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Module Reading List

Gender and Equality at Work in Comparative Perspective, 2021/22, Semester 1
Joanne Burgess
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Week 1. Introduction: Choice and Constraint in Gender and Work


Hakim, C. (2000) Work-lifestyle choices in the 21st Century : preference theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Introduction. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (PR 23/09/2021) 

McRae, S. (2003) ‘Constraints and choices in mothers’ employment careers: a consideration of Hakim’s Preference Theory.’ The British journal of sociology., 54 (3), 317-338.


Crompton, R. (2006) ‘Understanding change in employment, family and gender relations’. In Employment and the family : the reconfiguration of work and family life in contemporary societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Evetts, J. (2000) ‘Analysing change in women’s careers: culture, structure and action dimension’ Gender, work and organization., 7, 1, 57-67.

Gerstal N and Clawson D (2014) Class Advantage and the Gender Divide: Flexibility on the Job and at Home. American Journal of Sociology., 120 (2): 395-431.

Hakim, C. (2004) Key issues in women's work : female diversity and the polarisation of women's employment. London: Glasshouse Press. 2nd ed., ch. 1. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Procter, I. & Padfield, M. (1999) 'Work orientations and women's work: A critique of Hakim's theory of the heterogeneity of women.' Gender, work and organization.. 6 (3) 152-162.

Tomlinson, J. (2006) ‘Women’s work-life balance trajectories through part-time work across the life-course. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling.. 34, 365-82.

Miklya, E. and Cornwall, M. (2010) ‘Working class job loss, gender and the negotiation of household labor.’ Gender & society., 24, 4, 447-474.


Becker, G. (1985) ‘Human capital, effort and the sexual division of labour’ Journal of labor economics., 3, 1, January supplement: S33-58

Hochschild, A. (1997). The time bind : when work becomes home and home becomes work . Henry Holt and Company.

Walters, S. (2005) ‘Making the best of a bad job? Female part-timers’ orientations and attitudes to work’, Gender, work and organization., 12, 3, 193-216


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Week 2: Social Theories of Gender Relations

Required reading

Connell, R. (2002) Gender. Cambridge: Polity Press (Introduction and Chapter 6) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva


Acker, J. (2006) ‘Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class and Race in Organizations’ Gender & society., 20 (4): 441-64


Connell, R. and Messerschmidt (2005) ‘Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the concept’ In Gender and Society,19, 6, 829-859

Hancock, A.N. (2012) '‘It's a macho thing, innit? ’ Exploring the effects of masculinity on career choice and development', Gender, work and organization., 19, 4 392–415.

Healy, G., Kirton, G. and Noon, M. (2010)Equality, inequalities and diversity : contemporary challenges and strategies. Basingstoke: PalgraveMacmillan. Chapter 1 pages 1-17 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Walby, Sylvia, (2004) ‘The European Union and gender equality: emergent varieties of gender regime.’ Social politics., 11, 1, 4-29

Acker, J. (1990) ‘Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations’. Gender and Society, 4 (2): 139-58

Sen, A. (1992) Inequality Reexamined. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (also available as an electronic resource).

Pollert, A. (1996) 'Gender and class revisited: or, the poverty of 'patriarchy'', Sociology. 30(4): 639-659.

Tomlinson J, Valizade D, Muzio D, Charlwood A and Aulakh S (2019) Privileges and penalties in the legal profession in England and Wales: An intersectional analysis. British Journal of Sociology 70(3): 1043-1066.

Walby, S. Armstrong, J. and Strid, S. (2012) ‘Intersectionality: Multiple Inequalities in Social Theory’, Sociology 46(2): 224-240.

Woodhams, C., Lupton, B. and Cowling (2015) The snowballing penalty effect: multiple disadvantage and pay. British journal of management. ISSN: 1045-3172, Vol. 26, 63–77

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Week 3: Race and Ethnicity

Required reading

Tomlinson J, Valizade D, Muzio D, Charlwood A and Aulakh S (2019) Privileges and penalties in the legal profession in England and Wales: An intersectional analysis. British Journal of Sociology 70(3): 1043-1066.

