Dr Olivia Wright
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue
- Seminar 1: Introduction to Black Internationalism Studies
- Seminar 2: Haiti
- Seminar 3: George Schuyler, Black Empire and Garveyism
- Seminar 4: Caribbean Cultures
- Seminar 5: Printing Black Internationalism
- Seminar 6: Negritude (week 7)
- Seminar 7: Gender, Home and Diaspora (week 8)
- Seminar 8: African American Communism, Pan Africanism & the International Left (week 9)
- Seminar 9: International Black Power (week 10)
- Seminar 10: Exile and Diaspora (week 11)
Seminar 1: Introduction to Black Internationalism Studies
To prepare for the first seminar you should browse the AAIHS website and blog Black Perspectives. Here you will find many interesting resources, book reviews, roundtables as well as bibliographies of new books on black internationalism.
In addition you should read the following:
Introduction to West, M. O., Martin, W. G., & Wilkins, F. C. (2009). From Toussaint to Tupac: The Black International since the Age of Revolution. The University of North Carolina Press.
Jake Hodder, “Toward a Geography of Black Internationalism: Bayard Rustin, Nonviolence, and the Promise of Africa,” Annals of the American Association of Geographers Vol 106: 6, (2016)
African Studies Review, Vol. 43, No. 1, Special Issue on the Diaspora. (Apr., 2000), pp. 11-45. Especially:
Patterson, Tiffany R. and Kelley, Robin D.G. (2000) “Unfinished Migrations: Reflections on the African Diaspora and the Making of the Modern World,” 11–46.
‘“Unfinished Migrations”: Commentary and Response,” Brent Hayes Edwards; Cheryl Johnson-Odim; Agustín Laó-Montes; Michael O. West; Tiffany; Ruby Patterson; Robin D. G. Kelley.
You might also browse the African Diaspora Studies issue of Radical History Review, Winter 2009.especially Lisa Brock’s article "Nation and the Cold War: Reflections on the Circuitous Routes of African Diaspora Studies." Radical History Review, no. 103, Winter 2009, pp. 7-15.
Seminar 2: Haiti
The Black Jacobins, CLR James
The Haitian Declaration of Independence (1804) (on VLE)
Jacob Lawrence’s, The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture series (1995) (sample images on VLE)
Please also read:
West, M. O., William G. Martin, “Haiti, I’m Sorry: The Haitian Revolution and the Forging of the Black International” in West, M. O., Martin, W. G., & Wilkins, F. C. (2009). From Toussaint to Tupac the Black international since the age of revolution. University of North Carolina Press.
In addition, please browse AAIHS roundtable on Brandon R. Byrd’s The Black Republic: African Americans and the Fate of Haiti:
And listen to a podcast interview with the author here:
The following podcasts are optional and provide good context for this week:
Podcast: Dan Snow’s History Hit: The Haitian Revolution
BBC The Forum: Toussaint L’Ouverture: Hero of the Haitian slave rebellion
You’re Dead to Me: The Haitian Revolution
Stephens, M. A. (2005). Black empire : the masculine global imaginary of Caribbean intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962 . Duke University Press. (ch.7)
Rachel Douglas (2020): Unsilencing the Haitian Revolution: C. L. R. James and The Black Jacobins, Atlantic Studies,
Adam Dahl, “The Black American Jacobins: Revolution, Radical Abolition, and the Transnational Turn” American Political Science Association, vol 15, no. 3 (2017)
History of Haiti:
Brandon R. Byrd. “Black Women’s Internationalism from the Age of Revolutions to World War I” (on VLE)
Fick, C. E. (1990). The making of Haiti the Saint Domingue revolution from below (First edition.). University of Tennessee Press. (Ch. 2 “Slave Resistance”)
Brandon R. Byrd (2015) “Black Republicans, Black Republic: African Americans, Haiti, and the Promise of Reconstruction”, Slavery & Abolition, 36:4, 545-567
Memory and Interpretations of Haiti
Michel-Rolph Trouillot, “An Unthinkable History: The Haitian Revolution as a Non-Event” in Sepinwall, A. G. (2013). Haitian history: new perspectives. Routledge.
Jackson, M. (2008). “Friends of the Negro! Fly with me, The path is open to the sea”: Remembering the Haitian Revolution in the History, Music, and Culture of the African American People. Early American Studies, 6(1), 59–103.
