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Evidence and Enquiry Reading List - your complete guide to reading material for this module.

Evidence and Enquiry in Classics, 2021/22, Semester 1, 2
Dr Sam Gartland
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue


There is no required text-book for this module, but you may like to purchase a copy of David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) to support your work on the module (**It is also available online through the library website**). Schaps’ book includes chapters or sections on most of the topics which we will be covering in class, and will help you to consolidate what you have learnt in lectures and to support your work in some of the assessed exercises.

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1. Introductory / General Reference

The most accessible general reference work is The Oxford classical dictionary (ed. 4, Oxford 2012), which has encyclopedia articles on an enormous ranges of people, places and topics from the Classical world, and will also point you towards further bibliography. Along similar lines is Brill's New Pauly : encyclopaedia of the ancient world  (2002 ff., eds. Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider), which is available to read online via the University's subscription.

You may also find it worth looking at M. Howatson (ed.) Oxford companion to classical literature. (ed. 3, Oxford 2011) for articles on particular Classical authors. J. Boardman et al. (eds.) The Oxford history of the classical world (Oxford 1988) offers a very useful series on introductory chapters on the ancient world, and covers literature and material culture as well as history.

Other useful companions for Evidence and Enquiry in Classics include:

Barchiesi, A. and Scheidel, W. eds. 2010. The Oxford handbook of Roman studies ISBN: 9780199211524 (hbk.) : £85.00; 0199211523 (hbk.) : £85.00. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bispham, E., Harrison, T. and Sparkes, B.A. eds. 2006. The Edinburgh companion to ancient Greece and Rome ISBN: 9780748616305 (pbk); 0748616292 (hbk.); 9780748616299 (hbk.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Byrne, S.N. and Cueva, E.P. eds. 2014. A companion to the ancient novel ISBN: 9781444336023 (alk. paper); 1444336029 (alk. paper). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Clauss, J.J. and Cuypers, M. eds. 2010. A companion to Hellenistic literature ISBN: 9781405136792 (hbk.) : £95.00; 1405136790 (hbk.) : £95.00. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Dobrov, G.W. ed. 2010. Brill's companion to the study of Greek comedy ISBN: 9789004109636 (hardback : alk. paper); 9004109633 (hardback : alk. paper). Leiden: Brill.

Dominik, W.J. ed. 2007. A companion to Roman rhetoric ISBN: 1405120916 (hardback : alk. paper); 9781405120913 (hardback : alk. paper). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Easterling, P.E. 1997. The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy. Cambridge: CUP.

Erskine, A. ed. 2009. A Companion to Ancient History. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Fagan, B. and Beck, C. eds. 1996. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford: OUP.

Feldherr, A. ed. 2009. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Historians. Cambridge: CUP.

Foley, J.M. ed. 2010. A Companion to Ancient Epic. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Graziosi, B. et al. eds. 2009. The Oxford handbook of Hellenic studies ISBN: 9780199286140 (hbk.); 0199286140 (hbk.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gregory, J. ed. 2005. A Companion to Greek Tragedy. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Gunderson, E. ed. 2009. The Cambridge companion to ancient rhetoric [electronic resource] ISBN: 9780521860543; 0521860547; 9780521677868 (pbk); 0521677866 (pbk). Cambridge: CUP.

Hardwick, L. and Stray, C. eds. 2008. A Companion to Classical Receptions. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Harrison, S.J. ed. 2005. A companion to Latin literature ISBN: 0631235299. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Horden, P. and Kinoshita, S. eds. 2014. A companion to Mediterranean history ISBN: 9780470659014 (hbk.) : £120.00. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hornblower, S and Spawforth, A. eds. 1998. The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. Oxford.

Kallendorf, C. ed. 2007. A companion to the classical tradition ISBN: 9781444334166 (paperback : alk. paper); 1405122943 (hardcover : alk. paper); 9781405122948 (hardcover : alk. paper). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Kinzl, K.H. ed. 2006. A Companion to the Classical Greek World. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Marincola, J. ed. 2007. A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Morley, N. 2000. Ancient history : key themes and approaches ISBN: 0415165091 (pbk ; cased) : No price; 0415165083. London: Routledge.

Morley, N. 2004. Theories, models, and concepts in ancient history ISBN: 0415248779 (pbk. : alk. paper); 0415248760. London: Routledge.

Potter, D.S. ed. 2006. A Companion to the Roman Empire. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Rosenstein, N. and Morstein-Marx, R. eds. 2006. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Smith, T.J. and Plantzos, D. eds. 2012. A companion to Greek art ISBN: 9781405186049 (set : hbk.) : £200.00; 1405186046 (set : hbk.) : £200.00. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Warren, J. and Sheffield, F.C.C. eds. 2014. Routledge companion to ancient philosophy [electronic resource] ISBN: 9781315871363. London: Routledge.

There is an annual survey of publications in all areas of classics, classified by subject, called L'année philologique. If you want to research a topic in depth, this may help you identify relevant recent work.You will be shown how to search its online database, along with other similar resources, in the library session in semester 1.

Finally, you can also consult online gateways to help you find useful material on the web. Good starting-points include:

Library of Ancient Texts Online - an alphabetically-ordered list of all Greek-language primary sources which are available online, in the original and / or in translation.
Forum Romanum - an alphabetically-ordered list of all Latin-language primary sources which are available online, in the original and / or in translation.
LacusCurtius - a very full collection of primary sources relating to the Roman world, most of them available in translation.
The Perseus Digital Library - an online library of Greek and Latin primary sources, most also available in translation, accompanied by various related modern resources including Greek-English and Latin-English dictionaries.

