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HIST1045
Module Reading List 2020-21

Empire and Aftermath: The Mediterranean World from the Second to the Eighth Centuries, 2021/22, Semester 2
Dr Jonathan Jarrett
J.Jarrett@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General Reading List

Secondary Surveys (arranged alphabetically by author surname)

*Peter R. L. Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London: Thames and Hudson, 1971; repr. London: Folio Society, 2014)

Peter R. L. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, 2nd. ed. 2002)

Peter R. L. Brown, Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350–550 AD (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013)

Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire, AD 284–430 (London: Fontana, 1993, 2nd ed. 2012)

Averil Cameron, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity AD 375–600 (London: Routledge, 1993, 2nd ed. 2012)

*Roger Collins, Early Medieval Europe 300–1000 (London: Longman, 1991, 2nd ed. 1997, 3rd ed. 2010) 

Peter Garnsey and Richard Saller, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture (Berkeley: University of California, 1987)

Jeremy K. Knight, The End of Antiquity: Archaeology, Society and Religion AD 235-700 (Stroud: Tempus, 1999)

*Stephen Mitchell, A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD 284–641, 2nd ed. (Hoboken: John Wiley, 2015) 

David Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180–395 (London: Routledge, 2004) 

Richard Reece, The Later Roman Empire: An Archaeology AD 150-600 (Stroud: Tempus, 1999)

*Peter Sarris, Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500–700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean 400–800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)

*Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London: Allen Lane, 2009; repr. London: Penguin, 2009)

Cambridge Histories

If in doubt, resort can always be made to the Cambridge Ancient History and the New Cambridge Medieval History, which are modern part-works with essays by many experts on various matters (ordered in series). Because these works can be consulted for almost any topic as background reading, I have often not listed them under background reading for individual topics. Remember to check! These are the volumes relevant to this module:

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 11: The High Empire, A.D. 70–192, ed. by Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey and Dominic Rathbone, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 12: The Crisis of Empire A.D. 193–337, ed. by Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey and Averil Cameron, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 13: The Late Empire, A.D. 337–425, ed. by Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 14: Late Antiquity. Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600, ed. by Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-Perkins and Michael Whitby, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 1: c. 500– c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

 And see also:

The Cambridge World History, volume 4: A World with states, empires and networks 1200 BCE-900 CE, ed. by Benjamin Craig (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

The New Cambridge History of Islam, volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries, ed. by Chase F. Robinson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010)

The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Early Medieval Christianities, c. 600– c. 1100, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble and Julia M. H. Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)

The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, ed. by Dennis Sinor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)

The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, ed. by Ehsan Yarshater (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983): with care! Iranian studies seems to work on different standards of proof to the rest of the academy…

Reference

For simple fact-checking or looking up technical terms, there is the fantastic The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, ed. by Oliver Nicholson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018): almost everything has a short entry with further references there.

Historiography

Two exceptionally good resources for recent historiographical debates on most issues covered by this module are:

The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. by Scott Fitzgerald Johnson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)

A Companion to Late Antiquity, ed. by Philip Rousseau and Jutta Raithel (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009)    

Primary Sources

As for primary material, many of the most important primary sources are available in translation, but two useful compilations are:

Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook, ed. by Michael Maas (London: Routledge, 2000)

Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, ed. by William Stearns Davis, 2 vols (Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1912), ii <https://archive.org/details/readingsinancien011109mbp> [accessed 22 April 2020]: this is much older than Maas but is on the open web

If you need more than Maas gives you or are looking for a specific source, a list of other translations can be found at Historian on the Edge, ‘Translations of Late Antique Sources, c.300-c.800: A Hand List’, Historian on the Edge, 1 February 2012 <https://edgyhistorian.blogspot.com/2012/02/translations-of-late-antique-sources.html> [accessed 7 January 2019], but much has been published even since then.

Websites and Online Resources

Most primary sources are online somewhere. Good places to look are Project Gutenberg <http://www.gutenberg.org>, The Internet Archive <http://www.archive.org>, or (for selections) the Internet Sourcebooks Project, specifically the Internet Ancient Sourcebook, ed. by Paul Halsall <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/asbook.asp>, and the Internet Medieval Sourcebook, ed. by Halsall <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/sbook.asp>.

As for secondary material, there are many relevant websites, but most are written by people with no more than undergraduate-level knowledge, so not helpful when you are looking for expert opinion. Lots of scholarly articles can be found on Academia.edu, <http://www.academia.edu>, but it is not easily searchable; the easiest way to find articles on the site is to include the string ‘site:academia.edu’, without quotes, in a Google search on the topic you are interested in, rather than going to the site itself. An account is only necessary to download files, and we do not recommend that you register for one; you can read materials on the site without it.

One website that can be unequivocally recommended is De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families, ed. by Richard D. Wiegel <http://www.roman-emperors.org>. As the title suggests, this is a site dedicated to the Roman Emperors: most of the entries are excellent, having been written specially by current leading Late-Antique scholars in the United States.

Wikipedia had many good entries on Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages at time of writing, which often also have useful external links providing online access to sources in translation). Wikipedia is always subject to change, however, and is therefore best used as a route to other sources rather than a reference itself.

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Required Readings for Lectures

There will be chapter-length set readings for each lecture, which will be made available electronically. You are expected to read these before the lecture, and your tutors will assume knowledge of them in preparing the weekly tutorials. For 2020-21 these readings are as follows:

Week 1. Michael Peachin, 'Rome the Superpower 96–235 CE', in A Companion to the Roman Empire, ed. by David S. Potter (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 126-52: available as e-book  

Week 2. Alaric Watson, Aurelian and the Third Century (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 1‒22: available as e-book

Week 3. Robert M. Frakes, ‘The Dynasty of Constantine down to 363’, in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, ed. by Noel Lenski (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 91–108: available as e-book 

Week 4. Kate Cooper, ‘Property, Power, and Conflict: Re-Thinking the Constantinian Revolution’, in Making Early Medieval Societies: Conflict and Belonging in the Latin West, 300-1200, ed. by Kate Cooper and Conrad Leyser (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), pp. 16–32

Week 5. Michael Maas, 'Barbarians: Problems and Approaches', in The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. by Scott Johnson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 60–91 

Week 6. Guy Halsall, 'Movers and Shakers: The Barbarians and the Fall of Rome', Early Medieval Europe, 8 (1999), 131-45, repr. in From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2006), pp. 277–91: original available as electronic journal article, reprint as e-book  

Week 7. Stephen Mitchell, A History of the Later Roman Empire AD 284-641, 2nd ed. (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015), pp. 441–65: available as e-book  

Week 8. Michael Maas, 'Roman Questions, Byzantine Answers: Contours of the Age of Justinian', in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, ed. by Maas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 3–27: available as e-book  

Week 9. James Howard-Johnston, 'The Two Great Powers in Late Antiquity: A Comparison', in The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East: Papers of the First Workshop on Late Antiquity and Early Islam, ed. by Averil Cameron, Lawrence Conrad and Geoffrey King, 3 vols (Princeton: Darwin, 1992), III, pp. 157–226, repr. in Howard-Johnston, East Rome, Sasanian Persia and the end of Antiquity: Historiographical and Historical Studies (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), chapter I   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 28/01/2020)  

Week 10. Mark Whittow, The Making of Orthodox Byzantium 600-1025 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 69–95 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 28/01/2020) 

Week 11. Paolo Delogu, 'Reading Pirenne Again', in The Sixth Century: Production, Distribution, and Demand, ed. by Richard Hodges and Willam Bowden (Leiden: Brill, 1998), pp. 15–40 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (fad 28/01/2020)

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Weekly Reading Lists by Topic

These reading lists are deliberately very long. You are not expected to read everything on them! There are a lot of people studying this module, so this is intended to provide plenty of alternatives so that everybody can get at enough material, as well as letting people follow particular interests where possible.

On the other hand, while the required reading on each topic will allow you to participate usefully in the tutorials, it isn't enough to answer an essay or exam question, and you should be aiming to read more than that. I think that in an ordinary week you should aim to have read (in total, for this course) one book-length item and two others, or up to five shorter items, with at least one of whatever things you read being primary material. You won't be able to manage that every week, perhaps, but on the other hand if you are writing an essay or giving a presentation, it would not be wrong to read more than that. This may seem like a lot of work but it is also the best way to get on well with the course!

The list is usually arranged with each section in reverse chronological order, the newest items at the top and the oldest at the bottom. Try to make sure at least something recent is among your reading, so that you have some guidance about how far the views of older scholarship remain accepted.

Some items are marked with asterisks: these are ones I have found particularly useful. Don't worry if you can't get these, however; nothing here is not useful.

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Week 1. Introduction: the Roman Empire at its height

Questions to consider

Could one man really rule a state the size and complexity of the Roman Empire?

What difficulties did the Empire face and what held it together?

Was the second century an especially fortunate time to live, as Gibbon long ago averred?

Required readings for tutorial

Primary source

Historia Augusta, trans. by David Magie, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1921, online ed. 2014), I, pp. 3-82 (Hadrian). This edition has facing Latin and English texts: you only need to read the English, so it’s not as long as it looks!  

Secondary orientation

Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Civilis princeps: Between Citizen and King’, Journal of Roman Studies, 72 (1982), 32-48  

Background reading

The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 11: The High Empire, A.D. 70-192, ed. by Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey and Dominic Rathbone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Martin Goodman and Jane Sherwood, The Roman World, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge, 1997)

Tim Cornell, ‘The End of Roman Imperial Expansion’, and Greg Woolf, ‘Roman Peace’, in War and Society in the Roman World, ed. by John Rich and Graham Shipley (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 139–70 and pp. 171–94

Further reading

Primary sources

Texts

The Roman Empire: Augustus to Hadrian, ed. by Robert K. Sherk (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988): document anthology

Pliny the Younger, Letters and Panegyricus, trans. by Betty Radice, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969, online edn. 2014), II, Book X (Pliny’s correspondence with the Emperor Trajan, including dealing with early Christians) and Panegyricus (in praise of Trajan)

Cassius Dio, Roman History, ed. and trans. by Earnest Cary and Herbert B. Foster, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA, 1914, online edn. 2014)

Material Culture

Kevin Greene, The Archaeology of the Roman Economy (London: Batsford, 1986, repr. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991)

Secondary orientation

Studies of Emperors

Hadrian: Empire and Conflict, ed. by Torsten Opper (London: British Museum Press, 2008): illustrated exhibition catalogue

Anthony Birley, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor (London: Routledge, 1997)

Julian Bennett, Trajan, optimus princeps: A Life and Times (London: Routledge, 1997)

Michael Grant, The Antonines: The Roman Empire in Transition (London: Routledge, 1994)

Anthony Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography, revised ed. (London: Batsford, 1987)

Ideology and Administration

Olivier J. Hekster, ‘Fighting for Rome: The Emperor as a Military Leader’, in The Impact of the Roman Army (200 BC-AD 476): Economic, Social, Political, Religious, and Cultural Aspects, ed. by Lukas de Blois and Elio lo Cascio (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 91–106

Carlos F. Noreña, ‘The Communication of the Emperor’s Virtues’, Journal of Roman Studies, 91 (2001), 146-68

Clifford Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000)

Fergus Millar, ‘Emperors, Kings and Subjects: The Politics of Two-Level Sovereignty’, Studia Classica Israelica, 15 (1996), 159-73 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (KR 22/01/2019) 

Fergus Millar, ‘Empire and City, Augustus to Julian: Obligations, Excuses and Status’, Journal of Roman Studies, 73 (1983), 76-96

Economy

David Mattingly, ‘The Imperial Economy’, in A Companion to the Roman Empire, ed. by David Potter (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 283-97

The Transformation of Economic Life under the Roman Empire, ed. by Lukas De Blois and John Rich (Amsterdam: Gieben, 2002)

Keith Hopkins, ‘Rome, Taxes, Rents and Trade’, in The Ancient Economy, ed. by Walter Scheidel and Sitta von Reden (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002), pp. 190-230: special!    

