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PIED3402
Module Reading List

American Foreign Policy, 2021/22, Semester 1
Dr Jack Holland
J.Holland@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Week 1: Introduction: Making US Foreign Policy

This week, I will outline the module content and the assessment, as well as beginning with some preliminary information on the making of US foreign policy. The class will get to know each other and be split into three groups (for the semester).

Seminar topics:

  • How effective is the ‘separation of powers’ doctrine, and what benefits or pitfalls does it entail?
  • Who or what directs foreign policy or defines the ‘national interest?’
  • How important for foreign policy are domestic contexts?
  • What do current events in US domestic politics show about the relationship between domestic and foreign policy?
  • What ‘is’ US foreign policy? What should be included or excluded from the study of it? War, diplomacy, treaties, humanitarian intervention, states, communities, culture, individuals? – What are the political implications of deciding what does and what does not count?

Plus outline of module and introduction of essay topics

Suggested Reading:

  • Michael Foley, ‘The foreign policy process: Executive, Congress, Intelligence,’ in Cox and Stokes (eds.), US Foreign Policy, Oxford University Press (second edition, 2008), pp.111 - 130.  
  • Barrett, R. (2020) 'Inferior Domestic Treaty Institutions Lead to Less Democracy and Security: The Case of the United States', Democracy and Securityhttps://doi.org/10.1080/17419166.2020.1856084
  • Jack Holland, ‘Introduction: Why is change so hard?’, in Bentley and Holland eds, Obama’s Foreign Policy ISBN: 9780415662604 (hardback : alk. paper); 0415662605 (hardback : alk. paper); 9781315888545 (e-book : alk. paper); 1315888548 (e-book : alk. paper), Routledge 2014.

Additional reading:

The US Constitution and the Bill of Rights available at: http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/constitution.html

A short piece about declaring war and how force has been authorised since WWII: http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/08/all-the-previous-declarations-of-war/279246/

Podcast – Has the US Presidency become a dictatorship? http://freakonomics.com/podcast/u-s-presidency-become-dictatorship/

John Dumbrell, (1997) The making of US foreign policy ,MUP, chs.3-6.

Michael Foley, ‘Congress and policymaking: can it cope with foreign affairs?’ in Robert Williams (ed.) Explaining American politics : issues and interpretations ISBN: 0415012198 (pbk); 041501218X (London : Routledge, 1990)

 

Week 2: The idea of America: American exceptionalism and American power

Group 1: What is American exceptionalism? Is America exceptional? Where did the term come from and what does it ‘do’ to American foreign policy?

Restad, H. (2014) 'chapter 1 - how to be an American', in American Exceptionalism: An idea that made a nation and remade the world, Routledge.

McCrisken, T. (2004) American Exceptionalism and the Legacy of Vietnam, London: Palgrave. This book, like Restad's, has a really excellent chapter on American exceptionalism, which is very accessibly written. 

Group 2: Is there a growing gap between the ‘thank God for America’ public and the ‘deal souls’ of American elites?

Samuel Huntington, ‘Dead Souls: The Denationalization of the American Elite’, The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563, Spring 2004.

Minxin Pei, ‘The paradoxes of American nationalism’, Foreign policy. ISSN: 0015-7228May/June 2003, pp.31-37.

Group 3: What is the nature of American power? Is it (primarily) hard, soft, or both? How has it changed, is it declining, and will America remain the world’s only superpower?

Nye, J. ‘The 21st century and smart power’, in in Michael Cox and Doug Stokes (ed.), (2018 – 2008 version on Obama good too), US foreign policy Oxford University Press.

Quinn, A. (2011) ‘The Art of Declining Politely’, International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850, 87:4, 803-824. (or, see Quinn’s chapter in Bentley and Holland eds, Obama’s Foreign Policy, Routledge.)

 

 

Week 3: American foreign policy traditions

Group 1: What does Walter Russell Mead mean by the Jeffersonian tradition? 

Walter Russell Mead, (2001), chapter 6, Special Providence. American Foreign Policy and How it Changed the World.

Jack Holland, ‘Obama as modern Jeffersonian’. In Bentley and Holland, eds, The Obama Doctrine , Routledge 2016

Group 2: Compare and contrast the Wilsonian and Jeffersonian traditions.

Robert W. Tucker, ‘The triumph of Wilsonianism?’ World policy journal. ISSN: 0740-2775Vol.10 No.4, Winter 1993/94.

Jack Holland, ‘Obama as modern Jeffersonian’. In Bentley and Holland, eds, The Obama Doctrine , Routledge 2016

Group 3: What is the difference between a ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ Wilsonian?

Boot, ‘Neocons’ Foreign policy. ,Jan-Feb 2004, No.140, pp.20-28.

