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HIST3999
Module Reading List

Doomed to Failure? European Great Power Politics from Bismarck to the Outbreak of World War I, 2021/22, Semester 1
Professor Holger Afflerbach
h.h.w.afflerbach@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Bibliography Hist 3999: Doomed to Failure? European Great Power Politics  from Bismarck to the Outbreak of World War I

Professor Afflerbach

 

This bibliography is organized thematically and mirrors the structure of the lectures. Therefore it provides not only an overview of some relevant readings, but will help you to revise your notes. It is also intended to help you to find books for your assessed essays and seminar papers.

For a general approach towards searching relevant information please consult the “very short bibliography” on the VLE.

 

 

 

I. The “International System”: How did Great Power Politics in 19th Century Europe work?

 

1. The National principle in Europe, 1870-1914.    

 

  1. Oliver Zimmer, Nationalism in Europe, 1890-1940, (Basingstoke, 2003). Discussion of period before 1914.
  2. See also, Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914, (London, 2012), chapters 1 and 2, pp. 1-118. (Discussions of nations and nationalism)
  3. Stuart Woolf: Nationalism in Europe : a reader ISBN: 0415125642 (pbk); 0415125634, 1815 to the Present, London 1996), provides some central sources and classics on the topic, like Ernest Renan’s ‘What is a Nation?’ of 1882.
  4. Eric Hobsbawm: Nations and Nationalism since 1780: programme, myth, reality, (Cambridge 1992), about central ideas of nationalism between 1870 and 1918 (ethnicity, right of self-determination, language...)

 

2. What made a state a Great Power in 19th Century Europe?

1. Paul M. Kennedy: Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: economic change and military conflict from 1500 to 2000, (London 1989). Kennedy’s book contains an analysis of resources of the great powers and many useful figures.

2. Norman Stone, Europe Transformed 1878-1919, (Oxford, 1983), chapter 3.

3. Dominic Lieven, Empire: The Russian Empire and its Rivals, (Yale, 2002). Sections on 19th century. 

  

3. How did relations between the great powers work?

 

a.  Balance of power, status quo, hegemony:Michael Sheehan: The balance of power: history and theory, London 1996.

b. The idea of national autonomy 

c.  European Concert and Concert mechanisms:

 

  1.  Paul W. Schroeder: The transformation of European politics 1763-1848 ISBN: 0198221193; 0198206542 pbk, Oxford 1994 (groundbreaking).
  2. Matthias Schulz: Great Power Conferences: Institutional and Normative Aspects of the 19th Century Concert of Europe, in: Afflerbach/Stevenson, pp. 43-60.

d. The Principle of Compensation

e. National sovereignty and international connections:

  1.  Christopher A. Bayly: The birth of the modern world, 1780-1914 : global connections and comparisons ISBN: 0631236163 (alk. paper); 0631187995; 9780631187998, (Oxford 2004)
  2. Jurgen Osterhammel: The transformation of the world : a global history of the nineteenth century ISBN: 9780691169804 (paberback); 9780691147451 (hardback : acid-free paper); 0691147450 (hardback : acid-free paper), Princeton 2014
  3. Cornelius Torp: The challenges of globalization : economy and politics in Germany, 1860-1914 ISBN: 9781782385028; 1782385029. Translated by Alex Skinner, New York 2014
  4. Cornelius Torp, “The Great Transformation: German Economy and Society 1850-1914”, in: Helmut Walser Smith (ed.): The Oxford Handbook of Modern German History, Oxford 2011.

f) War as a means of politics:

  1.  Paul M. Kennedy (Ed.): The War plans of the great powers, 1880-1914 ISBN: 0049400568 : £12.50, Boston 1985.
  2. Christopher Clark, Iron kingdom : the rise and downfall of Prussia, 1600-1947 ISBN: 0713994665, (London, 2007), Chapter 15: ‘Four Wars’.
  3. Volker Berghahn, ‘War Preparations and National Identity in Imperial Germany’, in, Roger Chickering and Stig Förster eds., Anticipating total war : the German and American experiences, 1871-1914 ISBN: 0521026326; 0521622948, (Cambridge, 1999); pp. 307-26.
  4. Gerhard Ritter: The sword and the scepter; the problem of militarism in Germany. Translated from the German by Heinz Norden. Coral Gables, 1969 f. v. 1. The Prussian tradition, 1740-1890. --v. 2. The European powers and the Wilhelminian empire, 1890-1914. --v. 3. The tragedy of statesmanship--Bethmann Hollweg as War Chancellor, 1914-1917 (translation of: Gerhard Ritter: Staatskunst und Kriegshandwerk. Das Problem des "Militarismus" in Deutschland, Band 1-4, München 1954-1968) analyzes in detail the German example. Christopher A. Bayly: The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914. Global Connections and Comparisons, (Oxford 2004)  
  5. Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), pp. 317-35.  

 

 4. The Makers of Foreign policy

 

 Concerning the diplomatic elites of single countries:

 

Austria-Hungary: Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers, chapter 2, The Empire Without Qualities, pp. 65-118. F. R. Bridge, From Sadowa to Sarajevo : the foreign policy of Austria-Hungary, 1866-1914 ISBN: 0710072694, (London, 1972). Samuel R. J. Williamson, Austria-Hungary and the origins of the First World War ISBN: 9780333420812; 0333420802; 0333420810 (pbk), (Basingstoke, 1991).

Franz Ferdinand: Samuel R.J. Williamson, ‘Influence, Power and Policy Process: The Case of Franz Ferdinand, 1906-1914’, in The historical journal. ISSN: 0018-246x, vol. 17, no. 2 (1974), pp. 417-34.

 

Germany: Lamar Cecil: The German diplomatic service, 1871-1914 ISBN: 0691052352, (Princeton 1976), Gordon A Craig: Germany 1866-1945, (Oxford 1978), pp. 134-139 (“The Foreign Ministry and the Diplomatic Service under Bismarck). 

Kaiser Wilhelm II

Paul Kennedy, 'Reflections on Wilhelm II's place in the making of German foreign policy', in: John C.G. Röhl/Nicolaus Sombart (Ed.): Kaiser Wilhelm II : new interpretations : the Corfu papers ISBN: 0521238986, London/New York 1982, p. 157-164; Christopher Clark, Kaiser Wilhelm ll ISBN: 0582245591 (pbk); 0582245605 : No price, (Longman, 2000), chapter 5, Wilhelm and Foreign Policy; Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers, chapter 4, ‘The Many voices of European Foreign Policy’, pp. 168-241.

 

Great Britain: Thomas Otte, The foreign office mind : the making of British foreign policy, 1865-1914 ISBN: 9781107006508 (hbk.) : £65.00; 1107006503 (hbk.) : £65.00, (Cambridge, 2013). Keith Wilson (Ed.): British foreign secretaries and foreign policy : from Crimean War to First World War ISBN: 0709936788, (London 1987); Zara Steiner: The Foreign Office and foreign policy, 1898-1914 ISBN: 0521076544, (Cambridge 1969); Paul Kennedy: The realities behind diplomacy: background influences on British external policy, 1865-1980, (London 1985.)

 

Italy: Richard Bosworth: Italy, the least of the Great Powers : Italian foreign policy before the first World War ISBN: 0521223660, (Cambridge 1979), chapter: The Consulta.

 

 

  • 5. The concepts of honour, national interest and prestige in European politics 1870-1914.

 

 

Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers, discussions of masculinity and honour. For example, pp. 358-61, 102-04.

 

Christopher Clark, Kaiser Wilhelm ll ISBN: 0582245591 (pbk); 0582245605 : No price, (Longman, 2000), chapter 6, Power and Publicity.

 

Roger Chickering, ‘Militarism and Radical Nationalism’, in: James Retallack (ed), Imperial Germany 1871-1918 (Oxford UP, 2008), pp. 196-218.

 

Mark Hewitson, ‘Wilhelmine Germany’, in: James Retallack (ed), Imperial Germany 1871-1918 (Oxford UP, 2008), pp. 40-61.