Nadège T. Clitandre (2020) The paradox of Haiti in African Diaspora Studies, African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal, 13:3, 343-357,
Seminar 3: George Schuyler, Black Empire and Garveyism
Black No More (in library)
Black Empire (In library)
The Negro Art Hokum – Online version
The Rise of the Black Internationale.” The Crisis Aug. 1938: 255þ -Found on Google Books
Marcus Garvey: life and lessons; a centennial companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association papers edited by Robert A. Hill and Barbara Bair
‘The Tragedy of White injustice’ pp. 119 -139
‘Aims and Objectives of the U.N.I.A.’ pp. 206 – 214
African fundamentalism: a literary and cultural anthology of Garvey's Harlem Renaissance, compiled and edited by Tony Martin.
‘African Fundamentalism’ by Marcus Garvey (1924) pp. 4-6
‘Negroes should be taught Pride of Race’ by ‘Hagar’ (1920) p. 10
‘Dr DuBois’ Ten Mistake’s by William H. Ferris (1923) pp. 73-78
Alexander M. Bain, ‘"Shocks Americana!": George Schuyler Serializes Black Internationalism’, American Literary History Vol. 19, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 937-963
Etsuko Taketani, ‘Colored Empires in the 1930s: Black Internationalism, the U.S. Black Press, and George Samuel Schuyler’, American Literature (2010) 82 (1): 121-149
Amor Kohli. ‘But that's just mad! Reading the utopian impulse in Dark princess and Black empire’, African Identities (2008) 7:2, 161-175
George S. Schuyler, ‘Black and conservative; the autobiography of George S. Schuyler’, New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1966
George S. Schuyler and Jeffery B. Leak, ‘Rac[e]ing to the right: selected essays of George S. Schuyler’, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2001
Michelle Ann Stephens, Black Empire: The Masculine Global Imaginary of Caribbean Intellectuals in the United States 1914-1962 (2005), esp. Ch.s 3 and 4
Adam Ewing, ‘The age of Garvey: how a Jamaican activist created a mass movement and changed global Black politics’, (Princeton, 2014) – Particularly Chapter 3, “Africa for Africans!”
Tony Martin, ‘Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement association’ (Westport, Conn: 1976) - Particularly Chapters 7 and 8
Joh Hope Franklin and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, ‘From slavery to freedom: a history of African Americans’, 9th edition (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2011) – Particularly Chapter 21
Rupert Lewis, ‘Marcus Garvey: anti-colonial champion’ (Karia Press, London, 1987)
Judith Stein, ‘The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society’ (Baton Rouge, 1986), - Particularly Chapters 1, 3, 4 and 6
Okon Edet Uya (editor), ‘Black brotherhood; Afro-Americans and Africa’ (Lexington, MA, 1971).
Seminar 4: Caribbean Cultures
Banjo, Claude McKay
Caribbean Voices for the BBC: Hello! West Indies
Marson’s March 1935 editorial for The Keys
Selection of Marson’s poems: “Kinky Hair Blues”; “Little Brown Girl”;
Island in the Sun (1957)
Imaobong D. Umoren, ‘This is the Age of Woman’: Black Feminism and Black Internationalism in the Works of Una Marson,1928-1938, History of Women in the Americas 1:1 (April 2013):50-73 ISSN 2042-6348 Available online
Stephens, M. A. (2005). Black empire: the masculine global imaginary of Caribbean intellectuals in the United States, 1914-1962. Duke University Press. (Chapters 5 and 6)
Alison Donnell, ‘Una Marson and the Fractured Subjects of Modernity: Writing Across the Black Atlantic’, Women: A Cultural Review, 22:4 (2011), pp. 345–69.
Bridget Jones, ‘With ‘Banjo’ By My Bed: Black French Writers Reading Claude McKay’ in Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994
Edwards, B. H. (2003). The practice of diaspora literature, translation, and the rise of Black internationalism. Harvard University Press. (ch.4 “Vagabond Internationalism”)
Kotti Sree Ramesh and Kandula Nirupa Rani, Claude McKay: the literary identity from Jamaica to Harlem and beyond (Jefferson, N.C. ,2006)
Thabiti Lewis “Home to Harlem Again”: Claude McKay and the Masculine Imaginary of Black Community in Davarian Baldwin and Minkah Makalnai eds, Escape from New York: the New Negro Renaissance Beyond Harlem.
