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Module Reading List

Approaches to Race, 2021/22, Semester 1
Prof Will Gould
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Week 1: Introduction to Race 

Questions to Consider:

1. What are Kenan Malik’s main arguments about the social meanings of ‘race’? How does he examine and explain the relationship between ‘class’ and ‘race’? What are the strengths and weaknesses of his argument?

2.  What does Stephen Jay Gould pick out as being essential in the development of 18th and 19th Century views of ‘race’?

3. How, according to Haney Lopez, is race 'constructed'?

4. How might historians make use of Critical Race Theory in exploring concepts of race?

5. What does Morrison mean by 'literary whiteness'?

Required Readings

Malik, Kenan, The meaning of race: race, history and culture in western society (Basingstoke, 1996) Introduction   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

 Gould, Stephen Jay, The Mismeasure of Man (New York, 1981), pp. 30-72 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 01/10/2020) 

Ian Haney Lopez, White By Law: The Legal Construction of Race, pp. 1-26    

Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, Critical Race Theory: An Introduction (New York, 2012), Chapter 2, pp. 19-43.    

Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (New York, 1992). Preface, pp. v – xiii.  (available online at


Additional Readings:

Adas, M. Machines as the measure of men: science, technology and ideologies of Western dominance (Ithaca, 1989).

Beteille, Andre, ‘Race, Caste and Gender’, Man, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Sept. 1990), pp. 489-504.

Cherniavsky, Eva. Incorporations: Race, Nation, and the Body Politics of Capital (U Minnesota Press, 2006).

Clarke, Kamari Maxine and Deboprah A. Thomas (Eds.).Globalization and Race: Transformations in the Cultural Production of Blackness (Duke UP, 2006).

Dyer, Richard. White (Routledge, 1997).

Galton, David, In our own image: eugenics and the genetic modification of people (London, 2001) – the author is no relation to Francis Galton.

Hill, Mike (Ed.). Whiteness: A Critical Reader (New York UP, 1997.

Hutchinson, John and Smith, Anthony D. eds, Ethnicity (Oxford, 1986).

Ignatiev, Noel. How the Irish Became White (Routledge, 1995).

Jenkins, Laura Dudley ‘Race, Caste and Justice: Social Science Categories and Antidiscrimination Policies in India and the United States’, Connecticut Law Review, (2004), available at  

Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics (Temple UP, 1998).

Mangan, J.A. ed., The Imperial curriculum: racial images and education in British colonial experience (London, 1993).
· Oommen, T.K. ‘Race, Religion, and Caste: Anthropological and Sociological Perspectives’ Comparative Sociology, Vol. 1, No. 2. (2002).

Rich, Paul B., Race and Empire in British politics (Cambridge, 1986).

Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (Revised Edition. Verso, 1999).

Said, Edward, Orientalism (1978) and Culture and Imperialism (1993).

Searle, G.R., Eugenics and politics in Britain, 1900-1914 (Leyden, 1976).

Stoler, Laura Ann, ‘Making empire respectable: the politics of race and sexual morality in 20th Century colonial cultures’ in American Ethnologist (1989).

Weinbaum, Alys Eve. Wayward Reproductions: Genealogies of Race and Nation in Transatlantic Modern Thought (Duke UP, 2004).

Wiegman, Robyn. American Anatomies: Theorizing Race and Gender (Duke UP, 1995).
Young, Robert J.C., Colonial Desire: hybridity in theory, culture and race (1995).

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Week 2: Approaches to Domination and Resistance

Questions to Consider

• What is everyday resistance?

• How can historians identify it and analyse it?

• How might the concept of everyday resistance be re-worked by considerations of gender?

Required Readings:

James C. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcript (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991)

Manuel Barcia, Seeds of insurrection : domination and slave resistance on western Cuban plantations, 1808-1848 ISBN: 9780807133651 (cloth : alk. paper) (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008)

Raymond and Alice Bauer, "Day to Day Resistance to Slavery," Journal of Negro history. ISSN: 0022-2992 27, no. 4 (1942): 388-419.

