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Module Reading List

Introduction to Research Design and Data Analysis, 2021/22, Semester H03
Andrea Taylor
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General Research Methods Texts (including information on research approaches and strategies, and on data collection)

Miller, D.C. and Salkind, N.J. (2002) Handbook of Research Design & Social Measurement, 6th edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Saunders, M N K; P Lewis and A Thornhill (2016), Research methods for business students, 7th Edition, New York: Pearson.

Easterby-Smith, M.; Jaspersen, L.J. Thorpe, R.; Valizade, D. (2021) Management and business research. 7th edition. Los Angeles: Sage.

Robson, C and McCartan, K (2016), Real World Research, 4th Edition, Wiley

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Required reading for quantitative design and analysis

Krosnick, J. A. (2018). Questionnaire design. In The Palgrave handbook of survey research (pp. 439-455). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. (available on Researchgate)

Robinson, M. A. (2016). Quantitative research principles and methods for human-focused research in engineering design. In Experimental Design Research (pp. 41-64). Springer, Cham. (available on  Researchgate)  

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Useful references for quantitative analysis

Field, A. (2017). Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics. 5th edition. Sage. (available online, note that 3rd and 4th editions still usable).

Hair, J F plus various co-authors depending on edition, Multivariate Data Analysis, Prentice Hall

Siegel, S and Castellan, N J (1988), Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences, McGraw-Hill
(Covers a wider range of non-parametric techniques than we discussed on the module)

Pallant (2020). SPSS Survival Guide. 7th edition. Open University Press (available online, while some earlier versions may be useful note that they may neglect recent changes in the SPSS layout)

Tabachnick, B G and Fidell, L S (2014), Using Multivariate Statistics, 6th Edition, Pearson. (available online, older editions are also useable)

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Required reading for qualitative  design and analysis

Easterby-Smith, M.; Jaspersen, L.J. Thorpe, R.; Valizade, D. (2021) Management and business research. 7th edition. Los Angeles: Sage. (Chapters 3-8)   

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Designing a qualitative study. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, 35-47.

Cunliffe, A. L. (2011). Crafting qualitative research: Morgan and Smircich 30 years on. Organizational Research Methods, 14(4), 647-673.

Lincoln, Y. S., Lynham, S. A., & Guba, E. G. (2011). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited. The Sage handbook of qualitative research, 4, 97-128.

Tracy, S. J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative inquiry, 16(10), 837-851.

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Useful references for qualitative design and analysis

Qualitative Research in Management and Business Research

Cassell, C., Cunliffe, A., & Grandy, G. (2018). The SAGE handbook of qualitative business and management research methods Methods and challenges. Please note that there are two volumes and that the chapters can be accssed via

Birkinshaw, J., Brannen, M. Y., and Tung, R. L. 2011. From a distance and generalizable to up close and grounded: Reclaiming a place for qualitative methods in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(5): 573-581.

Blair, J.D. and Hunt, J.G. (1986). Getting inside the head of the management researcher one more time: Context-free and context-specific orientations in research, Journal of Management, 12(2): 147-166.

Cornelissen, J. P. (2017). Preserving Theoretical Divergence in Management Research: Why the Explanatory Potential of Qualitative Research Should Be Harnessed Rather than Suppressed, Journal of Management Studies, 54(3): 368-383.

Dyer, W.G. and. Wilkins, A.L (1991). Better stories, not better constructs, to generate better theory: A rejoinder to Eisenhardt, Academy of Management Review, 16 (3): 613-619.

Gioia, D. A., Corley, K. G. and Hamilton, A. L. (2013). Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: Notes on the Gioia methodology. Organizational Research Methods, 16, 15–31.

Nicolini, D. (2009) Zooming in and out: Studying practices by switching theoretical lenses and trailing connections. Organization Studies, 30(12): 1391-1418.

Sutton, R.I. (1997). The virtues of closet qualitative research. Organization Science, 8: 97-106.


