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Module Reading List

Justice: Fairness, Equality and Diversity, 2021/22, Semester J02
Dr Carl Fox
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Required Reading

Unit 6.1

Derek Parfit, ‘Equality and Priority’, Ratio, 10/3 (1997): 202-221.

Harry Frankfurt, ‘Equality as a Moral Ideal', Ethics, 98 (1987): 21-43.

Unit 6.2

Will Kymlicka, Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction, 2nd Edition (Oxford: OUP, 2002), pp.55-70 and pp.103-110. Available as an Online Course Reading.

Unit 6.3

Ronald Dworkin, ‘What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 10/4 (1981): 283-345, Section I: The Auction (pp. 285-290).

Ronald Dworkin, ‘What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 10/4 (1981): 283-345, Section III: Luck and Insurance (pp. 292-304).

Michael Walzer,‘Complex Equality’, in Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology, edited by Robert Goodin (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006), pp. 484-501. Available as an Online Course Reading.

Unit 6.4

J.S. Mill, On Liberty, 1959, Chapter 2: Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion, available at

Jonathan Quong, Liberalism without Perfection, Oxford Scholarship Online, 2011, Chapter 1 ‘What Kind of Liberalism? ’

Unit 6.5

Leif Wenar, ‘The Nature of Rights’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 33/3 (2005): 223-252.

Rob Lawlor, Shades of Goodness, (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2009), Chapter 9 (though can skip to p. 106 – section 9.5.)

Unit 6.6

Brian Barry, ‘Utilitarianism and Preference Changes’, Utilitas, (1989) Vol. 1, 278-282.

T.M. Scanlon, ‘Preference and Urgency’, The Journal of Philosophy, 73/19 (1975): 655-669.

Unit 6.7

Frank J. Sorauf, ‘The Public Interest Reconsidered’, The Journal of Politics, 19/4 (1957): 616-639. Read pages 616-631 only.

William A. Galston, ‘An old debate renewed: the politics of the public interest’, Daedalus., 136/4 (2007): 10-19.

Bruce Jennings, Daniel Callahan, Susan M. Wolf, ‘The Professions: Public Interest and the Common Good’, The Hastings Center Report, 17/1 (1987): 3-10.

Unit 6.8

There are no set readings for this unit. Instead, we expect you to dedicate more time to the group discussions.

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Further reading

Below is a list of further reading, some of which are also listed in the unit documents themselves. These will be helpful for you when you are working on your essays. We have digitised as many as possible, and provided links to those that are available online, but for many of them you will need to visit a library. Some of the books may be available to view on Google Books, so it is worth checking there. Where possible we have provided links to the University of Leeds library record for any items not available online.

The Value of Equality

Bernard Williams, 'The Idea of Equality', in Problems of the self : philosophical papers, 1956-1972, (1973). Available as an Online Course Reading.

Roger Crisp, ‘Equality, Priority and Compassion’, Ethics, 113/4 (2003), pp.745-763.

Roger Crisp, ‘Egalitarianism and Compassion’, Ethics, 114/1 (2003), pp.119-126.

Andrew Mason, ‘Egalitarianism and the Leveling Down Objection’, Analysis 61/3 (2001), pp.246-254.

Matthew Clayton and Andrew Williams (eds.), The Ideal of Equality, (Baskingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002).

Larry Temkin, ‘Egalitarianism Defended’, Ethics, 113/4 (2003), pp.764-782.

Joseph Raz, ‘On the Value of Distributional Equality’, Oxford Legal Studies 41 (2008).

John Rawls

Norman Daniels (ed.), Reading Rawls (Standford: Stanford University Press, 1989). Chapter 1 – Thomas Nagel: Rawls on Justice; Chapter 2 – Ronald Dworkin: The Original Position; Chapter 3 – Milton Fisk: History and Reason in Rawls' Moral Theory; Chapter 7 – David Lyons: Nature and Soundness of the Contract and Coherence Arguments, section III; Chapter 8 – T. M. Scanlon: Rawls' Theory of Justice; Chapter 9 – Richard Miller: Rawls and Marxism; Chapter 13 – Benjamin Barber: Justifying Justice.