Kenneth Harl, Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), pp. 73–124

Peter Wim de Neeve, ‘A Roman Landowner and his Estates: Pliny the Younger’, Athenaeum, 78 (1990), 363-402

Michael Fulford, ‘Economic Interdependence among Urban Communities of the Roman Mediterranean’, World Archaeology, 19 (1987), 58-75

Source criticism

Diederik Burgersdijk, ‘Pliny's Panegyricus and the Historia Augusta ’, Arethusa, 45 (2013), 289-312

Adam M. Kemezis, ‘Lucian, Fronto, and the Absence of Contemporary Historiography under the Antonines’, American Journal of Philology, 131 (2010), 285-325

Fritz-Heiner Mutschler, ‘The Problem of “Imperial Historiography” in Rome’, in Conceiving the Empire: China and Rome Compared, ed. by Fritz-Heiner Mutschler and Achim Mittag (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 119–41

Ronald Syme, Emperors and Biography: Studies in the 'Historia Augusta' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971): very, er, stylish, but with important points

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Week 2. Survival and Adaptation in the Third Century

Questions to consider

What were the root causes of the Empire’s difficulties in the third century?

Can we place factors like military threat, economic difficulty, collapse of morale and so on in a causal relationship with each other in this context?

Is it sensible or meaningful to describe the events of most of a century as a ‘crisis’?

Required reading

Primary material

Eutropius, Abridgement of Roman History, trans. by John Selby Watson (London: Bohn, 1853), Book IX, <http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/eutropius/trans9.html> [last modified 7 September 2010 as of 24 November 2016]  

Secondary orientation

Lukas de Blois, 'The Crisis of the Third Century A. D. in the Roman Empire: A Modern Myth? ', in The Transformation of Economic Life under the Roman Empire, ed. by Lukas de Blois and John Rich (Leiden: Brill, 2002), pp. 204-17 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020)

Background reading

*Adam Ziolkowski, ‘The Background to the Third-Century Crisis of the Roman Empire’, in The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, ed. by Jóhann Páll Arnason (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011), pp. 113-33    

David Potter, ‘The Transformation of the Empire: 235–337 CE’, and Hugh Elton, ‘The Transformation of Government under Diocletian and Constantine’, in A Companion to the Roman Empire, ed. by Potter (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 153–73 and pp. 193–205

David Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395 (London: Routledge, 2004)

Michael Grant, The Collapse and Recovery of the Roman Empire (London: Routledge, 1998)

Further reading

Primary material

Texts

Aurelius Victor, About the Emperors, trans. as Aurelius Victor, Liber de Caesaribus of Sextus Aurelius Victor, trans. by Harry W. Bird (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1994), pp. 29-40 (chapters 25-38)

Herodian, History of the Empire, ed. and trans. by Christopher Whittaker, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969, online ed. 2014)

Cassius Dio, Roman History, ed. by Herbert Baldwin Foster and trans. by Earnest J. Carey, 9 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914-27, online edn. 2014), IX, pp. 70–490 (Books LXXIII-LXXX)

Material Culture

Kevin Greene, The Archaeology of the Roman Economy (London: Batsford, 1986, repr. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991)

Edward Besly and Roger Bland, The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century A.D. (London: British Museum, 1983)

Secondary Orientation

Crises and the Roman Empire, ed. by Oliver Hekster, Gerda de Kleijn and Danielle Slootjes (Leiden: Brill, 2007): relatively recent, with most of the volume concentrated on the third-century crisis as a tribute to Lukas de Blois

Géza Alföldy, ‘The Crisis of the Third Century as Seen by Contemporaries’, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 15 (1974), 89–111: still useful, but contrast with something more modern too!

The Political System and Imperial Responses

Inge Mennen, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (Leiden: Brill, 2011)

Sviatoslav Dmitriev, ‘Traditions and Innovations in the Reign of Aurelian’, The Classical Quarterly, 54 (2004), 568–78

Lukas de Blois, ‘The Military Factor in the Onset of Crises in the Roman Empire in the Third Century AD’, in The Impact of the Roman Army (200 BC-AD 476): Economic, Social, Political, Religious, and Cultural Aspects, ed. by Lukas de Blois and Elio lo Cascio (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 495–508

Ramsay MacMullen, Roman Government's Response to Crisis, A.D. 235-337 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976)

The Economic Situation

Willem M. Jongman, ‘Gibbon Was Right: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Economy’, in Hekster, de Kleijn and Slootjes, Crises and the Roman Empire, as above, pp. 183‒99: deliberately controversial 

*Christian Witschel, ‘The Roman West in the Third Century A. D.’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 17 (2004), 251–81

Alfred Wassink, ‘Inflation and Financial Policy under the Roman Empire to the Price Edict of 301 A.D.’, Historia: Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte, 40.4 (1991), 465–93

        Money Specifically

Richard Abdy, ‘Tetrarchy and the House of Constantine’, in The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage, ed. by William E. Metcalf (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 584–600

Kenneth Harl, Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), pp. 125–57

R. A. G. Carson, ‘Coin Hoards and Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD’, in Studies in Numismatic Method Presented to Philip Grierson, ed. by C. N. L. Brooke, B. H. I. H. Stewart, J. G. Pollard and T. R. Volk (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), pp. 65–74 

Regional Difference

Anthony R. Birley, ‘Britain during the Third-Century Crisis’, in Hekster, de Kleijn and Slootjes, Crises, as above, pp. 45‒55

Byron Nakamura, ‘Palmyra and the Roman East’, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 34 (1993), 133–50

John Drinkwater, The Gallic Empire: Separatism and Continuity in the North-Western Provinces of the Roman Empire, A.D. 260-274 (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1987)

Historiography

Wolf Liebeschuetz, ‘Was There a Crisis of the Third Century?’, and John Nicols, ‘Mapping the Crisis of the Third Century’, in Hekster, de Kleijn and Slootjes, Crises, as above, pp. 11‒20 and 431‒37

Peter R. L. Brown, ‘Approaches to the Religious Crisis of the Third Century A. D.’, English Historical Review, 83 (1968), 542-58

Plague

Christer Bruun, ‘The Antonine Plague and the “Third-Century Crisis”’, in Hekster, de Kleijn and Slootjes, Crises, as above, pp. 201-17    

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Week 3. Constantine, Constantius, Julian and their Legacies

Questions to Consider

What did the emperors of the Tetrarchy do right that their predecessors had not?

Were the problems of the third century ever fully solved in the fourth?

What were the reasons for imperial changes of mind on the support of Christianity?

How did late Roman imperial government function, and how long could it continue thus?

Required Reading

Primary Material

Eusebius, Life of Constantine, ed. and trans. by Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 67–89 (Book I, chapters 1–48) OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

Secondary Reading

Yann Rivière, 'The Restoration of Order to the Roman Empire: From the Tetrarchs to Constantine', in Rome and the Barbarians: The Birth of a New World, ed. by Jean-Jacques Aillagon (Milano: Skira, 2008), pp. 186–93   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

Background Reading

Stephen Mitchell, A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD 284-641: The Transformation of the Ancient World, 2nd edn. (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015), pp. 51‒107

David Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, 2nd edn (London: Routledge, 2014), pp. 259‒559

Michael Kulikowski, Rome's Gothic Wars, from the Third Century to Alaric (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Alan K. Bowman, ‘Diocletian and the First Tetrarchy, A.D. 284‒305’, Averil Cameron, ‘The Reign of Constantine, A.D. 306‒337’, and Elio Lo Cascio, ‘The New State of Diocletian and Constantine: from the Tetrarchy to the Reunification of the Empire’, all in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 12: The Crisis of Empire A. D. 193-337, 2nd edn., ed. by Bowman, Peter Garnsey and Cameron (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 67‒89, 90‒109 and 170‒83

David Hunt, 'The Successors of Constantine', David Hunt, 'Julian', John Curran, ‘From Jovian to Theodosius’, R. C. Blockley, ‘The Dynasty of Theodosius’, R. C. Blockley, ‘Warfare and Diplomacy’, Benjamin Isaac, ‘The Eastern Frontier’, Malcolm Todd, ‘The Germanic Peoples’ and Peter Heather, ‘Goths and Huns, c.  320-425’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 13: The Late Empire, A.D. 337-425, ed. by Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 1‒43, 44‒78, 78‒110, 111‒37, 411‒36, 437‒60, 461-86 and 487-515

Further Reading

Primary Material

Themistius, Politics, Philosophy and Empire in the Fourth Century: Themistius’ Select Orations, ed. and trans. by Peter Heather and David Moncur (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2001)

From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views. A Source History, ed. by Samuel N. C. Lieu and Dominic Montserrat (London: Routledge, 1996)

Ammianus Marcellinus, History, ed. and trans. by John C. Rolfe, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA, 1935, online edn. 2014)

Socrates and Sozomen, Ecclesiastical Histories, trans. by A. C. Zenos and Chester D. Hartranft (New York City, NY: The Christian Literature Company, 1890) <https://archive.org/details/selectlibraryofn02scha> [accessed 18 June 2020]

Secondary Orientation

R. Malcolm Errington, Roman Imperial Policy from Julian to Theodosius (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2006)

Christopher Kelly, Ruling the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2004)

The Tetrarchy

David Potter, ‘The Transformation of the Empire: 235-337 CE’, and Hugh Elton, ‘The Transformation of Government under Diocletian and Constantine’, in A Companion to the Roman Empire, ed. by Potter (Oxford: Blackwells, 2006), pp. 153-73 and pp. 193-205

Richard Rees, Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004)

Constantine I

Federico Fatti, ‘An Extraordinary Bishop: Eusebius of Caesarea in Cappadocia’, in Episcopal Elections in Late Antiquity, ed. by Johan Leemans, Peter Van Nuffelen, Shawn W. J. Keough and Carla Nicolaye (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011), pp. 343–55

Timothy D. Barnes, Constantine: Dynasty, Religion and Power in the Later Roman Empire (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011): latest work by the major expert on the era

*The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, ed. by Noel Lenski (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006): many useful contributions

Charles M. Odahl, Constantine and the Christian Empire (London: Routledge, 2004, 2nd ed. 2010)

Raymond van Dam, 'The Many Conversions of the Emperor Constantine', in Conversion in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Seeing and Believing, ed. by Kenneth Mills and Anthony Grafton (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2003), pp. 127–51 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (LDS 18/12/2020)   

Constantius II

Muriel Moser, Emperor and Senators in the Reign of Constantius II: Maintaining Imperial Rule Between Rome and Constantinople in the Fourth Century AD (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018)

Walt Stevenson, ‘Exiling Bishops: the Policy of Constantius II’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 68 (2014), 7‒27

Julian 'the Apostate'

María Pilar García Ruiz, ‘Julian’s Self-Representation in Coins and Texts’, in Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire, ed. by Diederik Burgersdijk and Alan J. Ross (Leiden: Brill, 2018), pp. 204–33

R. C. Teitler, The Last Pagan Emperor: Julian the Apostate and the War against Christianity (New York City, NY: Oxford University Press, 2017)

David Neal Greenwood, ‘Constantinian Influence upon Julian’s Pagan Church’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 68.1 (2017), 1–21

Emperor and Author: The Writings of Julian 'the Apostate', ed. by Nicholas Baker-Brian and Shaun Tougher (Swansea: Classical Press of Wales, 2012): esp. Baker-Brian and Tougher, ‘Introduction’, pp. 1‒12, Benet Salway, ‘Words and Deeds: the Epigraphic Evidence’, pp. 137‒57 and Fernando López Sánchez, ‘Julian and his Coinage: A Very Constantinian Prince’, pp. 159‒82

Scott Bradbury, ‘Julian’s Pagan Revival and the Decline of Blood Sacrifice’, Phoenix, 49 (1995), 331–56

The Later Fourth Century and the Sack of Rome

Christopher Doyle, Honorius: The Fight for the Roman West AD 395-423 (London: Routledge, 2018)

Peter Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, repr. 2006 and London: Penguin, 2009)

Noel Emmanuel Lenski, Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century A. D. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003) 

Stephen Williams and Gerard Friell, Theodosius: The Empire at Bay (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995)

Alan Cameron and Jacqueline Long, Barbarians and Politics at the Court of Arcadius (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993, reprinted 2018)

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Week 4. Religion and Society in pre-Islamic Late Antiquity

Questions to Consider

Why was Christianity so successful in the Empire, even though it was sometimes persecuted?