General Qualitative Texts

Cassell, C. and Symon, G. (2004) Essential Guide to Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research. London: Sage.

Creswell, John W. (2013): Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing among five approaches. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. W. (Eds.) (2011). Handbook of Qualitative Research. 4 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gephardt, R. (2004). What is qualitative research and why is it important? Academy of Management Journal, 7: 454-462.

Golden-Biddle, K & Locke, K. (2007). Composing Qualitative Research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage.

Flick, U. (2007) Managing Quality in Qualitative Research. London: Sage.

Lincoln, Y. S. and Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. CA: Sage.

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd ed.) Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Symon, Gillian.; Cassell, Catherine. (Eds.) (2012): Qualitative organizational research. Core methods and current challenges. London: Sage

Thorpe, R. and Holt, R. (2008). The Sage Dictionary of Qualitative Management Research. Sage: London.

Tracy, S.J. (2013) Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.


Introductory Textbooks (Qualitative and Quantitative)

Easterby-Smith, M.; Jaspersen, L.J. Thorpe, R.; Valizade, D. (2021) Management and business research. 7th edition. Los Angeles: Sage.  

Saunders, M. N. K.; Lewis, Philip; Thornhill, Adrian (2016) Research methods for business students. Harlow, Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.

A very useful, albeit slightly dated, handbook for further reference with excellent chapters on how to develop a research design, formulate a research problem and compose a research proposal. It also includes a section on applied and evaluation research:

Qualitative Data Analysis

Bazeley, P. (2013). Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo, 2nd ed. London, UK., Sage Publications Ltd.

Bergmann, J.R. (2004) ‘Conversation analysis’, in U. Flick, E. Kardorff and I. Steinke (eds), A Companion to Qualitative Research. London: Sage, pp. 296–302.

Charmaz, K. (2014) Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis, 2nd edn. London: Sage.

DeCuir-Gunby, J.T., Marshall, P.L. and McCulloch, A.W. (2011) ‘Developing and using a codebook for the analysis of interview data: an example from a professional development research project’, Field Methods, 23 (2): 136–55.

Flick, U. (2014) SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis. London: Sage.

Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

King, Nigel; Brooks, Joanna M. (2017) Template analysis for business and management students. Los Angeles, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage (Mastering business research methods).

Langley, A. (1999). Strategies for theorising from process data. Academy of Management Review, 4: 716-749.

Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. and Saldaña, J. (2014) Qualitative Data Analysis, 3rd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sinkovics, R.R., Elfriede, P. and Ghauri, P. (2005). Analysing textual data in international marketing research, Qualitative Research and International Journal, 8 (1): 9-38.

Spiggle, S. (1994). Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data in consumer research, Journal of Consumer Research, 2: 491-503.

Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative research: Grounded Theory Procedure and Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Saldaña, J. (2009) The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Silver, C. and Lewins, A. (2014) Using Software in Qualitative Research: A Step-by-step Guide, 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Suddaby, R. (2006). What grounded theory is not.  Academy of Management Journal, 49: 633-642.


Alvesson, M. (2003) ‘Beyond neopositivists, romantics, and localists: a reflexive approach to interviews in organisation research’, Academy of Management Review, 28 (1): 13–33.

Boje, D. M. (2001). Narrative Methods for Organizational & Communication Research. Sage Publications Ltd: London.

Bourne, H. and Jenkins, M. (2005) ‘Eliciting managers’ personal values: an adaptation of the laddering interview method’, Organizational Research Methods, 8 (4): 410–28.

Brinkmann, S., & Kvale, S. (2015) InterViews. Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Butterfield, L.D., Borgen, W.A., Amundson, N.E. and Maglio, A.T. (2005) ‘Fifty years of the critical incident technique: 1954–2004 and beyond’, Qualitative Research 5 (4): 475–97.

Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), 327-358.