Recommended reading

Bradley, H. and Healy, G. (2008) Ethnicity and gender at work : inequalities, careers and employment relations London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Pilkington, A. (2003) Racial disadvantage and ethnic diversity in Britain. 'Institutional racism and the underclass thesis: minority ethnic groups in the labour market'. (ch. 3). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Pp. 51-91. For further reading see Chapter 4 93-121

Shah, P. (2011) 'Ethnic and religious diversity in Britain. Where are we going? ', in G. Healy, G. Kirton and M. Noon (eds) Equality, inequalities and diversity : contemporary challenges and strategies. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 77-92.

Berthoud, R. (2000) ‘Ethnic employment penalties in Britain’ Journal of ethnic and migration studies., 26, 3: 389-416.

Clark, K. and Drinkwater, S. (2007) Ethnic minorities in the labour market : dynamics and diversity York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. A Summary of this Report is available in JRF Findings at 

Kirton, G. (2009) Career Plans and Aspirations of Recent Black and Minority Ethnic Business Graduates'. Work, employment and society., 23(1): 12-29

Cheung, S. Y. and Heath, A. (2007) ‘Nice work if you can get it: Ethnic penalties in Great Britain’, in Heath, A., Cheung, S. Y. with Smith, S. N. (eds) Unequal chances : ethnic minorities in Western labour markets. Proceedings of the British Academy., 137. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.507-50

Oikelome, F. (2011) ‘Relevance of US and UK national histories in the understanding of racism and inequality in work and career’ in Healy, G. Kirton and M. Noon (eds)Equality, inequalities and diversity : contemporary challenges and strategies. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 195-211.

Parekh, B. (2000) The future of multi-ethnic Britain (London: Profile), ch. 14, ‘Employment’, pp. 192-204.

Race for Opportunity. (2010) 'Race to the Future. The challenges and opportunities for ethnic minorities in the UK workforce n 2025'. London: Business in the Community. Available online here:

Virdee, S. (2014) Racism, class and the racialized outsider ISBN: 9780230551640 (paperback) : £24.99; 9780230551633 (hardback) : £65.00 Satnam Virdee. Palgrave Macmillan. Chapter 2. (OCR requested core) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (PR 23/09/2021) 

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Week 4. Gender Equality in Europe


Fagan, C., & Rubery, J. (2018). Advancing Gender Equality through European Employment Policy: The Impact of the UK's EU Membership and the Risks of Brexit. Social policy and society : a journal of the Social Policy Association. ISSN: 1474-7464; 1475-3073, 17(2), 297-317. doi:10.1017/S1474746417000458


Plomien, A (2018) EU Social and Gender Policy beyond Brexit: Towards the European Pillar of Social Rights, Social Policy and Society 17:2, 281–296  doi:10.1017/S1474746417000471

Rubery, J. et al. (2004) ‘Ups and downs of European gender equality policy.’ Industrial relations journal., 35, 6, 603-628.

Duncan, Simon, (2002) 'Policy discourses on 'reconciling work and life' in the EU.' Social policy and society., 1, 4, 305-314.

Stratigaki, Maria, (2004) ‘The Cooptation of Gender concepts in EU Policies: the case of ‘reconciliation of work and family’. Social politics., 11, 1, 30-56.

Walby, S. (1999) 'The new regulatory state: the social power of the European Union.' The British journal of sociology., 50, 1, 118-140.

Rubery, J (2002) ‘Gender mainstreaming and gender equality in the EU: the impact of the EU employment strategy.’ Industrial relations journal., 33, 5, 500-522.

Smith, M. and Villa, P. (2010) The ever declining role of gender equality in the European Employment Strategy.’ Industrial relations journal., 41, 6, 526-543.