Could Julian II’s attempt at a pagan revival have outlasted him, had he lived longer?

How far could the emperors really change what people believed?

How did Christianity interact with other religions where it did not have state backing?

Required Reading

Primary Material

Emperor Julian II, ‘Mispogon (Beard-Hater)’, trans. by Wilbur C. Wright, in Internet Ancient Sourcebook, ed. by Paul Halsall <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/julian-mispogon.asp> [last modified January 1999 as of 14 January 2019]  

Secondary Reading

Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 85–98 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

Background Reading

Garth Fowden, ‘Religious Communities’, in Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, ed. by Glenn Bowersock, Peter R. L. Brown and Oleg Grabar (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), pp. 82-106 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (LDS 18/12/2020)   

*Garth Fowden, Empire to Commonwealth: Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), pp. 37-79

Peter R. L. Brown, Religion and Society in the Age of Saint Augustine (London: Faber and Faber, 1972)

Further Reading

This list is longer than others because it seemed important not to let the Empire and Christianity drown out other religions and areas. If your interests lie in religions other than Christianity, you should find something useful here. For Islam, of course, see later!

Primary Material

The Doctrine of Addai, The Apostle, ed. and trans. by George Phillips (London: Trübner, 1876), ed. by Roger Pearse <http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/addai_2_text.htm> [last modified 14 March 2016 as of 27 November 2016

Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, ed. by John E. L. Oulton and trans. by Kirsopp Lake, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1926, online ed. 2014), I, p. 400–II, p. 325 (Books IV–VIII), esp. II, pp. 246–325 (Book VIII)

Julian, Julian, trans. by Wilbur C. Wright, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1913‒23, online ed. 2014)

The Letter of Tansar, trans. by M. Boyce (Roma: Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo oriente, 1968) <https://archive.org/details/TheLetterOfTansarTranslatedByMaryBoyce> [accessed 21 March 2019]

Secondary Orientation

Barbara Kaim and Maja Kornacka, ‘Religious Landscape of the Ancient Merv Oasis’, Iran, 54.2 (2016), 47–72

*Paul C. Dilley, ‘Religious Intercrossing in Late Antique Eurasia: Loss, Corruption, and Canon Formation’, Journal of World History, 24.1 (2013), 25–70

Religious Diversity in Late Antiquity, ed. by David M. Gwynn and Susanne Bangert (Leiden: Brill, 2010), pp. 1–12

Mark Edwards, ‘Pagan and Christian Monotheism in the Age of Constantine’, in Approaching Late Antiquity: The Transformation from Early to Late Empire, ed. by Simon Swain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 211–34

Religion and Imperial Politics

Joan Zouberi, ‘The Role of Religion in the Foreign Affairs of Sasanian Iran and the Later Roman Empire (330-630 A.D.)’, Historia i Świat, 6 (2017), 121–32, available online here

Constantine Bourlakis, ‘The Emperor’s New Mind: On Constantine’s I Decision to Legalize Christianity’, International Journal of Social Sciences, 5.1 (2016), 47–59, available online here

Nicholas Baker-Brian, ‘The Politics of Virtue in Julian’s Mispogon’, in Emperor and Author: The Writings of Julian 'the Apostate', ed. by Baker-Brian and Shaun Tougher (Swansea: Classical Press of Wales, 2012), pp. 263‒80

W. H. C. Frend, ‘Persecutions: Genesis and Legacy’, and Averil Cameron, 'Constantine and the Church', in The Cambridge History of Christianity, 1: Origins to Constantine, ed. by Margaret Mary Mitchell, Frances M. Young, and K. Scott Bowie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 501‒23 and 538–51

*David Hunt, ‘The Church as a Public Institution’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 13: The Late Empire, A.D. 337-425, 2nd ed., ed. by Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 238‒74

Authority in the Early Church

Raymond Van Dam, ‘Bishops and Society’, in The Cambridge History of Christianity volume 2: Constantine to c. 600, ed. by Augustine Casiday and Frederick W. Norris (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 343–66

Henry Chadwick, ‘Orthodoxy and Heresy from the Death of Constantine to the Eve of the First Council of Ephesus’, in Cameron and Garnsey, Cambridge Ancient History 13, as above, pp. 561‒600

Peter R. L. Brown, ‘The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity’, Journal of Roman Studies, 61 (1971), 80-101, repr. in Brown, Society and the Holy, as above, pp. 103-52

Conversion and Christianization

Jaclyn Maxwell, ‘Paganism and Christianization’, in The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. by Scott Fitzgerald Johnson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 849–75

Michele Renee Salzman, The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004)

Eric Rebillard, ‘Conversion and Burial in the Late Roman Empire’, in Mills and Grafton, Conversion in Late Antiquity, as above, pp. 61‒83

Jaś Elsner, Art and the Roman Viewer: The Transformation of Art from the Pagan World to Christianity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Christianity Beyond the Empire

Richard E. Payne, A State of Mixture: Christians, Zoroastrians, and Iranian Political Culture in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2015), esp. pp. 23–58

Joel Walker, ‘From Nisibis to Xi’an: The Church of the East in Late Antique Eurasia’, in Johnson, Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, as above, pp. 994–1052

Philip Wood, ‘Collaborators and Dissidents: Christians in Sasanian Iraq in the Early Fifth Century CE’, in Late Antiquity: Eastern Perspectives, ed. by Teresa Bernheimer and Adam Silverstein (Warminster: Gibb Memorial Trust, 2012), pp. 57‒70

Christopher Haas, ‘Mountain Constantines: the Christianization of Aksum and Iberia’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 1 (2008), 101-26

Jan Willem Drijvers, ‘The Protonike Legend, the Doctrina Addai and Bishop Rabbula of Edessa’, Vigiliae christianae, 51 (1997), 298-315

Other Religions

Lee E. Patterson, ‘Minority Religions in the Sasanian Empire’, in Sasanian Persia: Between Rome and the Steppes of Eurasia, ed. by Eberhard W. Sauer (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017), pp. 181–98

Thomas Jansen, ‘New Tendencies, Religious and Philosophical, in the Chinese World of the Third through Sixth Centuries’, in Conceiving the Empire: China and Rome Compared, ed. by Fritz-Heiner Mutschler and Achim Mittag (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 397–419

Judaism

Rodrigo Laham Cohen, The Jews in Late Antiquity, Past Imperfect (Leeds: ARC Humanities Press, 2018)

The Jews among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire, ed. by Judith Lieu, John A. North and Tessa Rajak (London: Routledge, 1992)

Zoroastrianism

Almut Hintze, ‘Monotheism the Zoroastrian Way’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 24.2 (2014), 225–49

Prods Oktor Skjærvø, ‘Zoroastrianism’, in The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World, ed. by Michele Renee Salzman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 102–28

François de Blois, ‘A New Look at Mazdak’, in Bernheimer and Silverstein, Late Antiquity, as above, pp. 13–24

Buddhism

Patricia Crone, ‘Buddhism as Ancient Iranian Paganism’, in Bernheimer and Silverstein, Late Antiquity, as above, pp. 25‒41     

Akira Shimada, Early Buddhist Architecture in Context: The Great Stūpa at Amarāvatī (ca. 300 BCE-300 CE) (Leiden: Brill, 2013)

Daniel Boucher, ‘Dharmarakṣa and the Transmission of Buddhism to China’, Asia Major, China at the Crossroads: A Festschrift in Honor of Victor H. Mair, 19.1/2 (2006), 13–37

(Classical) Paganism

Béatrice Caseau, ‘Late Antique Paganism: Adaptation under Duress’, and David M. Gwynn, ‘The “End” of Roman Senatorial Paganism’, both in The Archaeology of Late Antique Paganism, ed. by Luke Lavan and Michael Mulryan (Leiden: Brill, 2009), pp. 111–34 and 135–61

Allen D. Lee, ‘Traditional Religions’, in Lenski, Companion to the Age of Constantine, as above, pp. 159‒82

Oliver Nicholson, ‘The “Pagan Churches” of Maximinus Daia and Julian the Apostate’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 45.1 (1994), 1–10

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Week 5. Barbarian Identity in the Roman Empire

Questions to consider

Who decided who was and wasn’t a barbarian, and how?

At what point did immigrants classed that way become dangerous to the Empire, rather than useful?

What did the so-called barbarians want from their engagement with the Empire?

Required reading

Primary material

Orosius, Seven Books of History Against the Pagans, trans. Andrew T. Fear (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2010), pp. 393–407 (Book VII, chapters 36–41)  

Secondary orientation

Thomas S. Burns, Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C.-A.D. 400, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), pp. 309-73   

Background reading

*Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), esp. pp. 35–62 and 138–62

*Andrew Gillett, ‘Ethnogenesis: A Contested Model of Early Medieval Europe’, History Compass, 4 (2006), 241–60

Patrick Geary, ‘Barbarians and Ethnicity’, in Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, ed. by Glenn Bowersock, Peter R. L. Brown and Oleg Grabar (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), pp. 107–29 

Edward James, Europe's Barbarians AD 200-600 (Harlow: Longman, 2009)

Further reading

See also the lists for Week 6.