Irma Watkins-Owens, I. (2001). " Early-Twentieth-Century Caribbean Women: Migration and Social Networks in New York City. " In Nancy, Foner, (Ed.). Islands in the City: West Indian Migration to New York. Los Angeles: University of California Press. (Online Course Readings -also in Seminar Room 8)
Winston James, Chapter 4: “The Caribbean and the United States: Patterns of Race, Color, and Class,” in Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in early Twentieth Century America
Michelle A. Stephens, “Black Transnationalism and the Politics of National Identity: West Indian Intellectuals in Harlem in the Age of War and Revolution,” In American Quarterly 1998 50(3): 592-608.
Rosenberg, L. (2014). It’s Enough to Make Any Woman Catch the Next Plane to Barbados: Constructing the Postwar West Indies as Paradise. Third Text, 28(4-5), 361–376.
Seminar 5: Printing Black Internationalism
This week you are going to work in groups to consider a Black Internationalist publication. 5 options are listed below, but these are no means exhaustive and you are welcome to choose one not on the list. Groups will be assigned in week 1.
Please note: no seminar week 6 (one-to-one tutorials)
Seminar 6: Negritude (week 7)
Online version of Cesaire's Discourse on Colonialism (1955) which includes a 1967 interview with him that discusses his career in retrospect and in light of Negritude. http://abahlali.org/files/_Discourse_on_Colonialism.pdf
Poetry of Aimae Fernand Caesaire https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/aimae-fernand-caesaire
Hakim Adi, 'Chapter 5: From Internationalisme Noir to Negritude' Pan-Africanism: A History
Tracy Denean Sharpley-Whiting, 'Femme négritude Jane Nardal, La Dépêche africaine, and the Francophone New Negro', Souls: Critical Journal of Black Politics & Culture 2:4 (2000), pp. 8-17.
Denean Sharpley‐Whiting (2000) Femme négritude: Jane Nardal, La Dépêche africaine, and the francophone new negro, Souls: Critical Journal of Black Politics & Culture, 2:4, 8-17.
Denean Sharpley-Whiting, Negritude Women
“Erasures and the Practice of Diaspora Feminism,” Small Axe, March 2005, 9, 1.
Jennifer Anne Boittin, ’In Black and White: Gender, Race Relations, and the Nardal Sisters in Interwar Paris' French Colonial History 6 (2005) 120-135. (e-journal).
Brent Hayes Edwards, “The uses of ’diaspora’” African diasporas in the New and Old Worlds: consciousness and imagination edited by Geneviève Fabre and Klaus Benesch. (Amsterdam, N.Y, 2006).
Brent Hayes Edwards, The Practice of Diaspora esp. Ch.3 ‘Feminism and L’Internationalisme Noir: Paulette Nardal”
For an interesting discussion of Edwards see a roundtable on his book in Small Axe, March 2005, 9, 1.
Elizabeth Ezra, The Colonial Unconscious: Race and Culture in Interwar France (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000).
Petrine Archer Straw, Negrophilia: avant-garde Paris and Black culture in the 1920s, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Brett A. Berliner, Ambivalent Desire: The Exotic Black Other in Jazz-Age France (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002);
James Arnold, Modernism and negritude: the poetry and poetics of Aimé Césaire Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981
Gary Wilder The French imperial nation-state: negritude & colonial humanism between the two world wars (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 2005).
Belinda Elizabeth Jack, Negritude and literary criticism: the history and theory of "Negro-African" literature in French (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996).
Tyler Edward Stovall, Paris Noir: African Americans in the City of Light. (Boston, 1996).
Erica L. Griffin, “The ‘Invisible Woman’ Abroad: Jessie Fauset’s New Horizon” in
Dolan Hubbard ed., Recovered Writers: Recovered Texts (University of Tennessee Press, 1997).
Theresa Leininger-Miller, New Negro Artists in Paris: African American painters and sculptors in the city of light, 1922-1934 (Brunswick, N.J, 2001)
Michel Fabre, From Harlem to Paris: Black American Writers in France, 1840-1980 (Urbana, 1991)
Asake Bomani and Belvie Rooks, eds., Paris connections: African-American artists in Paris. (San Francisco: Q.E.D. Press, 1992)
James Haskins, Bricktop. 1st ed. (New York, 1983.)