 

Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), chapter 9, pp. 245-84.

 

 

6. The influence of public opinion and economic and political pressure groups on great politics

 

 

Wolfgang J. Mommsen: “The Topos of Inevitable War In Germany In The Decade Before 1914”, in Volker Berghahn / Martin Kitchen (eds.): Germany in the age of total war ISBN: 0709901194. Essays in honor of Francis L. Carsten, London 1981, pp. 23-46 .

 

Geoff Eley, Reshaping the German right : radical nationalism and political change after Bismarck ISBN: 0300023863, (Michigan, 1991 ed).

 

Roger Chickering, We men who feel most German : a cultural study of the Pan-German League, 1886-1914 ISBN: 0049430300 (Allen & Unwin, 1984).

 

Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers, pp. 168-241.

 

Dietrich Geyer, Russian Imperialism : the interaction of domestic and foreign policy 1860-1914 ISBN: 0907582826, (Lemington Spa, 1987).

 

Dominic Geppert‚ The Public Challenge to Diplomacy: German and British Ways of Dealing with the Press, 1890-1914‘, in M. Mösslang and T. Riotte eds., The diplomats' world : a cultural history of diplomacy, 1815-1914 ISBN: 9780199548675 (hbk.); 0199548676 (hbk.), (Oxford, 2008), pp. 133-64.

 

 

7. Fears and obsessions

 

 

8. Imperialism (see II.4.)   

 

 

 

Top of page

II. Events: 1871-1914

 

 

1. Europe 1870-1875: Europe and Bismarck’s Foreign Policy

 

Suggested class reading:

 

Lothar Gall: Bismarck : the white revolutionary ISBN: 0049430408 (v.1); 004943053X (v.2), London/Boston 1986, vol. 2, p. 40-59; 117-139; 140-159.

 

Taylor, Struggle, p. 214-227; Langer, Alliances, p.3-58

 

Additional reading:

 

Katherine Anne Lerman, ‘Bismarckian Germany’, in: James Retallack (ed), Imperial Germany 1871-1918 (Oxford UP, 2008), pp. 18-40.

 

Jonathan Steinberg, Bismarck: A Life, (Oxford, 2011).

 

Katherine Anne Lerman, Bismarck ISBN: 0582037409 (pbk) : £14.99, (Harlow, 2004).

 

 

War-in-sight crisis 1875:

 

Beside the chapters in: Langer, Alliances; Taylor, Struggle;

James Stone: The war scare of 1875 : Bismarck and Europe in the mid-1870's ISBN: 9783515096348 (pbk.), (Stuttgart, 2010).

 

 

2. The Oriental Crisis 1875-1878

 

Class reading:

 

Taylor, Struggle, ch. XI

 

Langer, Alliances, p. 59-170

 

 

Additional reading:

 

W.N. Medlicott: The Congress of Berlin and after : A diplomatic history of the near eastern settlement 1878-1880, 2 vols.,1963. (Ground laying diplomatic history of the conflict)

 

Charles Jelavich, Tsarist Russia and Balkan nationalism : Russian influence in the internal affairs of Bulgaria and Serbia, 1879-1886. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1958).

 

Evangelos Kofos: Greece and the eastern crisis, 1875-1878 (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1975). Focuses on the Greek plans for expansion (Megali Idea, ‘Great Idea’) during the crisis.

 

David MacKenzie: The Serbs and Russian Pan-Slavism, 1875-1878., Ithaca, N.Y.1967,

 

Gladstone wrote a pamphlet on the Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East, New York 1876. The source is available online: https://archive.org/details/bulgarianhorrors01gladuoft.

Milos Kovic: Disraeli and the Eastern Question ISBN: 9780199574605 (acid-free paper), Oxford 2011, deals with the British view.

 

Dietrich Geyer: Russian Imperialism : the interaction of domestic and foreign policy 1860-1914 ISBN: 0907582826, Leamington Spa 1987.