Tomlinson, J. (2011) Gender Equality and the State: A review of recent EU developments Special Issue: Bringing the State Back in? The State and Human Resource Management, International journal of human resource management..22 (18): 3755-3774.


Duncan, S. (1996) 'Obstacles to a successful Equal Opportunities policy in the European Union.' The European journal of women's studies., 3, 399-422.

Rossilli, M. (1997) 'The European Community’s policy on the equality of women.' The European Journal of Women’s Studies, 4, 63-82.


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Week 5. Comparative Perspectives: gender and welfare regimes 


Yerkes, M. and Javornik, J (2018) Creating capabilities: childcare policies in comparative perspective, Journal of European Social Policy 29, 4, 529-544.


Lewis, S. and Smithson, J. (2001) ‘Sense of entitlement to support for the reconciliation of employment and family life’. Human relations., 54, 11, 1455-81

Tomlinson, J. (2011) Gender Equality and the State: A review of recent EU developments Special Issue: Bringing the State Back in? The State and Human Resource Management, International journal of human resource management. 22 (18): 3755-3774.

Plantenga, J. and Remery, C. (2005) Reconciliation of work and private life : a comparative review of thirty European countries.’ European Commission (particularly the chapter on Childcare)

Plantenga, J. and Remery, C. (2009) The provision of childcare services : a comparative review of 30 European countries.’ European Commission.

Lewis, J. (2001) ‘The decline of the male breadwinner model: implications for work and care’ Social politics., Summer, 152-169.

Hass, L. and Hwang, C. (2008) The impact of taking parental leave on fathers’ participation and relationship with children: some lessons from Sweden’ Community, Work & Family, 11, 1, 85-105.

Esping-Andersen, G. (2000) ‘Interview on Postindustrialism and the future of the Welfare State’ Work, employment and society., 14, 4, 757-769.

Soskice, D. (2005) ‘Varieties of capitalism and cross national gender differences’ Social politics., 12, 2, 170-179.

Tomlinson, J. (2007) ‘Employment Regulation, Welfare and Gender Regimes: a comparative analysis of women’s working-time patterns and work-life balance in the UK and the US’, International journal of human resource management., 18, 3, 401-416.


Estevez-Abe, M. (2005) ‘Gender bias in skills and social policies: the Varieties of Capitalism perspective on sex segregation.’ Social politics., Summer, 180-215.

Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Oxford: Polity Press.


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Week 6. Organisational Culture

Required reading

Holt, H. and Lewis, S. (2011) ‘”You Can Stand on Your Head and Still End Up with Lower Pay”: Gliding Segregation and Gendered Work Practices in Danish ‘Family-friendly’ Workplaces’. Gender, work and organization., 18. S1: e202-e221

Recommended reading

Kelly, E. L., Ammons, S. K., Chermack, K. and Moen, P. (2010) ‘Gendered challenge, gendered response: confronting the ideal worker norm in a white-collar organization’. Gender & society., 24, 3: 281-303.

Lewis, S. (1997) ‘Family friendly employment policies: a route to changing organizational culture or playing about at the margins. Gender, Work and Organization, 4, 1, 13-23.

Liff, S. and Ward, K. (2000) ‘Distorted Views Through the Glass Ceiling: The Construction of Women’s Understandings of Promotion and Senior Management’, Gender, Work and Organization, 18, 1: 19-36.

Pemberton, C. (1995) ‘Organizational Culture and Equalities Work’, in Shaw, J. and Perrons, D. (eds) Making Gender Work (Buckingham: Open University Press), pp. 108 –123.

Schein, E. H. (2004) Organizational Culture and Leadership. (Third ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Part One.

Additional reading

Cashmore, E. (2001) ‘The experiences of ethnic minority police officers in Britain: under-recruitment and racial profiling in a performance culture’, Ethnic and racial studies., Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 642-59

Holdaway, S. and O’Neill, M. (2007) ‘Where has all the racism gone? Views of racism in constabularies after Macpherson’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30, 3: 397-415.