Bruce Mouser, "Rebellion, Marronage and Jihad: Strategies of Resistance to Slavery on the Sierra Leone Coast, c. 1783-1796," The journal of African history. ISSN: 0021-8537 48, no. 1 (2007): 27-44.

Robert Paquette, "Social History Update: Slave Resistance and Social History," Journal of Social History. ISSN: 0022-4529 24, no. 3 (1991): 681-685.

Doudo Diene, "The Notion of Cultural Resistance," History News 69, no. 1 (2014): 11-14. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 


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Week 3: Disease, Race and Resistance

(CONTENT WARNING: Some of the content in the required and additional reading contain references to abusive language, slurs and sexual violence)

  Questions to Consider:  

  • How have evolving ideas around race shaped external understandings of disease in Africa? 
  • In what ways have Africans sought to resist attempts at social control using western biomedicine? 


Required Readings and Film


Randall Packard, ‘The invention of the “tropical worker”: Medical research and the quest for Central African labor on the South African gold mines, 1903-36,’ Journal of African History, 34 (1993), 271-92    

 Farmer, Paul. “The Largest Ever Epidemic of Ebola: 1 October 2014.” Reproductive Health Matters 22.44 (2014): 157–162. [doi:]    

 Luise White. ""They Could Make Their Victims Dull": Genders and Genres, Fantasies and Cures in Colonial Southern Uganda." The American Historical Review 100, no. 5 (1995): 1379-402. doi:10.2307/2169863    

 Feierman, Steven. “Explanation and Uncertainty in the Medical World of Ghaambo.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 74 (2000): 317–344. [10.1353/bhm.2000.0070]    

Suggested Readings:

 Race Philip Curtin,“‘The White Man’s Grave’: Image and Reality, 1780-1850,” The journal of British studies. (November 1961), 94-110 

Heald, Suzette. “The Power of Sex: Some Reflections on the Caldwells' 'African Sexuality' Thesis”. Africa: journal of the International African Institute. 65.4 (1995): 489–505 

 Summers, Carol 1991. ‘Intimate colonialism: the imperial production of reproduction in Uganda, 1907-1925’ Signs. 16(4): 787-807 

 Hunt, Nancy Rose, 1988 ‘Le bebe en brousse’: European women, African birth spacing and colonial intervention in breast feeding in the Belgian Congo, The international journal of African historical studies.  21(3): 401-432 

 Claire Wendland, “Research, therapy, and bioethical hegemony: the controversy over perinatal HIV research in Africa,” African studies review. 51:3 (2008): 1‐23 

 Lakoff, Andrew. “Two Regimes of Global Health.” Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development 1.1 (2010): 59–79. [doi:10.1353/hum.2010.0001] Resistance OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CRH 27/08/2021)  

 Bledsoe, Caroline, Fatoumatta Banja, and Allan G. Hill. "Reproductive Mishaps and Western Contraception: An African Challenge to Fertility Theory." Population and development review. 24, no. 1 (1998): 15-57. doi:10.2307/2808121. 

 Nguyen, Vinh-Kim. "Trial communities: HIV and therapeutic citizenship in West Africa." In P. Geissler (ed), Evidence, ethos and experiment: the anthropology and history of medical research in Africa  (2011): 429-44. 

 Doyle, S. (2020). Pandemics and soft power: HIV/AIDS and Uganda on the global stage. Journal of Global History, 15(3), 478-492. doi:10.1017/S1740022820000248


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Week 4: Childhood and Race

Key readings

 Questions to Consider

1. Why has childhood been so important in the making of racial categories?

2. To the extent that childhood and race were especially important for colonial regimes, what similarities and differences do you see across different colonial times and places?