Michel Fabre, ‘The Harlem Renaissance abroad: French critics and the new Negro literary movement (1924-1964) in Temples for tomorrow: looking back at the Harlem Renaissance ed. Genevieve Fabre and Michel Feith. (Bloomington, Indiana, 2001)
Carl Pederson, ‘The Tropics in New York: Claude McKay and the New Negro Movement,” in Fabre and Feith eds., Temples for Tomorrow.
Brent Hayes Edwards, ‘Three Ways to translate the Harlem Renaissance,” in Fabre and Feith eds., Temples for tomorrow.
Chidi Ikonné, ‘René Maran and the New Negro’ in Cary D. Wintz ed., Analysis and assessment, 1940-1979 (New York, 1996)
Mbulamwanza Mudimbe-Boyi, ‘African and Black American Literature: The “Negro Renaissance” and the Genesis of African Literature in French’ in Wintz ed., Analysis and Assessment 1980-1994.
Seminar 7: Gender, Home and Diaspora (week 8)
Ali, Suki, ‘Moving Homes: Gender, Diaspora, and Ethnicity’ in Mixed Race, Post-Race: Gender, New Ethnicities and Cultural Practices (Oxford: Berg, 2003), pp. 123-42
Brah, Avtar, Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities (London; New York: Routledge, 1996) esp. Introduction and Chapter 8.
Carby, Hazel, ‘White woman listen! Black feminism and the boundaries of sisterhood’ in The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain (London: Hutchinson Ltd, 1982), pp. 212-235 -- helpful discussion of conflicts between white women’s ideas of the oppressive home vs. Black women’s experiences of home
hooks, bell, ‘Homeplace: A Site of Resistance’ in Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics, 2nd edn (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp. 76-88
Jacqueline Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and they Family from Slavery to Present (New York: Basic Books, 1985)
Bertha M. N. Ochieng and Carl L. A. Hylton, ed., Black Families in Britain as the Site Struggle (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2010)
Harriette Pipes McAdoo, ed., Black Families, 3rd edn (Thousand Oaks, CA; London: Sage, 1997)
Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought, 2nd edn. (New York; London: Routledge, 2000) - chapter 8, chapter 3 also useful
Tracey Reynolds, ‘Mothering and the family as sites of struggle: theorising ‘race’ and gender through the perspectives of Caribbean mothers in the UK’ in Black Families in Britain as the Site of Struggle ed. By Bertha M. N. Ochieng and Carl L. A. Hylton (Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press, 2010) esp. pp. 100-22
Seminar 8: African American Communism, Pan Africanism & the International Left (week 9)
George Padmore, Pan-Africanism or communism? : the coming struggle for Africa
Negro Worker (edited by Padmore. Class Handout) https://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/negro-worker/index.htm
Harry Haywood, Black Bolshevik: autobiography of an Afro-American Communist (Chicago: Liberator Press, c1978).
James Ford, Negro's Struggle Against Imperialism - http://www.unz.org/Pub/Communist-1930jan-00022
Cedric Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition
James Ford, Negro's Struggle Against Imperialism
Philip S. Foner and James S. Allen eds., American communism and Black Americans: a documentary history, 1919-1929 (1987)
Philip S. Foner and Herbert Shapiro eds., American communism and Black Americans: a documentary history, 1930-1934 (1991)
Ch.11 ‘Communists in the 1930s’; Ch. 13 ‘Black American Looks at Communism’; Ch 15 ‘Blacks and the Trade Union Movement’ in Theodore G. Vincent ed. Voices of a black nation: political journalism in the Harlem Renaissance
Evelyn Crawford and Mary Louise Patterson eds., Letters From Langston: From the Harlem Renaissance To the Red Scare and Beyond (California University Press, 2015).
Claude McKay Amiable with big teeth: a novel of the love affair between the communists and the poor black sheep of Harlem ISBN: 9780143107316 (hardcover); 0143107313 (hardcover) edited with an introduction by Jean-Christophe Cloutier and Brent Hayes Edwards. (New York, New York: Penguin Books, 2017)
F.B.I files on radical Harlem artists "F.B Eyes" Available at http://omeka.wustl.edu/omeka/exhibits/show/fbeyes
Daniel Hanglberger (2018) Marcus Garvey and His Relation to (Black) Socialism and Communism, American Communist History, 17:2, 200-219
Nikhil Pal Singh, 'Retracing the Black-Red Thread,' American Literary History 2003 15(4): 830-840.
