chapters in Obadare, Ebenezer (Ed.) (2014) The Handbook of Civil Society in Africa 

see also: Thandika Mkandawire about economics in Africa:

Henning Melber (2017) The African middle class(es) – in the middle of what?, Review of African Political Economy, 44:151, 142-154

Roger Southall (2018) (Middle-) Class analysis in Africa: does it work?, Review of African Political Economy, 45:157, 467-477,

Pnina Werbner (2018) Rethinking class and culture in Africa: between E. P. Thompson and Pierre Bourdieu, Review of African Political Economy, 45:155, 7-24

Jean-Nicolas Bach; Clélie Nallet (2018) Conceptualizing the middle class in a developmental state: Narratives and expectations in Ethiopia, African Affairs, Volume 117, Issue 468, Pages 439–461

Joël Noret (2017) For a multidimensional class analysis in Africa, Review of African Political Economy, 44:154, 654-661

Abebe Shimeles & Mthuli Ncube (2015) The Making of the Middle-Class in Africa: Evidence from DHS Data, The Journal of Development Studies, 51:2, 178-193

Lisa Ann Richey & Stefano Ponte (2012) Brand Africa: multiple transitions in global capitalism, Review of African Political Economy, 39:131, 135-150

Richey and Lene Bull Christiansen (2018) Afropolitanism, celebrity politics, and iconic imaginations of North–South relations, African Affairs, Volume 117, Issue 467, Pages 238–260

Richey and Alexandra Budabin (2016) Celebritizing Conflict: How Ben Affleck Sells the Congo to AmericansHumanity: An International Journal of Human Rights

Anne Pitcher (2017) Varieties of residential capitalism in Africa: Urban housing provision in Luanda and Nairobi, African Affairs, Volume 116, Issue 464, Pages 365–390

Alessandro Jedlowski (2017) African media and the corporate takeover: Video film circulation in the age of neoliberal transformations, African Affairs, Volume 116, Issue 465

Margaret C. Lee (2014) Africa's World Trade: Informal Economies and Globalization from Below

Jesse Weaver Shipley (2015) Selfie Love: Public Lives in an Era of Celebrity Pleasure, Violence, and Social Media, American Anthropologist 117(2); & Shipley (2014) Making African Celebrity Culture,

Tweit (2013) The Afropolitan Must Go, &

Dabiri (2014) Why I’m Not An Afropolitan   

 Moses E. Ochonu, eds (2018) Entrepreneurship in Africa: A Historical Approach

Honeyman (2016) The Orderly Entrepreneur: Youth, Education, and Governance in Rwanda

Serena Natile (2020) The Exclusionary Politics of Digital Financial Inclusion: Mobile Money, Gendered Walls

James Howard Smith (2008) Bewitching Development: witchcraft and the reinvention of development in neoliberal Kenya

Jess Auerbach (2020) From Water to Wine: Becoming Middle Class in Angola   

Dorothy Hodgson and Judith Byfield eds. (2017) Global Africa Into the Twenty-First Century

George Kararach, Hany Besada and Timothy M. Shaw eds (2016) Development in Africa: Refocusing the Lens After the Millennium Development Goals

Melber (2017) The African middle class(es) - in the middle of what?, ROAPE

Mc Kinsey Global Institute (2010) Lions on the move : the progress and potential of Africaneconomies

Acha Leke, MutsaChironga, Georges Delvaux (208) Africa’s business revolution, how to succeed in the world’s next big growth market, Harvard Business ReviewPress, Boston   

Akinyinka Akinyoade, Ton Dietz, Chibuike Uche eds. (2017) Entrepreneurship in Africa   

Ouma (2019) Africapitalism: A Critical Commentary and Assessment, in Uwafiokun Idemudia, Kenneth Amaeshi eds Africapitalism. Sustainable Business and Development in Africa  

Stefan Ouma, Alex Hughes, James T. Murphy, Maggie Opondo (2019) Envisioning African futures : Perspectives from economic geography, Geoforum

Pádraig Carmod (2019) Economic-geographic theory from the South: African experience and future in the global economy, Geoforum

Detlef Müller-Mahn (2019) Envisioning African Futures: Development corridors as dreamscapes of modernity, Geoforum

Mbembe, 2016 Africa In The New Century.

Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2015) Decoloniality as the future of Africa, History Compass, 13 (10) (2015), pp. 485-496

Sarr (2016) Afrotopia 

Bright, A. Hruby (2015) The Next Africa: An Emerging Continent Becomes a Global Powerhouse 

Mahajan, 2008 Africa Rising: How 900 Million African Consumers Offer More Than You Think 

Adeleye, K. Ibeh, A. Kinoti, L. White (Eds.), 2015 The Changing Dynamics of International Business in Africa, Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke and New York

Newman, J. Page, J. Rand, A. Shimeles, M. Soderbom, F. Tarp (2016) Made in Africa: Learning to Compete in Industry 

Murphy and Carmody, 2015  Africa's Information Revolution: Technical Regimes and Production Networks in South Africa and Tanzania {ebook}}

Adegoke (2018) In African cities, the “gig economy” is called the economy, Quarz Africa

Pádraig Carmody (2013) A knowledge economy or an information society in Africa? Thintegration and the mobile phone revolution, Information Technology for Development, 19:1, 24-39

Carmody (2012) The informationalization of poverty in Africa? Mobile phones and economic structure Inform. Technol. Int. Develop., 8 (3) (2012), pp. 1-17

Meagher, 2017 Cannibalizing the informal economy: frugal innovation and economic inclusion in Africa Eur. J. Develop. Res., 30 (2017), pp. 17-33

Ng’weno, A., Porteous, D., 2018. Let’s be real: the informal sector and the gig economy are the future, and the present, of work in Africa. CGD Notes.

de la Torre ed. (2018) Routledge Handbook of Global Populism

John Spall (2020) Manhood, Morality & the Transformation of Angolan Society: MPLA Veterans & Post-war Dynamics 

Andrea Cornwall, Frank G. Karioris and Nancy Lindisfarne, eds. (2016) Masculinities Under Neoliberalism 

Schubert, J., Engel, U. and Macamo, E. (eds.) Extractive Industries and Changing State Dynamics in Africa Beyond the Resource Curse. London, Routledge.

Roger Southall (2016) The New Black Middle Class in South Africa


This list was last updated on 05/05/2021