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Decolonising the Classics

Ashley Clements (2021) Humans, among other classical animals  (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

Jonathan Cahana-Blum, Karmen MacKendrick (2019) We and they: decolonizing Graeco-Roman and Biblical antiquities. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press

Jacques A. Bromberg (2021) Global classics. (Abingdon: Routledge)

John Levi Barnard (2017) Empire of Ruin: Black Classicism and American Imperial Culture (Oxford, OUP)

Mark Bradley (ed) (2010), Classics and Imperialism in the British Empire (Oxford: OUP)

Barbara E. Goff (2013) Your Secret Language’: Classics in the British Colonies of West Africa (London)

Su Fang Ng (2019) Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia: Peripheral Empires in the Global Renaissance (Oxford:OUP)

Phiroze Vasunia (2013) The Classics and Colonial India, (Oxford: OUP)

Ranajit Pal (2002) Non-Jonesian Indology and Alexander (New Delhi: Minerva Press)  

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2. Essay structure

Manchester Academic phrasebank - a useful collection of 'nuts and bolts' phrases which you can use to help tie your arguments together.

The Final Chapter - a Skills@Leeds resource. See especially the section on 'Academic writing'.

University of Reading guide: planning and structuring your essay

Harvard Guide to essay structure   

Godwin, J. 2014. 2nd edn. Planning Your Essay. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Mounsey, C. and Baumgartner-Cohen, B. 2002. Essays and Dissertations. Oxford: OUP.

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3. Academic writing skills

If you feel that you need further help to improve your academic writing skills, the following resources are available to help you:


Day, T. 2013. Success in Academic Writing. London: Palgrave.

Gillett, A., Hammond, A. and Martala-Lockett, M. 2009. Successful Academic Writing. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Osmand, A. 2016. 2nd edn. Academic Writing and Grammar for Students. Los Angeles: Sage.

Sowton, C. 2012. 50 Steps to Improving Your Academic Writing. ISBN: 9781859646557. Reading: Garnet Education.

Zemach, D.E. and Rumesik, L.A. 2003. Academic Writing: From Paragraph to Essay. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

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4. Engaging critically with academic scholarship & Using Journals Effectively

a) Tools for critical engagement

Brink-Budgen, R. van den. 2000. 3rd edn. Critical Thinking for Students. Oxford: How to Books.

Browne, M.N. and Keeley, S.M. 2007. 8th edn. Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking. Harlow: Pearson.

Deane, M. and Borg, E. 2011. Critical Thinking and Analysis. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Stella Cottrell (2011), Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).

Kathleen McMillan & Jonathan Weyers (2013), How to improve your critical thinking & reflective skills [electronic resource] (Harlow: Prentice Hall).

Merchant, M., 1988. ‘Critical engagement’ in Literature & theology., 2.2: 254-61

UCL Berkeley guide to the Critical Evaluation of Resources

Cornell guide to Critically Analyzing Information Sources

Bryn Mawr Classical Review - scholarly book review website.

b) Using Journals Effectively

Guide to Research Using Journal Articles - St Petersburg College Libraries

Blog on the Benefits of Using Journal Articles

Evaluating Journals / Journal Articles

Leeds Library page on Articles

Evaluating Journals - Colorado University advice pages

Evaluating Journal Articles with the CAARP test!

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5. Getting the best out of websites and reference works

a) Evaluating websites

H. Eric Branscomb (1998), Casting your net : a student's guide to research on the Internet t (Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon) – inevitably a bit outdated, but does include guidance on evaluating websites for research purposes.

Alan Clarke (2004), E-learning skills (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).

Ian Jukes, Anita Dosaj & Bruce Macdonald (2000) NetSavvy : building information literacy in the classroom ( Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications).

Elizabeth E. Kirk (1996), Evaluating Information Found on the Internet

Robert Harris (2007) Evaluating Internet Research Sources

John R. Henderson (2007) ICYouSee: T is for Thinking. A Guide to Critical Thinking About What You See on the Web

University of California, Berkeley (2007), Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply & Questions to Ask

b) Some major Classical reference works (a large number of which are given towards the top of the reading list)

The Oxford classical dictionary (ed. 4, Oxford 2012)

Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider eds, 2002ff. Brill's New Pauly : encyclopaedia of the ancient world

J. Boardman et al. (eds.) The Oxford history of the classical world (Oxford 1986)

G. Speake (ed.), A dictionary of ancient Greek civilisation., (Harmondsworth 1995).

The Cambridge Ancient History

Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt

Cambridge Companions

Wiley-Blackwell Companions

M. Howatson (ed.) Oxford companion to classical literature. (ed. 2, Oxford 1989)

P.E. Easterling and B.M.W. Knox (eds.), The Cambridge history of classical literature. Vol.1, Greek literature. (Cambridge 1985)

E. J. Kenney & W. Clausen (eds), The Cambridge history of classical literature. Vol. 2, Latin literature ISBN: 0521210437 (Cambridge 1982)

Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae (LIMC). (Zürich 1981-97)

P. Grimal, The dictionary of classical mythology (Harmondsworth 1991)

J.R. March, Cassell's dictionary of classical mythology ISBN: 030435788x (London 1998) 

T.J. Cornell & J. Matthews, Atlas of the Roman world (Oxford 1982)

P. Levi, Atlas of the Greek world (Oxford 1984)

R.J.A. Talbert, Atlas of classical history (London 1985)

R.J.A. Talbert (ed.), Barrington atlas of the Greek and Roman world (Princeton, N.J./Oxford 2000)

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6. Library session: finding information

This session will provide training on how to use bibliographical database to find appropriate resources when you are researching a new topic.

You can access the main bibliographical databases which are relevant to Classics here.

See also David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 3.

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7. Texts in history, texts for history

a) General introductions

E. Gabba in M. Crawford (ed.), Sources for ancient history (Cambridge 1983) 1-79

W.V. Harris, Ancient literacy (Cambridge MA 1989)

B. Knox & P. Easterling, ‘Books and Readers in the Greek World’, in The Cambridge history of classical literature. Vol.1, Greek literature. (Cambridge 1985), 1-41

N. Morley, Writing ancient history ISBN: 0715628801 (pbk) (London 1999)

C. Pelling, Literary texts and the Greek historian (London 2000).

L. Pitcher, Writing ancient history : an introduction to classical historiography ISBN: 9781845119584 (pbk.); 1845119584 (pbk.) (London 2009)

D.S. Potter, Literary Texts and the Roman Historian (London 1999)

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 4.