Gubrium, J.F., Holstein, J., Marvasti, A.B. and McKinney, K.D. (2012) The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft, 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Krueger, R.A. and Casey, M.A. (2009) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 4th edn. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Kumar, N., Stern, N. and Anderson, J (1993). Conducting interorganizational research using key informants. Academy of Management Journal, 36(6): 1633-1651.

Krueger, R., Casey, M.A. (2015) Focus Groups. 5th Edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

McCracken, G. (1988). The Long Interview (Qualitative Research Methods Series, no. 13). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Oates, C.J., & Alevizou, P. (2018) Conducting Focus Groups. London: Sage.

Rubin, H. J. and Rubin, I. (2011). Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing. London: Sage.

Yeung, H-W.C. (1995). Qualitative personal interviews in international business research: Some lessons from a study of Hong Kong Transnational Corporations, International Business Review, 4(3): 313-339.

Case Study

Burawoy, M. (1998). The extended case method. Sociological theory, 16(1), 4-33.

Dubois, A. and Gadde, L-E. (2002). Systematic Combining: An Abductive approach to case research, Journal of Business Research, 55, 553-560.

Easton, G. (2010). Critical realism in case study research. Industrial Marketing Management, 39: 118-128.

Easton, G. (1998). Case study research as a methodology for industrial networks: a realist apologia, in P. Naudé and P. Turnbull (eds), Network Dynamics in International Marketing, Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 73-87.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14, 532-550.

Eisenhardt, K. M. and Graebner, M. E. (2007). Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 25-32.

Fletcher, M. and Plakoyiannaki, E. Case study selection in international business: key issues and common misconceptions forthcoming in Piekkari, R. and C. Welch (eds), Case Study Research for International Business, Edward Elgar.

Fletcher, M., Zhao, Y., Plakoyiannaki, E., & Buck, T. (2018). Three pathways to case selection in international business: A twenty–year review, analysis and synthesis. International Business Review, 27(4), 755-766.

Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative inquiry, 12(2), 219-245.

Lee, B., & Saunders, M.N.K. (2019). Conducting Case Study Research. London: Sage.

Leppäaho, T., Plakoyiannaki, E., & Dimitratos, P. (2016). The case study in family business: An analysis of current research practices and recommendations. Family Business Review, 29(2), 159-173.

Piekkari, R., Plakoyiannaki, E. & Welch, C (2010) ‘Good’ case research in industrial marketing: Insights from research practice. Industrial Marketing Management, 39: 109-117.

Poulis, K., Poulis, E., & Plakoyiannaki, E. (2013). The role of context in case study selection: An international business perspective. International Business Review, 22(1), 304-314.

Ragin, C.C. (1992). Introduction: cases of ‘what is a case?, in C.C. Ragin and H.S. Becker (eds), What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-17.

Sigglekow, N. (2007). Persuasion with case studies. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 20-24.

Stake, R. (2000). Case studies. In N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research (2nd ed. Pp. 435-454). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Stake, R.E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Welch, C., Plakoyiannaki, E., Piekkari, R., & Paavilainen‐Mäntymäki, E. (2013). Legitimizing diverse uses for qualitative research: A rhetorical analysis of two management journals. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(2), 245-264.

Welch, C., Piekkari, R., Plakoyiannaki, E., & Paavilainen-Mäntymäki, E. (2011). Theorising from case studies: Towards a pluralist future for international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(5), 740-762.

Welch, C. (2000). The archaeology of business networks: The use of archival records in case study research, Journal of Strategic Marketing, 8: 197-208.

Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd Ed.). Newbury Park CA: Sage.



Cunliffe, A.L. (2010) ‘Retelling tales of the field: in search of organizational ethnography 20 years on’, Organizational Research Methods, 13 (2): 224–39.

Cunliffe, A. L. & Coupland, C. (2012) From Hero to Villain to Hero: Making Experience Sensible Through Embodied Narrative Sensemaking. Human Relations, 65: 63-88.

Cunliffe A. L. & Karunanayake, G. (2013) Working within hyphen-spaces in ethnographic research: Implications for research identities and practice. Organizational Research Methods, 16: 364-392.