3. What is the significance of emotion for understanding histories of race and childhood?

4. How does a focus on childhood make particular demands of how we understand race, class and gender?

5. What methodological problems and possibilities arise when we try to research and write about histories of childhood and race?
Key readings

Case records from the South African Children’s Welfare Act (1913), supplied

Christine Firpo and Margaret Jacobs, ‘Taking Children, Ruling Colonies: Child Removal and Colonial Subjugation in Australia, Canada, French Indochina and the United States, 1870-1950s’, Journal of World History, 29, 4 (2018), 529-562

Additional reading

Allen, Margaret, ‘The Deluded White Woman and the Expatriation of the White Child’ in Katherine Ellinghaus, Jane Carey and Leigh Boucher, eds., Re-Orientating Whiteness (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Jordanna Bailkin, ‘The Postcolonial Family? West African Children, Private Fostering and the State’, Journal of Modern History, 81, 1 (2009)

Lucy Bland, Britain’s Brown Babies: The Stories of Children Born to Black GIs and White Women in the Second World War (Manchester, 2019)

Lucy Bland, 'Interracial Relationships and the "Brown Baby Question": Black GIs, White British Women and their Mixed Race Offspring in World War 11', Journal of the History of Sexuality, 26, 3 (2017)

Ellen Boucher, Empire’s Children: Child Emigration, Welfare and the Decline of the British World (Cambridge, 2014)

Laura Briggs, Somebody’s Children: The Politics of Transnational and Transracial Adoption (Duke, 2012)

Linda Chisholm, ‘Class, Colour and Gender in Child Welfare in South Africa, 1902-1918’, South African Historical Journal, 23 (1990)

Antoniette Errante, ‘White Skin, Many Masks: Colonial Schooling, Race and National Consciousness among White Settler Children in Mozambique, 1934-1974’, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 36, 1 (2003)

Christina Firpo, ‘Crises of Whiteness and Empire in Colonial Indochina: The Removal of Eurasian Children from the Vietnamese Milieu, 1890-1956’, Journal of Social History, 43, 3 (2010)

Christina Firpo, The Uprooted: Race, Children and Imperialism in French Indochina, 1890-1980 (2016)

Linda Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Harvard, 1999)

Nancy Rose Hunt, ‘“Le bébé en brousse”: European Women, African Birth Spacing and Colonial Intervention in Breast Feeding in the Belgian Congo’ in Ann Stoler and Fred Cooper, eds., Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World (Berkeley, 1997)

Will Jackson ‘An Unmistakable Trace of Colour: Racializing Children in Segregation-era Cape Town’, Past and Present 238, 1 (2018)

Margaret Jacobs, White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Materialism and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940 (2009)

Daniel Livesey, Children of Uncertain Fortune: Mixed Race Jamaicans in Britain and the Atlantic Family, 1733-1833 (Chapel Hill, 2017)

Susan Pedersen, ‘The Maternalist Moment in British Colonial Policy: The Controversy over ‘Child Slavery’ in Hong Kong,1917-1941’, Past and Present, 171,1 (2001)

Peter Robb, ‘Children, Emotion, Identity and Empire: Views from the Blechynden’s Calcutta Diaries (1790-1822), Modern Asian Studies, 15 (2006)

Sébastien Roux, ‘The Colour of Family Happiness: Adoption and the Racial Distribution of Children in Contemporary France’, Social Anthropology, 25 (4), 2017, 509-524

Emanuelle Saada, Empire’s Children: Race, Filiation and Citizenship in the French Colonies, trans. Arthur Goldhamme (Chicago, 2012,)

Satadru Sen, Colonial Childhoods: The Juvenile Periphery of India, 1850-1945 (2005)

Jerome Teelucksingh, ‘The “Invisible Child” in British West Indian Slavery’, Slavery and Abolition, 27 (2006)

Kathleen Vongsathorn, ‘ “A Real Home”: Children, Family, Mission and the Negotiation of Life at the Kumi Children’s Leper Home in Colonial Uganda, Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, 8, 1 (2015)