O. Taplin (ed.), Literature in the Greek and Roman worlds (Oxford 2000)

R. Thomas, Literacy and orality in ancient Greece (Cambridge 1992)

T. P. Wiseman Unwritten Rome (2008)

b) Case studies: Theognis and The Old Oligarch

R. Lane Fox, ‘Theognis: an alternative to democracy’ in R. Brock & S. Hodkinson (eds.), Alternatives to Athens (Oxford 2002), 35-51

H. van Wees, ‘Megara’s Mafiosi: timocracy and violence in Theognis’ in R. Brock & S. Hodkinson (eds.), Alternatives to Athens (Oxford 2002), 52-67.

W. Don lan, The aristocratic ideal in ancient Greece : attitudes of superiority from Homer to the end of the fifth century B.C. (Lawrence, KS 1980)

T. J. Figueira and G. Nagy (eds.), Theognis of Megara : poetry and the polis (Baltimore, MD 1985).

S. Hornblower, ‘The Old Oligarch ( pseudo-Xenophon’s Athenaion Politeia) and Thucydides. A fourth-century date for the Old Oligarch? ’ in P. Flensted-Jensen, T. Heine Nielsen & L. Rubinstein (eds.), Polis and Politics (Copenhagen 2000), 363-84.

c) 'Proper literature' as a historical source

Augustan poetry: R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (Oxford 1939) chs. 29-30

J. Griffin, ‘Augustus and the poets: Caesar qui cogere posset’, in F. Millar & E. Segal (eds.), Caesar Augustus : seven aspects (Oxford 1984), ch.7

A. Wallace-Hadrill (ed.), Patronage in ancient society (London 1989).

d) Technical and practical writers

D. Whitehead How to survive under siege (Oxford 1990)

J. Jouanna, Hippocrates (tr. M.B. Debevoise, Baltimore 1999)

R.H. Rodgers, Sextus Iulius Frontinus: De aquaeductu urbis Romae (2003)

B. Cunliffe, The extraordinary voyage of Pytheas the Greek (London 2001)

e) Biography

T. Duff, Plutarch's Lives : exploring virtue and vice (Oxford 1999);

C. Pelling, Plutarch and history : eighteen studies (London 2002)

Cornelius Nepos, Cornelius Nepos : a selection, including the lives of Cato and Atticus (ed. & trans. N. Horsfall (Oxford 1989)

f) Literature on literature

Athenaeus Deipnosophistae volumes 1-6 (Loeb 2006-2010)

D. Braund & J. Wilkins (eds.), Athenaeus and his world : reading Greek culture in the Roman Empire (Exeter 2000)

Aulus Gellius Noctes Atticae (Attic Nights) (Loeb); L. Holford-Strevens, Aulus Gellius : an Antonine scholar and his achievement (Oxford 2003).

g) Ancient scholarship

E. Dickey, Ancient Greek scholarship : a guide to finding, reading, and understanding scholia, commentaries, lexica, and grammatical treatises, from their beginnings to the Byzantine period (Oxford 2007).

J. Griffin, Homer on life and death (Oxford 1980), 104-5 and index s.v. Scholia on Homer.

h) Case study: women

M. Lefkowitz & M.B. Fant, Women's life in Greece and Rome (3 rd edition, London 2005)

C. Pelling Literary texts and the Greek historian ch.10

S. Todd, ‘The use and abuse of the Attic orators’, Greece & Rome 37 (1990) 159-78

V. Hunter, Policing Athens : social control in the Attic lawsuits, 420-320 B.C. (Princeton 1994), esp. ch.1

C. Skidmore, Practical ethics for Roman gentlemen : the work of Valerius Maximus (Exeter 1996)

R. Langlands, Sexual morality in ancient Rome (Cambridge 2006).

S.L. James and S. Dillon. A companion to women in the ancient world ISBN: 9781119025542 (paperback); 1119025540 (paperback); 9781405192842 (hardback); 1405192844 (hardback). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

A. Glazebrook (2021) Sexual Labor in the Athenian Courts (Austin, University of Texas Press)


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8. Close commentary and analysis

a) General reading

D. Asheri, A. Lloyd and A. Corcella, A commentary on Herodotus books I-IV (Oxford 2007)

R. Ellis, A Commentary on Catullus (Oxford 1889)

C. J. Fordyce, Catullus (Oxford 1961)

R.K. Gibson and C. Shuttleworth Kraus, eds. The classical commentary : histories, practices, theory (Leiden 2002)

J. Haig Gaisser, Catullus (Oxford 2009)

H. Hayman, The Odyssey of Homer (London 1866)

A. Heubeck, S. West and J.B. Hainsworth, A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey Vol 1 (Oxford 1988)

P. Jones, Homer's Odyssey (Bristol 1988)

P. Jones, Odyssey 1 & 2 (Oxford 1991)

I. de Jong A narratological commentary on the Odyssey (Cambridge 2001)

W. Kelly The Poems of Catullus and Tibullus (London 1887)

R. Sorabji, ed. Aristotle transformed : the ancient commentators and their influence (New York 1990)

b) Commentaries on Homer's Iliad

Fowler, R. 2004. The Cambridge Companion to Homer. Cambridge: CUP.