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Week 7. Gender and Management

Required reading

Vinnicombe, S. et al. 2020. The Female FTSE Board Report: 2020: Taking Targets Seriously. Cranfield School of Management (executive summary). Available at: Female FTSE Board Report (

Evetts, J. (2000) 'Analysing change in women's careers: culture, structure and action dimensions' Gender, work and Organisation 7, 1, 57-67

Recommended reading

Durbin, S. and Tomlinson, J. (2014) Female Part-Time Managers: Careers, Mentors and Role Models, Gender, work and organization.. 21 (4): 308-320.

Sealy, R. and Vinnicombe, S. (2013)The Female FTSE Board Report 2013: False Dawn of Progress For Women On Boards? Cranfield University School of Management Available at

Hoobler J, Wayne S and Lemmon G (2009) Bosses' Perceptions of Family-Work Conflict and Women's Promotability: Glass Ceiling Effects. Academy of Management Journal 52(5) 939-957.

Stone, P. and Lovejoy, M. (2004) ‘Fast track women and the ‘choice’ to stay home.’ In Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science., 62-83.

Walsh, J. (2012) ‘Not Worth the Sacrifice? Women’s Aspirations and Career Progression in Law Firms’.Gender, work and organization., 19(5), 508–53.

Wajcman, J. and Martin, B. (2002) “Narratives of identity in modern management: the corrosion of gender difference? ” Sociology., 36, 985-1002

Wang, Annie and Crewe, Louise (2018) Gender inequalities in the City of London advertising industry. Environment and planning. A, Environment and planning. ISSN: 0308-518x 50, 3

Wirth, L. (2004) Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management (An update) at

Additional reading

Cooper Jackson, J. (2001), ‘Women middle managers’ perception of a glass ceiling’. Women in management review., 16, 1, 30-41.

Davies-Netzley, S. (1998) 'Women above the glass ceiling.' Gender & society., 12, 3, 339-355

Polachek, S. W. (1981) 'Occupational self-selection: a human capital approach to sex differences in occupational structure' The review of economics and statistics., 63, 1, 60-69


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Week 8. Occupational Gender Segregation


Blackburn, R. Browne, J. Brooks, B. and Jarman, J. (2002) ‘Explaining gender segregation’ The British journal of sociology., 53, 4, 513-536.


Barbalescu, R. and Bidwell, M. (2013) ‘Do Women Choose Different Jobs from Men? Mechanisms of Application Segregation in the Market for Managerial Workers’, Organization science., Vol. 24 ( 3) 737-756

Rubery, J. and Rafferty, A. (2013) ‘Women and recession revisited’, Work, employment and society., 27(3) 414–432

Blackwell, L. (2001) ’Occupational sex segregation and part-time work in modern Britain’ Gender, work and organization., 8, 2, 146-163.

Crompton, R. & Lyonette, C., (2011) Women’s Career Success and Work-life Adaptations in the Accountancy and Medical Professions in Britain, Gender, Work & Organization, 18(2), 231–254

Grugulis, I. and Stoyanova, D. (2012) ‘Social Capital and Networks in Film and TV: Jobs for the Boys? ’ Organization Studies., 33(10) 1311–1331

Herman, C., Lewis, S. & Humbert, A.L., (2013).’Women Scientists and Engineers in European Companies: Putting Motherhood under the Microscope,’ Gender, Work & Organization, 20(5), 467–478.

Miller, L., Neathey, F., Pollard, E. and Hill, D. (2004) Occupational segregation, gender gaps and skill gaps. Working Paper 15 (Manchester: EOC). Google title for access to PDF.

England, P. (2005) “Gender inequality in labour markets: the role of motherhood and segregation” Social politics., Summer, 264-288.