Owen White, Children of the French Empire: Miscegenation and Colonial Society in French West Africa, 1895-1960 (Oxford, 1999)



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Week 5: Race, Anti-Colonialism and Internationalism

Questions to Consider:

  1. How did race act as a source of political mobilization in the twentieth century?
  2. Activism or ideology - What is ‘solidarity’?
  3. How did activists and political leaders bring together different racialized experiences to promote Afro-Asian solidarity, Tricontinentalism, and non-alignment?
  4. What other social, cultural, ideological, political, or economic factors motivated solidarity?
  5. What aspects of twentieth-century solidarity can we see in contemporary racial politics, such as Black Lives Matter?


Required Readings:

Primary Sources

  1. Bandung Conference (1955)
    1. Opening address given by Sukarno
    2. Richard Wright, ‘Racial Shame at Bandung’, inThe Color Curtain: A Report on the Bandung Conference (1956), 175-96  


Secondary Sources

  1. Glenda Sluga,Internationalism in the Age of Nationalism(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013), introduction
  2. Su Lin Lewis and Carolien Stolte, ‘Other Bandungs: Afro-Asian Internationalisms in the Early Cold War’,Journal of World History 30, no. 1-2 (2019): 1-19
  3. Vijay Prashad, ‘Bruce Lee and the Anti-Imperialism of Kung Fu: A Polycultural Adventure’, Positions  11 (2003): 51-90


AND please choose ONE of the following:

 Cemil Aydin, ‘Pan-Nationalism of Pan-Islam, Pan-Asian, and Pan-African Thought’, in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Nationalism, ed. John Breuilly (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 

 Lorraine Bayard de Volo, ‘Tactical Negrificacion and White Femininity: Race, Gender, and Internationalism in Cuba’s Angolan Mission’, Radical History Review 136 (2020): 36-49

 Keisha N. Blain, ‘“[F]or the Rights of Dark People in Every Part of the World”: Pearl Sherrod, Black Internationalist Feminism, and Afro-Asian Politics during the 1930s’, Souls  17 (2015): 90-112

Daniel Immerwahr, ‘Indianizing Race in the United States’, Modern Intellectual History 4 (2007): 275-301

Christopher J. Lee, ‘At the Rendezvous of Decolonization’, International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 11 (2009): 81-93


Primary Sources

  1. Bandung Conference (1955)
    1. Opening address given by Sukarno
    2. Richard Wright, ‘Racial Shame at Bandung’, inThe Color Curtain: A Report on the Bandung Conference (1956), 175-96    


Secondary Sources

  1. Glenda Sluga, Internationalism in the Age of Nationalism (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013), introduction
  2. Su Lin Lewis and Carolien Stolte, ‘Other Bandungs: Afro-Asian Internationalisms in the Early Cold War’, Journal of World History 30, no. 1-2 (2019): 1-19

 AND please choose TWO of the following:

  1. Cemil Aydin, ‘Pan-Nationalism of Pan-Islam, Pan-Asian, and Pan-African Thought’, in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Nationalism, ed. John Breuilly (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 
  2. Lorraine Bayard de Volo, ‘TacticalNegrificacion and White Femininity: Race, Gender, and Internationalism in Cuba’s Angolan Mission’, Radical History Review 136 (2020): 36-49
  3. Keisha N. Blain, ‘“[F]or the Rights of Dark People in Every Part of the World”: Pearl Sherrod, Black Internationalist Feminism, and Afro-Asian Politics during the 1930s’, Souls 17 (2015): 90-112
  4. Daniel Immerwahr, ‘Indianizing Race in the United States’, Modern Intellectual History 4 (2007): 275-301
  5. Christopher J. Lee, ‘At the Rendezvous of Decolonization’, International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 11 (2009): 81-93
  6. Vijay Prashad, ‘Bruce Lee and the Anti-Imperialism of Kung Fu: A Polycultural Adventure’, Positions 11 (2003): 51-90



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Week 6: Race, Incarceration and Resistance in the United States

 CONTENT WARNING: Some of the content in the core and additional reading contains references to abusive language, slurs and violence, including some graphic images in the Black Panther Party newspaper.