Jones, P.V. Homer's "Iliad" : a commentary on three translations (Bristol 2003), 54-6 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Kirk, G. S. (ed.) The Iliad : a commentary / general editor G.S. Kirk. Vol. 1, Books 1-4 (Cambridge 1985), 69-76 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Leaf, W. The Iliad (London 1900, second edition), 17-20

Postlethwaite, N. Homer's Iliad : a commentary on the translation of Richmond Lattimore (Exeter 2000), 38-9 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Pulleyn, S. (ed.) Iliad 1 (Oxford 2000), 171-88 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Willcock, M. A commentary on Homer's Iliad : Books I-VI (London 1970), 17-19 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

b) Commentaries on Virgil's Aeneid

Austin, R. G. P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Liber sextus (Oxford 1977), 264-78

Farrell, J. and Putnam, M.C.J. 2010. A companion to Vergil's Aeneid and its tradition ISBN: 9781405175777 (hbk.) : £85.00; 140517577X (hbk.) : £85.00. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Fletcher, F. Aeneid VI (Oxford 1941), 96-102

Mackail, J.W. The Aeneid. (Oxford 1930), 250-4

MacLennan, K. Aeneid VI (Bristol 2002), 27-30 and 179-85

Williams, R. D. Aeneid. Books I-VI. (Bristol 1996), 513-17

Williams, R. D. The "Aeneid" of Virgil : a companion to the translation of C. Day Lewis, with introduction, commentary & glossary. (Bristol 1985), 76-7 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

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9. Epigraphy: texts on stone

a) General guides

J. Bodel, Epigraphic evidence : ancient history from inscriptions (London 2001)

B.F. Cook, Greek inscriptions (London 1987)

Alison E. Cooley 2012, The Cambridge handbook to Latin epigraphy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

L. Keppie, Understanding Roman inscriptions (London 1991)

C.W. Hedrick Jr., Ancient history : monuments and documents (Oxford 2006) chs.5-6

F. Millar, ‘Epigraphy’ in M. Crawford (ed.) Sources for ancient history (Cambridge 1983) ch.2

P.J. Rhodes & R. Osborne, Greek historical inscriptions, 404-323 BC (Oxford 2003 = R&O).

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 17.

A.G. Woodhead, The study of Greek inscriptions (2nd edn. Cambridge 1981)

b)  Collec tions of inscriptions in translation

Translated Documents of Greece & Rome (Cambridge)

C. Fornara Archaic times to the end of the Peloponnesian war (ed.2 1983)

P. Harding Translated documents of Greece and Rome. Vol.2, From the end of the Peloponnesian War to the battle of Ipsus (1985)

R. Sherk Rome and the Greek East to the death of Augustus. [(984)

R. Sherk The Roman empire: Augustus to Hadrian (1988)

c) Ostraka, inscribed tablets and graffiti

M. Lang Graffiti in the Athenian Agora (Princeton 1974)

R. Thomas Literacy and orality in ancient Greece (Cambridge 1992) ch.4

J. Gager Curse tablets and binding spells from the ancient world (Oxford 1992)

E. Eidinow, Oracles, curses, and risk among the ancient Greeks (Oxford 2007)

J. Heurgon ‘The inscriptions of Pyrgi’ The journal of Roman studies. 56 (1966) 1-15

G. Zuntz Persephone : three essays on religion and thought in Magna Graecia (Oxford 1971) 277-86

M.L. West The Orphic poems (Oxford 1983) 

A.K. Bowman & J.D. Thomas Vindolanda : the Latin writing-tablets (London, 1983)

A.K. Bowman & J.D. Thomas The Vindolanda writing tablets (London 1983, 1994)

A.K. Bowman Life and letters on the Roman frontier (London 1994)

d) Websites

Attic Inscriptions Online

EAGLE, The Europeana network of Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy

Current Epigraphy

Saxa loquuntur: a website on Greek and Latin epigraphy

Heidelberg Epigraphic Database

Roman Inscriptions of Britain Online

Packard Humanities Institute Greek Inscriptions

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10. -12. Approaching ancient literature

a) Introductions to literary theory

P. Barry, Beginning Theory: an introduction to literary and cultural theory (ed. 2, Manchester 2002)

A. Benjamin (ed.) Post-structuralist classics (London, 1988)

A. Bennett and N. Royle, An Introduction to Literature, Criticism and Theory (ed.3, Harlow 2004)

H. Bertens, Literary theory : the basics (London 2001)

J. Culler, Literary Theory: a very short introduction (Oxford 1997)

I.J.F. De Jong/J.P. Sullivan (eds.) Modern critical theory and classical literature (Leiden, 1994)

T. Eagleton, Literary theory : an introduction (ed. 2, Oxford 1996)

S.F. Hinds, Allusion and intertext : dynamics of appropriation in Roman poetry (Cambridge 1998)

A. Jefferson/A. Robey (eds.), Modern literary theory : a comparative introduction (ed. 2, London 1986)

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 10.

C. Segal, ‘Ancient Texts and Modern Literary Criticism’ Arethusa. 1.1 (1968) 1-25

R. Selden, A Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory (ed.3, London 1989)

D.A. Russell, “Rhetoric”, in: Criticism in Antiquity (London 1981; ed.2, Bristol 1995), 114-128

T.A. Schmitz, Modern literary theory and ancient texts : an introduction (Malden 2007)

L. Tyson, Critical theory today : a user-friendly guide (New York 1999)

R. Webster, Studying Literary Theory: an introduction (ed. 2, London 1996)

R. Wellek and A. Warren, Theory of Literature (ed. 3, London 1963) [now somewhat dated]

b) Postmodernism

P. Barry, “Structuralism”, in: Beginning Theory: an introduction to literary and cultural theory (ed. 2, Manchester 2002), 39-60

Docherty, Thomas (ed.): Postmodernism: A Reader. London 1993.

Dunn, Francis M.: Tragedy's end : closure and innovation in Euripidean drama. Oxford 1996.

Fowler, Don: Roman constructions : readings in postmodern Latin. Oxford 2000.

Fusillo, Massimo: "How Novels End: Some Patterns of Closure in Ancient Narrative". In: Roberts-Dunn-Fowler (1997), 209-227.

Kermode, Frank: The sense of an ending : studies in the theory of fiction. Oxford 1967.

Paardt R. Th. van der: „The unmasked I: Apuleius Met. XI,27“. In: Mnemosyne 34 (1981), 96-106.