Wenar, Leif, "John Rawls", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL:

Samuel Freeman, Rawls, (London: Routledge, 2007).

Robert Nozick

Jeffrey Paul (ed.), Reading Nozick (Oxford: Blackwell, 1982). Chapter 6 – Thomas Scanlon: Nozick on Rights, Liberty and Property; Chapter 7 – Judith Jarvis Thomson: Some Ruminations on Rights; Chapter 8 – Samuel Sheffler: Natural Rights, Equality, and the Minimal State; Chapter 16 – Cheyney Ryan: Yours, Mine and Ours: Property Rights and Individual Liberty.

Justice, Luck and Equality

Ronald Dworkin, ‘What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 10/3 (1981): 185-246.

Ronald Dworkin, ‘What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 10/4 (1981): 283-345.

Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, ‘Justice and Bad Luck’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).

Anderson, E., 1999,‘What is the Point of Equality? ’, Ethics, 109: 287-337.

Arneson, R. J., 2001, ‘Luck and Equality’, Proceedings of Aristotelian Society: Supplementary Volume, 75: 73-90.

Jonathan Wolff, ‘Fairness, Respect and the Egalitarian Ethos’, Philosphy and Public Affairs, 27/2 (1998), pp.97-122.

Michael Otsuka, ‘Luck, Insurance and Equality’, Ethics, 113 (2002), pp.40-54.

Michael Otsuka, ‘Equality, Insurance and Ambition’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume, 78 (2004), 151-166.

Peter Vallentyne, ‘Brute Luck, Option Luck, and Equality of Initial Opportunities’, Ethics, 112 (2002), pp.5296557.

Peter Vallentyne, ‘Hurley on Justice and Responsibility’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 72, (2006), pp.433-438.

Susan Hurley,‘Luck and Equality’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume, 75 (2001), pp.51-72.

Justine Burley, Dworkin and His Critics, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004).

Rights and Prerogatives

Leif Wenar, ‘Rights’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Fall 2010 Edition, Edward N. Zalta (ed.).

Rowan Cruft, ‘Rights: Beyond Interest Theory and Will Theory? ’, Law and Philosophy, 23/4 (2004): 347-397.

Samuel Scheffler, The Rejection of Consequentialism, Revised edition, Oxford university press, 1994 – original edition was 1982.

Shelly Kagan, ‘Does Consequentialism Demand Too Much? ’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, 13 (1984): 239-54

Shelly Kagan, The Limits of Morality (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989).

David Ross, The Right and the Good, ed. Philip Stratton-Lake (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002).

F.M. Kamm, Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

Equality, Diversity and Liberal Neutrality

Will Kymlicka, ‘Liberal Individualism and Liberal Neutrality’, Ethics, 99/4 (1989): 883-905.

Samuel Scheffler, ‘The Appeal of Poltical Liberalism’, Ethics, 105/1 (1994): 4-22.

Leif Wenar, ‘John Rawls’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Section 3.

William Galston, Liberal Pluralism, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Andrew Heywood, ‘Liberalism, Toleration and Diversity’, available from

Michael Sandel, ‘Review of Political Liberalism’, Harvard Law Review., 107/7 (1994): 1765-1794.

Susan Moller Okin, ‘Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? ’, Boston Review, October/November 1997.  

David Miller, ‘Introduction’, in Pluralism, Justice and Equality, edited by David Miller and Michael Walzer, (Oxford University Press, 1995).

Ronald Dworkin, ‘To Each His Own’, The New York Review of Books, April 14th 1983.

Michael Walzer, ‘Spheres of Justice: An Exchange’, The New York Review of Books, July 21st 1983.

The Public Interest

Theodore M Benditt, ‘The Public Interest’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 2/3 (1973): 291-311.

You should also become accustomed to seeking out additional useful reading material from other sources. It is worthwhile to make a habit of looking at recent journals in the field of applied and professional ethics such as Journal of applied philosophy., Philosophy & public affairs., Res publica. and Ethics.

If you have difficulty finding helpful readings on a topic do seek advice from the module tutors.

This list was last updated on 14/12/2021