 Questions to Consider:

  1. Is incarceration a problem unique to the US?
  2. Why were the 1970s a high point for Black organising in prisons?
  3. From the readings, what are the writers/activists’ positions on the use of violence?
  4. How to the writers/activists explore the history of race and imprisonment in the US?
  5. Examine the various forms that the primary sources take: how effective are they as tools for resistance? Why did activists choose this method? What are the positives/negatives?
  6. How to writers/activists imagine prison abolition? How is it similar/different to past forms of resistance?
  7. Between 1980 and 2007, rates of incarceration increased by more than 450%, so why have we not seen a movement equivalent to that in the 1970s?

Required Reading:

Core Primary:

  1. Berger, D. (2014). Captive nation: Black prison organizing in the civil rights era. University of North Carolina Press. (Intro + Ch.6 on VLE)    
  2. Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness(Revised edition.). New Press. (Intro + Ch. 3)    
  3. Gottschalk, M. (2006). The prison and the gallows: the politics of mass incarceration in America. Cambridge University Press. (esp. Ch.7 “From Rights to Revolution”)    
  4. Mariame Kaba, So You’re Thinking About Being an Abolitionist? (LEVEL, 10/30/20)  



OR Mariame Kaba, Yes, we literally mean abolish the police, NYT (2020)    

OR Victoria Law, “Prisons Make Us Safer” Looks at Resistance Behind Bars (book excerpt), Teen Vogue, February 9.    

Suggested Readings:

Optional additional reading, listening, watching

Optional additional secondary Reading:

A E Raza. (2011). Legacies of the Racialization of Incarceration: From Convict-Lease to the Prison Industrial Complex. Journal of the Institute of Justice and International Studies, 11, 159–.

Berger, D. (2010). The hidden 1970s: histories of radicalism. Rutgers University Press.

Bernstein, L. (2007) “The Age of Jackson: George Jackson and the Culture of American Prisons in the 1970s”, The Journal of American Culture, Volume 30, Number 3

CR10 Publications Collective, ed. Abolition Now! Ten Years of Strategy and Struggle Against the Prison Industrial Complex. Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2008.

Davis, A. Y. (2003). Are prisons obsolete? Seven Stories.

Doss, E. (1999). "Revolutionary art is a tool for liberation’’: Emory Douglas and protest aesthetics at the black panther. New Political Science, 21(2), 245–259.

Durant, S., Douglas, E., & Seale, B. (2013). Black Panther: the revolutionary art of Emory Douglas (Revised edition.). Rizzoli.

Edelman, Gilad. The Real Answer to Mass Incarceration, The New Yorker, (July 17, 2015)

Felber, G. (2018). “Shades of Mississippi”: The Nation of Islam’s Prison Organizing, the Carceral State, and the Black Freedom Struggle. The Journal of American History (Bloomington, Ind.), 105(1), 71–95.

Fleetwood, Nicole R. “Posing in Prison: Family Photographs, Emotional Labor, and Carceral Intimacy.” Public Culture 27, no. 3 (2015): 487--511.

Gilmore, R. W. (2007). Golden gulag: prisons, surplus, crisis, and opposition in globalizing California. University of California Press.

James, J. (2003). Imprisoned intellectuals: America’s political prisoners write on life, liberation, and rebellion. Rowman & Littlefield.

James, Joy. Framing the Panther: Assata Shakur and Black Female Agency in Want to Start a Revolution? Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle, eds. Jeanne Theoharis, Komozi Woodard, and Dayo F. Gore. (New York: NYU Press, 2009).

LeFlouria, T. L. (2015). Chained in silence: Black women and convict labor in the new South. The University of North Carolina Press.