Miller, G. E. (2004) ‘Frontier Masculinity in the Oil Industry: The Experience of Women Engineers’, Gender, Work and Organization, 11 (1), pp. 47-73

Ness, K. (2012) ‘Constructing Masculinity in the Building Trades: Most Jobs in the Construction Industry Can Be Done by Women’ Gender, Work & Organization, 19(6) 654–676.

Tomlinson, J., Olsen, W. and Purdam, K. (2009) Women Returners and Potential Returners: Employment Profiles and Labour Market Opportunities – A Case Study of the UK European sociological review., 25, 3, 349-363.


Simpson R. (2004) ‘Masculinity at work: the experiences of men in female dominated occupations’, Work, employment and society., 18, 2, 349-68.


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Week 9. Gender Inequalities in Pay

Required reading

Rubery, J. and Grimshaw, D (2015) The 40-year pursuit of equal pay: a case of constantly moving goalposts? Cambridge Journal of Economics. 39, 2 319–343 doi:10.1093/cje/beu053


Grimshaw, D. and Rubery, J. (2007) Undervaluing Women’s Work (Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission) Chapter 4 of the Report, ‘Undervaluation at the workplace’, pp.47-73 at

Recommended reading

Chang, C. and England, P. (2011) ‘Gender inequality in earnings in industrialized East Asia’. Social science research., 40, 1: 1–14

Grimshaw, D. and Rubery, J. (2007) Undervaluing Women’s Work (Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission) Chapter 3 ‘Recent empirical evidence for individuals and groups’, pp. 29-46 at

IPPR (2017) ’The State of Pay'

Joshi, H., Makepeace, G. and Dolton, P. (2007) ‘More or Less Unequal? Evidence on the Pay of Men and Women from the British Birth Cohort Studies, Gender, work and organization., 14, 1: 37-55.

Triventi, M. (2013) The gender wage gap and its institutional context: a comparative analysis of European graduates Work, employment and society. 27(4) 563–580

Walby, S. and Olsen, W. (2004) Modelling gender pay gaps, Manchester: EOC  

Additional reading

Government Equalities Office (2010) The gender pay gap in the UK: 1995 to 2007. Research Findings No. 2010/2. London: Government Equalities Office. ( )

Mandel, H. (2012) ‘Winners and Losers: The Consequences of Welfare State Policies for Gender Wage Inequality’ European sociological review., 28, 2: 241–262.


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Week 10. Ethnic segregation and the ethnic pay gap

Required reading

McDowell, L, Rootham, E and Hardgrove, A. (2016) The Production of Difference and Maintenance of Inequality: The Place of Young Goan Men in a Post-Crisis UK Labour Market, Gender, Work and Organization, 23-2 108-123

Recommended reading

Catney, G and Sabater, A., (2015) Joseph Rowntree Foundation Report- Ethnic minority disadvantage in the labour market -participation, skills and geographical inequalities

Anderson, B. and Ruhs, M., (2010). Migrant workers: who needs them? A framework for the analysis of staff shortages, immigration and public policy. Who needs migrant workers, pp.15-52.

Brynin, M. and Güveli, A., (2012). Understanding the ethnic pay gap in Britain. Work, employment and society, 26(4), pp.574-587.

Huppatz, K., & Goodwin, S. (2013). Masculinised jobs, feminised jobs and men’s “gender capital” experiences: Understanding occupational segregation in Australia. Journal of Sociology, 49(2–3), 291–308.

Longhi. S., and Brynin. M, (2017) EHRC Research report 108 Pay gaps research- The ethnicity pay gap. Available here online

Blackwell, L., (2003). Gender and ethnicity at work: occupational segregation and disadvantage in the 1991 British Census. Sociology37(4), pp.713-731.

Wrench, J. (2007) Diversity management and discrimination : immigrants and ethnic minorities in the EU. Aldershot: Ashgate. Ch.4, pp.57-85.

Geddes, A. (2006) Britain, France, and EU Anti-Discrimination Policy: The Emergence of an EU Policy Paradigm. West European politics.. 27 (2). 334–353.

This list was last updated on 22/09/2021