Primary material

Texts

Priscus, History, trans. as The Fragmentary History of Priscus: Attila, the Huns and the Roman Empire, AD 430-476, trans. by John Given (Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing, 2014)

Themistius, Orations, in The Goths in the Fourth Century, ed. by Peter Heather and John Matthews (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1991), pp. 11–46 (Orations 8 and 10)

Ammianus Marcellinus, History, ed. and trans. by John C. Rolfe, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA, 1935, online ed. 2014), III, pp. 29–35 (Book XXVIII, Chapter 5)

Jordanes, The Gothic History of Jordanes in an English Version, with an Introduction and a Commentary, trans. by Charles Christopher Mierow (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1915); repr. Christian Roman Empire, 2 (Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing, 2006)

Material Culture

‘Roman Army Gallery’, ed. by Jon Coulston, BBC History, <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/romanarmy_gallery.shtml> [last modified 17 February 2011 as of 05 December 2016]

Secondary orientation

The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, ed. by Michael Maas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

Geoffrey D. Dunn, ‘Flavius Constantius, Galla Placidia, and the Aquitanian Settlement of the Goths’, Phoenix, 69.3/4 (2015), 376–93

Christoph Eger, ‘Habitus Militaris or Habitus Barbarus? Towards an Interpretation of Rich Male Graves of the Mid 5th Century in the Mediterranean’, in Aristocrazie e Società Fra Transizione Romano-Germanica e Alto Medioevo, ed. by Carlo Ebanista and Marcello Rotili (Cimitile: Tavolario Edizioni, 2015), pp. 213–36, available online here

Walter Goffart, ‘Administrative Methods of Barbarian Settlement in the Fifth Century: The Definitive Account’, in Gallien in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter: Kulturgeschichte einer Region, ed. by Steffen Diefenbach and Gernot Michael Müller (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013), pp. 45–56

J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, ‘Habitus Barbarus: Did Barbarians Look Different from Romans?’, in Expropriations et confiscations dans les royaumes barbares : Une approche régionale, ed. by Pierfrancesco Porena and Yann Rivière (Roma: École française de Rome, 2012), pp. 13–28

*Romans, Barbarians, and the Transformation of the Roman World: Cultural Interaction and the Creation of Identity in Late Antiquity, ed. by Ralph W. Mathisen (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011)

Rome and the Barbarians: The Birth of a New World, ed. by Jean-Jacques Aillagon (Milano: Skira, 2008)

Peter Heather, ‘Why Did the Barbarian Cross the Rhine?’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 2.1 (2009), 3–29

*Walter Goffart, ‘Rome’s Final Conquest: The Barbarians’, History Compass, 6.3 (2008), 855–83

Michael Kulikowski, Rome's Gothic Wars, from the Third Century to Alaric (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

John F. Drinkwater, The Alamanni and Rome 213–496: Caracalla to Clovis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

*Ralph W. Mathisen, 'Peregrini, Barbari, and Cives Romani: Concepts of Citizenship and the Legal Identity of Barbarians in the Later Roman Empire', American Historical Review, 111 (2006), 1011–40

Anatova Stamenko, ‘Barbarians and the Empire-Wide Spread of Christianity’, in The Spread of Christianity in the First Four Centuries: Essays in Explanation, ed. by William V. Harris (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 69–86

Peter Heather, ‘The Late Roman Art of Client Management: Imperial Defence in the Fourth Century West’, in The Transformation of Frontiers from Late Antiquity to the Carolingians, ed. by Walter Pohl, Ian Wood, and Helmut Reimitz (Leiden: Brill, 2001), pp. 15–68  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (LDS 18/12/2020)  

Malcolm Todd, ‘The Germanic Peoples’ and Peter Heather, ‘Goths and Huns, c. 320–425’, in The Cambridge Ancient History volume 13: The Late Empire, ed. by Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 461–86 and 487–515

*Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of the Ethnic Communities, 300–800, ed. by Walter Pohl and Helmut Reimitz (Leiden: Brill, 1998), esp. Pohl’s own ‘Telling the Difference: Signs of Ethnic Identity’, pp. 17–69, repr. in From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 2006), pp. 120–67

Patrick Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy 489–554 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)

*Peter Heather, ‘The Huns and the End of the Roman Empire in Western Europe’, English Historical Review, 110 (1995), 4-41, reprinted in Warfare in the Dark Ages, ed. by John France and Kelly DeVries (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), V

S. J. B. Barnish, ‘Taxation, Land and the Barbarian Settlement in the Western Empire’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 54 (1986), 170–95

*Walter Goffart, ‘Rome, Constantinople, and the Barbarians’, American Historical Review, 91 (1986), 275-306, repr. in Goffart, Rome's Fall and After (London: Hambledon, 1989), pp. 1-32, and in Warfare in the Dark Ages, ed. by John France and Kelly DeVries (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), chapter II: still extremely penetrating

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Week 6. Death of Empire in the West

Questions to Consider

When did the end of Roman rule in the West begin?

Why did Roman power survive in the East when it failed in the West?

What factor or group was most to blame for the collapse of Roman power?

Required Reading

Primary Material

Salvian of Marseille, On the Government of God, trans. by Eva M. Sanford (New York City: Columbia University Press, 1930), pp. 133-56 (Book V) 

Secondary Reading

Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London: Allen Lane, 2009, repr. Penguin 2010), pp. 76-108  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

Background Reading

These overlap a lot, so best to compare the conclusions rather than read several in whole.

*Christopher Kelly, Attila the Hun: Barbarian Terror and the Fall of the Roman Empire (London: Bodley Head, 2008)

*Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Peter Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, repr. 2006 and London: Penguin, 2009)

Bryan Ward-Perkins, The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Richard Gerberding, ‘The Later Roman Empire’, Guy Halsall, ‘The Barbarian Invasions’ and Halsall, ‘The Sources and their Interpretation’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 1: c. 500- c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 13-34, 35-55 and 56-90

John Moorhead, The Roman Empire Divided, 400-700 (Harlow: Pearson, 2001), pp. 6-65

Further Reading

This is probably the most discussed subject in historiography on the pre-modern period. I made an attempt to keep this short, but eventually I gave up. Hopefully the subheadings help…

Primary Material

Priscus, History, trans. as The Fragmentary History of Priscus: Attila, the Huns and the Roman Empire, AD 430-476, trans. by John Given (Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing, 2014)

Hydatius, Chronicle, in The "Chronicle" of Hydatius and the "Consularia Constantinopolitana": Two Contemporary Accounts of the Final Years of the Roman Empire, ed. and trans. by Raymond W. Burgess (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), pp. 69–174 (facing-page Latin and English)

Zosimus, New History, trans. by R. T. Ridley (Sydney: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982)

Sidonius Apollinaris, Poems and Letters, ed. and trans. by W. B. Anderson, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1936‒65, online edn. 2014)

Secondary Orientation

The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, ed. by Michael Maas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

Simon Esmonde Cleary, The Roman West, AD 200-500: An Archaeological Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Historiography

Peter Van Nuffelen, ‘Not Much Happened: 410 and All That’, Journal of Roman Studies, 105 (2015), 322–29: review article on the question as it relates to Britain

Bryan Ward-Perkins, ‘The Decline and Fall Industry’, Standpoint, 24 August 2009 <https://standpointmag.co.uk/the-decline-and-fall-industry-features-september-09-bryan-ward-perkins/> [accessed 26 August 2019]

Andrew Gillett, ‘Rome’s Fall and Europe’s Rise: A View from Late Antiquity’, The Medieval Review, 07.10.12, 2007 <https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/tmr/article/view/16453> [accessed 23 May 2020]: massed review of then-recent historiography

*From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2006): reprints various important articles with commentary pieces

*Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings, ed. by Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein (Oxford: Blackwells, 1998), pp. 5-104: collects several classic articles on this subject with an introduction, and adds the important piece by Chris Wickham, ‘The Fall of Rome Will Not Take Place’, pp. 45–57

Political and Military Explanations (see also Background Reading above)

Peter Heather, Empires and Barbarians: Migration, Development and the Birth of Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010)

Walter Goffart, Barbarian Tides: The Migration Age and the Later Roman Empire (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006)

Penny MacGeorge, Late Roman Warlords (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Peter Heather, ‘The Huns and the End of the Roman Empire in Western Europe’, English Historical Review, 110 (1995), 4-41, reprinted in Warfare in the Dark Ages, ed. by John France and Kelly DeVries (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), chapter V

Walter Goffart, ‘Rome, Constantinople, and the Barbarians’, American Historical Review, 91 (1986), 275-306, repr. in Goffart, Rome's Fall and After (London: Hambledon, 1989), pp. 1-32, and in Warfare in the Dark Ages, ed. by John France and Kelly DeVries (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), chapter II

Barbarian (and Roman) Identities (see also Week 5 list above)

Gallien in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter: Kulturgeschichte einer Region, ed. by Steffen Diefenbach and Gernot Michael Müller (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013), inc. Walter Goffart, ‘Administrative Methods of Barbarian Settlement in the Fifth Century: The Definitive Account’, pp. 45–56, John Drinkwater, ‘Un-Becoming Roman: The End of Provincial Civilisation in Gaul’, pp. 59–78, and David Lambert, ‘Salvian and the Bacaudae’, pp. 255–76

*Romans, Barbarians, and the Transformation of the Roman World: Cultural Interaction and the Creation of Identity in Late Antiquity, ed. by Ralph W. Mathisen (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011)

 Walter Goffart, ‘The Technique of Barbarian Settlement in the Fifth Century: A Personal, Streamlined Account with Ten Additional Comments’, and Guy Halsall, ‘The Technique of Barbarian Settlement in the Fifth Century: A Reply to Walter Goffart’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 3 (2010), 65-98 and 99-112

Kate Cooper, The Fall of the Roman Household (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

On Barbarian Identity: Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Andrew Gillett (Turnhout: Brepols, 2003)

Kingdoms of the Empire: The Integration of Barbarians in Late Antiquity, ed. by Walter Pohl (Leiden: Brill, 1997)

S. J. B. Barnish, ‘Transformation and Survival in the Western Senatorial Aristocracy, c. A. D. 400–700’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 56 (1988), 120–55

S. J. B. Barnish, ‘Taxation, Land and the Barbarian Settlement in the Western Empire’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 54 (1986), 170-95

Economic and Social Explanations

Svante Fischer and Lennart Lind, ‘Late Roman Gaul – Survival Amidst Collapse?’, in Crisis to Collapse: The Archaeology of Social Breakdown, ed. by Tim Cunningham and Jan Driessen (Louvain-la-Neuve: Université catholique de Louvain, 2017), pp. 100–130

Simon Esmonde Cleary, The Roman West, AD 200–500: An Archaeological Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Peter R. L. Brown, Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350-550 AD (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012)

Gary Blank, ‘Rethinking the “Other Transition”: Towards an Alternative Marxist Explanation’, Science & Society, 77.2 (2013), 153–78: response to Wickham, below, from 30 years before

Jairus Banaji, ‘Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages: What Kind of Transition?’, Historical Materialism, 19.1 (2011), 109–44: response to Wickham’s Framing the Early Middle Ages, below

Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005): massive but masterful; cf. Banaji above

Tamara Lewit, ‘Vanishing Villas: What Happened to Elite Rural Habitations in the West in the Fifth and Sixth Centuries AD?’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 16 (2003), 260-274

*Chris Wickham, ‘The Other Transition: From the Ancient World to Feudalism’,  Past and Present, 103 (1984), 3-36, revised in Wickham, Land and Power: Studies in Italian and European Social History, 400-1200 (London: British School at Rome, 1994), pp. 7-42; much cited, much contested and now disavowed by the author, but still really smart; cf. Blank above

Modern Relevance?

Richard Lachmann and Fiona Rose-Greenland, ‘Why We Fell: Declinist Writing and Theories of Imperial Failure in the Longue Durée’, Poetics, 50 (2015), 1–19: on the long history of writing like the three below

Adrian Goldsworthy, How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009)

James Joseph O’Donnell, The Ruin of the Roman Empire: A New History (New York: Harper Perennial, 2008)

Cullen Murphy, Are We Rome? The Fall of an Empire and the Fate of America (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007)

Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 6 vols (London: Strahan & Cadell, 1776‒89): you shouldn’t use it, but you should know about it, the classic of the form. The 1-volume abridgement is for the weak!

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Week 7. Ruling in the Shadow of Rome: New Kingdoms

Questions to consider

What remained Roman about the kingdoms that replaced Roman rule in the West?

Why did some of the new kingdoms survive longer than others?

What was the position of the new kings with respect to the continuing Empire?