 

Week 4: Theories of American foreign policy

Group 1:What does Walter Russell Mead mean by ‘continental’ Realism? How does it differ from what he calls ‘Hamiltonian’ or ‘American’ Realism?

Walter Russell Mead, (2001) 'chapter 4 - the serpent and the dove', in Special Providence. American Foreign Policy and How it Changed the World, NY: Knopf.

H.W.Brands, ‘The Four Schoolmasters’ The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563,Winter 2001/2.

Group 2: What is liberal internationalism? When has it featured in US foreign policy? And Why?

Walter Russell Mead, (2001) 'chapter 5 - wilsonianism and its mission', in Special Providence. American Foreign Policy and How it Changed the World, NY: Knopf.

Ikenberry, G. John, Inderjeet Parmar, and Doug Stokes. "Introduction: Ordering the world? Liberal internationalism in theory and practice." International Affairs 94.1 (2018): 1-5 - there are many pieces in this special issue worth reading e.g. Jahn, Ikenberry, Dunne etc - you can pick.

Group 3: Who are the neoconservatives and what do they stand for? And, what role did the neo-cons have in the Reagan administration?

Stefan Halper and Jonathan Clarke, America Alone. The Neo-conservatives and the Global Order Cambridge University Press, 2004, ch.2 and 5.

See also:

Bowman, AH (1956), ‘Jefferson, Hamilton and American foreign policy’ Political science quarterly. ISSN: 0032-3195, Vol.71(1), pp.18-41.

Walter McDougall, Promised land, crusader state : the American encounter with the world since 1776 ISBN: 0395901324 (pbk.); 0395830850, Mariner Books, pp.147-171.

John L. Harper, American Machiavelli ISBN: 0521834856: Alexander Hamilton and the Origins of US foreign policy(Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Further reading on and by Kissinger

H.Kissinger, ‘The pitfalls of universal jurisdiction’, Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120Vol.80, No.4, 2001, pp.86-96.

H.Kissinger,Does America need a foreign policy? : toward a diplomacy for the 21st century ISBN: 0743230876London : Free Press, 2002., see John J. Mearsheimer, ‘Kissinger's Wisdom . . . and Advice’ The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563, Fall 2001.

N.Bisley, ‘Counter-revolution, order and international politics’, Review of international studies. ISSN: 0260-2105, Jan 2004, Vol.30, No.1, pp.49- 69

Weitz, R. (1991) Henry Kissinger's philosophy of international relations’,Diplomacy and statecraft. ISSN: 0959-2296, Vol.2, No.1.

Further reading on and by Kennan

G.F.Kennan, ‘On American Principles’, Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120, March /April 1995.

G.F.Kennan, (aka “X”) ‘The Sources of Soviet Conduct’, Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120, July 1947. 

G.F.Kennan, ‘Containment Then and Now’ Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120, Spring 1987.

John Lewis Gaddis, ‘Containment: A reassessment’, Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120, July 1977.

H.W.Brands, What America owes the world : the struggle for the soul of foreign policy ISBN: 0521639689 (pbk); 0521630312, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp.144-181.

Further reading on or by Morgenthau

H.J.Morgenthau, ‘The Mainsprings of American Foreign Policy: The National Interest vs Moral Abstractions’,American Political Science ISSN: 0003-0554 ReviewXLIV (1950).

H.W.Brands, What America owes the world : the struggle for the soul of foreign policy ISBN: 0521639689 (pbk); 0521630312, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp.144-181.

J.W. Nobel, Morgenthau's struggle with power: the theory of power politics and the Cold War, Review of international studies. ISSN: 0260-2105, Jan 1995, Vol.21, No.1, pp.61- 86

R.J. Myers, ‘Hans Morgenthau's realism and American foreign policy’ Ethics and international affairs ISSN: 0892-6794, 1997, Vol.11. 

P.Gellman, ‘Hans J. Morgenthau and the legacy of political realism’, Review of international studies. ISSN: 0260-2105, Oct 1988, Vol.14, No.4, pp.247- 266

John Mearsheimer ‘Hans Morgenthau and the Iraq war: realism versus neo-conservatism’ (2005) at https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/morgenthau_2522jsp/

Further Reading on 21stCentury Realism

Jeffrey Goldberg, ‘Breaking Ranks. What turned Brent Scowcroft against the Bush Administration?’ The New Yorker ISSN: 0028-792X Online, Available online

Robert Tucker and David C. Hendrickson, ‘The Freedom Crusade’, The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563, Fall 2005.

John C. Hulsman and Anatol Lieven, ‘The Ethics of Realism’, The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563Summer 2005.

Robert F. Ellsworth and Dimitri K. Simes, ‘Realism’s Shining Morality’, The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563Winter 2004/2005.

John Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, ‘An Unnecessary War’, Prospect March 2003. Available online

John Mearsheimer ‘Hans Morgenthau and the Iraq war: realism versus neo-conservatism’ (2005) at https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/morgenthau_2522jsp/

Further Reading on the Neo-Cons

D.W.Benn (2004), ‘Review Article: Neoconservatives and their American critics’ International affairs.Vol.80 issue 5, pp.963-969.

Ivo Daalder and James Lindsay (2003) America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy, The Brookings Institution, pp.17-35.

H.W.Brands, What America Owes the World. The Struggle for the Soul of Foreign Policy ISBN: 0521639689 (pbk); 0521630312, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp.238-262.

Boot, ‘Neocons’ Foreign policy. ,Jan-Feb 2004, No.140, pp.20-28

Stefan Halper and Jonathan Clarke, America Alone. The Neo-conservatives and the Global Order Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Francis Fukuyama, ‘The Neoconservative Moment’ The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563Summer 2004.

Tod Lindberg, Neoconservatism’s Liberal Legacy’, Policy review. ISSN: 0146-5945 October/November 2004.

Anne Norton, Leo Strauss and the Politics of American Empire, Yale University Press, 2004

Nuruzzaman, ‘Beyond the Realist Theories: NeoConservatism Realism and the American Invasion of Iraq’, International studies perspectives. Vol.7, 2006, pp.239-253.

James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans : the history of Bush's war cabinet ISBN: 0670032999, Viking Press, 2004.

M.J. Mazarr ‘George W. Bush, idealist’, International affairs. May 2003, Vol.79, No.3, pp.503- 522

Charles Krauthammer, ‘In Defense of Democratic Realism’, The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563Summer 2004.

Richard A. Schweder, ‘George W. Bush and the missionary position’, Daedalus. ISSN: 0011-5266, Summer 2004, pp.26-36.

Zachary Selden, ‘Neoconservatives and the American mainstream’, Policy review. ISSN: 0146-5945 April/May 2004.

Michael C. Williams, ‘What is the National Interest? The Neoconservative Challenge in IR Theory’, European journal of international relations. ISSN: 1354-0661, Vol.11 No.3, 2005, pp.307-337.

Francis Fukuyama, ‘The Neoconservative Moment’ The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563Summer 2004.

G.J.Ikenberry ‘The end of the neo-conservative moment’ Survival ISSN: 0039-6338; 1468-2699, Spring 2004, Vol.46, No.1, pp.7-22.

Charles Krauthammer, ‘In Defense of Democratic Realism’, The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563,Fall 2004.

 

Week 5: From Cold War to New World Order

Group 1: What was the Reagan Doctrine? And how have neo-cons made use of Reagan’s legacy?

Scott, James M. 'Introduction', in Deciding to intervene: The Reagan doctrine and American foreign policy. Duke University Press, 1996.

Kristol, William, and Robert Kagan. "Toward a neo-reaganite foreign policy." Foreign Affairs ISSN: 0015-7120.75 (1996): 18.

Group 2: How did the US handle German reunification and what did it tell us about the future of American foreign policy?

Mick Cox and Steven Hurst 'His finest hour?' George Bush and the diplomacy of German unification, Diplomacy and statecraft. ISSN: 0959-2296, Dec 2002, Vol.13, No.4, pp.123-150. 

Group 3: 1. How did the US handle the diplomatic situation before, during and after the Gulf War and what did it tell you about the future of American foreign policy? And, what did Bush mean by the phrase ‘New World Order’?

George Bush and Brent Scowcroft, ‘Why we didn’t go to Baghdad’, in Sifry and Cerf (eds.) The Iraq War Reader ISBN: 0743253477, pp.101-102. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 24/01/2020) 

Freedman, L. ‘Order and Disorder in the New World’, Foreign affairs. , 71, (1991/2), pp.20-39. See also other contributions to this special issue.

Further Reading

H.W. Brands ‘George Bush and the Gulf War of 1991’ Presidential studies quarterly. ISSN: 0360-4918; 1741-5705 (Electronic), Mar 2004, Vol.34, No.1, pp.113- 131

James A. Baker, III ; with Thomas M. DeFrank The politics of diplomacy : revolution, war, and peace, 1989-1992 ISBN: 0399140875 / Published New York : Putnam's, c1995.

Richard Melanson, ‘The Bush Administration’, American Foreign Policy Since the Vietnam War, M.E.Sharpe.

Condoleezza Rice and Philip Zelikow, (1996) Germany unified and Europe transformed : a study in statecraftCambridge, Mass. ; London : Harvard University Press.

Tonelson Prudence or inertia? The Bush administration's foreign policyCurrent history. , Apr 1992, Vol.91, No.564, p.145.