Mogul, J. L., Ritchie, A. J., & Whitlock, K. (2011). Queer (in)justice: the criminalization of LGBT people in the United States. Beacon.

Oparah, J. C. (2005). Global lockdown: race, gender, and the prison-industrial complex. Routledge.

Oshinsky, D. M. (1997). “Worse than slavery”: Parchman Farm and the ordeal of Jim Crow justice. Free Press Paperbacks.

Richie, B. (2012). Arrested justice: black women, violence, and America’s prison nation. New York University Press.

Thompson, H. A. “Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline and Transformation in Postwar American History” Journal of American History, (December 2010).

Thompson, H. A. (2017). Blood in the water : the Attica prison uprising of 1971 and its legacy. Vintage Books.

Thuma, E. (2015). Lessons in Self-Defense: Gender Violence, Racial Criminalization, and Anticarceral Feminism. Women’s Studies Quarterly, 43(3/4), 52–71.

Thuma, E. L. (2019). All our trials: prisons, policing, and the feminist fight to end violence. University of Illinois Press.


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Week 7: Race and Caste in South Asia

Questions to Consider:

  • What was the interplay between the concepts of race and ‘caste’ in South Asia?
  • How were enduring stereotypes of the ‘exotic’, ‘criminal’ or ‘primitive’ produced, both in the archive and modern culture? What was the reception of these stereotypes within India?
  • To what extent were they a western ‘import’ or the result of South Asian imperatives and ideas of difference?
  • How resilient have they been since decolonisation?
  • How might we critique scholarship which has sought to ‘deconstruct’ these categories of difference?

Required Readings:

Sunil Khilnani, oral narration of review of Isabel Wilkerson’s book on Caste and Race, ‘Isabel Wilkerson’s World-Historical Theory of Race and Caste’, The New Yorker, 17 August 2020, available at

Ajay Skaria, ‘Shades of Wildness: Tribe, Caste, and Gender in Western India’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 56.3 (1997), 726-45    

 Nicholas B. Dirks, ‘Castes of Mind’, Representations, 37 Special Issue: Imperial Fantasies and Postcolonial Histories (1992), 56-78    

 Crispin Bates, ‘Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: The Early Origins of Indian Anthropometry’ in The Concept of Race in South Asia, ed. by Peter Robb (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 219-59   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 01/10/2020) 


 Susan Bayly, ‘Caste and “Race” in the Colonial Ethnography of India’ in The Concept of Race in South Asia, ed. by Peter Robb (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 165-218   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 01/10/2020) 

 For an overview on caste (if you’re unfamiliar with it), see Susan Bayly, Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001) – the introduction, but feel free to read more if you wish!    

Primary Sources:

BBC Asian Network 'Caste Discrimination: Campaigners vow to fight for legislation'

B R Ambedkar, The Annihilation of Caste (1936), available at

Suggested Readings:

Adas, Michael, Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989)

 Banerjee, Prathama, Politics of Time: ‘Primitives’ and History-writing in a Colonial Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

 Chandra, Uday, ‘Liberalism and its Other: The Politics of Primitivism in Colonial and Postcolonial Indian Law’, Law & Society Review, 47.1 (2013), 135-68

 Dirks, Nicholas B., Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001)

 Gupta, Charu, The Gender of Caste: Representing Dalits in Print (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2017)

 Hudson, Nicholas, ‘From "Nation" to "Race": The Origin of Racial Classification in Eighteenth-Century Thought’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 29.3 (1996), 247-264

 Inden, Ronald, 'Orientalist Constructions of India', Modern Asian Studies, 20.3 (1986), 401-46

 Inden, Ronald, Imagining India (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992)

 Ivan Hannaford, Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996) – chapters 7 and 8

 Jaffrelot, Christophe, India’s Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Low Castes in North Indian Politics (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003)

 Kapila, Shruti, 'Race matters: Orientalism and Religion, India and Beyond c. 1770–1880', Modern Asian Studies, 41.03 (2007), 471-513