 

3. Bismarck’s Alliances 1879-1890

Class reading:

Paul W. Schroeder: Alliances, 1815-1945: Weapons of Power and Tools of Management, in: Klaus Knorr (Eds.): Historical dimensions of national security problems ISBN: 0700601430, Lawrence/Kansas 1976, p. 227-262.

Dealing with the The Dual Alliance 1879: Langer, Alliances, p. 171-216; Nicholas Der Bagdasarian, The Austro-German rapprochement, 1870-1879 : from the Battle of Sedan to the Dual Alliance ISBN: 0838615279, (London, 1976).

With the Three-Emperor’s league 1881: Langer, Alliances, p. 171-216

Katherine Anne Lerman, ‘Bismarckian Germany’, in: James Retallack (ed), Imperial Germany 1871-1918 ,(Oxford UP, 2008), pp. 18-40.   

 

 

Further reading:

Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), chapter 8, pp. 212-44.

 

 

4. European Imperialism: The division of Africa, 1880-1900.

Class reading:Langer, Alliances, pp. 251-322; Langer, The diplomacy of imperialism, 1890-1902, pp. 67-144

Further reading:      

 

  1. ‘Forum: The German Colonial Imagination’, in: German history. ISSN: 0266-3554 26:2 (2008), pp. 251-271.
  2. Christopher Prior, Exporting empire : Africa, colonial officials and the construction of the British imperial state, c.1900-39 ISBN: 9780719083686 (hbk.) : £60.00, (Manchester, 2013).
  3. John Darwin, After Tamerlane : the global history of empire since 1405, (London, 2007), chapters 5 and 6.
  4. Dealing with the question why Bismarck became a supporter of colonies: Hans Ulrich Wehler, The German Empire 1871-1918 ISBN: 090758232X (pbk ; cased) : £6.95; 0907582222, (Lemington Spa, 1985).
  5. Bernard Porter: The Absent-Minded Imperialists. Empire, Society, and Culture in Britain, Oxford 2005.
  6. Roger Owen: Lord Cromer : Victorian imperialist, Edwardian proconsul ISBN: 0199253382. Oxford 2004. 

Sebastian Conrad, German colonialism : a short history ISBN: 9781107400474 (pbk.) : £15.99; 9781107008144 (hbk.) : £45.00; 110700814X (hbk.) : £45.00; 1107400473 (pbk.) : £15.99, (Cambridge UP, 2011). 

Dominik Geppert and Frank Lorenz Müller (eds.), Sites of imperial memory : commemorating colonial rule in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries ISBN: 9780719090813 (hbk.), Manchester 2015

 

 

5. The European Crisis 1885-1887/88: Battenberg and Boulanger

Class reading: Beside the chapters in Bridge/Bullen, Taylor, Struggle, ch XIV, and Langer, Alliances: George F. Kennan: The Decline of Bismarck's European Order : Franco-Russian Relations, 1875–1890, Princeton 1979, is very much focused on individuals, but offers a lot of useful information and insights.      

 

    1. Robert Gildea, Children of the revolution : the French, 1799-1914 ISBN: 9780713997606 (hbk.); 0713997605 (hbk.), (London, 2008). Relevant sections
    2. Ruth Harris, The man on Devil's Island : Alfred Dreyfus and the affair that divided France ISBN: 9780141014777; 0141014776, (London, 2010), sections on Boulanger.
    3. William D. Irvine, The Boulanger Affair reconsidered : royalism, Boulangism, and the origins of the radical right in France ISBN: 0195053346, (Oxford University Press, 1989).

Further Reading:

  

6. Bismarck’s dismissal and its consequences. The Reinsurance-Treaty. The Franco-Russian Alliance. A New European Equilibrium.      