Roberts, Deborah H., Francis M. Dunn & Don Fowler (edd.): Classical closure : reading the end in Greek and Latin literature. Princeton NJ 1997.

Waugh, Patricia (ed.): Postmodernism: A Reader. London 1992.

c) Reader Response Theory

Fish, Stanley: Is there a text in this class? : the authority of interpretive communities. Harvard 1983.

Iser, Wolfgang: The implied reader : patterns of communication in prose fiction from Bunyan to Beckett.. Baltimore 1874.

Iser, Wolfgang: The Act of Reading. London 1978.

Peter J. Rabinwitz, ‘“What’s Hecuba to Us? ” The Audience’s Experience of Literary Borrowing’, in Susan R. Suleiman and Inge Crosman (eds.), The Reader in the text : essays on audience and interpretation (Princeton 1980), 241-63

Suleiman, Susan R. & Inge Crosman (edd.): The Reader in the Text. Princeton 1980.

Jane P. Tompkins (ed.), Reader-response criticism : from formalism to post-structuralism (Baltimore 1980), 201-232

d) Feminism and masculinity theory

P. Morris, Literature and feminism : an introduction, (Oxford 1993)

Luce Irigaray, “Sorcerer Love: A Reading of Plato, Symposium, “Diotima’s Speech””, In: An ethics of sexual difference . Transl. from the French by Carolyn Burke and Gillian C. Gill (London 1993), 20-33.

Foxhall & Salmon, When men were men : masculinity, power and identity in classical antiquity (1998)

David D. Gilmore, “Introduction”, in: Manhood in the making : cultural concepts of masculinity (London/New Haven 1990), 1-29

Maud W. Gleason, ‘Voice and virility in rhetorical writers’, in: Making men : sophists and self-presentation in ancient Rome (Princeton 1995), 103-130.

Paul Cartledge, ‘The machismo of the Athenian empire - or the reign of the phaulus? ’ in: Lin Foxhall and John Salmon (eds.), When men were men : masculinity, power and identity in classical antiquity (London/ New York 1998), 54-67.

Toril Moi, ‘Feminist, Female, Feminine’, in C. Belsey and J. Moore (eds.), The Feminist Reader. Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary Criticism (2 nd ed., London 1977), 117-132.

Bell hooks, Feminism and Class Power’, in: Where we stand : class matters (NY / London 2000), 101-110.

G. Beer, ‘Representing Women: Re-presenting the Past’, in C. Belsey and J. Moore (eds.), The Feminist Reader. Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary Criticism (2 nd ed., London 1977), 62-80

Judith P. Hallett, ‘Feminist Theory, Historical Periods, Literary Canons, and the Study of Greco-Roman Antiquity’, in Nancy Sorkin Rabinowitz and Amy Richlin (eds.), Feminist theory and the classics (London/New York 1993), 44-72.

e) Postcolonialism

Cartledge, Paul: “The machismo of the Athenian Empire – or the Reign of the phaulus? ” In: Lin Foxhall & John Salmon (edd.): When men were men : masculinity, power and identity in classical antiquity. London / New York 1998, 54-67.

Davidson, James: Courtesans & Fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. London 1998, 170f., 180ff.

Ashcroft, Bill et al. (edd.) The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. London/New York 1995.

Belsey, Catherine & Moore, Jane (edd.): The Feminist Reader. Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary Criticism. London 21977.

Docker, John, “The Neo-Colonial Assumption in University Teaching of English”. In: Ashcroft (1995), 443-446.

Hall, Edith: Inventing the barbarian : Greek self-definition through tragedy. Oxford 1989.

Linda Hutcheon, Irony's edge : the theory and politics of irony (London/New York 1995), 176-204

Morrison, Toni, “Disturbing Nurses and the Kindness of Sharks’. In: Belsey & Moore The Feminist Reader. Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary Criticism (2 nd ed., London 1977), 36-51

Renan, Ernest: “What is a Nation? ” In: Homi K. Bhabha (ed.), Nation and narration. London/New York 1990, 8-22.

Said, Edward W.: Orientalism. New York 1978. (Extract in: Ashcroft (1995), The Post-Colonial Studies Reader: 87-91.)

Webster, Jane & Nick Cooper (edd.): Roman imperialism : post-colonial perspectives. Leicester 1996. (Leicester Archaeology Monographs No. 3)

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13. Textual transmission and criticism

a) Papyri

W.G. Arnott : “ Two unpublished literary papyri in the Brotherton Library of the University of Leeds”. In: American Studies in Papyrology 7 (1970) = Proceedings of the twelfth International Congress of Papyrology., ed. by Deborah H. Samuel. Toronto 1970.

Anderson, R.D., P.J. Parsons and R.G.M. Nisbet: ‘Elegiacs by Gallus from Qasr Ibrîm’, The journal of Roman studies. 69 (1979), 125-55

R.S. Bagnall Reading papyri, writing ancient history (London 1995)

Gallo, I.: Greek and Latin papyrology. London 1986.

N. Lewis Life in Egypt under Roman rule (Oxford 1983)

E.G. Turner, Greek papyri : an introduction (ed. 2, Oxford 1980)

Turner, E.G.: The typology of the early codex. Philadelphia 1977.

Turner, E.G.: Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World. Second Edition Revised and Enlarged by P.J. Parsons. London 1987.

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 18. - links to papyrological resources and a search engine which can retrieve information from multiple papyrus collections

The Perseus Project - useful links to papyri collections as well as the ZPE = Zeitschrift fuer Papyrologie und Epigraphik, BMCR.