Freedman and Efraim Karsh, The Gulf conflict, 1990-1991: diplomacy and war in the new world order,London : Faber and Faber, 1994.

Further Reading on the Neo-Cons and Reagan

Richard Lowry, ‘Reaganism v. Neo-Reaganism’, The National Interest ISSN: x000-9563, Spring 2005.

Fred Halliday, The making of the second cold war ISBN: 0860918548 (pbk ; cased) : £6.95; 0860911446Vintage, pp.105-133.

James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans : the history of Bush's war cabinet ISBN: 0670032999, Viking Press, 2004.

 

Week 6: Lecture on assessment preparation

 

Week 7: Clinton

Group 1:Who was Ross Perot and how did he help Clinton win the election? What did that tell you about the future of American foreign policy?

Mick Cox, US Foreign Policy after the Cold War. Superpower without a Mission ISBN: 1855672219 (pbk); 1855672200pp.8-37. And please do your own research on this topic online. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Group 2:What does Michael Cox mean when he calls Clinton ‘the pragmatic crusader’?

Mick Cox, ‘Wilsonianism resurgent under the Clinton Administration’, Cox, Michael, John Ikenberry and Takashi Inoguchi(eds). American democracy promotion : impulses, strategies, and impactsOxford : Oxford University Press, 2000.

Group 3:Case study: Clinton and US policy to China post-Tiananman. Explain the shift in Clinton’s policy.

Jean A. Garrison, Making China policy : from Nixon to G.W. Bush ISBN: 1588263851 (pbk. : alk. paper); 1588263606 (hardcover : alk. paper)Boulder, Colo. : Lynne Rienner Publishers, c2005, ch.7 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva .

Robert G. Sutter. U.S. policy toward China : an introduction to the role of interest groups ISBN: 0847687252 (paper : alk. paper ; cloth : alk. paper); 0847687244Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, c1998, ch.4.

Further Reading:

Tony Smith, ‘Morality and the Use of Force in a Unipolar World: The ‘Wilsonian Moment’?’ Ethics and international affairs ISSN: 0892-6794, Vol.14, 2000.

Cox, Michael, John Ikenberry and Takashi Inoguchi(eds). American democracy promotion : impulses, strategies, and impactsOxford : Oxford University Press, 2000.

Miller, LB (1994), ‘The Clinton years: reinventing US foreign policy’International affairs.[London], Oct Vol.70, No.4, pp.621- 634

Walt, S.M. (2000) ‘Two cheers for Clinton's foreign policy’Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120, Vol.79, No.2, pp.63-79.

 

Week 8: Bush

Group 1: 1. What characterised the Bush administration’s foreign policy prior to 9-11? And, which of Mead’s foreign policy traditions best characterised the Bush presidency?

Ivo Daalder and James Lindsay (2003) America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy The Brookings Institution, pp.35-77.

Interviews with Walter Russell Mead available online at: http://www.randomhouse.com/knopf/authors/mead/qna.html

Group 2: 1. Why was 9-11 so shocking for America(ns), why did nobody see it coming?

Holland, J. (2009), ‘From September 11th2001 to 9-11: From Void to Crisis’, International Political Sociology ISSN: 1749-5679, 3:3, pp.275-292. 

Gaddis, J. Surprise, security, and the American experience ISBN: 0674018362; 0674011740, Joanna Jackson Goldman Memorial Lecture on American Civilization and Government. (London: Harvard University Press, 2004) - just the relevant sections. 

http://www.911commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf

Group 3: How did the US respond to 9/11 i.e. how were the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq justified and conducted?

Ivo Daalder and James Lindsay (2003) America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign PolicyThe Brookings Institution, pp.98-116.

Holland, J. Selling the War on Terror ISBN: 9781138797468 (paperback); 9780415519755 (hardback); 0415519756 (hardback); 1138797464 (paperback); 9781136207549 (ebook), Routledge 2013 (only the relevant bits on Afghanistan and Iraq)

Further Reading on Bush prior to 9-11

Rice, Condoleezza ‘Promoting the National Interest,’ Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120January/February 2000

Zoellick, Robert B. ‘A Republican Foreign Policy,’Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120January/February 2000

Robert Kagan, ‘The world and President Bush’ Survival ISSN: 0039-6338; 1468-2699, Spring 2001, Vol.43, No.1, pp.7-16

Further (Critical) Reading on 9-11

Anderson, J. 'American Hegemony after 11 September: Allies, Rivals and Contradictions', Geopolitics. ISSN: 1465-0045; 1557-3028, 8:3, (2003), pp.35-60.