Further reading: 

 

On Wilhelm II:

Christopher Clark, Kaiser Wilhelm ll ISBN: 0582245591 (pbk); 0582245605 : No price, (Longman, 2000), chapter 5, Wilhelm and Foreign Policy; Lamar Cecil: Wilhelm II., 2 vols., Chapel Hill/London 1986/1996.John C.G. Röhl: Germany without Bismarck: the crisis of government in the Second Reich, 1890-1900, Berkeley 1967;-Wilhelm II : the Kaiser's personal monarchy, 1888-1900 ISBN: 0521819202, (Cambridge 2004)- The Kaiser and his court : Wilhelm II and the government of Germany ISBN: 0521565049 (pbk); 0521402239, (Cambridge 1994.)John C.G. Röhl and Nicolaus Sombart (eds.): Kaiser Wilhelm II : new interpretations : the Corfu papers ISBN: 0521238986, Cambridge 1982.Annika Mombauer and Wilhelm Deist (Eds.): The Kaiser. New Research on Wilhelm II’s role in Imperial Germany, Cambridge 2003 (new edition 2011).  John Roehl: Young Wilhelm : the Kaiser's early life, 1859-1888 ISBN: 0521497523 : £40.00, (Cambridge 1998); Wilhelm II : into the abyss of war and exile, 1900-1941 ISBN: 9780521844314 (hbk.); 0521844312 (hbk.); 9781139890229 (ebook), (Cambridge, 2014).

 

On German Foreign policy after 1890:

Mark Hewitson, ‘Wilhelmine Germany’, in: James Retallack (ed), Imperial Germany 1871-1918, (Oxford UP, 2008); Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), pp. 56-141. 

 

On the Franco-Russian alliance:

George Frost Kennan: The fateful alliance : France, Russia and the coming of the First World War ISBN: 0719017076, New York 1984. 

Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers, pp. 121-67.

Taylor, Struggle, ch. XV, Langer, The diplomacy of imperialism, 1890-1902.

 

 

7. The rise of Anglo-German Antagonism, 1900-1914.

Class reading:

Beside: Bridge, Taylor, and Langer:

Paul Kennedy: The rise of the Anglo-German antagonism, 1860-1914, Amherst 1988

Paul Kennedy, Reflections on Wilhelm II's place in the making of German foreign policy', in: John C.G. Röhl/Nicolaus Sombart (Ed.): Kaiser Wilhelm II : new interpretations : the Corfu papers ISBN: 0521238986, London/New York 1982, pp. 157-164

Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), pp. 80-141.

Thomas Otte, The foreign office mind : the making of British foreign policy, 1865-1914 ISBN: 9781107006508 (hbk.) : £65.00; 1107006503 (hbk.) : £65.00, (Cambridge, 2013), chapter 5, pp. 240-313.

Zara Steiner and K. Neilson, Britain and the Origins of the First World War, (London, 2003).

 

Further reading:

 

Dominik Geppert, Robert Gerwarth (eds.): Wilhelmine Germany and Edwardian Britain : essays on cultural affinity ISBN: 9780199558285 (hbk.); 0199558280 (hbk.), Oxford 2008

 

On Tirpitz, the beginnings, goals and consequences of the German battlefleet-program:

Jonathan Steinberg: Yesterday's deterrent: Tirpitz and the birth of the German battle fleet, Aldershot 1992

John Röhl: Wilhelm II : the Kaiser's personal monarchy, 1888-1900 ISBN: 0521819202 Volker Berghahn, Germany and the approach of war in 1914, (London, 1973).

On a significant detail: Matthew S. Seligmann (Ed.): Naval intelligence from Germany : the reports of the British naval attachés in Berlin, 1906-1914 ISBN: 9780754661573 (alk. paper), Abingdon 2007 

 

On German Weltpolitik:

Norman Rich: Friedrich von Holstein. Politics and Diplomacy in the Era of Bismarck and Wilhelm II., 2 vols., Cambridge 1965

Mark Hewitson, ‘Wilhelmine Germany’, in: James Retallack (ed), Imperial Germany 1871-1918, (Oxford UP, 2008), pp. 40-61.

Geoff Eley, Reshaping the German right : radical nationalism and political change after Bismarck ISBN: 0300023863, (Michigan, 1991 ed), chapter 3, pp. 68-91.