Required reading

Primary material

Cassiodorus, Variae, trans. by S. J. B. Barnish (Liverpool 1992, repr. 2006), pp. 28-38 (Book II, nos 16–39)  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

Secondary orientation

Michael Kulikowski, ‘Sundered Aristocracies, New Kingdoms, and the End of the Western Empire’, in Gallien in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter: Kulturgeschichte einer Region, ed. by Steffen Diefenbach and Gernot Michael Müller (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013), pp. 79–90  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

Background reading

Peter Sarris, Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500-700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

*Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 284‒498

John Moorhead, The Roman Empire Divided, 400-700 (Harlow: Pearson, 2001)

Further reading

Primary material

Texts

Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecution, trans. by John Moorhead (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1992), or in Arians and Vandals of the 4th-6th centuries: Annotated Translations of the Historical Works by Bishops Victor of Vita (Historia Persecutionis Africanae Provinciae) and Victor of Tonnena (Chronicon), and of the Religious Works by Bishop Victor of Cartenna (De Paenitentia) and Saints Ambrose (De Fide Orthodoxa contra Arianos), and Athanasius (Expositio Fidei), ed. and trans. by John R. C. Martyn (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2008), pp. 1-70

Lives of the Visigothic Fathers, trans. by Andrew T. Fear (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1997)

Venantius Fortunatus, Life of Radegund, trans. as ‘Radegund, Queen of the Franks and Abbess of Poitiers (ca. 525-587)’, trans. by Jo Ann McNamara, in Sainted Women of the Dark Ages, ed. by McNamara, John E. Halborg and Gordon E. Whatley (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992), pp. 70-86

The Laws of the Salian Franks, trans. by Katherine Fischer Drew (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 1991)

Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain, trans. by Kenneth Baxter Wolf (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1990): pp. 57–77 (John of Biclaro, Chronicle ) and 79–110 (Isidore of Seville, History of the Goths )

Luxorius: A Latin Poet Among the Vandals, trans. by Morris Rosenblum (New York City: Columbia University Press, 1961)

Jordanes, The Gothic History of Jordanes in English Version, trans. by Charles C. Mierow (Princeton, NY: Princeton University Press, 1915, reprinted Cambridge, MA: Speculum Historiale, 1960 and Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing, 2006)

Material Culture

Katherine Reynolds Brown, Migration Art, A.D. 300–800 (New York, N.Y: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Migration_Art_AD_300_800> [accessed 17 October 2012]

*Philip Grierson and Mark Blackburn, Medieval European Coinage, with a Catalogue of the Coins in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, I: The Early Middle Ages (5th to 10th Centuries) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986)

Secondary Orientation

General/Comparative

Ian Wood, ‘Entrusting Western Europe to the Church, 400–750’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6, 23 (2013), 37–73

Visions of Community in the Post-Roman World: The West, Byzantium and the Islamic World, 300-1100, ed. by Walter Pohl, Clemens Gantner and Richard Payne (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2012)

Guy Halsall, ‘From Roman Fundus to Early Medieval Grand Domaine: Crucial Ruptures between Antiquity and the Middle Ages’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 90.2 (2012), 273–98

*Ian Wood, The Transformation of the Roman West (Leeds: ARC Humanities Press, 2018)

*A Companion to Late Antiquity, ed. by Philip Rousseau and Jutta Raithel (Chichester: Wiley, 2009): numerous very relevant contributions    

Yitzhak Hen, Roman Barbarians: The Royal Court and Culture in the Early Medieval West (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007)

Michael Kulikowski, ‘Drawing a Line Under Antiquity: Archaeological and Historical Categories of Evidence in the Transition from the Ancient World to the Middle Ages’, in Paradigms and Methods in Early Medieval Studies, ed. by Celia Chazelle and Felice Lifshitz (New York City, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2007), pp. 171–84

Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005): immense, but start with bolded references in index

*Regna and gentes: The Relationship between Late Antique and Early Medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the Transformation of the Roman World, ed. by Walter Pohl & Helmut Reimitz (Leiden: Brill, 2003): important papers on almost all kingdoms

Walter Goffart, The Narrators of Barbarian History (A.D. 550-800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988)

Pierre Riché, Education and Culture in the Barbarian West, Sixth through Eighth Centuries, trans. by John J. Contreni (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1976)

The Ostrogoths and Italy

A Companion to Ostrogothic Italy, ed. by Jonathan Arnold, M. Shane Bjornlie and Kristina Sessi (Leiden: Brill, 2016)

*Shane Bjornlie, ‘Law, Ethnicity and Taxes in Ostrogothic Italy: A Case for Continuity, Adaptation and Departure’, Early Medieval Europe, 22 (2014), 138-70

Michael Shane Bjornlie, Politics and Tradition between Rome, Ravenna and Constantinople: A Study of Cassiodorus and the Variae 527-554 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

*Jonathan J. Arnold, ‘Theoderic’s Invincible Mustache’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 6 (2013), 152-83

Sean Lafferty, ‘Law and Order in the Age of Theoderic the Great (c. 493–526)’, Early Medieval Europe, 20 (2012), 260-90

Shane Bjornlie, ‘What Have Elephants to Do with Sixth-Century Politics? A Reappraisal of the “Official” Governmental Dossier of Cassiodorus’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 2 (2009), 143-71

John Moorhead, Theoderic in Italy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992)

The Franks

Helmut Reimitz, ‘After Rome, before Francia: Religion, Ethnicity, and Identity Politics in Gregory of Tours’ Ten Books of Histories’, in Making Early Medieval Societies: Conflict and Belonging in the Latin West, 300-1200, ed. by Kate Cooper and Conrad Leyser (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), pp. 58–79

Simon T. Loseby, ‘Lost Cities: The End of the Civitas-System in Frankish Gaul’, in Diefenbach and Müller, Gallien in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter, as above, pp. 223–52

*Walter Goffart, ‘Frankish Military Duty and the Fate of Roman Taxation’, Early Medieval Europe, 16 (2008), 166-90

*Guy Halsall, ‘Childeric’s Grave, Clovis’ Succession and the Origins of the Merovingian Kingdom’, in Society and Culture in Late Antique Gaul: Revisiting the Sources, ed. by Ralph W. Mathisen and Danuta Shanzer (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), pp. 116-33, repr. in Halsall, Cemeteries and Society in Merovingian Gaul: Selected Studies in History and Archaeology, 1992-2009 (Leiden: Brill, 2010), pp. 169-87      

Guy Halsall, ‘Female Status and Power in Early Merovingian Central Austrasia: The Burial Evidence’, Early Medieval Europe, 5 (1996), 1-24

*William M. Day, ‘Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan? ’, Speculum, 69 (1994), 619-64

Ian N. Wood, The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751 (London: Longman, 1994)

The Iberian Peninsula

*Damián Fernández, Aristocrats and Statehood in Western Iberia, c. 300-600 C.E.: Empire and After (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017)

Guy Halsall, ‘Ethnicity and Early Medieval Cemeteries’, Arqueología y Territorio Medieval, 18 (2011), 15-27 <http://disciplinas.stoa.usp.br/pluginfile.php/263298/mod_resource/content/0/Guy_Halsall-libre.pdf> [last modified 23 February 2015 as of 10 December 2016]

*Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, ‘Early Medieval Landscapes in North-West Spain: Local Powers and Communities, Fifth-Tenth Centuries’, Early Medieval Europe, 19 (2011), 285–311

Jamie Wood, ‘Elites and Baptism: Religious “Strategies of Distinction” in Visigothic Spain’ in Elite and Popular Religion, ed. by Kate Cooper (= Studies in Church History, 42 (2006)), pp. 3-17

*Roger Collins, Visigothic Spain 409-711 (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004)

*The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century: An Ethnographic Perspective, ed. by Peter Heather (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1999)

The Vandals

Jonathan Conant, Staying Roman: Conquest and Identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439-700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 19‒195

Roland Steinacher, ‘Who is the Barbarian? Considerations on the Vandal Royal Title’, in Post-Roman Transitions: Christian and Barbarian Identities in the Early Medieval West, ed. by Walter Pohl and Gerda Heydemann (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 437–86

Andrew Merrills, ‘The Secret of My Succession: Dynasty and Crisis in Vandal North Africa’, Early Medieval Europe, 18 (2010), 135-59

*Andrew Merrills and Richard Miles, The Vandals (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)

*Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, ed. by Andrew Merrills (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)

The Burgundians

Ian N. Wood, ‘The Burgundians and Byzantium’, in Western Perspectives on the Mediterranean: Cultural Transfer in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, 400-800 AD, ed. by Andreas Fischer (London: Bloomsbury, 2014), pp. 1–16

*Ian N. Wood, ‘The Political Structure of the Burgundian Kingdom’, in Chlodwigs Welt: Organisation von Herrschaft um 500, ed. by Mischa Meier and Steffan Patzold (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2014), pp. 383-96

Albrecht Diem, ‘Who is Allowed to Pray for the King? Saint-Maurice d'Agaune and the Creation of a Burgundian Identity’, in Post-Roman Transitions: Christian and Barbarian Identities in the Early Medieval West, ed. by Walter Pohl and Gerda Heydemann (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 47-88

*Patrick Amory, ‘Names, Ethnic Identity, and Community in Fifth- and Sixth-Century Burgundy’, Viator, 25 (1994), 1-30

Great Britain

James Gerrard, ‘Crisis, Whose Crisis? The Fifth Century in South-Western Britain’, Archaeological Review from Cambridge, 26 (2011), 65–78 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

*Martin Grimmer, ‘Invasion, Settlement or Political Conquest: Changing Representations of the Arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain’, Journal of the Australian Early Medieval Association, 3 (2007), 169–86

Heinrich Härke, ‘Invisible Britons, Gallo-Romans and Russians: Perspectives on Culture Change’, in Britons in Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by Nick Higham (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2007), pp. 57–67    

Bryan Ward-Perkins, ‘Why Did the Anglo-Saxons Not Become More British?’, English Historical Review, 115 (2000), 513–33

Christopher Snyder, An Age of Tyrants: Britain and the Britons, A.D. 400-600 (Stroud: Tempus, 1998) 

*Nicholas Higham, Rome, Britain and the Anglo-Saxons (London: Seaby, 1992)

Identities in the Post-Roman Balkans

Danijel Dzino, ‘Post-Roman Dalmatia: Collapse and Regeneration of a Complex Social System’, in Imperial Spheres and the Adriatic: Byzantium, the Carolingians and the Treaty of Aachen (812), ed. by Mladen Ančić, Jonathan Shepard, and Trpimir Vedriš (Abingdon: Routledge, 2018), pp. 155–73

Hrvoje Gračanin, ‘Late Antique Dalmatia and Pannonia in Cassiodorus’ Variae’, Millennium, 13.1 (2016), 211–74

Danijel Dzino, Becoming Slav, Becoming Croat: Identity Transformations in Post-Roman and Early Medieval Dalmatia (Leiden: Brill, 2010)

Danijel Dzino, ‘“Becoming Slav”, “Becoming Croat”: New Approaches in the Research of Identities in Post-Roman Illyricum’, Hortus Artium Medievalium, 14 (2008), 195–206 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (LDS 18/12/2020) 

Neil Christie, ‘Towns and People on the Middle Danube in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages’, in Towns in Transition: Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Neil Christie and S. T. Loseby (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996), pp. 71–98

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Week 8. Justinian I's New Roman Rule

Questions to consider

What allowed Emperor Justinian I to achieve so much more than his recent predecessors?

Why do historians pay so much more attention to Justinian I than, say, Anastasius I or Justin II?

How viable were Justinian’s policies in the imperial long-term? Did this matter to him?