The Leuven Database Of Ancient Books - searchable database of ancient literary texts on papyri and what has been written about them

Oxyrhynchus Papyri Project - images of papyri from Oxyrhynchus

Checklist Of Editions - bibliography, standard abbreviations for editions of papyri

b) Manuscripts

B. Bischoff, Latin palaeography : antiquity and the Middle Ages (Cambridge 1990)

A.C. Clark, The descent of manuscripts (Oxford 1918)

L.D. Reynolds (ed.), Texts and transmission : a survey of the Latin classics (Oxford 1983)

L.D. Reynolds & N.G. Wilson, Scribes and scholars : a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature (ed. 3, Oxford 1991) esp. ch.6

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 19.

c. Textual criticism

R.D. Anderson, P.J. Parsons and R.G.M. Nisbet, ‘Elegiacs by Gallus from Qasr Ibrîm’, The journal of Roman studies. 69 (1979), 125-55

B. Bischoff, Latin palaeography : antiquity and the Middle Ages (Cambridge 1990)

A.C. Clark, The descent of manuscripts (Oxford 1918)

J.N. Grant (ed.), Editing Greek and Latin texts : papers given at the twenty-third Annual Conference on Editorial Problems, University of Toronto, 6-7 November 1987 (New York 1989)

A.E. Housman, ‘The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism’, in J. Diggle and F.R.D. Goodyear (eds.) The classical papers of A.E. Housman (Cambridge 1972) 1058-69 (vol. 3)

E.J. Kenney, The classical text : aspects of editing in the age of the printed book (Berkeley 1974)

P. Maas, Textual criticism (Oxford 1958)

M.D. Reeve, ‘Cuius in usum? recent and future editing’, The journal of Roman studies. 90 (2000) 196-206

L.D. Reynolds (ed.), Texts and transmission : a survey of the Latin classics (Oxford 1983)

L.D. Reynolds & N.G. Wilson, Scribes and scholars : a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature (ed. 3, Oxford 1991) esp. ch.6 

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 20.

E.G. Turner, Greek papyri : an introduction (ed. 2, Oxford 1980)

M.L. West, Greek lyric, tragedy, and textual criticism : collected papers (Stuttgart 1973)

J. Willis, Latin textual criticism (Urbana, London 1972) 

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14. Library session: papyri, manuscripts and early printed books

This session will take you to the Special Collections area in the Brotherton Library, where rare, valuable and historical items are looked after. You can learn about the holdings in Special Collections and where they came from at the Special Collections section of the library website.

Classics staff at Leeds have been involved in the production of two online resources relating to Special Collections material:

1. A blog entry and podcast about a seven hundred year old astronomy manuscript recently identified in the Special Collections archive, featuring Dr. Regine May and Prof. Malcolm Heath.

2. An online resource exploring a 15th-century edition of Ovid's works created by Dr. Paul White.

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15. Using Translations

D.H. Berry, Cicero: Defence speeches (Oxford 2000), xxxi-xxxiv

M. Comber, ‘Translating Translation’ Omnibus. 16 (November 1988), 20-22 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

P. France (ed.), The Oxford guide to literature in English translation. (Oxford 2000), esp. the articles by P. France (‘Translation Studies and Translation Criticism’) and S. Simon (‘Gender in Translation’)

A.G. Geddes, ‘Homer in translation’, Greece & Rome 35 (1988), 1-13, reprinted in I. McAuslan and P. Walcot (ed.), Homer (Oxford 1990), 186-98

M. Grant,Cicero: Selected works (Harmondsworth 1960), 20-24

D.E. Hill, ‘What sort of translation of Virgil do we need? ’, Greece & Rome 25 (1978), 59-68, reprinted in I.McAuslan and P. Walcot (ed.), Virgil (Oxford 1990), 180-88

L.G. Kelly, The true interpreter : a history of translation theory and practice in the West (Oxford 1979)

C.E. Landers, Literary translation : a practical guide (Clevedon 2001)

C. Martindale, Redeeming the text : Latin poetry and the hermeneutics of reception (Cambridge 1993), chapter 4

W. Radice and B. Reynolds (eds.), The Translator's art : essays in honour of Betty Radice (Harmondsworth 1987).

B.R. Rees, ‘Some thoughts on translation’, Greece & Rome 21 (1974), 111-27

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 30.

G. Steiner, After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation (ed.3, Oxford 1998)

J.M. Walton Found in translation : Greek drama in English (Cambridge 2006)

It is generally worth having a look at the introductions to translations (such as the Oxford World’s Classics and Penguin series), in particular the new Penguin series Poets in Translation, which devotes volumes to classical authors such as Homer, Sappho, Virgil and many others.

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16. Classical art

M. Beard, & J. Henderson, J., Classical art : from Greece to Rome (Oxford 2001)

J. Boardman (ed.), The Oxford history of classical art (Oxford 1993)

J.J. Coulton, Greek architects at work : problems of structure and design (London 1977)

E. D’Ambra, Roman art (Cambridge 1998)

E. D’Ambra, Art and identity in the Roman world (London 1998).

J. Elsner, Art and the Roman viewer : the transformation of art from the pagan world to Christianity (Cambridge 1995).

T. Holscher, The language of images in Roman art (Cambridge 2004)

D. Kleiner, Roman sculpture. (Yale 1992).

R. Osborne, Archaic and classical Greek art (Oxford 1998)

J.G. Pedley, Greek art and archaeology (London 1998)

J.J. Pollitt, Art and experience in classical Greece (Cambridge 1972)

T. Rasmussen & N. Spivey (eds.), Looking at Greek vases (Cambridge 1991)

C.M. Robertson, A history of Greek art (Cambridge 1975)

S. Scott & J. Webster, eds, Roman imperialism and provincial art (Cambridge 2004)

H.A. Shapiro, Myth into art : poet and painter in classical Greece (London 1994)

Smith, T.J. and Plantzos, D. eds. 2012. A companion to Greek art ISBN: 9781405186049 (set : hbk.) : £200.00; 1405186046 (set : hbk.) : £200.00. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

B.A. Sparkes, Greek pottery : an introduction (Manchester 1991)

Small, J.P. 2003. The parallel worlds of classical art and text ISBN: 0521815223. Cambridge: CUP.