 Kuper, Adam, The Invention of Primitive Society: Transformations of an Illusion (London: Routledge, 1988)

 MacFie, A. L., Orientalism: A Reader, (Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 2000), esp sections 10, 11 and 12

 Malik, Kenan, The Meaning of Race: Race, History and Culture in Western Society (NYU Press, 1996) – chapters 2 and 3

 Mani, Lata and Ruth Frankenberg, ‘The Challenge of Orientalism’, Economy and Society, 14.2 (1985), 174-92

 Marshall, P. J., ‘Taming the Exotic. The British and India in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’ in Exoticism in the enlightenment ed. by Rousseau and Porter (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990)

 Marshall P. J., and G. Williams, The Great Map of Mankind: British Perceptions of the World in the Age of Enlightenment (London: Dent, 1982)

 Nigam, Sanjay, ‘Disciplining and Policing the “Criminals by Birth”, Part 1: The Making of a Colonial Stereotype – The Criminal Tribes and Castes of North India’, The Indian Economic and Social History Review, 27.2 (1990), 131-64

 Piliavsky, Anastasia, ‘The “Criminal Tribe” in India before the British’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 57.2 (2015), 323-54 – in many ways a rebuttal to the stance taken by Nigam

 Rawat, Ramnarayan S., Reconsidering Untouchability: Chamars and Dalit History in North India (Indiana University Press, 2011)

 Said, Edward, Orientalism, (London: Penguin, 1995) – Introduction

 Samson, Jane, Race and Empire, (London: Pearson Education, 2005)

 Stepan, Nancy, The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain 1800-1960 (Macmillan, 1982)



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Week 8: Race and Materiality in Colonial Spanish America 

Questions to Consider:

  • How did early modern Iberian institutions define/imagine Blackness?
  • In what ways did this instantiation impact the material lives of African-descended people?
  • What do early modern anxieties around Blackness reveal about the Spanish empire?
  • How do visual representations of otherness (and especially Blackness) in Spanish America speak to colonial desires and fears?

Required Readings:

Danielle Terrazas Williams, “Finer Things: African-Descended Women, Sumptuary Laws, and Governance in Early Spanish America,” pp. 1-28  Available online 

 Tamara J. Walker, “ ‘He outfitted his family in notable decency’: Slavery, Honour, and Dress in Eighteenth-Century Lima, Peru,” Slavery & Abolition 30, no. 3 (2009): pp. 383-402

 Ilona Katzew, Casta Paintings: Images of Race in Eighteenth Century Mexico, pp. 63-111   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

 Primary Sources: Selection of Casta Paintings

 *Bonus Material: Lulu Garcia-Navarro, “Photos Reveal Harsh Detail Of Brazil’s History With Slavery,”

Further Readings:

Tamara J. Walker, Exquisite Slaves: Race, Clothing, and Status in Colonial Lima. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

María Elena Martinez, “The Black Blood of New Spain: Limpieza de Sangre, Racial Violence, and Gendered Power in Early Colonial Mexico,” The William and Mary Quarterly 61, no. 3 (2004): pp. 479-520.

Danielle Terrazas Williams, “ ‘My Conscience is Free and Clear’: African-descended women, Status, and Slave Owning in Mid-Colonial Mexico,” The Americas 75, no. 3 (July 2018): 525-554.

Alejandro de la Fuente and Ariela Gross, “Comparative Studies of Law, Slavery, and Race in the Americas” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 6, (2010), pp. 469-485.

Michelle A. McKinley’s Fractional Freedoms: Slavery, Intimacy, and Legal Mobilization in Colonial Lima, 1600-1700. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Rebecca Earle, “ “Two Pairs of Pink Satin Shoes!!”: Race, Clothing and Identity in the Americas (17th-19th Centuries).” History Workshop Journal 52 (Autumn 2001), pp. 175-195.