Emerson, R.M., Fretz, R. and Shaw, L.L. (2011) Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes, 2nd edn. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Galman, S.C. (2007) Shane, the Lone Ethnographer. A Beginner’s Guide to Ethnography. Lanham, MD: AltaMira.

Gill and Johnson (2002) Research Methods for Managers. London: Sage.  Chapter 7: Ethnography

Golden-Biddle, K and Locke, K. (1993) Appealing work: An investigation of how ethnographic texts convince. Organization Science 4(4), 595-616.

Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P. (1995). Ethnography: Principles in Practice (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Helin, J. (2013) Dialogic listening: Toward an embodied understanding of how to “go on” during fieldwork. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 8(3): 224 – 241.

Karra, N. and Phillips, N. (2007) ‘Researching “back home”: international management research as autoethnography’, Organizational Research Methods, 11 (3): 541–61.

Kunda, G. (1992). Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High-tech Corporation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Michailova, S., Piekkari, R., Plakoyiannaki, E., Ritvala, T., Mihailova, I. and A. Salmi (2014). Breaking the silence about exiting fieldwork: A relational approach and its implications for theorizing. Academy of Management Review, 39 (2), 138-161.

Neyland, D. (2008) Organizational Ethnography. London: Sage. Especially Introduction

Norris, C. (1993) ‘Some ethical considerations on field-work with the police’, in Hobbs, D. and May, T. (1993) Interpreting the Field: Accounts of Ethnography. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Spradley, J. P. (1979). The Ethnographic Interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Van Maanen, J. (1979). The fact of fiction in organizational ethnography. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 539-550.

Van Maanen, J. (2011) ‘Ethnography as work: some rules of engagement’, Journal of Management Studies, 48 (1): 218–34.

Watson, T. J. (1994) In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos and Control in Managerial Work. London: Routledge.

Ybema, S., Yanow, D., Kamsteeg, F.H. and Wels, H. (eds) (2009) Organizational Ethnography: Studying the Complexity of Everyday Life. London: Sage.


Online Methods/Visual Data/Other

Banks, M. (2008) Using Visual Data in Qualitative Research. London: Sage.

Belk, R. W., Caldwell, M., Devinney, T. M., Eckhardt, G. M., Henry, P., Kozinets, R., and Plakoyiannaki, E. (2017), Envisioning consumers: how videography can contribute to marketing knowledge, Journal of Marketing Management, Published online: 02/10/2017, pp. 1-27.

Bell, E. & Davison, J. (2013), Visual Management Studies: Empirical and Theoretical Approaches, International Journal of Management Reviews. 15(2): 167-184.

Coghlan, D. and Brannick, T. (2014) Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization, 4th ed. London: Sage.

Eden, C. and Huxham, C. (1996) ‘Action research for management research’, British Journal of Management, 7 (1): 75–86.

Eriksson, P. & Kovalainen, A. (2008). Action research. In Eriksson, P., & Kovalainen, A. Introducing Qualitative Methods: Qualitative methods in business research (pp. 194-209). London: SAGE Publications Ltd doi: 10.4135/9780857028044

Fielding, N., Lee, R.M. and Blank, G. (2017) The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods, 2nd. London: Sage.

Jaspersen, L. J., & Stein, C. (2019). Beyond the Matrix: Visual Methods for Qualitative Network Research. British Journal of Management, 30(3), 748-763.

Margolis, E. and Pauwels, L. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Nadin, S. and Cassell, C. (2006) ‘The use of a research diary as a tool for reflexive practice: some reflections from management research’, Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 3 (3): 208–17.

Rogers, B. and Ryals, L. (2007) ‘Using the repertory grid to access the underlying realities in key account relationships’, International Journal of Market Research, 49 (5): 595–612.

Slutskaya, N., Simpson, A. & Hughes, J. (2012) Lessons from photoelicitation: Encouraging working men to speak. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management. 7(1): 16 – 33.