Required reading

Primary material

Prokopios, Buildings, printed as Procopius, ed. and trans. by H. B. Dewing, 7 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914, online ed. 2014, vii, 3‒57 (just the English!)  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

Secondary orientation

Andrew Louth, ‘Justinian and his Legacy (500-600)’, in The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c. 500-1492, ed. by Jonathan Shepard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 99-129  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 21/01/2020) 

Background reading

*Fiona Haarer, Justinian and the Sixth Century (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020)   

Peter Sarris, Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500-700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 125-68

Allen D. Lee, ‘The Eastern Empire: Theodosius to Anastasius’, and Averil Cameron, ‘Justin I and Justinian’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 14: Late Antiquity. Empire and Successors, AD 425-600, ed. by Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-Perkins and Michael Whitby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 33-62 and 63-85

John Moorhead, Justinian (London: Longman, 1994)

Judith Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), pp. 15–128

Robert Browning, Justinian and Theodora (London: Thames and Hudson, 1971, 2nd ed. 1987)

Further reading

Primary material

Texts

The Novels of Justinian: A Complete Annotated English Translation, ed. by Peter Sarris, trans. by David Miller, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018)

The Codex of Justinian: A New Annotated Translation, with Parallel Latin and Greek Text Based on a Translation by Justice Fred H. Blume, ed. by Bruce W. Frier and others, trans. by Fred H. Blume (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016)

Procopius, On the Wars and Anecdota, in Dewing, Procopius, i-vi, or as:

        Prokopios, The Wars of Justinian, trans. by H. B. Dewing and rev. by Anthony Kaldellis (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2014);

        Prokopios, The Secret History, with Related Texts, ed. and trans. by Anthony Kaldellis (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2010); or

        Procopius, Secret History, trans. by Richard Atwater (Chicago, IL: Covici, 1927; repr. New York City, NY: Covici Friede, 1934 and Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961) <http://sacred-texts.com/cla/proc/shp/index.htm> [last modified 11 July 2007 as of 22 December 2016]

Three Political Voices from the Age of Justinian: Agapetus, Advice to the Emperor; Dialogue on Political Science; Paul the Silentiary, Description of Hagia Sophia, ed. and trans. by Peter N. Bell (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2009)

Material Culture

Emma Wegner, ‘Hagia Sophia, 532–37’, in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–) <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haso/hd_haso.htm> [last modified 30 November 2016 as of 08 December 2016]

Philip Grierson, Byzantine Coinage (London: Methuen, 1982), pp. 43-83

Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965), pp. 149‒98

Secondary orientation

*The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, ed. by Michael Maas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005): helpful ‘scene-setting’ chapter by Maas followed by diverse essays

The Economy

Constantin Zuckerman, ‘Silk "Made in Byzantium": A Study of Economic Policies of Emperor Justinian’, in Constructing the Seventh Century, ed. by Zuckerman (Paris: Association des Amis du Centre d’Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2013), pp. 323–50  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 27/01/2021)  

*Peter Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Law and Society

Peter Bell, Social Conflict in the Age of Justinian: Its Nature, Management, and Mediation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)

Adriaan J. B. Sirks, ‘The Colonate in Justinian’s Reign’, Journal of Roman Studies, 98 (2008), 120-43

Religious Policy

*Fergus Millar, ‘Rome, Constantinople and the Near Eastern Church under Justinian: Two Synods of C.E. 536’, Journal of Roman Studies, 98 (2008), 62–82

Simon Corcoran, ‘Anastasius, Justinian, and the Pagans: a Tale of Two Law Codes and a Papyrus’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 2 (2009), 183-208

The Problem of Procopius, and Other Sources

Lieve van Hoof and Peter van Nuffelen, ‘The Historiography of Crisis: Jordanes, Cassiodorus and Justinian in Mid-Sixth-Century Constantinople’, Journal of Roman Studies, 107 (2017), 275–300

Sviatoslav Dmitriev, ‘John Lydus’ Political Message and the Byzantine Idea of Imperial Rule’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 39.1 (2015), 1–24

Geoffrey Greatrex, ‘Perceptions of Procopius in Recent Scholarship’, Histos, 8 (2014), 76–121 <http://research.ncl.ac.uk/histos/documents/2014A03GreatrexPerceptionsofProcopius.pdf> [accessed 13 March 2016]

Hartmut G. Ziche, ‘Abusing Theodora: Sexual and Political Discourse in Procopius’, Byzantiaka, 30 (2012), 311–23 <http://histsociety.web.auth.gr/30-ps-2 ziche, offprint.pdf> [accessed 25 January 2017]

Leslie Brubaker, ‘Sex, Lies and Textuality: The “Secret History” of Prokopios and the Rhetoric of Gender in Sixth-Century Byzantium’, in Gender in the Early Medieval World: East and West, 300-900, ed. by Brubaker and Julia M. H. Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 83-101 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (LDS 18/12/2020)   

*Averil Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (Berkeley: California University Press, 1985)

Plague

Mischa Meier, ‘The “Justinianic Plague”: The Economic Consequences of the Pandemic in the Eastern Roman Empire and Its Cultural and Religious Effects’, trans. by Steve Robbie, Early Medieval Europe, 24.3 (2016), 267–92

Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541–750, ed. by Lester K. Little (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Peter Sarris, ‘The Justinianic Plague: Origins and Effects’, Continuity and Change, 17 (2002), 169–82

Politics

Alexander Sarantis, ‘Diplomatic Relations between the Eastern Roman Empire and the “Barbarian” Successor States, 527–565’, History Compass, 16.11 (2018), e12498

Alexander Sarantis, ‘War and Diplomacy in Pannonia and the Northwest Balkans during the Reign of Justinian: The Gepid Threat and Imperial Responses’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 63 (2009), 15–40

Brian Croke, ‘Justinian under Justin: Reconfiguring a Reign’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 100 (2007), 13-56

Geoffrey Greatrex, ‘Roman Identity in the Sixth Century’, in Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity, ed. by Geoffrey Greatrex and Stephen Mitchell (London: Duckworth, 2000), pp. 267–92

Michael Whitby, ‘The Violence of the Circus Factions’, in Organised Crime in Antiquity, ed. by Keith Hopwood (London: Duckworth, 1999), pp. 229-53

Geoffrey Greatrex, ‘The Nika Riot: A Reappraisal’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 117 (1997), 60-86, repr. in Justinian, ed. by Mischa Meier (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchhandlung, 2011), pp. 174-215, and in The Formation of Classical Islam, 1: Late antiquity on the eve of Islam, ed. by Averil Cameron (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 59-86

*James A. S. Evans, The Age of Justinian: The Circumstances of Imperial Power (London: Routledge, 1996)

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Week 9. Slavs and Persians

Questions to consider

Why had Persia become so much direr a threat to imperial survival by the late sixth century?

In what ways were the situations of the Empire in the West and in the East different?

Did Heraclius leave the Empire better or worse off in the short term? What about the long term?

Required reading

Primary material

Theophanes Confessor, Chronicle, trans. as The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History, AD 284-813, ed. and trans. by Cyril Mango and Roger Scott (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), pp. 435-59 (years 620-627) OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 26/01/2021) 

Secondary orientation

James Howard-Johnston, ‘Heraclius' Persian campaigns and the revival of the Eastern Roman Empire, 622-630’, War in History, 6 (1999), 1-45, repr. in Howard-Johnston, East Rome, Sasanian Persia and the End of Antiquity: Historiographical and Historical Studies (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), chapter VIII  

Background reading

G. W. Bowersock, Empires in Collision in Late Antiquity, Menahem Stern Jerusalem Lectures (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012)

Zeev Rubin, ‘Persia and the Sasanian Monarchy (224-651)’, and Andrew Louth, ‘Byzantium Transforming (600-700)’, in The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c. 500-1492, ed. by Jonathan Shepard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 130-55 and 221-50

Florin Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006), pp. 70-110

Michael L. Whitby, ‘The Balkans and Greece, 420-602’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 14. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A. D. 425-600, ed. by Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-Perkins and Whitby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 701-30

Samuel Szádeczky-Kardoss, ‘The Avars’, in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, ed. by Dennis Sinor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 206–28 

Additional reading

Primary material

Texts

The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars: A Narrative Sourcebook, ed. by Geoffrey Greatrex and Samuel N. C Lieu, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 2008), ii

Sebêos, History, trans. as The Armenian History attributed to Sebeos, trans. by Rodney W. Thomson and James Howard-Johnston, 2 vols (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999)

Nikephoros, Patriarch of Constantinople, Short History, ed. by Cyril A. Mango (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1990)   

Anastasius the Librarian, ‘The Passion and Miracles of St. Demetrius’, trans. by David Woods <http://www.ucc.ie/archive/milmart/BHL2122.html> [last modified 27 November 1999 as of 09 December 2016]

Material Culture

Edge of Empires: Pagans, Jews and Christians at Roman Dura-Europos , ed. by Jennifer Chi and Sebastian Heath (New York, NY: Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, 2011)

Florin Curta and Andrei Gandila, ‘Hoards and Hoarding Patterns in the Early Byzantine Balkans’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 65-66 (2011), 45-111

Secondary orientation

Thomas J. MacMaster, ‘The Pogrom That Time Forgot: The Ecumenical Anti-Jewish Campaign of 632’, in Inclusion and Exclusion in Mediterranean Christianities, 400-800, ed. by Yaniv Fox and Erica Buchberger (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 217–35

Constantine Zuckerman, ‘Heraclius and the Return of the Holy Cross’, Travaux et Mémoires du Centre de Recherche d’Histoire et Civilization de Byzance, 17 (2013), 197–218

Agustí Alemany, ‘Sixth Century Alania: Between Byzantium, Sasanian Iran and the Turkic World’, in Ērān Ud Anērān: Studies Presented to Boris Ilich Marshak on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday, ed. by Matteo Compareti and others (Venezia: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina, 2006), n.p. <http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/alemany.pdf> [accessed 7 October 2020]

*The Reign of Heraclius (610-641): Crisis and Confrontation, ed. by Gerrit J. Reinink and Bernard H. Stolte (Leuven: Peeters, 2002)

J. D. Howard-Johnston, ‘The Siege of Constantinople in 626’, in Constantinople and its Hinterland: Papers from the Twenty-Seventh Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Oxford, April 1993, ed. by Cyril Mango and Gilbert Dagron (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1995), pp. 131-42, repr. in James Howard-Johnston, East Rome, Sasanian Persia and the End of Antiquity, as above, chapter VII

*John Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century : The Transformation of a Culture, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997): not easy or short but important

Hugh Kennedy, ‘The Last Century of Byzantine Syria: A Reinterpretation’, Byzantinische Forschungen, 10 (1985), 141–83, reprinted in The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, by Hugh Kennedy (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), chapter II: still important

The Situation with the Avars and the Slavs

 

Florin Curta, ‘Avar Blitzkrieg, Slavic and Bulgar Raiders, and Roman Special Ops: Mobile Warriors in the Sixth-Century Balkans’, in Central Eurasia in the Middle Ages: Studies in Honour of Peter B. Golden, ed. by István Zimonyi and Osman Karatay (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016), pp. 69–90   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 26/01/2021) 

 

Florin Curta, ‘Emperor Heraclius and the Conversion of the Croats and the Serbs’, in Medieval Christianitas: Different Regions, ‘Faces’, Approaches, ed. by Tsvetelin Stepanov and Georgi Kazakov (Sofia: Voenno, 2010), pp. 121–38

The Other Europe in the Middle Ages: Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, and Cumans, ed. by Florin Curta (Leiden: Brill, 2008): esp. Tivadar Vida, ‘Conflict and Coexistence: The Local Population of the Carpathian Basin under Avar Rule (Sixth to Seventh Century)’, pp. 13–46, and Péter Somogyi, ‘New Remarks on the Flow of Byzantine Coins in Avaria and Walachia during the Second Half of the Seventh Century’, pp. 83–150