Molly A. Warsh, “A Political Ecology in the Early Spanish Caribbean,” The William and Mary Quarterly 71, no. 4 (2014): pp. 517-548

Magali M. Carrera, “Locating Race in Late Colonial Mexico,” Art Journal 57, no. 3 (1998): pp. 36-45

Magali M. Carrera, Imagining Identity in New Spain: Race, Lineage, and the Colonial Body in Portraiture and Casta Paintings

Ilona Katzew, Casta Paintings: Images of Race in Eighteenth Century Mexico

Herman L. Bennett, Africans in Colonial Mexico: Absolutism, Christianity, and Afro- Creole Consciousness, 1570-1640. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.

Herman L. Bennett,  Colonial Blackness: A History of Afro-Mexico.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.

 R. Douglas Cope, The Limits of Racial Domination: Plebeian Society in Colonial Mexico City, 1660-1720. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

 Martha Few, Women Who Live Evil Lives: Gender, Religion, and the Politics of Power in Colonial Guatemala. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

 Laura Lewis, Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft, and Caste in Colonial Mexico. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

 David Barry Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine, eds. Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in the Americas. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

 Camba Ludlow Ursula. Imaginarios ambiguos, realidades contradictorias: conductas y representaciones de los negros y mulatos novohispanos, siglos XVI-XVII. Mexico, D.F.: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Históricos, 2008.

 Klein, Herbert S. and Ben Vinson, III. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean. Second edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

 Frederick P. Bowser, The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524-1640.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974. 

 Landers, Jane G. and Barry M. Robinson, eds. Slaves, Subjects, and Subversives: Blacks in Colonial Latin America. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.

María Elena Martinez, Genealogical Fictions: Limpieza de Sangre, Religion, and Gender in Colonial Mexico.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.


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Week 9: Stuart Hall: Three essays on race

Questions to Consider:

  • For Hall, why are both the sociological and economic approaches to race/racism worthy of close study?
  • How does Hall bring the concept of ‘articulation’ into his argument about race/racism?
  • Who was Antonio Gramsci and why is he important for Hall?
  • Hegemony is a key concept of Gramsci’s which Hall puts to use. What does it mean?
  • By the time Hall is delivering ‘Race, the Floating Signifier’, what has changed and what has remained in place from his earlier two essays on race/racism?

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Required Readings

Following three essays from Stuart Hall, Selected Writings on Race and Difference, Paul Gilroy and Ruth Wilson Gilmore (eds), (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2021):

“Race, Articulation and Societies Structured in Dominance” [1980]

“Gramsci’s Relevance for the Study of Race and Ethnicity” [1986]

“Race, the Floating Signifier: What More Is There to Say about ‘Race’?” [1997]

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Suggested Readings


Stuart Hall, Essential Essays Volume 1: Foundations of Cultural Studies (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2019)

Stuart Hall, Essential Essays Volume 2: Identity and Diaspora (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2019)

Stuart Hall, Cultural Studies 1983: A Theoretical History (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2016)

Stuart Hall, Familiar Stranger: A Life Between Two Islands (Duke University Press, 2017)

Stuart Hall, Selected Political Writings: The Great Moving Right Show and Other Essays (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2017)

Stuart Hall, Selected Writings on Marxism (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2021)

Stuart Hall and Paddy Whannel, The Popular Arts (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2018)

John Akomfrah, The Stuart Hall Project (Smoking Dogs Films, 2013)  



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Week 10: (Rebecca Infield class, TBC)


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Week 11: Conclusion and summary 

In this class we will be doing two activities to conclude the module as a whole:


  1. You are asked to revisit 3 secondary or primary texts from the module that you found particularly engaging, whether from the point of view of the text’s usefulness, its insights or its approach. Please prepare to talk about your texts for 5-10 minutes in the class.


  1. Please come to the class with an article, podcast or similar item that reflects (ideally in a historical way) on a current issue relating to race or resistance.



This list was last updated on 23/09/2021