N. Spivey, Understanding Greek sculpture : ancient meanings, modern readings (London 1995)

N. Spivey, Greek art (London 1997)

Stewart, P. 2004. Roman Art. Oxford: OUP.

D. Strong (rev. R. Ling), Roman art (Harmondsworth 1988)

Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae (LIMC). (Zürich 1981-97)

Elena N. Boeck, The bronze horseman of Justinian in Constantinople: The cross-cultural biography of a Mediterranean monument. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2021

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18. Classical Archaeology

a) General handbooks

S. Alcock and R. Osborne (2007) , Classical archaeology (Oxford: Blackwell)

G. Barker & A. Grant (eds.), Companion encyclopedia of archaeology (London 1999)

S. L. Dyson (2013), Archaeology and Ancient History. In: A. Erskine (ed) A Companion to Ancient History. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell - chapter 6.

B.M. Fagan (1996) , The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. (Oxford)

K. Greene (1986), The archaeology of the Roman economy (University of California Press: Berkeley)

K. Greene, Archaeology : an introduction (4th edn., London and New York 2002)

I. Hodder (1992) , Theory and practice in archaeology

I. Hodder (1986) , Reading the Past, Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology

C. Renfrew & P. Bahn, Archaeology : theories, methods and practice (London 2004)

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 14.

b) Excavation techniques

P. Barker (1977/93/98) , Techniques of Archaeological Excavation

P. Barker (1986) , Understanding archaeological excavation

D.R. Brothwell and A.M. Pollard, eds. (2001) Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (John Wilson and Sons, Chichester)

E.C. Harris (1979/89) , Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy

E.C. Harris, M.R. Brown and G.J. Brown (1993) , Practices of archaeological stratigraphy

c) Non-invasive techniques

Mark Bowden, ed. (1999) , Unravelling the landscape : an inquisitive approach to archaeology (Tempus, Stroud)

Anthony J. Clark (1996) , Seeing beneath the soil: prospecting methods in archaeology (Routledge, London: 2 nd edn.)

S.S. Frere & J.K. St. Joseph (1983) , Roman Britain from the air (Cambridge: CUP)

S. Macready and F. Thompson, eds. (1985) , Archaeological field survey in Britain and abroad (London)

D.N. Riley (1996) , Aerial archaeology in Britain (Shire Publications, Princes Risborough)

I. Scollar, A. Tabbagh, A. Hesse and I. Herzog (1990) , Archaeological prospecting and remote sensing (Cambridge: CUP)

D.R. Wilson (2000) , Air photo interpretation for archaeologists (Tempus, Stroud: 2 nd edn.)

The Sphakia Survey: internet edition  

d) Dating and scientific techniques

Don Brothwell and Eric Higgs (1969) , Science in archaeology : a survey of progress and research

.R. Biers (1992), Art, Artefacts and Chronology in Classical Archaeology ( London: Thames & Hudson)

S. Fleming (1976), Dating in archaeology : a guide to scientific techniques (London: Dent)

H.N. Michael and E.K. Ralph, eds. (1971) , Dating techniques for the archaeologist (Cambridge: MIT Press)

B. Orme, ed. (1982) , Problems and case studies in archaeological dating (Exeter: University of Exeter Press).

David Wilson (1978) , Science and archaeology (Middlesex: Penguin)

e) Seeing beyond the usual world of classics

Rachel Mairs (2020) The Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek world. (Abingdon: Routledge)

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19. Numismatics (coin studies)

a) Major coin catalogues and reference works

British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (1873 ff., reprinted 1963-4) Catalogue of Greek Coins (London: Trustees of the British Museum) – volumes organised by polis.

British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (1910ff.) Coins of the Roman Republic / Empire in the British Museum (London: Trustees of the British Museum) – volumes organised by period.

A. Burnett, M. Amandry, et al. (1992-1999) , The Roman Provincial Coinage (London: British Museum)

J. Melville-Jones (1986) A Dictionary of Ancient Greek Coins  (London: Spink)

H. Mattingly, et al. (1923-1994) The Roman Imperial Coinage (London: Spink)

D. Sear (1964) , Roman Coins and their Values. (London: Seaby. 5 th edition 2000)

D. Sear (1978-9) , Greek Coins and their Values. (London: Seaby)

David Hendin (2022) Guide to Biblical coins, 6th ed. New York: American Numismatic Society  

Wildwinds Ancient Coins - (A very full online reference site for both Greek and Roman coins)

b) General issues

J. Casey and R. Reece, eds. (1988) Coins and the archaeologist ( London: Seaby).

F. Holt (2021) When money talks: a history of coins and numismatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 

Chris Howgego (1995), Ancient history from coins (London: Routledge)

M. Grant (1958) , Roman history from coins : some uses of the Imperial coinage to the historian (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

K.W. Harl (1996) Coinage in the Roman economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700 ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).

A.R. Meadows (2013) Numismatics. In: A. Erskine (ed) A Companion to Ancient History (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell) - chapter 5

W.E. Metcalfe (2012) The Oxford handbook of Greek and Roman coinage ISBN: 9780199372188 (pbk.); 0199372187 (pbk.); 9780195305746 (hardcover); 0195305744 (hardcover) (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

M.J. Price and B. L. Trell (1977) Coins and their cities : architecture on the ancient coins of Greece, Rome, and Palestine (London: Vecchi)

Sitta von Reden (2010), Money in classical antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

David M. Schaps (2011), Handbook for classical research (London and New York: Routledge) - chapter 16.