Sebastian Conrad: Globalisation and the nation in imperial Germany ISBN: 9780521177306 (pbk.) : £21.99; 9780521763073 (hbk.) : £55.00; 052176307X (hbk.) : £55.00; 0521177308 (pbk.) : £21.99 (Cambridge UP, 2010).

 

 

 

The Boer War and its impact on international public opinion:

 

 

Keith Wilson (Ed.): The international impact of the Boer War ISBN: 1902683196 (pbk); 1902683188, Chesham 2001

 

 Fred R. van Hartesveldt: The Boer War : historiography and annotated bibliography ISBN: 0313306273 (alk. paper), Westport 2000.

 

 

 

8. Russo-Japanese War and Entente Cordiale, 1904

 

Class Reading:

 

- Taylor, Struggle, ch. XVIII. and XIX

 

Russo-Japanese War:

 

 

The Russo-Japanese War in global perspective : World War Zero. ISBN: 9004142843 (v.1); 9004154167 (v.2)(vol.1 edited by John W. Steinberg [et al.]; vol.2 edited by David Wolff [et al.], Leiden 2005-2007 (History of Warfare, v.29 and 40)  

 

Denis and Peggy Warner: The tide at sunrise : a history of the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905, New York 1974

 

 

The Entente Cordiale:

 

Keith Wilson: The policy of the Entente : essays on the determinants of British foreign policy 1904-1914 ISBN: 0521301955, Cambridge 1985

 

Christopher Andrew: Théophile Delcassé and the making of the Entente Cordiale : a reappraisal of French foreign policy, 1898-1905, London/New York 1968;

 

George W. Monger: The end of isolation : British foreign policy, 1900-1907, London 1963.

 

Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), pp. 142-71.

 

Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers, pp. 121-67.

 

 

 

9. From the First Moroccan Crisis to the Balkan Wars

Class Reading:- Taylor, Struggle, ch. XVIII. -XXI 

 

First Moroccan Crisis:

 

Taylor, Struggle, ch. XIX.

 

The Bosnian Crisis, 1908:

 

Class reading:

 

Bernadotte E. Schmitt: The annexation of Bosnia, 1908-1909, 1937, new print New York 1970; Taylor, Struggle, ch. XIX

 

Paul W. Schroeder: Stealing Horses to Great Applause: Austria-Hungary’s Decision in 1914 in Systemic Perspective, in: Afflerbach/Stevenson, An improbable war? : the outbreak of World War I and European political culture before 1914 ISBN: 9781845452759 (hbk.) : £50.00; 1845452755 (hbk.) : £50.00, p. 17-42

 

*Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), pp. 404-38.

 

 

Second Morocco Crisis, 1911

 

Class reading:

 

Taylor, Struggle, ch. XX

 

General orientation on wars between 1911 and 1913:

Dominik Geppert, William Mulligan, Andreas Rose (eds.): The wars before the Great War : conflict and international politics before the outbreak of the First World War ISBN: 9781107063471 (hardback : alk. paper), London 2015

 

 

The Libyan War, 1911

 

*Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers, pp. 242-51.

 

First information in: Luigi Albertini: The Origins of the War of 1914, Vol. 1, ch VI.; Taylor, Struggle, ch. XX. 

 

Cedric Lowe/Frank Marzari: Italian Foreign Policy 1870-1940, London/Boston 1975, give a short and precise overview.

Richard J.B. Bosworth: Italy and the approach of the First World War ISBN: 0333312066, London 1983.

 

Richard J.B. Bosworth: Italy, the least of the Great Powers : Italian foreign policy before the first World War ISBN: 0521223660, Cambridge 1979.

 

David Herrmann; The paralysis of Italian Strategy in the Italo-Turkish War, 1911-1912, in: English historical review. ISSN: 0013-8266, 104 (1989).

 

Timothy Childs: Italo-Turkish diplomacy and the war over Libya, 1911-1912 ISBN: 9004090258, Leiden 1990.

 

John A. Thayer: Italy and the Great War : politics and culture, 1870-1915.

 

 

The Balkan Wars, 1912/13, and the Conference of London:

 

First orientation in: Taylor, Struggle, ch. XXI.