Callahan, Kathe, Melvin Dubnick and Dorothy Olshfski. (2006) War Narratives: Framing Our Understanding of the War on Terror, Public administration review. ISSN: 0033-335266(4): 554-568.

Campbell, David. (2001) Time Is Broken: The Return of the Past in the Response to September 11, Theory & Event5(4): 1-11.

Croft, Stuart. (2006) Culture, Crisis and America's War on Terror.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Edkins, J. ‘Ground Zero: Reflections on Trauma, in/Distinction and Response’, Journal for cultural research, 8:3, (2004), pp.247-270.

Edkins, Jennifer. (2002) Forget Trauma? Responses to September 11, International relations. ISSN: 0047-117816(2): 243-256.

Faludi, Susan. (2008) The terror dream : what 9/11 revealed about America ISBN: 9781843547792 (pbk.); 1843547791 (pbk.). London: Atlantic.

Frederking, B., Artime, M., and Pagano, M. 'Interpreting September 11', International politics. ISSN: 1384-5748; 1740-3898, 42:1, (2005), pp.135-151.

Hoskins, Andrew. (2006) Temporality, Proximity and Security: Terror in a Media-Drenched Age. International relations. ISSN: 0047-117820(4): 455-466.

Jackson, Richard. (2005) Writing the war on terrorism : language, politics and counter-terrorism ISBN: 0719071216 (pbk) : No price; 0719071208. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Krebs, Ronald and Jennifer Lobasz. (2007) Fixing the Meaning of 9-11: Hegemony, Coercion and the Road to War in Iraq, Security Studies ISSN: 0963-6412; 1556-1852 16(3): 409-451.

Murphy, John. “Our Mission and Our Moment”: George W. Bush and September 11th,Rhetoric & Public Affairs ISSN: 1094-83926(4): 607-632.

West, M., and Carey, C. '(Re)Enacting Frontier Justice: The Bush Administration's Tactical Narration of the Old West Fantasy after September 11', The Quarterly journal of speech. ISSN: 0033-5630; 1479-5779, 92:4, (2006), pp.379-412.

Widmaier, W . ‘Constructing Foreign Policy Crises: Interpretive Leadership in the Cold War and War on Terror’, International studies quarterly. ISSN: 0020-8833,51:4, (2007), pp.779-794.

Widmaier, W., Blyth, M., and Seabrooke, L. 'Exogenous Shocks or Endogenous Constructions? The Meanings of Wars and Crises', International studies quarterly., 51:4, (2007), pp.747-759.

Further reading on The War on Terror and the War in Iraq:

David M. Andrews (ed.), The Atlantic Alliance Under Stress. Relations After Iraq, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Thomas Risse, ‘Beyond Iraq: The Crisis of the Transatlantic Security Community’, David Held and Mathias Koenig-Archibugi, American power in the 21st century ISBN: 0745633471 (pbk); 0745633463, Polity 2004.

David C. Hendrickson and Robert W. Tucker, ‘Revision in Need of Revising: What went Wrong in the Iraq War’, Survival ISSN: 0039-6338; 1468-2699, Vol.47, No.2, Summer 2005, pp.7-32.

L.Diamond, ‘What went wrong in Iraq’ Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120September/October, 2004.

The Iraq Study Group Report, December 2006, Available online

M.Boot ‘The new American way of war Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120,Jul-Aug 2003, Vol.82, No.4, pp.41-58.

Richard A. Clarke., Against all enemies : inside America's war on terror ISBN: 0743268237London : Free Press, 2004.

D.Dunn ‘Myths, motivations and 'misunderestimations': the Bush Administration and Iraq’, International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850Mar 2003, Vol.79, No.2, pp.279- 297

Dunne ‘The United States, the United Nations and Iraq: 'multilateralism of a kind' International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850, Mar 2003, Vol.79, No.2, pp.257- 277.

Freedman, L. ‘Iraq, Liberal Wars and Illiberal Containment’, Survival ISSN: 0039-6338; 1468-2699 Winter 2006.

Nye Jr ‘U.S. power and strategy after Iraq’ Foreign affairs. , Jul-Aug 2003, Vol.82, No.4, pp.60-73.

David Ryan amd John Dumbrell (ed.), Vietnam in Iraq. Tactics, Lessons, Legacies and Ghosts, Routledge, 2006. 

Bob Woodward, (2004) Plan of attack ISBN: 074325547x,Simon and Schuster .

Bob Woodward (2006), State of denial ISBN: 0743295668 (hbk.) : £18.99, Simon and Schuster.

John Mueller, 'The Iraq Syndrome' Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120 Nov/Dec 2005.

Cramer, J. 'Militarized Patriotism: Why the U.S. Marketplace of Ideas Failed before the Iraq War', Security Studies ISSN: 0963-6412; 1556-1852, 16:3, (2007), pp.489-524.