Cheryl Higashida. Black Internationalist Feminism: Women Writers of the Black Left, 1945-1995. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2011)
Carole Boyce Davies, Left of Karl Marx: the political life of black Communist Claudia Jones (Durham, 2008)
Claudia Jones: a life in exile / Marika Sherwood with Donald Hinds, Colin Prescod and the 1996 Claudia Jones Symposium
Eric S. McDuffie, Sojourning for freedom: black women, American communism, and the making of black left feminism (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011)
Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Black Intellectual
Earl Ofari Hutchinson Blacks and reds: race and class in conflict, 1919-1990
Robin D.G. Kelley, Race Rebels: Culture, Politics and the Black Working Class (1994) esp. Chs. 5 and 6.
Robin D.G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression. (1990)
Robin D. G. Kelley. Freedom dreams: the Black radical imagination Boston, (Beacon Press, c2002).
Winston James, ‘Being Red and Black in Jim Crow America: On the Ideology and Travails of Afro-America’s Socialist Pioneers, 1877-1930’, in Charles Payne & Adam Green, eds., Time Longer Than Rope: A Century of African American Activism: 1850-1950.
William J. Maxwell, "F.B. Eyes: The Bureau Reads Claude McKay," in Mullen and Smethurst eds, Left of the color line: race, radicalism, and twentieth-century literature of the United States. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva
William J. Maxwell, F.B. eyes: how J. Edgar Hoover's ghostreaders framed African American literature (Princeton University Press, 2015)
Maxim Matusevich, "Harlem Globe-Trotters: Black Sojourners in Stalin’s Soviet Union," in In Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar ed., The Harlem Renaissance revisited : politics, arts, and letters (2010).
Oliver Ayers, "Black Nationalism and Opposition to Organized Labour in 1930s New York City," European journal of American culture.ISSN: 1466-0407; 1758-9118. Mar 2015, Vol. 34 Issue 1, p5-24.
Robin D.G. Kelley, Ch. 5 Afric’s Sons With Banner Red: African American Communists and the Politics of Culture, 1919-1934 in Race rebels : culture, politics, and the black working class pp.103-121.
Lashawn Harris, "Running with the Reds: African American women and the Communist Party during the Great depression," Journal of African American History 94.1 (Winter 2009).
Mark Naison, Communists in Harlem during the Depression (1983)
Mark Solomon, The Cry Was Unity: Communists and African Americans, 1917-36. (1998).
Bill Mullen, Popular Fronts: Chicago and African American Cultural Politics, 1935-1946, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999).
Danny Duncan Collum, ed., “African Americans in the Spanish Civil War : "This ain't Ethiopia, but it'll do" (New York, G.K.Hall).
William J. Maxwell, New Negro, Old Left: African-American Writing and Communism Between the Wars.
Paul Gardullo, ‘Just keeps rollin’ along’: rebellions, revolutions and radical black memories of slavery in the 1930s.” Patterns of Prejudice, Vol 41, No. 3 (July 2007).
Anthony Dawahare, Nationalism, Marxism, and African American literature between the wars: a new Pandora's box (University of Mississippi Press, 2003).
James Edward Smethurst, The new red Negro: the literary left and African American poetry, 1930-1946, (New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Michael Denning, The cultural front: the laboring of American culture in the Twentieth Century, (London: New York: Verso, 1998).
Glenda Gilmore, Defying Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950 (2008).
Barbara Foley, Specters of 1919: class and nation in the making of the new Negro (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003).
Gary Edward Holcomb, Claude McKay, code name Sasha: queer Black Marxism and the Harlem Renaissance.
Bill V. Mullen and James Smethurst eds., Left of the color line: race, radicalism, and twentieth-century literature of the United States (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, c2003).
Seminar 9: International Black Power (week 10)
Malcolm X “Message to the Grassroots” (1963)
Black Liberation Part 2: Publisher: Freedom Archives Collection: Black Power/Black Nation (Malcolm X on Black Nationalism as a response to US Colonialism; Assata Shakur reads her poem Carry It On tracing the history of Black resistance to white supremacy)
The British Black Panther Party, BBC Radio 4
Joy James, “George Jackson: Dragon Philosopher and Revolutionary Abolitionist” AAIHS (August 21, 2018)
BOB: Storyville: The Black Panthers Episode17, The Black Panthers, Monday, 22 Jun 2020, 22:00 Available on Box of Broadcasts (BoB)
[Podcast] George Jackson in the Sun of Palestine
Young, B. R. (2019). Imagining Revolutionary Feminism: Communist Asia and the Women of the Black Panther Party. Souls (Boulder, Colo.), 21(1), 1–17.
Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar (2001) Yellow Power: The Formation of AsianAmerican Nationalism in the Age of Black Power, 1966-1975, Souls, 3:3, 29-38, DOI: 10.1080/10999949.2001.12098172
Angelo, Anne-Marie (2018) ‘Black oppressed people all over the world are one’: the British Black Panthers’ grassroots internationalism, 1969-1973. Journal of Civil and Human Rights, 4 (1). pp. 64-97. I
Wu, J. T.-C. (2007). An African-Vietnamese American: Robert S. Browne, the antiwar movement, and the personal/political dimensions of black internationalism. The Journal of African American History, 92(4), 492–.
Farmer, A. D. (2017). Remaking Black Power how black women transformed an era. The University of North Carolina Press. (introduction)
All Roads Led to Montreal: Black Power, the Caribbean, and the Black Radical Tradition in Canada Author(s): David Austin Source: The Journal of African American History , Autumn, 2007, Vol. 92, No. 4, New Black Power Studies: National, International, and Transnational Perspectives (Autumn, 2007), pp. 516-539
Malcolm X and the Aboriginal Black Power Movement in Australia, 1967–1972
Rickford, R. J. (2016). We are an African people independent education, black power, and the radical imagination. Oxford University Press.
Wu, J. T.-C. (2013). Radicals on the Road: Internationalism, Orientalism, and Feminism during the Vietnam Era. Cornell University Press.
Seminar 10: Exile and Diaspora (week 11)
James Baldwin - “In my case, I think my exile saved my life, for it inexorably confirmed something which Americans appear to have great difficulty accepting. Which is, simply, this: a man is not a man until he is able and willing to accept his own vision of the world, no matter how radically this vision departs from others.”
Kristin Mann, ‘Shifting Paradigms in the Study of the African Diaspora and of Atlantic History and Culture,’ in Slavery & Abolition : a journal of slave and post-slave studies. ISSN: 0144-039X, 22.1 (2001), pp. 3-21.
Kareem Fahim, ‘Fleeing Anger in America, James Baldwin Found Solace in 1960’s Turkey,’ in The Washington Post <https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/james-baldwin-lived-in-turkey-on-and-off-for-a-decade-a-look-at-what-remains-of-his-istanbul/2017/02/26/fb94fa44-ee13-11e6-a100-fdaaf400369a_story.html?utm_term=.e51b440702bf>
James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son (London: Penguin Classics, 2017) pp.119-125, Encounter on the Seine: Black meets Brown.
Anne-Marie Angelo, ‘The Black Panthers in London, 1967-72: Diasporic Struggle Navigates the Black Atlantic,’ in Radical History Review, 103 (2009), pp.17-35. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (KR 01/02/2019)
Teishan A. Latner, ‘”Assata Shakur is Welcome Here”: Havana, Black Freedom Struggle and U.S. Cuba Relations,’ in Souls ISSN: 1099-9949, 19.4 (2017), pp.455-477.
Robeson Taj P. Frazier, ‘Thunder in the East: China, Exile Crusaders, and the Unevenness of Black Internationalism,’ in American Quarterly. ISSN: 0003-0678, 63.4 (2011), pp.929-953.
Ronald J. Stephens, ‘”Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition”: Robert F. Williams’s Crusade for Justice on Behalf of Twenty-Two Million African-Americans as a Cuban Exile,’ in Black Diaspora Review, 2.1 (2010), pp.15-28. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (KR 01/02/2019)
Denise Lynn, ‘The Deportation of Claudia Jones,’ in Black Perspectives (October 5 2018), <https://www.aaihs.org/the-deportation-of-claudia-jones/> [Accessed:21/01/2019]
Aderson Francois, ‘James Baldwin’s Ideas and Activism during the 1980s,’ in Black Perspectives, (September 20 2018) < https://www.aaihs.org/james-baldwins-ideas-and-activism-during-the-1980s/> [Accessed 21/01/2019]
This list was last updated on 13/09/2021