 

The book by Ernst Christian Helmreich: The diplomacy of the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, Cambridge 1938, is a dense and highly informative monograph on this topic.

 

*Richard C. Hall, The Balkan Wars, 1912-1913 : prelude to the First World War ISBN: 0415229464; 9780415229463; 0415229472 (pbk.); 9780415229470 (pbk.), (London, 2000).

 

*Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), pp. 466-500.

 

 

 

10. The European Armaments Race, War Plannings and Naval race – Disarmament talks – public opinion and war fears

 

Class reading:

 

Michael Epkenhans: The Naval Race before 1914: Was a Peaceful Outcome Thinkable? In: Afflerbach/Stevenson, An improbable war? : the outbreak of World War I and European political culture before 1914 ISBN: 9781845452759 (hbk.) : £50.00; 1845452755 (hbk.) : £50.00, pp. 113-129

 

David Stevenson: Was a Peaceful Solution Thinkable? The European Land Armaments Race before 1914, in: Afflerbach/Stevenson, An improbable war? : the outbreak of World War I and European political culture before 1914, pp. 130-148.

 

 

Further reading:

 

On disarmament talks:

 

 

Jost Dülffer: Chances and Limits of Armament Control Talks and International Agreements before 1914 in: Afflerbach/Stevenson, An improbable war? : the outbreak of World War I and European political culture before 1914 ISBN: 9781845452759 (hbk.) : £50.00; 1845452755 (hbk.) : £50.00, p. 95-112

 

 

On the European land armaments races:

 

 

Armaments race in general:

 

 

*David Stevenson: Armaments and the coming of War: Europe, 1904-1914, Oxford 1996;

 

 David G. Herrmann: The Arming of Europe and the making of the First World War, Princeton 1996

 

*Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), pp. 501-43.

 

 

 

 

War plans before 1914:

 

Paul Kennedy (ed.): The War plans of the great powers, 1880-1914 ISBN: 0049400568 : £12.50, London 1977;

 

Richard F. Hamilton, Holger H. Herwig: War planning 1914, Cambridge 2010.

 

*Margaret Macmillan, The War that ended Peace: The Road to 1914, (New York, 2013), pp. 336-77.

 

 

Schlieffen plan:

 

The main attention of contemporaries and historians was always on the Schlieffen plan and there is an abundant literature on the topic. The classic and groundbreaking book on the topic:

 

Gerhard Ritter: The Schlieffen Plan : critique of a myth, London 1958.

 

In 2002 the American historian Terence Zuber surprised the world with the statement that there was no Schlieffen plan: Terence Zuber: Inventing the Schlieffen Plan : German war planning, 1871-1914 ISBN: 0199250162, Oxford 2002.

 

A controversy started which can be found mainly in War in history. ISSN: 0968-3445, and it did not come to its end:  (T. Zuber, 'The Schlieffen Plan Reconsidered' in: War in History, 1999; 3: pp. 262-305; T. Holmes, 'A Reluctant March on Paris', in: War in History, 2001; 2: pp. 208-32; T. Zuber, 'Terence Holmes Reinvents the Schlieffen Plan' in: War in History 2001; 4, pp. 468-76; T. Holmes, 'The Real Thing' in: War in History, 2002, 1, pp. 111-20; T. Zuber, 'Terence Holmes Reinvents the Schlieffen Plan - Again' in: War in History 2003; 1, pp. 92-101; R. Foley, 'The Origins of the Schlieffen Plan' in: War in History, 2003; 2 pp. 222-32; T. Holmes, 'Asking Schlieffen: A Further Reply to Terence Zuber' in: War in History 2003; 4, pp. 464-479; T. Zuber, 'The Schlieffen Plan was an Orphan' in: War in History, 2004; 2 pp. 220-25; Schlieffen plan: R. Foley, ‘The Real Schlieffen Plan’ in: War in History, 2006; 1, pp. 91-115; T. Zuber, ‘The ‘Schlieffen  Plan’ and German War Guilt’ in: War in History 2007; 1, pp. 96-108; A. Mombauer, ‘Of War Plans and War Guilt: The Debate Surrounding the Schlieffen Plan’ in: Journal of Strategic Studies XXVIII, 2005; T. Zuber, ‘Everybody Knows There Was a ‘Schlieffen Plan”: A Reply to Annika Mombauer’ in War in History 2008; 1. pp. 92-101; G. Gross, ‘There Was a Schlieffen Plan: New Sources on the History of German War Planning’ in: War in History 2008; 4, pp. 389-431; T. Zuber, ‘There Never was a “Schlieffen Plan” ‘ (in preparation); T. Holmes, ‘All Present and Correct: The Verifiable Army of the Schlieffen Plan’, in: War in History 2009, 16 (1) 98-115.; T. Zuber, ‘The Schlieffen Plan’s “Ghost Divisions” March Again:  A Reply to Terence Holmes’ (in preparation).