Cramer, J. ‘Militarized Patriotism and the Success of Threat Inflation’, in American Foreign Policy and the Politics of Fear ISBN: 9780415777698 (pbk.) : £22.99; 9780415777681 (cased) : £85.00; 0415777682 (cased) : £85.00; 0415777690 (pbk.) : £22.99; 9780203879092 (ebk.) : No price; 0203879090 (ebk.) : No price: Threat Inflation and 9-11, edited by Thrall, T. and Cramer, J., (Oxford: Routledge, 2009).

Flibbert, A. 'The Road to Baghdad: Ideas and Intellectuals in Explanations of the Iraq War ', Security Studies ISSN: 0963-6412; 1556-1852, 15:2, (2006), pp.310-352.

Cramer, J. and Thrall, T. ‘Introduction: Understanding Threat Inflation’, in American Foreign Policy and the Politics of Fear ISBN: 9780415777698 (pbk.) : £22.99; 9780415777681 (cased) : £85.00; 0415777682 (cased) : £85.00; 0415777690 (pbk.) : £22.99; 9780203879092 (ebk.) : No price; 0203879090 (ebk.) : No price: Threat Inflation and 9-11, edited by Thrall, T. and Cramer, J., (Oxford: Routledge, 2009).

Freedman, L. ‘Prevention, not Preemption’, The Washington quarterly. ISSN: 0163-660X; 1530-9177, 26:2, (2003), pp.105-114.

Kaufmann, C. ‘Threat Inflation and the Failure of the Marketplace of Ideas: The Selling of the Iraq War’, International security. ISSN: 0162-2889, 29:1, pp.5-48.

Western, J., 'The War over Iraq: Selling War to the American Public', Security Studies ISSN: 0963-6412; 1556-1852, 14:1, (2005), pp.106-139.

 

Week 9: Obama

Group 1: Did supporters hear more change than Obama promised?

McCrisken, T. (2011) ‘Ten years on: Obama’s War on Terror in Rhetoric and Practice’, International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850, 87:4, 781-801. (re-printed Bentley and Holland eds, Obama’s Foreign Policy ISBN: 9780415662604 (hardback : alk. paper); 0415662605 (hardback : alk. paper); 9781315888545 (e-book : alk. paper); 1315888548 (e-book : alk. paper), Routledge.)

Group 2: Was Obama a Jeffersonian?

Holland, J. ‘Obama as modern Jeffersonian’. In Bentley and Holland eds, The Obama Doctrine, Routledge.

Group 3: What was the Obama Doctrine? And what will be Obama’s foreign policy legacy?

Bentley and Holland, eds, The Obama Doctrine ISBN: 9781138831223 (hardback); 1138831220 (hardback); 9781315731346 (ebook), Routledge 2016 (introduction and conclusion, plus chapters of your choosing)

... Further Reading on Obama

Quinn, A. (2011) ‘The Art of Declining Politely’, International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850, 87:4, 803-824. (see also Quinn’s chapter in Bentley and Holland eds, Obama’s Foreign Policy ISBN: 9780415662604 (hardback : alk. paper); 0415662605 (hardback : alk. paper); 9781315888545 (e-book : alk. paper); 1315888548 (e-book : alk. paper), Routledge.)

Barack Obama ‘Renewing American Leadership’ Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120, July/August 2007.

J. Lynch and T. B. McCrisken, eds, “Beyond Bush: A New Era in US Foreign Policy?”,International politics. , 46, (2009): 115-18 – whole of this publication is worth reading.

Fomenko, A. The Acheson Doctrine and the Foreign Policy of Barack Obama International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850,  No.5, 2009, page(s): 53-59.

Christia and M. Semple, “Flipping the Taliban: How to Win in Afghanistan,” Foreign affairs. , July/August 2009.

Special edition of Survival‘The Bush Years and Beyond’, February-March 2008.

G.John Ikenberry, ‘America’s Security Trap’, in Michael Cox and Doug Stokes (ed.), (2008), US foreign policyOxford University Press.

Anatol Lieven, ‘The future of US foreign policy’, in Michael Cox and Doug Stokes (ed.), (2008), US foreign policyOxford University Press.

Richardson, ‘A New Realism. A Realistic and Principled Foreign Policy’, Foreign affairs.Vol.87, No.1. (2008)

Stephen R Graubard, ‘A Broader Agenda. Beyond the Bush Era Foreign Policy’ Foreign affairs, Jan/Feb2009, Vol. 88 Issue 1, p176-181

Mitt Romney ‘Rising to a New Generation of Global Challenges’ Foreign affairs, July/August 2007

Mitchell B. Reiss Restoring America's Image: What the Next President Can Do, Survival.Vol.50, No.5 2008.