Evangelos Chrysos, ‘Settlements of Slavs and Byzantine Sovereignty in the Balkans’, in Byzantina Mediterranea: Festschrift für Johannes Koder zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. by Klaus Belke and others (Wien: Böhlau, 2007), pp. 123–35   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 26/01/2021) 

Falko Daim, ‘Avars and Avar Archaeology: An Introduction’, and Walter Pohl, ‘A Non-Roman Empire in Central Europe: The Avars’, in Regna and gentes: The Relationship between Late Antique and Early Medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the Transformation of the Roman World, ed. by Hans-Werner Goetz, Jörg Jarnut and Pohl (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 463-570 and 571-95

Paul M. Barford, The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001)

*Florin Curta, ‘Pots, Slavs and “Imagined Communities”: Slavic Archaeologies and the History of the Early Slavs’, European Journal of Archaeology, 4 (2001), 367-84: an important critical review

Joseph David C. Frendo, ‘The Miracles of St. Demetrius and the Capture of Thessaloniki’, Byzantinoslavica, 58 (1997), 205-24

The situation with Persia

Touraj Daryaee, ‘The Sasanians and the Late Antique World’, Mizan: Journal for the Study of Muslim Societies and Civilizations, 3 (2018) <https://mizanproject.org/journal-post/the-sasanians-and-the-late-antique-world/> [accessed 26 November 2020]

James Howard-Johnston, ‘The Sasanian State: The Evidence of Coinage and Military Construction’, Journal of Ancient History, 2.2 (2014), 144–81

Ignacio Arce, ‘Romans, Ghassanids and Umayyads and the Transformation of the Limes Arabicus: From Coercive and Deterrent Diplomacy towards Religious Proselytism and Political Clientelarism’, in La Transgiordania nei secoli XII-XIII e le ‘Frontiere’ del Mediterraneo medieval, ed. by Guido Vannini and Michele Nucciotti (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2012), pp. 55–74

Parvaneh Pourshariati, Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran (London: I. B. Tauris, 2008), pp. 130-60: watch the use (and date!) of sources very carefully

*Beate Dignas and Engelbert Winter, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), esp. pp. 18-52 (narrative survey C3rd-C7th)

Jebrael Nokandeh and others, ‘Linear Barriers of Northern Iran: The Great Wall of Gorgan and the Wall of Tammishe’, Iran, 44 (2006), 121–73

Clive Foss, ‘The Persians in the Roman Near East (602–630 AD)’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 13 (2003), 149–70

Sebastian Brock, ‘Christians in the Sassanian Empire: A Case of Divided Loyalty’, in Religion and National Identity, ed. by Stuart Mews (= Studies in Church History, 18 (1982)), pp. 1–19

Clive Foss, ‘The Persians in Asia Minor and the End of Antiquity’, English Historical Review, 90 (1975), 721-47, repr. in Foss, History and Archaeology of Byzantine Asia Minor (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1990), chapter XIII, and in Arab-Byzantine Relations in Early Islamic Times, ed. by M. D. Bonner (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), pp. 3-29 

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Week 10. Being Conquered by the Early Muslims

Questions to consider

How should we as historians explain Islam’s remarkable early military success?

How did the impulses to conversion to Islam differ inside and outside Arabia?

How much changed when an area fell under Muslim rule in this period?

Required reading

Primary material

Clive Foss, Arab-Byzantine Coins: An Introduction, with a Catalogue of the Dumbarton Oaks Collection (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2009), pp. 18-37  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (KR 22/01/2019)   

Secondary orientation

John Haldon and Hugh Kennedy, ‘Regional Identities and Military Power: Byzantium and Islam ca. 600-750’, in Visions of Community in the Post-Roman World: The West, Byzantium and the Islamic World, 300-1100, ed. by Walter Pohl, Clemens Gantner and Richard Payne (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), pp. 317–56  

Background reading

These are competing narratives: if you can manage to compare two, do.

James Howard-Johnston, Witnesses to a World Crisis: Historians and Histories of the Middle East in the Seventh Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 436‒510

Parvaneh Pourshariati, Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: the Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran (London: I.B. Tauris, 2008), pp. 161‒318

*Patricia Crone, Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987): see also R. B. Sergeant, 'Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam: Misconceptions and Flawed Polemics', Journal of the American Oriental Society, 90 (1990), 472-86, and Crone, 'Sergeant and Meccan Trade', Arabica, 39 (1992), 216-40

*Hugh Kennedy, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century, 3rd ed. (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2015), pp. 1-106

Michael Cook, Muhammad (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983) 

Further reading

Primary material

Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd Allāh al-Azdī, The Early Muslim Conquest of Syria: An English Translation of al-Azdī’s Futūḥ al-Shām, trans. by Hamada Hassanein and Jens J. Scheiner (New York City, NY: Routledge, 2019)

‘The Chronicle of Seert’, trans. by Anthony Alcock, 2014 <https://archive.org/details/AlcockChronicleOfSeertET/> [accessed 21 June 2020]

Michael of Antioch, The Chronicle of Michael the Great, Patriarch of the Syrians, translated from Classical Armenian, trans. by Robert Bedrosian (Long Branch, NJ: Sources of the Armenian Tradition, 2013) <https://archive.org/details/ChronicleOfMichaelTheGreatPatriarchOfTheSyrians/> [last modified 16 July 2013 as of January 16, 2019], cc. 116‒38: late, but with early information?

The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles, including two Seventh-Century Syriac Apocalyptic Texts, ed. by Robert Hoyland and trans. by Andrew Palmer and Sebastian Brock (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1993)

Secondary orientation

Source Problems

Robert Hoyland, ‘Writing the Biography of the Prophet Muhammad: Problems and Solutions’, History Compass, 5 (2007), 581-602

*Robert Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam (Princeton: Darwin, 1997)

Fred M. Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing (Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1998)

Pre-Islamic Arabia

Greg Fisher, Between Empires: Arabs, Romans, and Sasanians in Late Antiquity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Greg Fisher, ‘Kingdoms or Dynasties? Arabs, History, and Identity before Islam’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 4.2 (2011), 245–67

*Mark Whittow, ‘The Late Roman/Early Byzantine Near East’, Josef Wiesehöfer, ‘The Late Sasanian Near East’, and Michael Lecker, ‘Pre-Islamic Arabia’, in The New Cambridge History of Islam volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries, ed. by Chase F. Robinson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 72–97, 98‒152 and pp. 153–70

Barbara Finster, ‘Arabia in Late Antiquity: An Outline of the Cultural Situation in the Peninsula at the Time of Muhammad’, and Mikhail D. Bukharin, ‘Mecca on the Caravan Routes in Pre-Islamic Antiquity’, in The Qurʼān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʼānic Milieu, ed. by Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai and Michael Marx (Leiden: Brill, 2010) <https://archive.org/details/TheQuranInContext> [last modified 28 April 2016 as of 16 January 2019], pp. 61–114 and 115–34

Effects of Conquest

Hugh Kennedy, ‘From Polis to Madina revisited: Some Reflections Thirty Years On’, in Entre civitas y madina: El mundo de las ciudades en la península ibérica y en el norte de África (siglos IV-IX), ed. by Sabina Panzram and Laurent Callegarin (Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2018), pp. 13–22 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (LDS 04/01/2021)   

Luca Zavagno, Cyprus between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (ca. 600-800): An Island in Transition (London: Routledge, 2017)

Michele Campopiano, ‘The End of an Era? The Impact of Early Islamic Expansion on Economic and Social Structures in the Byzantine East’, Journal of European Economic History, 46.2 (2017), 139–50

Gideon Avni, The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An Archaeological Approach (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)

Corisande Fenwick, ‘From Africa to Ifrīqiya: Settlement and Society in Early Medieval North Africa (650–800)’, al-Masāq, 25.1 (2013), 9–33

Michael G. Morony, ‘Iran in the Early Islamic Period’, in The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History, ed. by Touraj Daryaee (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 208‒26

Uriel Simonsohn, ‘The Christians Whose Force Is Hard: Non-Ecclesiastical Judicial Authorities in the Early Islamic Period’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 53.4 (2010), 579–620

Derek Kennet, ‘Transformations in Late Sasanian and Early Islamic Eastern Arabia: The Evidence from Kush’, in L’Arabie à La Veille de l’Islam, ed. by Jérémie Schiettecatte and Christian Robin (Paris: De Boccard, 2008), pp. 135–61  

R. A. Carter, ‘Christianity in the Gulf during the First Centuries of Islam’, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 19 (2008), 71–108

Petra M. Sijpesteijn, ‘The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Beginning of Muslim Rule’, in Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700, ed. by Roger S. Bagnall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 437-59

Hugh Kennedy, ‘From polis to madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria’, Past & Present, 106 (1985), 3-27, repr. in Pre-Industrial Cities & Technology, ed. by Colin Chant and David Goodman (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 94-98 and in The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), chapter I: a classic and still important; cf. revision above

Coinage

Luca Zavagno, ‘Betwixt the Greeks and the Saracens: Coins and Coinage in Cyprus in the Seventh and the Eighth Century’, Byzantion, 81 (2011), 448–83 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 17/02/2020) 

*Stefan Heidemann, ‘The Evolving Representation of the Early Islamic Empire and its Religion on Coin Imagery’, in Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx, The Qurʼān in Context, as above, pp. 149–96

Money, Power and Politics in Early Islamic Syria: A Review of Current Debates, ed. by John Haldon (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010): esp. Gene W. Heck, ‘First Century Islamic Currency: Mastering the Message from the Money’, pp. 97–124

None or Several of the Above

Touraj Daryaee, ‘From Zoroastrian to Islamic Iran: A Note on the Christian Intermezzo’, Vicino Oriente, 23 (2019), 109–20

*Garth Fowden, ‘Late Antiquity, Islam, and the First Millennium: A Eurasian Perspective’, Millennium, 13 (2016), 5–28 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (LDS 18/12/2020) : summary of new book, with whole journal issue of responses to follow up

*John Haldon, The Empire that Would Not Die: The Paradox of Eastern Roman Survival, 640-740 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016)

Robert Haug, ‘Frontiers and the State in Early Islamic History: Jihād Between Caliphs and Volunteers’, History Compass, 9.8 (2011), 634–43

*Rashad Odetallah Khouri, ‘Heresies in the Early Byzantine Empire: Imperial Policies and the Arab Conquest of the Near East’, Collectanea christiana orientalia, 4 (2007), 109-17 <http://www.uco.es/investiga/grupos/hum380/collectanea/sites/default/files/Odetallah.pdf> [last modified 8 September 2010 as of 10 December 2016]

Michael Lecker, ‘Were the Jewish Tribes in Arabia Clients of Arab Tribes?’, in Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam, ed. by Monique Bernards and John Abdallah Nawas (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 50–69

Nadia Maria el-Cheikh, ‘Muhammad And Heraclius: A Study in Legitimacy’, Studia Islamica, 89 (1999), 5-22

Patricia Crone, ‘Were the Qays and Yemen of the Umayyad Period Political Parties?’, Der Islam, 71.1 (1994), 1–57, available online here

Top of page

Week 11. The End of the Mediterranean World?

Questions to consider

What kind of voyages were made in the Mediterranean in this period, for what purpose?

Did the rise of Islam really cause economic disconnection in the late antique Mediterranean?

What differences did such contacts make to the societies at either end of them?