J.H. Kroll, Peter G. Van Alfen (2006) Agoranomia : studies in money and exchange presented to John H. Kroll. (New York: American Numismatic Society)

c) Coins in the Greek world

I. Carradice (1995) , Greek coins (London: British Museum Press).

I. Carradice & M. Price (1988) Coinage in the Greek world (London: Seaby).

K. Erickson (2018) The early Seleukids, their gods and their coins. (London; New York)

G.K. Jenkins (1990) Ancient Greek coins (London: Seaby)

C. M. Kraay (1976) Archaic and classical Greek coins ( London : Methuen)

O. Mørkholm (1991) Early Hellenistic coinage : from the accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336-188 B.C.) ISBN: 0521395046 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

D.M. Schaps (2004) The invention of coinage and the monetization of ancient Greece (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press)

S.Glenn (2020) Money and Power in Hellenistic Bactria (ANS: New York)


d) Coins in the Roman Republic

M.H. Crawford (1969) Roman Republican coin hoards (London: Royal Numismatic Society)

M. H. Crawford Roman Republican coinage (Cambridge 1974)

M. H. Crawford (1985), Coinage and money under the Roman Republic : Italy and the Mediterranean economy

S. Bernard (2018) The Social History of Early Roman Coinage. The journal of Roman studies 108, pp. 1-26.

e) Coins under the principate

C. Rowan (2018) From Caesar to Augustus (c. 49 BC-AD 14) : using coins as sources ISBN: 9781107675698 (paperback); 9781107037489 (hardback) (Cambridge: CUP)

C.H.V. Sutherland (1951) Coinage in Roman imperial policy 31 B.C.-A.D. 68. (London: Methuen)

C.H.V. Sutherland (1987) , Roman history and coinage, 44 BC-AD 69 : fifty points of relation from Julius Caesar to Vespasian (Oxford : Clarendon)

L. Breglia (1968) Roman imperial coins : their art and technique ( London : Thames & Hudson)

R.A.G. Carson (1990) Coins of the Roman Empire ( London : Routledge)

T. Harvey (2019) Julia Augusta: images of Rome's first empress on the coins of the Roman Empire. (London; Routledge)

C. Arnold-Biucchi, M. Beckmann (2018) Sculpture and Coins: Margarete Bieber as Scholar and Collector. Loeb Classical Monographs 16. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press)

f) Coinage in the Roman provinces

G. Askew (1980) The coinage of Roman Britain ( London : Seaby)

R. Reece (1987) Coinage in Roman Britain ( London : Seaby)

C. Howgego, V. Heuchert and A. Burnett (2005) Coinage and identity in the Roman provinces ( Oxford : Oxford University Press).

A.S. Robertson (2000) An inventory of Romano-British coin hoards ( London : Royal Numismatic Society).

Jerome Mairat, Andrew Wilson, and Chris Howgego (eds.) (2022) Coin Hoards and Hoarding in the Roman World, Oxford, OUP   

(this volume is supported by the project website here:

g) Recovering the history of 'small' places through coinage

H. Beck (2020) Localism and the Ancient Greek City-State (London: University of Chicago Press) 

Lolos, & Koskinas, A. (2011). Land of Sikyon : archaeology and history of a Greek city-state. (American School of Classical Studies at Athens)

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21. Digital Classics

G. Bodard and Mahony, S. (2010) Digital research in the study of classical antiquity ISBN: 9780754677734 (hbk.) : £55.00; 0754677737 (hbk.) : £55.00; 9780754695233 (ebk.) : £55.00. Farnham: Ashgate.

M. Romanello and G. Bodard (2016) Digital Classics Outside the Echo-Chamber : Teaching, Knowledge Exchange and Public Engagement ISBN: 9781909188464 (print-ISBN); 9781909188471 (e-ISBN); 9781909188488 (pbk-ISBN). Ubiquity Press.

D. Zuckerberg (2018)  Not All Dead White Men: Classics and Misogyny in the Digital Age (Cambridge: Harvard University Press)

C. Rollinger (2020) Classical antiquity in video games: playing with the ancient world. Imagines - classical receptions in the visual and performing arts. (London: Bloomsbury Academic)

ORBIS: the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World

Hestia: Geospatial Analysis of Herodotus' Histories

Vindolanda Tablets Online 

Electric Archaeology - a blog by Digital Archaeologist Shawn Graham

The Digital Classics seminar series, Oxford 2015 - video recordings on a seminar series about current research in Digital Classics. - information about geographical places - online Atlas of the Ancient World

Portable Antiquities Scheme

Standards for Networking Ancient Prosopgraphies - a way to search for people in the ancient world

PeriodO - compare time periods across cultures and other fun tools!

Kerameikos - Greek pottery

Inscriptions Databases:

Packard Humanities Institute site:

Attic Inscriptions Online:*.html

Top Ten Classically-related Twitter accounts:

Classics at Leeds: @LeedsClassics

rogueclassicist: @rogueclassicist

The Classical Association: @Classical_Assoc

Classics Collective: @Classicscoll

The Institute of Classical Studies: @IcsDirector

The Roman Society: @TheRomanSoc

The Hellenic Society: @Hellenic_Soc

University of Oxford Classics Outreach: @oxfordclassics

Sophie Hay: @pompei79

Edith Hall: @edithmayhall

Top Ten Classically-related Blogs:

Ancient Worlds at Manchester Museum -

Secret Lives of Objects by Leeds Museums and Galleries -  

TrowelBlazers: ‘Awesome trowel-wielding women: WE SALUTE YOU!’ - 

RogueClassicism: ‘quidquid bene dictum est ab ullo, meum est’ -

The Classical Association blog -

Classically Inclined by Liz Gloyn, Royal Holloway London -

A Don’s Life by Mary Beard, Cambridge -

The Edithorial by Edith Hall, King’s College London -

Argonauts and Emperors by the Department of Classics, Nottingham -

Panoply: Animating the Ancient World -

Digital Numismatics:

Greek Coin Hoards Online:

Coins in the name of Alexander the Great:

Seleucid Coins:

Roman Republican Coinage:

Roman Imperial Coinage:

Roman Provincial Coinage:

Roman Coin Hoards (quite incomplete currently):


Leeds Classical Association -

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22. How to Approach Your Own Research Project

Classics staff research profiles - a good way to identify a potential supervisor.  

Classics research activity - information about major research projects already going on in Classics.  

This list was last updated on 31/03/2022