Michael J. Williams ‘The Coming Revolution in Foreign Affairs: Rethinking American National Security’ International affairs, November 2008.

See also:

Milton Bearden on the redefinition of the ‘AfPak’ region at: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/64925/milton-bearden/obamas-war

 

Inderjeet Parmar (2014) American power and identities in the age of Obama. International politics. ISSN: 1384-5748; 1740-3898,48(2-3), 153-163.

Jack Holland and Michelle Bentley, eds. (2014) Obama's foreign policy : ending the war on terror ISBN: 9780415662604 (hardback : alk. paper); 0415662605 (hardback : alk. paper); 9781315888545 (e-book : alk. paper); 1315888548 (e-book : alk. paper).London: Routledge.

Inderjeet Parmar, Linda B. Miller, Mark Ledwidge (eds), Obama and the world : new directions in US foreign policy ISBN: 9780415715232 (pbk.); 9780415715225 (hardback); 9781315879789 (e-book), 2nd edition (London: Routledge, 2014)

Jonathan Chait (2016) Five Days That Shaped a Presidency, NY Magazine. available: http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2016/10/barack-obama-on-5-days-that-shaped-his-presidency.html

McCrisken, ‘Justifying sacrifice: Barack Obama and the selling and ending of the war in Afghanistan’ International affairs. , Volume 88, Issue 5, pages 993–1007, September 2012

Leila Hudson, Colin S. Owens and Matt Flannes, ‘Drone warfare: blowback from the new American way of war’, Middle East policy. ISSN: 1061-1924 18: 3, Fall 2011, pp. 122–32.

Steven P Lee (2015) Human Rights and Drone “Warfare”. Peace Review ISSN: 1040-265927 (4) p. 432.

Mike Fowler (2014) "The Strategy of Drone Warfare." Journal of Strategic Security 7(4): 108-119. Available online

Fomenko, A. The Acheson Doctrine and the Foreign Policy of Barack Obama International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850, 2009: 53-59.

James M. Lindsay, George W. Bush, Barack Obama and the future of US global leadership,’ International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850vol. 87 no. 4 (2011) pp. 765-779

Daniel W Drezner, ‘Does Obama Have a Grand Strategy? Why We Need Doctrines in Uncertain Times,’ Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120, 2011

Zbigniew Brzezinski, From Hope to AudacityAppraising Obama's Foreign Policy, Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120 2009.

Nicholas Bouchet, ‘Barack Obama’s democracy promotion at midterm’, International journal of human rights. ISSN: 1364-2987 forthcoming 2011 available on VLE.

Inderjeet Parmar, Foreign policy fusion: Liberal interventionists, conservative nationalists and neoconservatives — the new alliance dominating the US foreign policy establishment, International politics. ISSN: 1384-5748; 1740-3898(2009) 46, 177–209.

John Dumbrell, ‘American Power. Crisis or Renewal?’ Politics. ISSN: 0263-3957; 1467-9256Vol.30 December 2010.

Bob Woodward, Obama's wars ISBN: 9781439172490; 9781439172513 (ebook), 2010.

Michael Desch, ‘The more things change the more they stay the same. The Liberal Tradition of Obama’s Counterterrorism policy’, PS : political science and politics. ISSN: 1049-0965 2010

Robert Kagan, ‘Obama Year One’, World affairs. ISSN: 0043-8200; 1940-1582Volume 172, Number 3 / January - February 2010

The situation in 2008

Special edition of Survival ISSN: 0039-6338; 1468-2699‘The Bush Years and Beyond’, February-March 2008.

G.John Ikenberry, ‘America’s Security Trap’, in Michael Cox and Doug Stokes (ed.), (2008), US Foreign PolicyOxford University Press.

Anatol Lieven, ‘The future of US foreign policy’, in Michael Cox and Doug Stokes (ed.), (2008), US Foreign PolicyOxford University Press.

Richardson, ‘A New Realism. A Realistic and Principled Foreign Policy’, Foreign affairs. Vol.87, No.1. (2008)

Stephen R Graubard, ‘A Broader Agenda. Beyond the Bush Era Foreign Policy’ Foreign affairs. ISSN: 0015-7120, Jan/Feb2009, Vol. 88 Issue 1, p176-181

 

 

J. Lynch and T. B. McCrisken, eds, “Beyond Bush: A New Era in US Foreign Policy?”, International politics. , 46, (2009): 115-18

M Bentley and J Holland, eds, The Obama Doctrine ISBN: 9781138831223 (hardback); 1138831220 (hardback); 9781315731346 (ebook), Routledge 2016

David Skidmore (2012) The Obama Presidency and US Foreign Policy: Where's the Multilateralism? International studies perspectives. ISSN: 1528-3577. 13(1): 43-64.