 

 

War Council, December 1912:

 

*Fritz Fischer: War of illusions : German policies from 1911 to 1914 ISBN: 0701119721 : £12.00, London 1975 (translation of: Fritz Fischer: Krieg der Illusionen. Die deutsche Politik 1911-1914, 2. ed., Droste, Düsseldorf 1969).

 

 Fritz Fisher tried to demonstrate in this book that German leaders prepared for an aggressive war since 1912 (war council). This theory was always very controversial; today only a minority of historians accept it. Among them is John C.G. Röhl, whose biography of Kaiser Wilhelm II may be useful:

 

Wilhelm II : into the abyss of war and exile, 1900-1941 ISBN: 9780521844314 (hbk.); 0521844312 (hbk.); 9781139890229 (ebook).

 

 

About public opinion in the last years before the war, especially about expectations of war:

 

 

Wolfgang J. Mommsen: “The Topos of Inevitable War In Germany In The Decade Before 1914”, in Volker Berghahn / Martin Kitchen (eds.): Germany in the age of total war ISBN: 0709901194. Essays in honor of Francis L. Carsten, London 1981, pp. 23-46

 

Holger Afflerbach: The Topos of Improbable War in Europe before 1914, in: Afflerbach/Stevenson, An improbable war? : the outbreak of World War I and European political culture before 1914 ISBN: 9781845452759 (hbk.) : £50.00; 1845452755 (hbk.) : £50.00, pp. 161-182

 

*David Stevenson, 1914-1918 : the history of the First World War ISBN: 0140268170; 0013205323, (Allen Lane, 2004), 9-35

 

 

11. The July crisis 1914. Conclusion: Doomed to Failure? European Policy from Bismarck to Sarajevo

 

Important books:

 

Imanuel Geiss: July 1914: the outbreak of the First World War: selected documents, (London 1967)

 

Annika Mombauer, The origins of the First World War : diplomatic and military documents ISBN: 9780719074219 (pbk.) : £19.99 (Documents in Modern History), (Manchester, 2013).

 

The literature on the July crisis is experiencing a renaissance, given its centenary:

 

*Christopher Clark: Sleepwalkers, (London 2012)

 

Margaret Macmillan: The War that ended peace, (London 2013.)

 

 *William Mulligan: The Origins of the First World War, (Cambridge 2010)

 

*Thomas Otte, July crisis [electronic resource] : the world's descent into war, summer 1914 ISBN: 9781316011614 (e-book); 9781107064904 (hbk.), (Cambridge, 2014).

 

 James Joll: The origins of the First World War, London/New York 1992

 

Annika Mombauer, The origins of the First World War : diplomatic and military documents ISBN: 9780719074219 (pbk.) : £19.99, (Manchester, 2013).

 

Keith Wilson (Ed.): Decisions for war, 1914 ISBN: 1857280970, London 1995, contains an extremely useful collection of high-class essays on the political decision making process in European states in July 1914.

 

Richard F. Hamilton, Holger H. Herwig (Eds.): Decisions for war, 1914-1917, Cambridge 2004

This list was last updated on 16/01/2020