Taylor, C. A. (2011) More than meets the eye: the use of videonarratives to facilitate doctoral students’ reflexivity on their doctoral journeys. Studies in Higher Education, 36 (4): 441–458.


Theorising and Publishing

Bansal, P. & Corley, K.  (2012). Publishing in AMJ: What’s different about qualitative research? Academy of Management Journal, 55 (3): 509–513.

Corley, K. G and Gioia, D. G. (2011) Building theory about theory building: What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1): 12–32.

Cuervo-Cazurra, A., Andersson, U., Brannen, M. Y., Nielsen, B. B., & Reuber, A. R. 2016. From the Editors: Can I trust your findings? Ruling out alternative explanations in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(8): 881–897.

Golden-Biddle, K. and Locke, K. (2007) Composing Qualitative Research, 2nd edn. London: Sage.

Huff, A. (1999) Writing for Scholarly Publication. London: Sage publications.

Pratt, M. G. (2009). For the lack of a boilerplate: Tips on writing up (and reviewing) qualitative research. Academy of Management Journal, 52(5), 856-862.

Sutton, R.I. (1997). The virtues of closet qualitative research. Organization Science, 8: 97-106.

Swedberg, R. (2012). Theorizing in sociology and social science: turning to the context of discovery, Theory and Society, 41 (1): 1-40.


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Useful references for mixed methods approaches

Creswell, J.W. (2003) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2014) A Concise Introduction to Mixed Methods Research. London: Sage.

Fetters, M., & Freshwater, D. (2015) ‘The 1+1=3 integration challenge’, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 9:115-117.

Hurmerinta-Peltomaki, L., and Nummela, N. (2006): ‘Mixed methods in international business research: A value-added perspective’, Management International Review, 46:439-454.

Molina-Azorin, J.F. (2012): ‘Mixed methods research in strategic management: Impact and applications’, Organizational Research Methods, 15:33-56.

Molina-Azorin, J.F. and Cameron, R. (2015) ‘History and emergent practices of mixed and multiple methods in business research. in Hesse-Biber, S. and Johnson, R.B.  (eds.), The Oxford handbook of multimethod and mixed methods research inquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 466-485.

Molina-Azorin, J.F., Lopez-Gamero, M.D., Pereira-Moliner, J., and Pertusa-Ortega, E. (2012) ‘Mixed methods studies in entrepreneurship research: Applications and contributions’, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24:425-456.

Molina-Azorín, J.F., Tarí, J., Pereira-Moliner, J., López-Gamero, M.D., and Pertusa-Ortega, E. (2015) ‘The effects of quality and environmental management on competitive advantage: a mixed methods study’, Tourism Management, 50:41-54.

Plano Clark, V., & Ivankova, N. (2016). Mixed methods research. A Guide to the field. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Teddlie, C. and Tashakkori, A. (2009) Foundations of Mixed Methods Research: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. London: Sage.


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Other topics/issues

Childow, A., Plakoyiannaki, E. and Welch, C. (2014). Translation in cross-language International Business research: Beyond equivalence, Journal of International Business Studies, 45 (5), 562-582.

Cunliffe, A. L. (2008) Orientations to social constructionism: Relationally-responsive social constructionism and its implications for knowledge and learning.  Management Learning, 39: 123-139.

Healy, M. and Perry, C. (2000). Comprehensive criteria to judge validity and reliability of qualitative research within the realism paradigm. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3 (3): 118-126.

Johnson, P., Buehring, A., Cassell, C and Symon, G. (2006), Evaluating qualitative management research: Towards a contingent criteriology. International Journal of Management Reviews, 8 (3): 131-156.

Welch, C., Marschan-Piekkari, R., Penttinen, H. and Tahvanainen, M. (2002). Corporate elites as informants in qualitative international business research, International Business Review, 11(5): 611-628.




This list was last updated on 14/01/2022