Required reading

Primary material

‘Chilperic II confirms to the monastery of Corbie charters of Chlothar III and Childeric II concerning the toll revenues at Fos and from a way-station for the monastery’s envoys’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Die Urkunden der Merowinger, ed. by Theo Kölzer, Martina Hartmann and Andrea Stieldorf, 2 vols (Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 2001), I, pp. 424–26 (no. 171)   

Secondary orientation

Bonnie Effros, ‘The Enduring Attraction of the Pirenne Thesis’, Speculum, 92 (2017), 184–208  

Background reading

Simon Loseby, ‘The Mediterranean Economy’ and Stéphane Lebecq, ‘The Northern Seas (Fifth to Eighth centuries)’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 1: c. 500- c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 605-38 and 639-59

*Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 693-831

Michael McCormick, The Origins of the European Economy: Communications and Commerce, c. 700- c. 900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Bryan Ward-Perkins, ‘Specialised Production and Exchange’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 14: Late Antiquity. Empire and Successors, AD 425-600, ed. by Averil Cameron, Ward-Perkins and Michael Whitby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 346-91

Additional reading

Primary material

Mark Handley, Dying on Foreign Shores: Travel and Mobility in the Late-Antique West (Portsmouth: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2011), pp. 117–38 (Appendix)

Philip Grierson and Mark Blackburn, Medieval European Coinage, with a Catalogue of the Coins in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, volume 1: Earlier Middle Ages (fifth to tenth centuries) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986

Hygeburg, Hodœporicon, trans. as Huneburc of Heidenheim, ‘The Hodoepericon of St. Willibald’, in The Anglo-Saxon Missionaries in Germany, being the Lives of SS. Willibrord, Boniface, Leoba and Lebuin together with the Hodoepericon of St. Willibald and a Selection from the Correspondence of St. Boniface (London: Sheed and Ward, 1954, reprinted 1981), pp. 153‒80, ed. Paul Halsall as ‘Huneberc of Heidenheim: The Hodoeporican of St. Willibald, 8th Century’, in Internet Medieval Sourcebook, ed. by Paul Halsall <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/basis/willibald.asp> [last modified 21 January 2020 as of 2 December 2020], and rev. as ‘The Hodoeporicon of Saint Willibald’, in Soldiers of Christ: Saints and Saints’ Lives from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble and Thomas Head (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995), pp. 141‒64: a voyage from England to the Holy Land and back c. 730; the Noble & Head version is best but Halsall has it online

Secondary orientation

*Henri Pirenne, Mohammed and Charlemagne, trans. Bernard Miall (London: Allen and Unwin, 1938): where it all starts, and still worth reading

Economic Change

Guiseppe Cacciaguerra, Antonino Facello and Luca Zambito, ‘Continuity and Discontinuity in Seventh-Century Sicily: Rural Settlement and Economy’, in The Long Seventh Century: Continuity and Discontinuity in an Age of Transition, ed. by Alessandro Gnasso (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 199-234

Jonathan Conant, Staying Roman: Conquest and Identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439-700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 67‒129

Salvatore Cosentino, ‘A Longer Antiquity? Cyprus, Insularity and the Economic Transition’, Cahiers du Centre d’études chypriotes, 43 (2013), 93–102

Richard Hodges, Dark Age Economics: A New Audit (London: Duckworth, 2012)

*Handley, Dying on Foreign Shores, as above

*Mark Whittow, ‘Early Medieval Byzantium and the End of the Ancient World’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 9.1 (2009), 134–53

Alessia Rovelli, ‘Coins and Trade in Early Medieval Italy’, Early Medieval Europe, 17.1 (2009), 45–76

*Michael McCormick, ‘Discovering the Early Medieval Economy’, Chris Wickham, ‘Rethinking the Structure of the Early Medieval Economy’, and Angeliki E. Laiou, ‘The Early Medieval Economy: Data, Production, Exchange and Demand’, in The Long Morning of Medieval Europe: New Directions in Early Medieval Studies, ed. by Jennifer R. Davis and McCormick (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 13‒18, 19–31 and 99–104

Helena Hamerow, ‘Agrarian Production and the Emporia of Mid Saxon England, ca. AD 650-850’, in Post-Roman Towns, Trade and Settlement in Europe and Byzantium, ed. by Joachim Henning, 3 vols (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2007), i, 219–32 

‘Origins of the European Economy: A Debate with Michael McCormick’, ed. by Edward James, Early Medieval Europe, 12 (2003), 258-324: set of responses to Origins of the European Economy, as above

The Long Eighth Century: Production, Distribution and Demand, ed. by Inge Hansen and Chris Wickham (Leiden: Brill, 2000)

The Sixth Century: Production, Distribution, and Demand, ed. by Richard Hodges and William Bowden (Leiden: Brill, 1998)

*Simon T. Loseby, ‘Marseilles: A Late Antique Success Story?’, Journal of Roman Studies, 82 (1992), 165–85

Adriaan Verhulst, ‘The Decline of Slavery and the Economic Expansion of the Early Middle Ages’, Past & Present, 133 (1991), 195–203

*Philip Grierson, ‘Commerce in the Dark Ages: A Critique of the Evidence’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th Series, 9 (1959), 123-40, repr. in Grierson, Dark Age Numismatics: Selected Studies (London: Variorum, 1979), chapter II: still important despite age

On the Pirenne thesis specifically (an attempt at a full bibliography)

Mark Whittow, ‘Pirenne, Muhammad, and Bohemond: Before Orientalism’, in Crusading Europe: Essays in Honour of Christopher Tyerman, ed. by G. E. M. Lippiatt and Jessalynn L. Bird (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 17–49

José Cristobal Carvajal López, ‘Islamization and Trade in the Arabian Gulf in the Age of Mohammad and Charlemagne’, in Encounters, Excavations and Argosies: Essays for Richard Hodges, ed. by John Moreland, John Mitchell and Bea Leal (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2017), pp. 73–90

Richard W. Unger, ‘Commerce, Communication, and Empire: Economy, Technology and Cultural Encounters’, Speculum, 90 (2015), 1–27: what Effros thought needed replacing!

Emmet Scott, Mohammed & Charlemagne Revisited: The History of a Controversy (Nashville, TN: New English Review Press, 2011): Islamophobe revisionism

Kenneth Stunkel, ‘Mohammed and Charlemagne (Henri Pirenne, 1862–1935)’, in Fifty Key Works of History and Historiography (London: Routledge, 2011), pp. 132–35

Gene W. Heck, Muhammad, Charlemagne, and the Arab Roots of Capitalism (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2006), pp. 1–65 and 161–91: liberal capitalist pro-Islamic revisionism

Paolo Squatriti, ‘Mohammed, the Early Medieval Mediterranean, and Charlemagne’, Early Medieval Europe, 11 (2002), 263-79: review of scholarship and then-recent work

Ildar Garipzanov, ‘The Coinage of Tours in the Merovingian Period and the Pirenne Thesis’, Revue belge de numismatique, 147 (2001), 79-118 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CHG 17/02/2020) 

*Simon T. Loseby, ‘Marseille and the Pirenne thesis, II: “Ville Morte”’, in Hansen and Wickham, The Long Eighth Century, as above, pp. 167-94

*Richard Hodges, ‘Henri Pirenne and the Question of Demand in the Sixth Century’, Simon Loseby, ‘Marseille and the Pirenne Thesis, I: Gregory of Tours, the Merovingian Kings and “un Grand Port”’ and Chris Wickham, ‘Overview: Production, Distribution and Demand’, all in Hodges and Bowden, Sixth Century, as above, pp. 3-14, 203-29 and 279-92, Hodges’s paper repr. in Hodges, Goodbye to the Vikings? Re-Reading Early Medieval Archaeology (London: Duckworth, 2006), pp. 19-27

Bernard S. Bachrach, ‘Pirenne and Charlemagne’, in After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History. Essays Presented to Walter Goffart, ed. by Alexander Callander Murray (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998), pp. 214-31

Stéphane Lebecq, ‘Routes of Change: Production and Distribution in the West (5th-8th Century)’, in The Transformation of the Roman World AD 400-900, ed. by Leslie Webster and Michelle P. Brown (London: British Museum Press, 1997), pp. 67–78

D. M. Metcalf, ‘The Beginnings of Coinage in the North Sea Coastlands: A Pirenne-like Hypothesis’, in Twelfth Viking Congress: Developments around the Baltic and North Sea in the Viking Age, ed. by Björn Ambrosiani and Helen B. Clarke (Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet, 1994), pp. 196-214

Kenneth W. Frank, ‘Pirenne Again: A Muslim Viewpoint’, History Teacher, 26 (1993), 371–83

Raymond van Dam, ‘The Pirenne Thesis and Fifth-Century Gaul’, in Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?, ed. by John F. Drinkwater and Hugh Elton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 321-33

Adriaan Verhulst, ‘The Origins of Towns in the Low Countries and the Pirenne Thesis’, Past & Present, 122 (1989), 3-35, repr. in Verhulst, Rural and Urban Aspects of Early Medieval Northwest Europe (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1992), chapter X

*David Whitehouse, ‘Archaeology and the Pirenne Thesis’, in Medieval Archaeology, ed. by Charles Redman (Binghampton, NY: State University of New York, 1989), pp. 4-21

Samuel J. Barnish, ‘The Transformation of Classical Cities and the Pirenne Debate’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2 (1989), 385-99 <http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/conant/barnish.pdf> [last modified 20 October 2004 as of 22 December 2016]

*Richard Hodges and David Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe: Archaeology and the Pirenne Thesis (London: Duckworth, 1983): still excellent

Peter R. L. Brown, ‘“Mohammed and Charlemagne” by Henri Pirenne’, Daedalus, 103 (1974), 25-33, repr. in Brown, Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982), pp. 63-79

Bryce Lyon, The Origins of the Middle Ages: Pirenne’s challenge to Gibbon (New York City, NY: Norton, 1972)

Andrew Ehrenkreutz, ‘Another Orientalist’s Remarks Concerning the Pirenne Thesis’, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 15 (1972), 90-104, repr. in Ehrenkreutz, Monetary Change and Economic History in the Medieval Muslim World, ed. by Jere L. Bacharach (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1992), chapter III, and in The Expansion of the Early Islamic State, ed. by Frederick McGraw Donner (Princeton: Darwin, 2008), pp. 101-12

Paul Craig Roberts, ‘The Pirenne Thesis ‑ Economics or Civilizations: Towards Reformulation’, Classica et mediaevalia, 25 (1964), 297-315

The Pirenne Thesis: Analysis, Criticism, and Revision, ed. by Alfred F. Havighurst , 3rd ed. (Lexington, MA: Heath, 1976): first edition 1957, so bear age in mind!

Anne Riising, ‘The Fate of Henri Pirenne’s Theses on the Consequences of the Islamic Expansion’, Classica et mediaevalia, 13 (1952), 87-130, repr. in Bedeutung und Rolle des Islam beim Übergang vom Altertum zum Mittelalter, ed. Paul Egon Hübinger (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchhandlung, 1968), pp. 178-222

Sture Bolin, ‘Muhammed, Karl den store och Rurik’, Scandia, 12 (1939), 181‒222, trans. as ‘Mohammed, Charlemagne and Ruric,’ Scandinavian Economic History Review, 1 (1952), 5–39, repr. in Hübinger, Bedeutung und Rolle des Islam, as above, pp. 223‒65

Daniel C. Dennett, ‘Pirenne and Muhammad’, Speculum, 23 (1948), 165-90, repr. in Hübinger, Bedeutung und Rolle des Islam, as above, pp. 120-59

*Roberto S. López, ‘Mohammed and Charlemagne: A Revision’, Speculum, 18 (1943), 14-38, repr. in Hübinger, Bedeutung und Rolle des Islam, as above, pp. 65-104

This list was last updated on 01/03/2021