Inderjeet Parmar (2010). Plus Ca Change? American Foreign Policy under Obama. Political Insight ISSN: 2041-9058,1(1), 14-16.

Kroenig M (2015) Facing Reality: Getting NATO Ready for a New Cold War. Survival : global politics and strategy. ISSN: 0039-6338; 1468-2699 57(1): 49-70.

 

Syria

Fawaz A. Gerges (2013) ‘The Obama approach to the Middle East: the end of America's moment?’ International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850 89(2): 299-323

Amos Guiora "Intervention in Libya, Yes; Intervention in Syria, No: Deciphering the Obama Administration." Case Western Reserve journal of international law. ISSN: 0008-7254 44.Issues 1 and 2 (2011): 251-276.

Robert E. Hunter‘A New American Middle East Strategy?’ Survival ISSN: 0039-6338; 1468-2699 Vol.50 No.6 2008

Donette Murray (2013) Military action but not as we know it: Libya, Syria and the making of an Obama Doctrine. Contemporary Politics ISSN: 1356-977519(2).

Samuel Charap (2013) Russia, Syria and the Doctrine of Intervention. Survival : global politics and strategy. ISSN: 0039-6338; 1468-2699.55(1).

Andreas Krieg (2016) Externalizing the burden of war: the Obama Doctrine and US foreign policy in the Middle East. International affairs. ISSN: 0020-585092(1): 97–113.

Michelle Bentley (2014) Strategic taboos: chemical weapons and US foreign policy. International affairs. ISSN: 0020-5850.90(5).

 

Week 10: Trump

Group 1: How did Trump win the 2016 US election? And why were the pundits so wrong?

Holland, Jack, and Ben Fermor. "Trump’s rhetoric at 100 days: contradictions within effective emotional narratives." Critical Studies on Security 5.2 (2017): 182-186. You may also like the other contributions to this section.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/election-us-2016-37918303

http://www.forbes.com/sites/omribenshahar/2016/11/17/the-non-voters-who-decided-the-election-trump-won-because-of-lower-democratic-turnout/#549f5ace40a1

http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/election-update-yes-donald-trump-has-a-path-to-victory/

http://michaelmoore.com/trumpwillwin/

Group 2: What is the relationship between Trump’s foreign and domestic policies?

Fermor, Ben, and Jack Holland. "Security and polarization in Trump’s America: securitization and the domestic politics of threatening others.Global Affairs 6.1 (2020): 55-70. You may also like the other contributions to this special issue.

Group 3: Is Donald Trump a Jacksonian?

Holland, Jack, and Ben Fermor. "The discursive hegemony of Trump’s Jacksonian populism: Race, class, and gender in constructions and contestations of US national identity, 2016–2018."  Politics (2020): 0263395720936867. You may also like the other contributions to this special issue.

http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/01/donald-trump-foreign-policy-213546

http://www.wsj.com/articles/donald-trumps-jacksonian-revolt-1478886196

http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/05/the-jacksonian-candidate/483563/

http://www.nationalreview.com/article/436544/donald-trump-jacksonian-voters-andrew-jackson-nationalist-politics-are-back

https://niskanencenter.org/blog/obama-trump-jacksonian-foreign-policy/

Good Reading:

Reading list:

Stephen Sestanovich ‘The brilliant incoherence of Trump’s foreign policy’ The Atlantic May 2017.

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/05/the-brilliant-incoherence-of-trumps-foreign-policy/521430/

Thomas Wright, ‘Trump’s 19th Century Foreign Policy,’ Politico, January 20, 2016 http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/01/donald-trump-foreign-policy-213546

Ronald Brownstein (2016) How Trump Won, The Atlantic 9 Nov 2016.

https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/11/how-trump-won/507053/

‘How Trump Won and Why Clinton Lost the Election – 13 Theories’ (2016) Vox.com

http://www.salon.com/2016/12/26/13-theories-on-why-trump-won-and-how-clinton-lost_partner/

LSE US Centre, The Ballpark podcast Episode 2.3: Trumpian Foreign Policy

http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2017/06/03/the-ballpark-podcast-episode-2-3-trumpian-foreign-policy/

Max Boot (November 2016) Trump’s ‘America First’ Is the Twilight of American Exceptionalism. Foreign policy. 

 

 

Week 11: Biden

All groups: Why is there no Rooseveltian school of foreign policy?

Duedney, D. and J. Ikenberry, 'The intellectual foundations of the Biden revolution', Foreign Policy, https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/07/02/biden-revolution-roosevelt-tradition-us-foreign-policy-school-international-relations-interdependence/ or here https://outline.com/4EhYxb 

 

 

This list was last updated on 25/11/2021